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TWO MARKS QUESTIONS UNIT I AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINES 1. What are the functions of the gas turbine? 1. 2.

Turbine is the part of the jet engine which is used to increase the kinetic energy of gases. It is used to operate the compressor.

2. What are the primary parts of the turbines? 1. The stator nozzles 2. The turbine rotor blades 3. What are the classifications of the turbines? 1. An impulse stage 2. A reaction stage 4. What is meant by impulse turbine stage? An impulse turbine stage is characterized by the expansion of the gasses which occurs only in the stator nozzles. The rotor blades act as a directional vanes to deflect the direction of the flow. Further they convert the kinetic energy of the gas into work changing the momentum of the gas more or less at constant pressure. 5. What is meant by reaction turbine? A reaction turbine is one which the expansion gas takes place both in the stator and in the rotor. 6. Define blade loading coefficient. The blade loading coefficient is defined as the ratio of work done to square of blade velocity. 7. Define degree of reaction. It is defined as the ratio of isentropic change of enthalpy in the rotor to isentropic change in enthalpy in the stage.

8. Define optimum speed ratio. The optimum speed ratio is the ratio of velocity of the blade to velocity of gas.

9. Write short notes on external cooling for turbine blades. The external surface of the gas turbine blade is cooled by making use of compressed air from the compressor. The quantity of the air required for the purpose is from 1 to 3% of main flow entering the turbine stage by which blade metal temperature can be reduced by about 200 – 300 degrees. 10. Explain internal cooling method adopted for gas turbine blades? Internal cooling of blades is achieved by passing air or liquid through internal cooling passages from hub towards the blade tip. The internal passages may be circular or elliptical. The cooling of the blades are achieved by conduction and convection. 11. What are the disadvantages of liquid cooling? 1. This system is complex. 2. Water is circulated at high pressure above its vapour pressure. 3. It is impossible to eliminate formation of deposits. 12. Write short notes on air cooling adopted in turbine blades. In this method, the air is bled from the high pressure end of the compressor and delivered to the blades and vanes to be cooled. Quantity of the coolant required to about 1 to 3 % of engine air flow per turbine blade row. 13. What are the assumptions made while eliminating the flow through the stage? 1. Flow conditions evaluated at the mean radius. 2. Blade height / mean radius is small, allowing two dimensional flow theory to be used. 3. Radial velocities are zero. 14. Define blade efficiency. It is defined as the ratio of work done per unit mass flow to work available per unit mass flow.

15. Define total to total efficiency.

Total to total efficiency is the ratio of actual work done by the gas to isentropic work done. 16. Define stage efficiency. The stage efficiency is defined as the ratio of work done in a stage to enthalpy drop in stage. 17. Define reaction ratio. Reaction ratio is defined as the ratio of static enthalpy drop across the rotor to static enthalpy drop across the stage. 18. What is the difference between impulse and reaction turbines? In impulse turbine, the fluid expanded completely in the nozzle and it remains at constant pressure during its passage through the moving blades. In reaction turbine, the fluid is only partially expanded in the nozzle and the remaining expansions take place in the rotor blades. 2. The fluid velocity and blade speed for the reaction turbine are low as compared with those of an impulse turbine. 19. What are the requirements should be satisfied when the gas turbine is to be used as an aircraft power plant? 1. Low weight 2. Small frontal area. 20. Define work ratio. It is the ratio of the actual total head temperature drop to the isentropic total head temperature drop from the total heat inlet to static head outlet. 1.

21. Define total to static efficiency. It is defined as the ration between the actual shaft work to the ideal shaft work between the total conditions at the entry and static conditions at exit.

UNIT II RAMJET PROPULSION

22. Define propulsive efficiency of ramjet engine.

What is subcritical operation? . ii) The combustor required flame holder to stabilize the combustion due to high speed of air. iii) It has low thermal efficiency. Explain critical inlet mode operation. Define combustion efficiency.The propulsive efficiency of ramjet engine is defined as the ratio of thrust power to power output. 25. Light weight when compared to turbojet engine. Cost is low. What are the disadvantages of ramjet engine? i) Since the take off thrust is zero. Diffuser efficiency is defined as the ratio of actual pressure rise to ideal pressure rise. Define diffuser efficiency. There is no upper limit for flight speed. 28. What are the advantages of ramjet engine? i) ii) iii) iv) v) Ramjet engine is very simple and does not have any moving part. 24. 29. 27. it is not possible to start a ramjet engine without an external launching device. This is called critical inlet operation. iv) It is very difficult to design a diffuser which will give good pressure recovery over a wide range of speeds. 23. 26. What are the applications of ramjet engine? i) It is widely used in high speed aircrafts and missiles due to its high thrust and high operational speed. The combustion efficiency is defined as the ratio of enthalpy rise of air to heat supplied to it. Less maintenance. When the inlet can accept the mass flow of air required to position the terminal shock just inside the cowl lip. ii) Subsonic ramjets are used in target weapons.

37. Unit for thrust is Newton. What is super critical operation? When the inlet can not capture the mass flow required by the engine. the normal shock moves upstream. What is the function of nozzle? The function of the nozzle is to convert the pressure energy of the fluid into kinetic energy. Define specific impulse. 34. 30. It is defined as the ratio of thrust to weight flow rate of air-fuel mixture. 31. What are the factors to be considered to select the fuel for ramjet engine? i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) The calorific value of fuel The case with which it can be ignited Its physical properties Its storage ability Toxicity Corrosiveness 32. This is called super critical operation. the terminal shock is sucked into the diffuser. Unit for the specific impulse is seconds. 36. Define thrust. What is mach number? . 35. Thrust is a force which propels the engine in to the forward direction. This is called as subcritical operation. What are the factors affecting the combustion process? i) ii) iii) iv) The burner geometry Physical and chemical characteristics of fuel The air fuel ratio The velocity of working fluid 33.When the inlet is not matched to the engine. Briefly explain scramjet engine? A scramjet is a variant of a ramjet air breathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.

Can type burner 2. Isentropic compression and expansion 4. 38. Steady flow 2. 41. What are the assumptions made for calculate the ideal efficiency of the ramjet engine? 1. 43. This energy transformation is called ram effect. oxygen obtained from the surrounding atmosphere for combustion process. UNIT III FUNDAMENTALS OF ROCKET PROPULSION 42. Very low Mach number in the combustion chamber. Heat added at constant pressure 6. due to subsonic and supersonic diffuser. the static pressure of the air is increased to ignition pressure.Mach number is defined as the ratio of velocity of fluid to velocity of sound. So there is no need of compressor and turbine. the propulsion unit consists of own oxygen supply for combustion purpose. What are the classifications of rocket engine? Rocket engine classified as follows: i) Chemical rocket engines ii) Nuclear rocket engines iii) Electrical rocket engines . Baffle type burner 39. One dimensional flow 3. In the jet engines. What is meant by ram effect? The function of the diffuser is to convert the kinetic energy of the entering air into pressure energy. 40. Why ramjet engine does not require a compressor and a turbine? In ramjet engine. State the comparison between jet engines and rocket engines. Gas is perfect 5. What are the burners used in the ramjet engine? 1. In the rocket engines.

46. 53. 49. What is under expanded nozzle? It is a nozzle which discharges fluid at exit pressure greater than external pressure. 50. . if the speed is increased. Define specific propellant consumption. 48. 51. 52. After that. What is over expanded nozzle? It is a nozzle which discharges fluid at exit pressure lower than external pressure. because the exit area is too small.iv)Solar rocket engines 44. In rocket engine. Define IWR? The ratio of total impulse of the rocket to total weight of the rocket is called as impulse weight ratio. if the speed ratio is increased. What is weight flow ratio? It is the ratio of propellant flow rate to the throat force. In rocket engine. It is the ratio of speed of flight to velocity of jet. how the propulsive efficiency varies with respect to speed ratio? In rocket engine. What is thrust coefficient? It is the of the thrust to the throat force. the propulsive efficiency is increased and reaches the maximum value of one. What are the advantages of conical nozzle? i) ii) It has simple configuration It is relatively easy to fabricate. the propulsive efficiency is decreased with increase in speed ratio. 47. Explain the performance of the rocket engine. Define effective speed ratio. 45. the propulsive efficiency is also increased and reaches maximum value when the speed ratio is unity. Then propulsive efficiency is decreased with increase in speed ratio. because the exit area is too large.

What is the advantage of bell nozzle over conical nozzle? The bell nozzle has 20 % less than the length that would be required for a conical nozzle. The gasses coming out from the chambers flow through the divergent section of the nozzle where they are expanded. Write short notes on aero spike nozzle. Define overall efficiency. UNIT IV CHEMICAL ROCKETS 62. What is internal ballistics? The rocket motor’s operation and design depend on the combustion characteristics of propellant. 61. The branch of science describing these is known as internal ballistics. The small combustion chambers arranged in a circle around a common plug. The aero spike nozzle has common plug at its centre. 60. 55. . Define thermal efficiency. Define altitude. The effective jet velocity is the ratio of thrust to mass flow rate of propellant. Overall efficiency is defined as the ratio of thrust power to heat supplied by the propellant. Define characteristic velocity. Define effective jet velocity. It is the ratio of jet velocity to thrust coefficient. 57. 54. 58. Define heterogenous propellants. 56. The height of the rocket engine from the sea level is called as altitude. 59. its burning rate. burning surface. and grain geometry.The propellant consumption rate per thrust is called as specific propellant consumption. Thermal efficiency is the ratio of power developed by the engine to heat supplied by the propellant.

Initial temperature of the solid propellant prior to operation 3. 68. 66. In homogenous propellants solid propellants nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose are used . chemical rocket engine 2. 64. Classify the rocket engine based on source of energy employed? Rocket engine can be classified as 1. What are the components of liquid propellant rocket engine? 1. Tanks for storing liquid fuel and oxygen 2.7%. What is monopropellant? A liquid propellant which contains both the fuel and oxidizer in a single chemical is known as monopropellant. electrical rocket engine. 63. Preheater 3. solar rocket engine 3. The velocity at which a solid propellant is consumed during operation is called the burning rate 65. What is bipropellant? If the fuel and oxidizer are different from each other in its chemical nature then the propellant is called bipropellant. 67. What are the factors increase the burning rate? 1. polymers and polyvinylchloride are used as fuels. What the conditions of maximum propulsive efficiency? The jet velocity must be twice more than the free stream velocity for which the propulsive efficiency is 66. nuclear rocket engine 4. Combustion gas temperature 4. . Manufacturing cost is high. Nitrates an perchlorates are used as oxidizer. Motor motion 69. 71. Combustion chamber and nozzle 70.In heterogenous propellants solid propellants plastics. What are the disadvantages of liquid propellant rocket engine? 1. Define burning rate. Velocity of gas flow parallel to the burning surface 5. Define homogenous propellants. It combines the properties of fuels and oxidizer. Combustion chamber pressure 2.

the nozzle erosion can not be avoided. Less vibration due to absence of moving parts 3. 5. What is the use of strand burner? Strand burner is used to measure the burning rate of the solid propellant. 74. Decrease of speed is not possible 76. What are the types of propellant feed system? 1. Speed regulation is possible by regulating the supply of oxidizer High load capacity High fuel density Lighter compared to liquid propellant rockets 78. It is difficult to stop the engine 2.2. Less maintenance 75. 2. 77. What is the limitation of hybrid rocket engine? In the hybrid rocket engine. Gas pressure feed system 2. 4. 3. Simple in design and construction 2. Pump feed system 73. Injection Atomization Mixing Ignition Chemical reaction between fuel and oxidizer. What are the advantages of hybrid rocket engine? 1. What are the advantages of solid propellant rocket engine? 1. 2. 4. . The size and weight of propellant rocket. 3. What are the disadvantages of solid propellant rocket engine? 1. Low specific impulse 3. What are the basic combustion processes? 1. the engine is more compared to solid 72. High vibration 3.

Electric arc. What are the advantages of arc jet propulsion system? 1. 84. 80. Lowest Isp. What are the disadvantages of arc jet propulsion system? . heat loss 2. It will not spill or leak. 86. The propellant mixture ratio for a bipropellant is the ratio at which the oxidizer and fuel are mixed and react to give hot gases. Low voltage 3. It behave like a jelly or thick paint. What are the advantages of electrical propulsion system? 1. Relatively simple device and high thrust. Readily can burn flow under pressure will burn and is safer in some respects. 83. What are the methods for ion generation? There are three methods for ion generation. 85. 4. UNIT V ADVANCED PROPULSION TECHNIQUES 82. Simple device and easy to control 2. Simple power containing 3. Low cost and relatively high thrust and efficiency 4. Dissociation of gas 3. .It has been used for roll control and altitude control. Indirect of heating of gas and erosion. 81. What is cold gas propellant? A cold gas propellant is stored at very high pressure gives a low performance allows a simple system and is usually very reliable. They are 1. Direct heating of gas. Can use many propellants including hydrazine augmentation.79. Electron bombardment and 3. 2. Surface contact 2. Can use catalytic hydrazine augmentation inert propellant. What are the disadvantages of electrical propulsion system? 1. What is gelled propellant? A gelled propellant is a thixotropic liquid with a gelling additive. Define Mixture ratio.

Low thrust per unit area. Simple device and low power. Inert propellant. Heavy power supply. Single propellant 2. What are the advantages of Hall thruster? 1. 2. What are the advantages of pulsed plasma electrical propulsion system? 1. single propellant only 3. High voltage. 89. Complex power conditioning and heavy power supply 2. High specific impulse 2. heavy wiring. Because of solid propellants. High specific impulse 3. Inert propellant 94. 87. What are the disadvantages of Hall thruster? 1.1. heat loss More complex power conditioning. What are the disadvantages of ion jet propulsion system? 1. 90. High efficiency 3. Difficult to stimulate analytically 2. What are the disadvantages of pulsed plasma electrical propulsion system? 1. High thrust per unit area 92. High beam divergence . Low thrust 2. Desirable Isp range 2. 4. What are the advantages of steady state plasma electromagnetic propulsion system? 1. Teflon reaction products are toxic 3. Low efficiency Erosion at high power and low specific impulse High current. Compact relatively simple power conditioning 3. 88. 2. Corrosive 91. 3. Can be relatively simple 2. High specific power 3. no need of gas or liquid feed system and there is no zero gravity effects on propellants. What are the advantages of ion jet propulsion system? 1. What are the disadvantages of steady state plasma electromagnetic propulsion system? 1. 93.

Propellant pump 3. 96. 2. Electric power supply 4. What are the components in Magneto. What are the requirements for solar sail powered spacecraft? 1. 100. Write down three fuel – oxidizer combination for hybrid propellant rockets?  Beryllium hydride – Fluorine  Lithium hydride – chlorine trifluoride  Hydrocarbon – Nitrogen tetroxide  Lithium hydride – Nitrogen tetroxide 101. What are the advantages of hybrid propellant rockets engine? 1. Magneto. Ion rocket engine 3. Speed regulation is possible by regulating the supply of oxidizer. Propellant tank 2. 4. Propellant tank 2. Thrust chamber 4. Erosion. Propellant tank 2. Accelerator. . Hybrid rockets are lighter when compared to the liquid propellant type rocket. 99. Vapourizing chamber. What are the components in Arc plasma rocket engine? 1. A large ultrathin mirror 3.plasma rocket engine? 1. Continuous force exerted by sunlight 2. Arc plasma rocket engine 2. What are the types of electrical rocket engines? 1. Higher fuel density. 3. High load capacity. Cooling system 4. A separate launch vehicle. Combustion chamber 3. 98.3. 95. 97. What are the components in Ion rocket engine? 1. Thrust chamber 3.plasma rocket engine. Electric power supply.

Then the gas leaves the rotor with as small as whirl velocity as practicable near the axis of rotation. the gas is ejected in to the atmosphere. Describe the working of radial flow turbine stage with neat sketch. pressure increased from P1 to P2 and the temperature is increased from T1 to T2. During the expansion process. Then the gas enters the rotor blade passages where it is further expanded.SIX MARKS QUESTIONS UNIT I AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINES 1.     The axial flow turbine stage consists of nozzle and rotor blades. .    The radial flow turbine stage consists of volute. Here.   Here. Initially gas enters the row nozzle blades where it is expanded. Describe the working of axial flow turbine stage with neat sketch. diffuser. the gas flow with a high tangential velocity is directed inwards. 2. nozzle vanes. Finally. the pressure energy of the gas is converted into kinetic energy.

pitch and chord?  Optimum pitch / chord ratio  Aspect ratio  Rotor blade stresses  Effect of pitch on the blade root fixing UNIT II RAMJET PROPULSION 1.What are the cooling methods adopted in turbine blades? Explain.     External cooling Internal cooling Liquid cooling Air cooling 5.  Gas bending stresses directly proportional to blade height and blade work output.3. 4. Discuss the limiting factors in turbine design.  Gas bending stresses inversely proportional to number of blades and blade section modulus. Explain the performance of ramjet engine?   If the altitude increases the net thrust will be decreased. In the sea level the net thrust will be maximum.   Optimizing the design. . The velocity triangle upon which the rotor blade section depends are partially determined. What are the factors considered to select blade profile.  Centrifugal stresses in the blades are proportional to the square of the rotational speed and the annulus area.

5.  Initially derive ideal efficiency = 1-1/t. Explain typical modes of inlet operation?  critical inlet mode operation.  subcritical operation . The supersonic combustion ramjet engine (scram jet) consists of converging inlet. In the combustor. 2. 3. This is called critical inlet operation. Ramjet can operate at subsonic velocities just below the sonic velocity.      A supersonic combustion ramjet is a variant of a ramjet air breathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic air flow. igniter. Explain baffle type burner with neat sketch. The ramjet engines have highest thrust per unit weight amongst air breathing engines.  Define ideal efficiency. partially compress and decelerate the incoming flow. Explain the process involved in supersonic combustion ramjet engine. Fuel also supplied to the combustion zone.      It consists of fuel injecting system.  Using the relation between static and stagnation temperature derive the ideal efficiency of the ramjet engine.   For cruise thrust. flame holder and combustion zone. combustor and diverging nozzle. Here. Igniter initiates the combustion of air-fuel mixture. The air is supplied to the combustion zone with very low velocity. the gaseous fuel is burned with atmospheric oxygen to produce heated air. 4. Derive ideal efficiency for Ramjet engine. Flame holder is used to stabilize the combustion process. the air enters the inlet at Mach number 6. When the inlet can accept the mass flow of air required to position the terminal shock just inside the cowl lip. To avoid the shock wave problem. net specific fuel consumption decreases with increase in mach number.

000 kMph with an effective exhaust velocity of 1350 m/s and the heat produced by the propellant is 6600 KJ / kg. This is called super critical operation. UNIT III FUNDAMENTALS OF ROCKET PROPULSION 1.When the inlet is not matched to the engine. determine.  super critical operation When the inlet can not capture the mass flow required by the engine. A rocket flies at a speed of 10.     It is defined as the ratio of thrust power to engine power developed. the terminal shock is sucked into the diffuser. Find out overall efficiency from propulsive and thermal 2. Find propulsive efficiency from thrust power and engine power developed. Find out propulsive power from thrust. If the propellant flow rate is 4. (i) Propulsive efficiency (ii) Propulsive power (iii) Engine output (iv) Thermal efficiency (v) Overall efficiency Solution:      efficiencies. . the normal shock moves upstream. Find engine power developed = Thrust power + Power loss. Derive propulsive efficiency for rocket engine. Find out thermal efficiency from engine output. Find out Engine output from propulsive efficiency. This is called as subcritical operation. It is the product of thrust and velocity of flight. Find out propulsive efficiency from speed ratio.8 kg/s. Find thrust power.

 In convergent nozzle.  energy. Find mass flow rate and specific impulse from thrust. .  nozzles. The pressure in the combustion chamber is 7 MPa and the temperature is 2800 K.  In divergent nozzle. The conical apex angle is 15 O 5. Find exit diameter from throat diameter. A rocket is to be designed to produce 5 MN thrust at sea level. Find out velocity of sound at exit from exit temperature. two truncated cones joined top to top along their axis by a suitable radius to form a nozzle throat. Find exit velocity from exit mach number.3. Explain conical nozzle with neat sketch. If the working fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas with the properties of air at room temperature. divergent and CD Function of the nozzle is to convert pressure energy into kinetic from entry to exit.  In CD nozzle. 4. Explain bell nozzle with suitable sketch. Find thrust from exit velocity. Find throat diameter from mass flow rate. determine the following: (i) Specific impulse (ii) Mass flow rate (iii) Throat diameter (iv) Exit diameter Solution:        Find out exit mach number and exit temperature from gas table. the cross sectional area is gradually decreased Conical nozzle is classified into convergent. the cross sectional area is gradually increased from entry to exit.

 Schematic diagram of turbo pump  Fuel and oxidizer tank  Parts of turbo pump  Working principle 2.  The bell shaped nozzle has a length 20 % less than that of 15 degrees conical nozzle. What are the advantages of liquid propellant system over solid propellant system?  Combustion process is controllable  High specific impulse  Speed regulation is possible  Smoke produced by the propellant is low.  The length of divergent section of bell nozzle is less than that of conical nozzle. and explain its working principle. 3. With the help of a schematic diagram. explain elaborate scheme of a typical turbo pump feed system.  It consists of throat and divergent section. This nozzle used in Atlas sustainer engine.  Combustion chamber and nozzle  Provision for assembly and disassembly of the unit  Mounting pads  Provisions for preventing over pressurization of the chamber  Provisions for holding the propellant grain in place  Seals for preventing moisture to reach the grain  Devices for changing the vector direction of thrust.  The expansion ratio is same for bell and conical nozzles. . UNIT IV CHEMICAL ROCKETS 1. the divergent angle at the throat is provided at 40 degrees. To compensate that. Explain the hardware components of solid propellant rocket engine with neat sketch.

Film cooling Sweat cooling 5. List and very briefly explain the methods of cooling adopted for rocket motors. Regenerative cooling ii. ii. Radiation cooling 2.4. Explain combustion process in rocket engine?  Combustion process  Types of injectors  Parallel stream type  Impinging stream type  Spray injection type 3. Explain strand burner with diagram  Strand burner schematic diagram  Parts of strand burner  Vent gas  Chronometer working UNIT V ADVANCED PROPULSION TECHNIQUES 1. Unsteady state cooling i. 1. Steady state cooling i. Explain briefly about propellant grain design consideration?  Grain design  Maximum overall length  Burning area program  Physical strength characteristics 2. Explain briefly about hybrid propellant rocket engine with diagram?  Schematic diagram of hybrid propellant rocket engine  Parts of hybrid propellant rocket engine  Working principle .

 Advantages and disadvantages. If the blades have equal inlet and outlet angles and there is no axial thrust. Mean . Find effective speed ratio from blade speed and absolute velocity at exit. 4. Find blade efficiency from effective speed ratio. Find absolute velocity at exit using velocity triangle. and is to operate with an inlet pressure and temperature of 6 bar and 900 K and an outlet pressure of 1 bar. power produced per kg/s of the fluid and blade efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 85 %. Find blade angle from the absolute velocity at exit. Solution:       Draw velocity triangle for turbine. All the stages are to have a nozzle outlet angle of 75 degrees and equal outlet and inlet blade angles. Explain briefly about Ion rocket engine?  Schematic diagram of Ion rocket engine  Parts of Ion rocket engine  Working principle  Accelerating grid TEN MARKS QUESTIONS UNIT I AIRCRAFT GAS TURBINES 1. 2. Explain briefly about arc plasma rocket engine?  Schematic diagram of arc plasma rocket engine  Parts of arc plasma rocket engine  Working principle  Plasma gas  Propellants 5. Find power produced using tangential velocity. A multi stage turbine is to be designed with impulse stages. mass flow rate and blade speed. estimate the blade angle. In a single stage impulse turbine the nozzle discharge the fluid on to the blades at an angle of 65 degrees to the axial direction and the fluid leaves the blades with an absolute velocity of 300 m/s at an angle of 30 degrees to the axial direction.

 Find temperature drop in a stage from energy equation. 4. The corresponding nozzle angle is 70 degrees.  Find number of stages required from actual overall temperature drop and temperature drop in a stage. assume new value of turbine inlet temperature and repeat the procedure.  Find absolute velocity of gas at exit from optimum speed ratio. An axial flow turbine has a blade speed at the mean diameter is 300 mps. The gas temperature at turbine inlet and outlet are 500 degrees and 300 degrees respectively. Calculate for the hub. 5. If the calculated area does not equal the actual exit area.5 kg/s. Find power developed from mass flow rate. and mass flow is 2. The blades of free vortex turbine rotor have inlet and outlet angled of 60 degrees and 65 degrees at a mean diameter of 100 cm. The fixed blade outlet angle is 20 degrees measured in the same direction of U. Determine power developed. mean and tip sections (a) Blade angles (b) Degree of reaction (c) Blade to gas speed ratio Solution: . Find temperature difference from gas temperature at inlet and outlet.  Applying energy equation to the nozzle of any stage. Solution:      Draw velocity triangle for turbine From the velocity triangle.6 and the turbine runs at 3600 rpm. The axial velocity remains constant at 200 mps. Explain procedure for matching the turbine and compressure?         Select operational speed Assume turbine inlet temperature Assume compressor pressure ratio Calculate compressor work per unit mass Calculate turbine pressure ratio Check if compressor mass flow plus fuel flow equals the turbine mass flow Calculate pressure ratio across the jet nozzle Calculate area of the jet nozzle outlet. Find work done from temperature difference. The hub tip ratio is 0. Solution:  Find actual overall temperature drop from turbine efficiency.blade speed of 250 m/s and equal inlet and outlet gas velocities. Estimate the maximum number of stages required. find relative velocity at exit and absolute velocity at exit. 3.

A ramjet engine operates at M= 1. The C. The properties of the combustion gases are same as that of the air (γ=1.       Draw the velocity triangle for turbine Find velocity at tip from radius of tip Find velocity at hub from radius of hub Find blade angles from velocity triangle Find work done from the mean velocity Find degree of reaction from work done Find blade to gas ratio from work done.4.  Multiple chambers are placed after the subsonic diffuser. UNIT II RAMJET PROPULSION 1. The velocity of air at the diffuser exit is negligible.  It consist of liner.2 at an altitude of 6500 m.  For maintenance. 2. R=287 J/kg K). the individual chamber can be removed and replaced without disturbing the operation. injector and combustion zone. 3.V of the fuel used is40 MJ/kg. Explain can type of burner with neat sketch. Discuss the problems associated with the supersonic combustion process?  Control of flow is difficult  Keep combustion rate of fuel constant  Fuel injection and management is complex  Choking problem  Special cooling is required  Testing difficulties.  Each chambers are supplied with separate system of air and it having own fuel jet from common fuel supply line. Calculate the The efficiency of ideal cycle Flight speed Air flow rate Diffuser pressure ratio Fuel air ratio i) ii) iii) iv) v) . The diameter of the inlet diffuser at entry is 50 cm and stagnation temperature at the nozzle entry is 15oo K.

vi) Nozzle jet Mach number The efficiency of diffuser is 0. combustor = 0.a = ρ1 A 1u = 44.9.2 m/s iii) mass flow rate m.72 K vi) f = 0.96 Given data Entry Mach no.V = 40 MJ/kg = 40 ×106 J/kg M2 =0 (combustor entry velocity is negligible) γ = 1.4 R = 287 J/kg K i) Efficiency of ideal cycle = = 0.03 exit Mach number .5 m/s ρ1 = 0. nozzle = 0. Rod Diffuser efficiency= Rod = 2.36 % ii) flight speed.2236 Efficiency of ideal cycle = 22. M1 = 1.7 kg/s diffuser pressure ratio .624 kg/m3 u = M1 a1 u = 377.24 v) fuel – air ratio f= combustion efficiency= =1+ M12 iv) T01 = T02 = 316.2 Z = 6500 m Di =50 cm = 0. M4 .5 m T03 = 1500 K C.98. u M1 = At z= 6500 m from data book a1 = 314.

794 T4’ = 1191 K Substituting in nozzle efficiency T4 = 1203. Given data Entry Mach no.M4 = W k t T04 = T4 + At nozzle expansion occurs at constant stagnation temperature . i.446 From gas tables.36 K T04 = T4 + C4 = 772. nozzle is 0.92 .11 4.4 T4’/ T03 = 0. T03 = T04 Nozzle efficiency = To find T4’ Inn combustor combustion occurs at constant stagnation pressure i.22P02.V of fuel is 43 MJ/kg. for P4/ P03 = 0. The properties of combustion gases are same as those of air(γ=1. R=287 J/kg K).. Find i) Efficiency of ideal cycle ii) Flight speed iii) Air flow rate iv) Diffuser pressure ratio v) Fuel air ratio vi) Nozzle pressure ratio vii) Nozzle jet Mach number viii) Propulsive efficiency ix) Thrust Efficiency of diffuser is 0.4 and at an altitude of 6ooo m.4 .e. P1 = P4 = 0.e. P02 = P03 For complete expansion of nozzle.4 Z = 6000 m . combustor is 0.446 and γ = 1. A ramjet engine propels on an aircraft at Mach no = 1.95 and combustor pressure loss is 0.44 × 105 N/m2 P4/ P03 = 0. The stagnation temperature at the nozzle entry is 1500 K.. M1 = 1. the diameter of inlet diffuser at the entry is 40 cm and C.2 m/s M4 = M4 = 1.97 .

γ = 1.4 R = 287 J/kg K i) Efficiency of ideal cycle = = 0. Ron wkt T03 = T3 .73 kg/s diffuser pressure ratio .992 f = 0.027 vi) nozzle pressure ratio .Di =40 cm = 0.5 m/s ρ1 = 0.22P02. Rod Diffuser efficiency = Rod = 2.16 % flight speed.V = 43 MJ/kg = 43 ×106 J/kg M2 =0 ( combustor entry velocity is negligible) ∆P0cc = 0.a = ρ1 A 1u = 36.624 kg/m3 P1 = 0.472 ×105 N/m2 u = M1 a1 u = 443. u M1 = At z= 6500 m from data book a1 = 314.2816 Efficiency of ideal cycle = 28.1 m/s iii) mass flow rate m.94 v) fuel – air ratio f= combustion efficiency= =1+ M12 ii) iv) T01 = T02 = 346.8 K Mf = 0.4 m T03 = 1500 K C.

P02 = P03 For complete expansion of nozzle.34 and γ = 1. M4 M4 = W k t T04 = T4 + At nozzle expansion occurs at constant stagnation temperature . P02 = 1.88 vii) exit Mach number .38 ×105 N/m2 P03 = 1. F F = m..4 T4’/ T03 = 0..8 K T04 = T4 + C4 = 869.472 × 105 N/m2 P4/ P03 = 0. T03 = T04 Nozzle efficiency = To find T4’ Inn combustor combustion occurs at constant stagnation pressure i.22P02.5 % .347 From gas tables. P1 = P4 = 0. P1 = P4 = 0.cj – ma.736 T4’ = 1104 K Substituting in nozzle efficiency = T4 = 1123.472 × 105 N/m2 Given ∆P0cc = 0.u F = 16430 N = 67.36×105 N/m2 RON = = 2.=( )^( ) P03 = P3 RON = = For complete expansion of nozzle.6 m/s M4 = M4 = 1.29 viii) propulsive efficiency = ix) thrust . i.e.e. for P4/ P03 = 0.

624 kg/m3 P1 = 0. V.2 % ii) flight speed.5 m/s ρ1 = 0.i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 5. A ramjet engine flies at an altitude of 6500 m and the flight Mach number is 4. u M1 = At z= 6500 m from data book a1 = 314. Air fuel ratio = 52 C.4 R = 287 J/kg K i) Ideal cycle efficiency = Ideal cycle efficiency = 76.762 . Exit Mach number 8. Diffuser pressure ratio 5. Maximum engine temperature 6. The data for the engine is given below.48 m Efficiency of diffuser = 0. Flight speed 3.440×105 N/m2 u = M1 a1 u = 1258 m/s = 0. Thrust 9. of fuel = 44 MJ/kg Diffuser inlet diameter = 0. Nozzle pressure ratio 7.85 Efficiency of combustor = 0.V = 44 MJ/kg = 44 ×106 J/kg M2 =0 ( combustor entry velocity is negligible) ma / mf = 52 γ = 1.48 m C. M1 = 4 Z = 6500 m Di =48 cm = 0.96 Calculate 1. Air fuel consumption 4. Thrust specific fuel ratio Given data Entry Mach no. Air specific impulse 10. Ideal cycle efficiency 2.97 Efficiency of nozzle = 0.

i..44 × 105 N/m2 Therefore RON = = 99.e . P1 = P4 = 0.3 v) maximum temperature T3 wkt T3/ T03 Combustion efficiency = =1+ M12 T01 = T02 = 1032.78 K T03 = 1849.73 kg/s diffuser pressure ratio .39 vii) exit Mach number . Ron RON = = There is no stagnation pressure loss in combustor.iii) iv) mass flow rate m.69× 105 N/m2 For complete expansion of nozzle. Rod Diffuser efficiency = Rod = 99.2 K vi) nozzle pressure ratio . ROd= P02= 43. RON = = Now . M4 M4 = W k t T04 = T4 + At nozzle expansion occurs at constant stagnation temperature . i. T03 = T04 Nozzle efficiency= To find T4’ .a = ρ1 A 1u = 142 kg/s ma / mf = 52 mf = 2.73 m = ma+ mf m = 144. P02 =P03.e.

P1 = P4 = 0.F.S.F. for P4/ P03 = 0. .44 × 105 N/m2 P4/ P03 = 0.268 T4’ = 495.  Rocket engine consists of fuel and oxygen tanks.e.4 T4’/ T03 = 0.Inn combustor combustion occurs at constant stagnation pressure i.cj – ma.68 s T.938× 10-5 kg/Ns UNIT III FUNDAMENTALS OF ROCKET PROPULSION 1.S.2 m/s M4 = M4 = 3. P02 = P03 For complete expansion of nozzle. combustion chamber and exhaust nozzle.7 K T04 = T4 + C4 = 1616.. F F = m. Describe the working principle of typical rocket engine with neat sketch.44 viii) thrust .u F = 55276.C = 4.01 From gas tables.6 N ix) air specific impulse.S.58 K Substituting in nozzle efficiency= T4 = 549.C = T.C T.F. Isp Isp= x) Isp = 39.01 and γ = 1.

 When the combustion of propellants takes place in the combustion chamber. 2. combustion chamber pressure of 24 bar and weight flow rate is 45 N/s.  Finally the summation of pressure force acting on direction of motion and momentum thrust force give thrust equation for rocket engine. If the specific impulse is 128 seconds.   Locate control volume of rocket engine. Find (i) Thrust coefficient (ii) Propellant weight flow coefficient (iii)Specific propellant consumption .      Under expanded nozzles Over expanded nozzles Conical nozzles Bell shaped nozzles Free expansion nozzle.  Rocket engine works on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. Explain classification of rocket nozzles with suitable sketches. This thrust propels the rocket. A rocket nozzle has a throat area of 20 cm2. 3. 4.  These gasses expanded in the nozzle section to produce the thrust. Find pressure force acting on direction of motion in terms of exit and ambient pressures and exit area. Initially fuel and oxygen (propellants) are separately pumped in to the combustion chamber. Derive thrust equation for rocket engine.  Find momentum thrust force in terms of mass flow rate of propellant and exit velocity. very high pressure and high temperature gasses are produced.

 Find thrust coefficient from throat area. Find the following: (i) Exit Mach number (ii) Nozzle area ratio (iii)Throat area (iv) Thrust coefficient (v) Propellant weight flow coefficient (vi) Characteristic velocity. A rocket engine has following data: Propellant flow rate = 5.1 kg / s Nozzle exit diameter = 11 cm Nozzle exit diameter = 1.  Find throat area from exit area of nozzle.03 bar Ambient pressure = 1.3.8 KN.  Find characteristic velocity from exit velocity and thrust coefficient.  Find characteristic velocity from exit velocity and thrust coefficient.(iv) Characteristic velocity Solution:  Find thrust coefficient from specific impulse  Find propellant weight flow coefficient from propellant weight flow rate. Solution:  Find exit mach number and nozzle area ratio using gas tables. .013 bar Thrust chamber pressure = 20 bar Thrust = 6.  Find specific propellant consumption from propellant weight flow rate and thrust. 5. Take specific heat ratio as 1.  Find propellant weight flow coefficient from mass flow rate of propellant.

4.  Working principle.  Schematic diagram of gas pressure feed system  Fuel and oxidizer tank  Parts of gas pressure feed system. Briefly explain about selection criteria of solid propellants?  High release of chemical energy  High density . What are the important factors that influence the burning rate of a solid propellant? Explain. With the help of a schematic diagram. explain elaborate scheme of a gas pressure feed system. Describe the working of liquid propellant rocket engine with neat sketch.UNIT IV CHEMICAL ROCKETS 1. 3.     Schematic diagram of liquid propellant rocket engine Parts of liquid propellant rocket engine Separate tanks for liquid fuel and oxygen Working principle 2. Describe the working of solid propellant rocket engine with neat sketch?     Schematic diagram of solid propellant rocket engine Parts of solid propellant rocket engine Working principle Advantages and disadvantages.  Chemical composition  Method of propellant preparation  Initial grain temperature  Burning time  Chamber pressure  Gas velocity adjacent to grain  Geometrical shape of the grain 5.

Briefly explain about the nuclear rocket engine with diagram?  Schematic diagram of nuclear rocket engine  Propellant tank  Parts of gas pressure feed system. Briefly explain about electromagnetic thrusters? .   Adequate physical properties Fabrication properties Non toxic exhaust gases UNIT V ADVANCED PROPULSION TECHNIQUES 1.  Working principle. Briefly explain about selection criteria of liquid propellants?  Heat of combustion  Reaction rate  Stability  Corrosiveness  Vapor pressure 2. 4. Explain briefly about Thrust vector control?  Use of Jet-vane  Gimbaled engine  Use of small control thrust nozzles  Use of movable nozzle plug  Side injection method 3.

 Schematic diagram of electromagnetic thruster  Propellant tank  Power supply  Working principle. 5. Explain the concept of nozzle less propulsion with example?  Concept of nozzle less propulsion  Example: Plasma thruster  Schematic diagram of Plasma thruster  Working principle .