# Solution

• 0 = ⋅ n u

at control pt #1:

The velocity at control pt #1 is the sum of the freestream + 3 point vortices’
velocities at that point:

1 2 3
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
u V i i i j
π π π

Γ Γ Γ
= + − +
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

The normal at control pt #1 is:

1
1 2
1 1
0
2 2
2 2
n i
u n V
π π

= −
Γ Γ
⇒ ⋅ = − − + =
| | | |
| |
\ . \ .

Rearranging:

1 2
V
π π

Γ Γ
− = −

(1)

• 0 = ⋅ n u

at control pt #2:

Now, following the same procedure for control pt #2:

=10 miles
V = 100 mph
8
Γ
1
Γ
2
Γ
3
x
y
Solution
16.100 2002 2

2
2 3
2 2
1 3
2 2
0
2
n i j
V
u n
π π

= +
Γ Γ
⋅ = − + =

2 3
2
V
π π

Γ Γ
− =

(2)

• 0 = ⋅ n u

at control pt #3:

3
1 3
3 3
1 3
2 2
0
2
n i j
V
u n
π π

= −
Γ Γ
⋅ = + − =

1 3
2
V
π π

Γ Γ
⇒ − + =

(3)

Final System of Equations

Combine the numbered equations:

1
2
3
vortex
strengths
(unknowns)
Influence matrix
1 1
0
1 1
0
2
1 1
0
2
i
V n
V
V
V
π π
π π
π π

(
(

(
− (
Γ
(
(
(
(
(
(
− Γ =
(
(
(
Γ (
(
¸ ¸ (
( − (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸

i

The problem with these equations is that they have infinitely many solutions.
One clue is that the determinant of the matrix is zero. In particular we can add a
constant strength to any solution because:

0
0
0
influence
0
matrix
(
Γ
(
(
(
(
Γ =
(
(
Γ (
( ¸ ¸
¸ ¸

Solution
16.100 2002 3
⇒ Given a solution
0
0
0
Γ
(
(
Γ
(
Γ (
¸ ¸
, then
1 0
2 0
3 0
Γ Γ
( (
( (
Γ + Γ
( (
Γ Γ ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
is also a solution where
0
Γ is arbitrary.

So, how do we resolve this?
Answer: the Kutta condition!

2 2
. . . .
1 1
2 2
t e upper t e lower
p V p V ρ ρ + = +
⇒ 0
upper lower
V V = ≠

What’s the Kutta condition for the windy city problem:

Kutta:
3
0 Γ = ⇒ no flow around node 3!

So, we can now solve our system of equations starting with 0
3
= Γ

1
2
3
2
2
0
V
V
π
π

Γ = −
⇒ Γ =
Γ =

V
8
Γ
1
Γ
2
Γ
3

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