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Introduction The account information need to be communicate effectively in order to make appropriate recordings on the financial statements which

reflect the financial position of the organisation. In this report different financial reporting is is provided on the base of the data provided. The part of the report consist of different theoretical concepts such as gearing ratios and how they can be use by accountants to show the decrease gearing and increase earnings per share to save the tax pay by the firm. In the same part the two other theoretical concepts are covered such as the impairment of tangible and intangible assets and the importance of diluted earnings per share. The IFRS accounting standards follow in those concepts are discuss and critically evaluate. In the part two of the report the commentary on the four different transactions is provide. It is advise to the assistant as to how the information provide in those transactions need to be interpret to make the clear recording of those transactions in the financial statements. In the final section 3 the comparison is provided between the financial ratios of two different companies A and B. The advise if provide to the investors to show which company is provide more feasible and attractive invest investment option in the light of the financial performance of the two companies base on the data provide. PART-A (a) The reduction of apparent gearing ratios can help show the liquidity of the firm and overall

financial position in the long term. The increase gearing can seriously effect the worth of the firm in negative ways because higher gearing ratios show that company has rely on borrowing. On the other hand lower gearing ratios show that the investment has come in the company from the direct investment of its shareholders. Too much gearing percentage can put the company at serious financial risk (The Studen Room, Online). There are different ways in which the gearing ratios or percentages can be reduce in the financial statements by accountants to make the company to look better so that more investors and shareholders can be attract into the business. The gearing ratios are often manipulate in different ways by creative accountants. For instance by showing in the financial statements the sell of different shares which are expect to lose value in the current market conditions. Such sell of shares can improve the liquidity of the business and therefore decrease the gearing ratios. Also converting the loans into shares after negotiating with the lenders. Such debts can decrease the liability and increase the assets own by the business and therefore influence the gearing mainly because of the reduced liabilities. The gearing ratios can also be improve in the favour of company by showing increased profit in different ways such as including equities purchase in the profit statements. The gearing ratios are often constrain by governments of different countries because gearing is effect the tax which need to be pay to the government. According to

The earnings per share is also reflect the investment potential of a firm. The comparative earnings power of two firms is also measure often by comparing their EPS (Little. After the value has been calculate then first the goodwill is exhausted. Normally there are three factors which take in consideration for recovering the costs such as Carrying amount. The government impose different regulations for make sure that tax evasion is avoid and companies are pay the due tax to the government.S and constrain by government regulations. then the impairment loss is allocate to other assets according to the proportion of its values (IFRS. This time the goodwill is include and is compare with the carrying amount. II) Earnings per share (EPS) are critical measure of the performance of individual share which is own by the firm. The impairment test is carry out in two stages. The growth of the firm can also be determine by accounting the earnings per share over the period of years which give the potential investors useful information whether to invest in the firm or not depending on the fact whether the earnings per share are increasing for the firm. (b) I) In this section the discussion and critical evaluation will be carry out about the impairment of tangible and intangible assets in the light of IAS36. For instance by showing the more dividend payments by increasing the gearing ratios (Accounting Tools. Online).Rauh (2006) the gearing ratios which are use in U. Then the group of units is test as whole for impairment. The regulations apply because the nature of assets such as goodwill which is not generate any cash-flow and is require the impairment tests for being carry out in order to find the cost of damages. If the amount is higher then goodwill is consider as impaired. Similarly the management performance can also be demonstrate by increasing earnings per . The cost of damages the overall value of the assets to which the goodwill is attach is calculated. if that amount is greater than the amount which can be recover then the loss is recognise and must be compensate. The IFRS regulation is apply on the impairment of tangible as well as intangible assets. The reducing of apparent gearing ratios is one of the ways it can be achieve. Earnings per share also provide information on the historical background of the share. Online). Online). Earnings per share also indicate the profitability of the firm and therefore it is use widely for the financial performance of the firm. The problem is arise in case of intangible assets such as goodwill which is difficult for quantify and the units of assets which produce the actual cash-flow for the business because it is also difficult for quantify. The solution for over coming these problems is to apply testing methods. Fair value minus costs for selling and Value in use. First the value is calculate individually by testing for impairment and then comparing its carrying amount by excluding its goodwill.

However since this is a 10 year project therefore all the expense calculations need to be divide by ten in order to obtain the annual value.5 million whereas the third expense is the environmental costs which will be incur to repair the damage made to the environment from the result of this construction project is £6 million. It is important to be consider that the incur costs per month on this project are different during for first six months as compare to last six months and the cost savings which are calculate for the . While making calculations for the different expenses the 10 year period need to be remember since all the expenses incur are spread over for the period of 10 years.share since it shows the extent of returns towards its shareholders. The cost of £4 millions which were incur in the year end 31 December 2011 has no baring on the financial statements of year ending 31 December 2012 since it is from the previous year. The main thing which need to be careful is the period of 10 years in this transaction. The cost saving period start from the 1st October 2012 and cost savings need to be apply in that quarterly period. However the cost savings of £1 million per year for the period of 3 months from the project also need to be take in consideration. There is expense incur in three areas such as construction of the site which is £25 million. The second expense include the estimated administrative costs such as £2. Although the environmental cost is not legal requirement but it still need to be account in the financial statements since it is require by the policies of the company. PART-B Transaction A The transaction A states that the company Epsilon has incur an expense for constructing the site which will be use for extraction of minerals. As we can see that there are different expenses which are incur in this transaction. However the discount rate of 8% need to be treated differently since it is not expense rather it is discount received on expense which should be treat as opposite of the expense. First it need to be calculate how much expense is incur by the company. Such expense need to be account in the financial statement. however it is different from profits since earnings per share shows that the effects of issuance of new shares is also account which is reflect more clear performance of the business (Ready Ratios.4 million has been incur by the Epsilon which need to be account. This project is aim at improving the efficiency of the mine extraction. Transaction B This transaction is regarding the costs incur in a development project which need to be account in the financial statement. The success of this project will be effect in positive way such as less expense and more revenue generate for the company which need to be reflect on the statement. Online). The cost of £5.

000.000 shares the assets are decrease from the business and therefore need to be reflect of the financial statement such as balance sheet. .000 which need to be pay at the end of the financial year is to be account as the expense. Therefore the profit need to be account appropriately in the financial statements.000 shares at the price of £3. Another important calculation is the 8% interest rate which is incur on the annual lease which is need to be account as interest expense in the financial statement. The remaining 400000 shares need to be account at the current price which is stand at £3. The selling of shares also effect the assets own by the company since by selling the 600. Also the ten year period is also very crucial part which need to be consider while calculating the cost savings of the project which is £1 million. However since the Epsilon is not interest in buying the property therefore the value of the property is not relevance in the financial statements. It is also important to be consider that Epsilon does not have the full control of the shares therefore any profit earn from those share may be attach with some profit sharing with other parties which need to be calculate accordingly in the financial statements.60 per share.last three months need to take in account the costs of second six months which is £400. Both types of payments need to be account as rental expense. Transaction D As given in the transaction information that Epsilon purchase the 1 million shares. The main figure in this transaction is the sale of 600.50 per share which is assets own by the company at the financial year end 31 December 2012. Also the signing of the lease is bring financial risks in the business because of the fluctuating fair value of the asset. Any other lease payments such as £5 million also need to be account in the financial statements. Because of the increase of the share value over the period of about 4 years since year 2008 when the company buy the shares the company is expect to earn considerable amount of profit. Such fluctuations also need to be account in the business in the form of increase gearing or whatever is appropriate form for accounting such risks. Transaction C In this transaction the annual rental of £500. However since IAS 17 classify that a lease is to be consider as ownership of the asset therefore the balance sheet is also effect by the signing of lease because a new asset will be own by the business. However the profit need to be calculate from this sale by deducting the initial price of the share which is £2 on which the shares were buy in year 2008.

There are different performance value provided for company A and company B which need to be account for comparative analysis of two companies. Similarly the Acid test ratio for company A is also higher which also shows that the company A has higher liquidity and it can use more cash when it is require. In this case the company A is also better place since inventory turn over time is higher than company B which is better and shows that company A is being able to sell its inventory faster than company B. et al. The higher ratio also shows that the company A has more assets and less liabilities whereas the company B has comparatively less assets and more liabilities. This may also help company A to more easily borrow more loan if it is require in future. The account receivable days are also show better performance for company A since it has less average days from receiving its accounts which are due on the parties who need to pay for the company A. According to Rutherford (2003) the acid test ratios are also examine as proxies for risks. The company B has less cash therefore is in less liquid position than company A. In other words the acid test ratio provides an alternative to the financial risk the company is facing. The gross profit percentage represents the percentage of its profit use by company for the . In other words the company A is less likely to be default when it comes to paying off its debts and shows the better reputation and credit history. 1980). It shows the average 60 days which are taken for company A to pay its accounts which are payable to different parties which is positive sign for company A. The debt percentage is also amendable to the estimation of market value (Browman. As we know that current ratio is calculate by dividing current assets with current liabilities. 2005). Similarly the percentage of debt on total assets is also lower for company A at 28% for company A and 35% for company B which also in favour of company A. However it is important to note that inventory turnover varies widely in across retailers and over the periods of time which undermine the usefulness of such information (Gaur. The liquidity is important for a business when it comes to making purchases regarding the inventory or paying off its debts. the company A has higher current ratio than company B which shows that company A is in better position is more likely to pay off its liabilities.PART-C: In this section of the assignment the report is presented for analysing the financial ration data of two companies. The accounts payable section also show the similar story which is favour of company A. Therefore such ratios need to be consider carefully in decision making. In other words the company A is able to be receive its accounts receivable more quickly than company B on average. First the Current Ratio of two companies. This may also reflect that there may be less storage related costs incur on company A although such data is not provided. The fourth data provide is about inventory turn over times which is the times the inventory has been sold by the businesses and shows the better performance for that business. The total percentage of debt on assets is also lower for company A by 10 percentage points.

The earnings per share is important measure of the profitability of the company. The company A is therefore a far more suitable option for investment as compare to company B. (1994) the gross profit results can be provide from the retailer's perspective and are computed using the retailer's marginal costs based on an average cost account. Finally the operating cash flow per share which shows higher ratio for company A which is positive sign for company A. The gearing percentage is higher for company B which shows higher financial risk for the company. First some financial concepts are critically evaluate. Similarly the comparison between the financial ratios of two companies also provide the chance for such analysis which is carefully carry out to provide the right advise to the investor regarding the financial performance of the two companies.production. The increase of 10% in profits can result from around 40% increase in the sales which shows the extent of this percentage value for company B. Overall the company A has shown better performance and is better place as shown by most of the financial ratios provided. The part two of the report consist the information about different transactions carry out by the mining company Epsilon which provides the chance for carry out such analysis. The operating profits show marginally higher percentage for company A at 10% which is positive sign for company A where as the return on capital employed also show higher percentage for company A which shows that company A is able for getting higher percentage on its capital employed as compare to company B. The interest cover times is higher for company A which better because it shows that the company is able to cover its interest payments without defaulting. Conclusion In this report the financial reporting has been perform on different account data. The number shows 8 times which is not say much however adds to the score for company A. Company B is better place in this regard although by a very small margin. The financial information provided to the managers can be confusing some times require careful analysis otherwise the information may be record incorrectly in the financial statements and therefore does not reflect the actual financial position of the company. The four transactions has been carefully analyse and appropriate advise has been provide to the assistant for recording that information in the financial statements. where is company A is again better place than company B with lower gearing percentage. . The return on equity also show higher percentage for company A although by very little margin which may not be mean as much. The earnings per share shows higher ratio for company B which is very important data in favour of it. According to Hotch et al.

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