# COMM 225: Production and Operations Management Fall 2010, Section B TOPIC: SOLUTIONS TO LINEAR PROGRAMMING – QUESTIONS

(Solved in Class)

**PS: Note that the notations might be different from what was used in the class.
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Q1 (Resource Allocation): The program manager for Channel 10 would like to determine the best way to allocate the time for the 11:00 - 11:30 evening news broadcast. Specifically, she would like to determine the number of minutes of broadcast time to devote to local news, national news, weather, and sports. Over the 30minute time-slot, 10 minutes are set aside for advertising and do not count as broadcast time. The station's policy states that: at least 15% of the broadcast time should be devoted to local news coverage; the time devoted to local or national news (combined) must be at least 50% of the broadcast time; the time devoted to the weather segment must be less than equal to the time devoted to the sports segment; the time devoted to the sports segment should be no longer than the total time spent on local and national news (combined); and at least 20% of the broadcast time should be devoted to the weather segment. The production costs/minute are $300 for local, $200 for national, $100 for weather, and $100 for sports. Formulate a model that would help the production manager determine the broadcast time to devote to various programs.

Solution: Let X L , X N , X W and X S denote the time devoted to local news, national news, weather, and sports respectively. Note that over the 30-minute time-slot, 10 minutes are set aside for advertising and do not count as broadcast time. Hence, the total broadcast time available is 20 minutes. Minimize Total Cost = Z = 300 X L + 200 X N + 100 X W + 100 X S Subject to: (1) At least 15% of the broadcast time should be devoted to local news coverage; X L ≥ 0.15 * 20 (2) The time devoted to local or national news (combined) must be at least 50% of the broadcast time; X L + X N ≥ 0.5 * 20 (3) The time devoted to the weather segment must be less than or equal to the time devoted to the sports segment; XW ≤ X S (4) The time devoted to the sports segment should be no longer than the total time spent on local and national news (combined); and XS ≤ XL + XN (5) At least 20% of the broadcast time should be devoted to the weather segment. X W ≥ 0.20 * 20 (6) The total broadcast time available is 20 minutes. X L + X N + X W + X S = 20 (7) All variables are non-negative. X L , X N , XW , X S ≥ 0

70( X LS + X LD + X LR ) Subject to: (1) The shop has 110 pounds of Brazilian coffee. and Mill Regular. and L denote the Brazilian. Mocha. The shop wants to know the amount of each blend it should prepare each week in order to maximize profit. The list of variables is as follows:
Coffee Brazilian Mocha Colombian Mild Special Blend Dark Regular
X BS X MS X CS X LS
X BD X MD
X CD
X BR X MR
X CR
X LD
X LR
Maximize profit Z = 6. 70 pounds of Mocha. Mountain Dark. Dark. 80 pounds of Columbian and 150 pounds of Mild coffee available per week. the cost of Mocha is $2.60( X BR + X MR + X CR + X LR ) All variables are non-negative. The shop used the following blend recipe requirements: Blend Mix Requirements Selling Price/lb Special At least 40% Columbian.10( X BD + X MD + X CD + X LD ) Regular blend had at least at least 30% Brazilian and no more than 60% Mild X BR ≥ 0. The shop has 110 pounds of Brazilian coffee.90( X CS + X CD + X CR ) − 1.70 per pound. and R stand for Special. Columbian.2
Q2 (Blending): The mystic coffee shop blends coffee on the premises for its customers.30( X BS + X MS + X CS + X LS ) Dark blend had at least at least 60% Brazilian and no more than 10% Mild X BD ≥ 0.30( X BR + X MR + X CR + X LR ) X LR ≤ 0.75( X MS + X MD + X MR ) − 2.60( X BD + X MD + X CD + X LD ) X LD ≤ 0.75 per pound. 70 pounds of Mocha. 80 pounds of Columbian and 150 pounds of Mild coffee available per week. M.75( X BR + X MR + X CR + X LR ) −
2.25 Regular At least 30% Brazilian.5( X BS + X MS + X CS + X LS ) + 5. and the cost of Mild is $1. Let Xij = amounts (lbs) of coffee “i” used in the production of blend “j”. the cost of Columbian is $2.40( X BS + X MS + X CS + X LS ) X MS ≥ 0. Columbian. Also let B. It sells three basic blends in one-pound bags: Special. It uses four different types of coffee to produce the three blends: Brazilian.
Solution: Let S.90 per pound. Mocha. D. At least 30% Mocha $6. No more than 60% Mild $3.25( X BD + X MD + X CD + X LD ) + 3. and Mild. and Mild coffee. C. and Regular blend of coffee.50 Dark At least 60% Brazilian.75 The cost of Brazilian coffee is $2 per pound.0( X BS + X BD + X BR ) − 2. X BS + X BD + X BR ≤ 110
X MS + X MD + X MR ≤ 70 X CS + X CD + X CR ≤ 80
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
X LS + X LD + X LR ≤ 150 Special blend had at least 40% Columbian and at least 30% Mocha X CS ≥ 0. No more than 10% Mild $5.
.

YNP ≤ 80 (6) All variables are non-negative. The company would like to produce 100 tons of new paper at minimum total cost. Chemical 1 and 2 can be produced by one of two production processes. Running process 1 for an hour requires 3 oz of raw material and 2 hours of skilled labor. recycled office paper $50 per ton. from recycled office paper. Drug 1 sells for $6/oz. and yields 3 oz of chemical 1 and 1 oz of chemical 2.
Solution: Let X i denote the amount (in tons) of new paper produced using process “I”. and recycled newsprint used.
Solution: Let X 11 denote the amount of chemical 1 that goes into drug 1. A total of 120 hours of skilled labor and 100 oz of raw materials are available. X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 = 100 (2) The total amount of new wood pulp required is 3 X 1 + X 2 + X 3 = YNP (3) The total amount of recycled office paper required is 4 X 2 + 8 X 4 = YRO (4) The total amount of recycled newsprint required is 12 X 3 = YRN (5) At the moment only 80 tons of new wood pulp is available. Formulate a model that would help the production manager determine the production plan. the drugs are produced by blending two chemicals – 1 and 2. $20 per ton. Four different processes can be used to produce paper.3
Q3 (Production Planning): Paper can be made from new wood pulp. and yields 3 oz of chemical 1 and 3 oz of chemical 2. By weight. Let YNP . or from recycled newsprint. New pulp costs $100 per ton.
. X 12 denote the amount of chemical 1 that goes into drug 2. and recycled newsprint. YRO . Running process 2 for an hour requires 2 oz of raw material and 3 hours of skilled labor. Minimize Total Cost = Z = 100YNP + 50YRO + 20YRN Subject to: (1) The total amount of paper produced should be 100 tons. recycled paper. Formulate an LP that can be used to maximize Daisy’s Sales revenues. At the moment only 80 tons of pulp is available. All the quantities are in ounces. YRN denote the amount (in tons) of new wood pulp. To produce one ton of paper: Process 1 uses 3 tons of wood pulp Process 2 uses 1 ton of wood pulp and 4 tons of recycled office paper Process 3 uses 1 ton of wood pulp and 12 tons of recycled newsprint Process 4 uses 8 tons of recycled office paper. X 21 denote the amount of chemical 2 that goes into drug 1. drug 1 must contain at least 65% chemical 1 and drug 2 must contain at least 55% of chemical 1.
Q4 (Blending): Daisy Drugs manufactures two drugs: 1 and 2. and X 22 denote the amount of chemical 2 that goes into drug 2. and drug 2 sells for $4/oz.

X M + 4 X S + 8 X R ≤ 4500 (3) The total amount of unskilled labor used should be less than what is available. Formulate the problem of producing 1000 toasters at minimum cost meeting the resource requirements.
X 21 + X 22 − 3P1 − P2 ≤ 0
(4)
Q5 (Product Mix): Red Dwarf Toasters needs to produce 1000 of their new "Talking toasters".5 X R Subject to: (1) The total number of toasters produced should be 1000 units. and $8.55( X 12 + X 22 ) ≥ 0 (Raw Material)
(1) (2) (3)
(2) Resource constraints: 3P1 + 2 P2 ≤ 100
(Skilled Labor) (4) (3) Amounts of chemical used should be less than the amounts of chemical produced. parameters. and robotically respectively. 30 and 2.000 min Assembly room time used (min) 3 2 4 2700 min
Minimize Total Cost = Z = 7 X M + 8 X S + 8. X 11 + X 12 ≤ 3P1 + 3P2 Or X 11 + X 12 − 3P1 − 3P2 ≤ 0 (3)
2 P1 + 3P2 ≤ 120
X 21 + X 22 ≤ 3P1 + P2 Or (4) All variables are non-negative.4
Maximum Total profit Z = 6( X 11 + X 21 ) + 4( X 12 + X 22 ) Constraints: (1) Mix requirements constraints: • Drug 1 must contain at least 65% chemical 1: X 11 ≥ 0.
. 36.000 minutes of unskilled labor. semi-automatically.55( X 12 + X 22 ) Or X 12 − 0. and 3 minutes of assembly room time. There are three ways this toaster can be produced: manually.50/toaster. (4) The union contract states that the amount of skilled labor time used is at least 10% of the total labour (skilled and unskilled) time used. 40 minutes of unskilled labor. (2) There are 4500 minutes of skilled labor. Clearly define your decision variables. semiautomatically. The resource information is as follows:
Methods Manually Automatically Semi-automatically Total available Skilled Labor used (min) 1 4 8 4500 min Unskilled labor used (min) 40 30 20 36.65( X 11 + X 21 ) Or X 11 − 0. 20 and 4. while those for robotic assembly are 8. objectives. (3) The total cost for producing manually is $ 7/toaster. and X R denote the number of toasters produced manually. (1) Manual assembly requires 1 minute of skilled labor. X S . semi-automatically is $8/toaster. and constraints. and robotically. The corresponding values for semiautomatic assembly are 4. X M + X S + X R = 1000 (2) The total amount of skilled labor used should be less than what is available.65( X 11 + X 21 ) ≥ 0 • Drug 2 must contain at least 55% of chemical 1: X 12 ≥ 0. and 2700 minutes of assembly room time available for this product.
Solution: Let X M .

I 1 = I 0 + X 1 + Y1 − 105
. X M + 4 X S + 8 X R ≥ 0. XM .XR ≥ 0
Q6 (Multi-period Production Planning with Inventory Costs): IT Computer Services assembles its own brand of personal computers from component parts it purchases overseas and domestically. Overtime production of a computer costs $260. Further it costs $5 per computer per week to hold a computer in inventory for future delivery. The company wants no inventory left over at the end of the six-week period. the demand should be met. Formulate a linear programming model for this problem. and I i : be the number of computers in inventory at the end of week “i”.XS. Yi : be the number of computers produced with overtime in week “i”.5
40 X M + 30 X S + 20 X R ≤ 36000 (4) The total amount of assembly time used should be less than what is available. inspection. IT can produce additional 50 computers with overtime. IT sells most of its computers locally to different departments at State University as well as to individuals and businesses in the intermediate geographic region. IT wants to be able to meet all customer orders with no shortages in order to provide quality service.
Solution: Let X i be the number of computers produced with regular hours in week “i”. 3 X M + 2 X S + 4 X R ≤ 2700 (5) The union contract states that the amount of skilled labour time used is at least 10% of the total labour (skilled and unskilled) time used.10( X M + 4 X S + 8 X R + 40 X M + 30 X S + 20 X R ) (6) All variables are non-negative. IT has enough regular production capacity to produce 160 computers per week. The order schedule for the next 6 weeks is as follows: Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Computer Orders 105 170 230 180 150 250 IT Computers wants to determine a schedule that will indicate how much regular and overtime production it will need each week in order to meet its orders at the minimum cost.
Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Production during regular time Production during overtime Inventory at the end of the week Demand
X1 X2 X3 X4 X5
X6
Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5
Y6
I1 I2 I3 I4 I5
I6
105 170 230 180 150 250
Minimize Total Costs = Z = 190( X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 + X 6 ) + 260(Y1 + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 + Y5 + Y6 ) +
5( I 1 + I 2 + I 3 + I 4 + I 5 + I 6 ) Subject to: (1) During the next six weeks. The cost of assembly. and packaging a computer during regular time is $190.

X 3 ≤ 160. 400.6
I 2 = I 1 + X 2 + Y2 − 170 I 3 = I 2 + X 3 + Y3 − 230 I 4 = I 3 + X 4 + Y4 − 180 I 5 = I 4 + X 5 + Y5 − 150 I 6 = I 5 + X 6 + Y6 − 250 (2) IT has enough regular production capacity to produce 160 computers per week. 500. X NY 1 . Y4 ≤ 50. I 1 = I 0 + X LA1 + X NY 1 − 300
I 2 = I 1 + X LA2 + X NY 2 − 400 I 3 = I 2 + X LA3 + X NY 3 − 500
. X 5 ≤ 160. 2. month 2. 300. month 2. and $350 in New York. It takes 1. Formulate a mathematical model whose solution would help Airco minimize the cost of meeting air-conditioner demands for the next three months. X 1 ≤ 160. and 2 hours in New York. month 3. At the beginning of month 1.
Q7 (Multi-period Production Planning with Inventory Costs): During the next three months.5 hours of skilled labor to produce an air conditioner in Los Angeles. there is no inventory in stock. Y3 ≤ 50. 400. Airco must meet the following demands for air conditioners: month 1. Airco has 200 conditioners in stock. It costs $400 to produce an air conditioner in Los Angeles. X LA3 . and X NY 3 denote the amount number of air-conditioners produced in month 1. Airco must meet the following demands for air conditioners: month 1.
X 6 ≤ 160 Y6 ≤ 50 (3) At the beginning of week 1. I0 = 0 I6 = 0 (4) All variables are non-negative. X 4 ≤ 160. Y5 ≤ 50. X NY 2 . Let I 1 be the number of units of airconditioners in inventory at the end of month 1. IT can produce additional 50 computers with overtime. During each month.
X 2 ≤ 160. Y1 ≤ 50. The company wants no inventory left over at the end of the six-week period. month 3. X LA2 . Y2 ≤ 50. and 3 at LA and NY respectively. 500. 300. It costs $100 to hold an air conditioner in inventory at a centralized location for a month. Air conditioners can be produced in either New York or Los Angeles. each city has 420 hours of skilled available. Minimize Total Costs = Z = 400( X LA1 + X LA2 + X LA3 ) + 350( X NY 1 + X NY 2 + X NY 3 ) + 100( I 1 + I 2 + I 3 ) Subject to: (5) During the next three months.
Solution: Let X LA1 .

9 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 15 X 3 + 8 X 4 + 6 X 5 ≤5 X1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 or 9 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 15 X 3 + 8 X 4 + 6 X 5 ≤ 5( X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 ) (3) Invest at least 20% in commercial loans
. I 0 = 200 (7) It takes 1.5 hours of skilled labour to produce an air conditioner in Los Angeles.7
(6) At the beginning of month 1. Airco has 200 conditioners in stock. The goal for the mortgage team is to allocate the money to the categories so as to: a) Maximize the average return per dollar b) Have an average risk of no more than 5 (all averages and fractions taken over the invested money (not over the saving account)).000. and 2 hours in New York. During each month. 1. c) Invest at least 20% in commercial loans d) The amount in second mortgages and personal loans combined should be no higher than the amount in first mortgages. 1 best): Loan/Investment First Mortgages Second Mortgages Personal Loans Commercial Loans Government Securities Return (%) 9 12 15 8 6 Risk 3 6 8 2 1
Any uninvested money goes into a savings account with no risk and 3% return.
Q8 (Investment Problem): Consider a mortgage team with $100. (Note that the inventory at the end of month 3 will be zero as there is a holding cost associated with it). each city has 420 hours of skilled available. There are five categories of loans. X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 ≤ 100. each with an associated return and risk (1-10.5 X LA2 ≤ 420 1.000 to finance various investments. (2) Have an average risk of no more than 5 (all averages and fractions taken over the invested money (not over the saving account)).000.5 X LA1 ≤ 420 1.000 Note that we cannot use “=” in this constraint as it states that the any uninvested money goes into a savings account with no risk and 3% return. Maximize Total Return per dollar = Z = 9 X 1 + 12 X 2 + 15 X 3 + 8 X 4 + 6 X 5 Subject to: (1) The total amount of money available for investment is $100.000.
Solution: Let X i denote the amount of money invested in option “i”.000.5 X LA3 ≤ 420
2 X NY 1 ≤ 420 2 X NY 2 ≤ 420 2 X NY 3 ≤ 420 (8) All variables are non-negative.

For the upcoming season. Washington. Minnesota) and are then shipped by truck to four distributing warehouses in Sacremento. Formulate the problem of meeting the demand at the minimum cost. Because shipping costs are a major expense. Minimize Total Cost = Z = 464 X 11 + 513 X 12 + 654 X 13 + 867 X 14 + 352 X 21 + 416 X 22 + 690 X 23 + 791X 24 +
995 X 31 + 682 X 32 + 388 X 33 + 68534 Constraints:
Supply Constraints: (1) X 11 + X 12 + X 13 + X 14 ≤ 75 (2) X 21 + X 22 + X 23 + X 24 ≤ 125 (3) X 31 + X 32 + X 33 + X 34 ≤ 100 Demand Constraints: (1) X 11 + X 21 + X 31 ≥ 80 (2) X 12 + X 22 + X 32 ≥ 65 (3) X 13 + X 23 + X 33 ≥ 70 (4) X 14 + X 24 + X 34 ≥ 85 (5) All variables are non-negative. X 2 .8
X 4 ≥ 0.000. and Albert Lea. an estimate has been made of what the output will be from each cannery. X 2 + X 3 ≤ X1 (5) All variables are non-negative. Oregon. This is summarized in table below. management has begun a study to reduce them.20 *100. Rapid City. Warehouse 1 $ 464 352 995 80 truckloads Warehouse 2 513 416 682 65 truckloads Warehouse 3 654 690 388 70 truckloads Warehouse 4 867 791 685 85 truckloads Supply 75 truckloads 125 truckloads 100 truckloads
Cannery 1 Cannery 2 Cannery 3 Demand
Solution: Let X ij denote the number of truckloads shipped from cannery “i” to warehouse “j”. Salt Lake City. and Albuquerque.
. California. X 4 . X1. and how much each warehouse will require to satisfy its customers. The shipping costs per truckload from each cannery to each warehouse has also been determined. New Mexico.000 (4) The amount in second mortgages and personal loans combined should be no higher than the amount in first mortgages. Eugene. X 5 ≥ 0
Q9 (Transportation Problem): One of the main products of P&T Company is canned peas. South Dakota. Utah. X 3 . The peas are prepared at three canneries (near Bellingham.

strip should be met. part of the strip that is wasted)?
Solution: Let X i denote the number of strips cut as per the configuration “i”. Each strip is 25 ft. and 10 ft. 0 * X 1 + 1 * X 2 + 0 * X 3 + 2 X 4 + 1 * X 5 + 0 * X 6 = 350 (3) Demand for the 10 ft. strip should be met. strips 3 2 2 1 0 0 9 ft. 9 ft strips: 350 units..e.9
Q10 (Cutting Stock Problem): A furniture manufacturer buys wooden strips from a supplier.
. The minimum demand for next week is given as follows: 7 ft. 10 ft. The manufacturer cuts these strips into lengths of 7 ft. 9 ft. b) How would the formulation change if the objective is defined as minimization of the trim loss (i. strips 0 0 1 0 1 2 Waste 25-21 = 4ft 25-14-9 = 2 ft 25-14-10 = 1 ft 25-14-9 = 0 ft 25-19 = 6 ft 25-20 = 5 ft
a) Minimize Total Number of Strips: Z = X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 + X 6 Constraints: (1) Demand for the 7 ft. strips: 500 units. units to use them for its furniture manufacturing. 3 X 1 + 2 X 2 + 2 X 3 + X 4 + 0 * X 5 + 0 * X 6 = 500 (2) Demand for the 9 ft. strips: 600 units
a) Formulate an LP problem for the manufacturer that minimizes the number of strips bought from the supplier. b) The objective function will change to: Minimize Total Trim Loss: Z = 4 X 1 + 2 X 2 + X 3 + 0 * X 4 + 6 X 5 + 5 X 6 The constraints remain unchanged. strip should be met. strips 0 1 0 2 1 0 10 ft. 0 * X 1 + 0 * X 2 + 1 * X 3 + 0 * X 4 + 1 * X 5 + 2 * X 6 = 600 (4) All variables are non-negative. in length. The configurations are as follows: Configuration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ft.