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Assumptions:
• Velocity is independent of 0 , =
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
x
v
x
u
x
• Incompressible flow
• Constant viscosity, µ
• Steady
• Pressure gradient along length of pipe is nonzero, i.e. 0 ≠
∂
∂
x
p
Boundary conditions:
• No slip:
( ) 0
walls are not moving
( ) 0
u y h
v y h
= ± = ¦
⇐
´
= ± =
¹
To be clear, we now will take the compressible, unsteady form of the NS
equations and carefully derive the solution:
Conservation of mass:
0 ) ( = ⋅ ∇ +
∂
∂
V
t
ρ
ρ
But 0 =
∂
∂
t
ρ
because flow is steady and incompressible. Also, since ρ =
constant, then V V
⋅ ∇ = ⋅ ∇ ρ ρ ) (
0 =
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
= ⋅ ∇ ⇒
y
v
x
u
V
Finally, 0 =
∂
∂
x
u
because of assumption #1 → long pipe.
0 =
∂
∂
⇒
y
v
h y + =
h y − =
y
x
Poiseuille Flow Through a Duct in 2D
16.100 2002 2
Now, integrate this:
C v = = constant
Apply boundary conditions: ( ) 0 ( ) 0 v h v y ± = ⇒ =
We expect this but it is good to see the math confirm it.
Now, let’s look at momentum − y .
Conservation of momentum − y :
xy yy
xy yy
Dv p
Dt y x y
v p
V v
t y x y
v
t
τ τ
ρ
τ τ
ρ
ρ
∂ ∂
∂
= − + +
∂ ∂ ∂
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
+ ⋅ ∇ = − + +
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
∂
∂
0
steady
v
u
x
=
∂
+
∂
0
v
=
+
0
xy yy
v p
y y x y
τ τ
=
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
= − + +
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
Now, what about
yy xy
τ τ &
xy
u v
y x
τ µ
∂ ∂
= +
∂ ∂
0
2
xy
yy
u
y
v
y
τ µ
τ µ
=
 
∂ 
→ =

∂

\ .
∂
=
∂
0 v
u v
x y
λ
=
  ∂ ∂
+ +

∂ ∂
\ .
0
0
yy
V
τ
∇ =
→ =
i
So momentum − y becomes:
0
p u
y x y
µ
  ∂ ∂ ∂
= − +

∂ ∂ ∂
\ .
But 0
u
x y
µ
  ∂ ∂
=

∂ ∂
\ .
because constant = =
∂
∂
µ & 0
x
u
Poiseuille Flow Through a Duct in 2D
16.100 2002 3
⇒
0 (steady)
0 ( , , ) ( )
p
t
p
p x y t p x
y
∂
=
∂
∂
= − ⇒ =
∂
Conservation of momentum − x :
( )
only
yx
xx
p p x
Du dp
Dt dx x y
τ
τ
ρ
=
∂
∂
= − + +
∂ ∂
u
t
ρ
∂
∂
0
steady
u
u
x
=
∂
+
∂
0
v
=
+
0
2
u dp u
y dx x x
µ
=
∂ ∂ ∂
= − +
∂ ∂ ∂
0
0
u
y y
dp u
dx y y
µ
µ
=
 
  ∂ ∂ 
+
 
∂ ∂
\ .

\ .
  ∂ ∂
= − +

∂ ∂
\ .
Now, we just need to solve this…
u dp
y y dx
µ
  ∂ ∂
=

∂ ∂
\ .
so, & const ) ( y u u = = µ
2
2
only ( ) only ( )
1
must be constant
f y f x
d u dp
dy dx µ
= ⇒
⇒ ⇒ = const.
dx
dp
pressure can only be a linear function of x !
Now, integrating twice in y gives:
2
1 0
1
( )
2
dp
u y y C y C
dx µ
= + +
Finally, apply BC’s:
Poiseuille Flow Through a Duct in 2D
16.100 2002 4
2
1 0
2
1 0
( ) 0
1
( ) 0
2
1
( ) 0
2
u h
dp
u h h C h C
dx
dp
u h h C h C
dx
µ
µ
± =
+ = + + =
− = − + =
Solve for
0 1
& C C gives:
2
0
1
1
2
0
dp
C h
dx
C
µ
= −
=
⇒
2
2
1
( ) 1
2
dp y
u y
h dx h µ
(
−
 
= −
(

\ .
(
¸ ¸
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