# Force Calculations for Lifting Line

Recall:

θ
θ θ
cos
2
sin 2 ) ( ) (
1
b
y
n A bV y
N
n
n
− =
= Γ = Γ

=

The local two-dimensional lift distribution is given by Kutta-Joukowsky:

) ( ) ( y V y L Γ = ′

ρ

=

= ′
N
n
n
n A V b L
1
2
sin 2 ) ( θ ρ θ

To calculate the total wing lift, we integrate L′ :

2
2
2
1
( ) sin
2
2 sin sin
2
b
b
N
n
n
o
b
L L y dy dy d
b
b V A n d
π
θ θ
ρ θ θ θ

=
′ = =
( | |
=
|
(
\ . ¸ ¸

But:
0,
sin sin
,
2
o
m k
m k d
m k
π
θ θ θ
π
≠ ¦
¦
=
´
=
¦
¹

In this case, n m = and 1 = k . So, the only non-zero term is for 1 = n .

2
(2 )
2 2
n
b
L b V A
π
ρ

| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .

1
2 2
2
A V b L

= ρ
π

2
1
1
2
1
2
L
L b A
C A
S
V S
π
π
ρ

= = = Α
Force Calculations for Lifting Line
16.100 2002 2
The induced drag is similar. In this case:

) ( ) ( y y V D
i i
Γ = ′

α ρ

From previous lecture,

=
=
N
n
n i
n
nA
1
sin
sin
) (
θ
θ
θ α

1 1
sin
2 sin
sin
N N
i n n
n m
n
D V nA bV A m
θ
ρ θ
θ
∞ ∞
= =
| || |
′ =
| |
\ .\ .
∑ ∑

Integrating along the wing:

( )
2
2
2 2
1 1
0
2 2
1 1
0
only 0 for
( )
sin
sin sin
sin
sin sin
b
i i
b
N N
n m
n m
N N
n m
n m
n m
D D y dy
n
b V nA A m d
b V nA n A m d
π
π
θ
ρ θ θ θ
θ
ρ θ θ θ

= =

= =
≠ =
′ =
| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .
| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .

∑ ∑

∑ ∑

2 2 2
1
2 2 2
2
2
N
n
n
i n
b V nA
D b V nA
π
ρ
π
ρ

=

=
=

2
2
1
2
2
2 1
1
2
or (1 ),
where
i
i
N
i
D n
n
L
D
N
n
n
D
C nA
V S
C
C
A
n
A
π
ρ
δ
π
δ
=

=
= = Α
= +
Α
| |
=
|
\ .

Force Calculations for Lifting Line
16.100 2002 3
Lift Distributions

The lift distributions due to each of the
n
A terms can be plotted as well:

root

Elliptic Lift Distribution

Recall that minimum induced drag is achieved when 0 =
n
A for 1 > n . In this
case:

θ ρ θ
θ ρ θ
sin 2 ) (
sin 2 ) (
1
2
2
A V b L
n A V b L
n

= ′
= ′

but:
2
2
sin 1 cos 1
2
y
b
θ θ
| |
|
= − = −
|
\ .

2
2
1
( ) 2 1
2
y
L y b V A
b
ρ

| |
| ′ = −
|
\ .
Elliptic lift

) (θ L′
θ
π
π
2
0
tip at
2
b
− tip at
2
b