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RAMAK/?/SHiVA HIS LIFE AND SAYINGS .

PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY .OjtfotS HORACE HART.

FOREIGN MEMBER OF THE FRENCH INSTITUTE FELLOW OF ALL SOULS COLLEGE. F. OXFORD NEW YORK CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 18^9 . MAX MULLER.M. K.RAMAK7?/SHi\^A HIS LIFE AND SAYINGS THE RIGHT HON.

.

and books in which the principal events of his were chronicled. journals. Whatever may be the Indian ascetics to about the aberrations of belonged. whom Rdmaky«sh«a as .PREFACE The name mentioned in of Ritnakrishna. and his moral and religious teaching described and discussed. own devoted life disciples. American. but to the few also to religion. fuller and English newslife papers that a account of his and doctrine seemed to me likely to be welcome. has lately been so often Indian. whether in a friendly or unfriendly said spirit. whom I I the growth of philosophy and therefore tried to whether at home or have could abroad. not only to the in many who moral take an interest the intellectual and state of India. can never be a matter of indifference. partly from Indian newspapers. collect as much information as about this lately-deceased Indian Saint (died partly from his in 1886).

We need it not fear that the Saw^nyasins of India will ever find followers or imitators in Europe. stories told of these martyrs of the flesh and of the spirit may be exaggerated. which sway large multitudes that gather round them in their own country. real facts to rouse at all events When some of the true SumnyAsms. ascetic inflict on themselves. devote their thoughts and meditations to philosophical and religious problems. our attention and sympathy. the various elements that constitute the complicated system of Indian society. nor would be at all desirable that they should. not even for . nay even in England. but with all. cannot fail to engage if. who hardly deserve to be called SaMnyisins. The torwhich some of them. and bring themselves to a state of extreme nervous exaltation accompanied by trances or fainting fits of long duration. PREFACE. particularly as in the case of RSmakreshwa. are well known to all who have lived in India and have become acquainted there not only with Rajahs and MahSrijahs. tures some of them who deserve our nay even our warmest sympathy. for they are not much better than jugglers or Ha/-^ayogins. however. but in America also.VI there are certainly interest. the methods by which they try to subdue and their annihilate passions. Though some of the enough remains of our curiosity. their doctrines are being spread by zealous advocates not only in India. their utterances.

present taught at the day by the Bhaktas. Vll the sake of Psychic Research. A country permeated by such thoughts as were uttered by Ramakrzshwa cannot possibly be looked upon as a country of ignorant idolaters to be converted by the same methods which are applicable to the races of Central Africa.. whether for the of them seems statesmen who have and to deal with the various classes of Indian society. many readers would hardly be able to understand the ideals of RSma- knsh«a and I his disciples. not only on a few philosophers. strange to our ears. or for the missionaries to understand who are anxious to influence the inhabitants of that country. or for experiments in Physico-psychological Laboratories.PREFACE. am quite aware that some of his sayings may sound nay even ofliensive. Thus the is conception of the Deity as the Divine Mother apt to . I thought useful to add a short sketch of some of the most characteristic doctrines of that philosophy. Without it. is 'the friends and its devoted lovers of God. but on the large masses of what has always been called a country of philosophers. or lastly for the students of philosophy and religion who ought to know how that the most is ancient philosophy of the world. that. But apart from a better knowledge of the teachings of one certainly desirable. As the Vedclnta forms the background of the sayings it of Kkmakrishna. the Vedinta.' and continues to exercise powerful influence.

observe the rules of propriety Or ' again is What the strength of a devotee ? ' He (92). the following saying will certainly jar on our ears ' the Love of The Knowledge of God may be likened to a man. but no one can enter into the inner mysteries of God save a lover. for a ' woman has access even into the harem of the Almighty (172). as such. nay even irreverent. we see from the next . God is like a woman.: : : : Vlll - PREFACE. and. when we read his saying (No. really ' we can understand what R^makn'sh«a meant by it. cannot always (104). They themselves seem to be aware : of this and say in excuse 'A is true devotee who has drunk deep ' of Divine Love like a veritable drunkard.' dearer to the child than any one Sometimes the language which these Hindu devotees use of the Deity must appear to us too familiar. startle us. is a child of God. Knowledge has while entry only up to the outer rooms of God. and consequently she else. 89) but does the God-lover find such pleasure in address- Why its ing the Deity as Mother ? Because the child is is more free with mother. How saying deep RSmakr«sh«a has seen into the mysteries of knowledge and love of God. and tears are his greatest strength Unless we remember that harem means originally no more than a sacred and guarded place.

all God is in all men. From soul such sayings we learn that though the real presence of the Divine in nature and in the human as was nowhere felt so strongly and so universally in India. yet . his tears. ' IX same. but men are not in God : that is the reason why they suffer' (215). nay the sense of complete absorption in the Godhead. verily. and become as ' ignorant about it as a child. I say unto you. has faith has and he who wants wants all ' So long as one does not become simple like a child. finds ' Him ' (159). that he who yearns faith for God. so a man cannot ' live ' without God' (288). Where does the strength of an aspirant lie ? It is in As a mother gives her consent to fulfil the desire ' of her importunately weeping child. one does not get Divine illumination. and though the fervent love of God.PREFACE. all. As a lamp does not burn without oil. Knowledge and love of God are ultimately one and the There is no difference between pure knowledge and love. Forget all the worldly knowledge that thou hast acquired.. so God vouchsafes to His weeping son whatever he is crying for (306).' pure The following utterances also : show the exalted nature of his faith 'Verily. ' and then thou wilt get the knowledge of the True ' (241). has nowhere found a stronger and more eloquent expression than in the utterances of Kkmakrishna. He who (201).

M. The is consciousness of the Divine in man is and shared by all. Him we live far from every one and move and have our F. This constant sense of the presence of God is indeed the in common ground on which we may hope that time not too distant the great temple of the future will be erected. M. . in which Hindus and non- Hindus may join hands and hearts same Supreme Spirit who is not in worshipping the — of us. reveal to us not only his the faith and hope of millions own thoughts. he perfectly knew the barriers that separate divine and human nature. even by those who seem to worship idols.X PREFACE. 1898. we may there. IGHTHAM Mote. but of human beings. Oct. If we remember that these utterances of Rimakrishna. for in being. indeed feel hopeful about the future of that country. i8.

. 61 62 . 64 66 69 Ekam advitlyam.. One without a Second rvSiBi aeavrSv 74 80 91 Final Conclusion.. Yoga RSmakrzshna DaySnanda Sarasvati PawSri Baba Debendranath Tagore Rai ShaligrSm Saheb Bahadur 10 12 ... . .. 20 23 RSmakWsh»a The Dialogic Process 25 RSmalo^sh«a's Life Remarks on Ramalcr2sh»a's Life Mozoomdar's Judgement RSmakrzshwa's Language RSmalcrsshwa's Wife RSmak?-2sh»a's Influence on Keshub Chunder Sen Ved&nta-philosophy . 13 16 .. .. Tat tvamasi Remarks on the Sayings 95 The Sayings of Ramaicb/sh^a Index to the Sayings 98-187 189-200 .CONTENTS PAGE Introduction 1-97 i The Mahatmans The Four Stages of Life 3 SamnySsins or Saints Ascetic Exercises or 6 8 .. 30 59 ..

.

It is not many years since I felt called upon to say a few words on certain religious movements in India. and not unjustly. more particularly to who may be open to criticism. August number. To people who are unacquainted with the religious state of India. and to a good deal of controversy both in India and in England. to the them and follow them. feel inspired. and ignorant of the systems of philosophy prevalent in what has often. been called a country of philosophers. and the ideas themselves by which they multitudes that believe in article. in My the entitled 'A Real Mahitman. whether modern or ancient. gave rise of the Nineteenth Century. guish between their leaders. and which they preachy often with great eloquence. it is very difficult to distin- understand these movements. My object was twofold: I wished to B .' appeared 1896. which seemed to me to now going on have been very much misrepresented and misunderstood at home.THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmak/?/sh7va The MaMtmaus.

the students of Plato and Aristotle. and by the power ascribed to MahStman. and English papers.2 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RA. whom they credited not only with a profound knowledge of ancient or even primeval wisdom.UAKRISHNA. but with superhuman powers exhibited generally in the performance of very miracles. What happens so often to people their whose powers of admiration are in excess of certain first ledge and discretion. Theosophy. often used simply as a complimentary term. and the rest. by their abstemious life. something worth knowing. It is then high-minded. they were carried away by the idea that they had found of human beings. and I wished to show the same time that behind such strange names all as Indian rest. Mahatman means all literally great-souled. has happened to the admirers of Hindu sages. by their stirring eloquence. however. and had gained great popularity among low and high by their preachings and teachings. one of the many names by which these people have long been known. is but them of working miracles. Kant know- and Hegelj in Europe. at American. They thought they had been the to discover and unearth these Indian Mahitmans. from the world. worth know- ing even for us. much as we use . and overcharged accounts of Saints at present in India protest against the wild and Sages living and teaching which had been pubUshed and scattered broadcast in Indian. noble. who had gone through had retired a a new race number of the most fearful ascetic exercises. and Esoteric Buddhism and the there was something real. silly Not knowing what had long been known in India quite to every student of Sanskrit philology.

laid down or surrendered everything. ' Manu VI. according to the Laws of that Manu.hman still keeps to his dwelling in the forest outside his village. 87. love anything. not are of course approximate renderings having the thing. B 2 . but it LIFE.THE FOUR STAGES OF reverend or honourable. the former regulated by the strictest as to obedience. SawznySsin men who in the known to us by their means literally one who that is. first and second scholastic stages are clear enough. divided pupil four periods that or Axramas. worldly affections and desires. all one who has abandoned 'He is to be known Bhagavad-gita V. duty of performing both public and private. as a Sa»2nyasin.' 3. all and the second devoted to the duties of a married man. we have not got the name. and of hermit or Yati^ The life. see his children. and may even be accompanied and keep up his sacred there by his wife.' we read in the 'who does not hate and does not The Four Stages The a life of Life. an ascetic or Vdnaprastha. of a BrShman into was. they represent the stages of a man's rules and the married study. including the sacrifices. applied to a class of ancient language of India are well name has of Sawznyisin. for the third The names stages of ascetic and hermit and fourth only. 3 has also been accepted as a technical term. chastity. of of a householder or a G«hastha. But the chief difference between the two seems to be that in the third stage the BrS. of or BrahmaHrin.

4
fires,

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAK^/SHJVA.
performing
all

the time certain exercises, as enjoined

in their sacred books, while in the last stage a

man

is

released from

all

restrictions,

and has to

live

alone and

without any fixed abode'-

Some

translators

have used
In

hermit for the third, and ascetic for the fourth stage.
Sanskrit also there exists a variety of
stages,

names

for these
is

two
the

but the distinctive character of each
representing a mere

clear,

third stage

retreat firom the world,
all

the fourth a complete surrender of

worldly interests,
all

a cessation of

all duties,

a sundering of
life

the fetters of

passion and desire, and a

without a fixed abode.
therefore

The
last

modern MahStmans should
stage.

be considered as
itinerant

belonging partly to the third, partly to the fourth or

They
live

are what
it

we should

call friars or

mendicants, for

is

their

acknowledged privilege to beg
was Avadhfita,

and to

on

charity.

Another name of these
literally

SawznySsins

one who has shaken

off all attachments, while in

the language of the

common

people they are often called

simply Sadhus, or good men.
It

has

sometimes been denied that there are any
left

Sa»2nyisins

in India,

and

in

one sense

this

is

true.

The whole scheme
in the

of

life,

with

its
'

four stages, as traced
at all times
life
it

Laws of Manu, seems to have been more or less of an ideal scheme, a plan of
be, but as, taking

such

as,

according to the aspirations of the Brihmans,

ought to

human

nature as

it

is,

it

could hardly

ever have been

all
'

over India. Apastamba

Anyhow,

at present,

though

II, 9, 22, 21,

&c.

THE FOUR STAGES OF
there are

LIFE.

5

men

in India

who
to

call

themselves Sa»«nyasins,

and are
what

called

Sadhus by the people, they are no longer
be.

Manu meant them

They no longer pass
the public and private

through the severe discipline of their studentship, they

need no longer have

fulfilled all

duties of a married householder, nor have remained for

a number of years in the seclusion of their forest dwelling.

They seem
restraints,

free at

any time of

their life to

throw

off all

if

need

be, their very clothing,

and begin to

preach and teach whenever and wherever they can find
people willing to listen to them.

That the

rules laid

down

in

Manu's Law-book had often
learn from the existence of

been broken

in early times,

we

a whole class of people called Vrityas.
the BrShma^a period

As

far

back as

we read of

these Vrityas, outcasts

who had not
but who,
if

practised brahma,4arya, proper studentship \

they would only perform certain sacrifices,
all

might be readmitted to upper castes.

the privileges of the three
originally

That these VrStyas were
is

non-

Aryan people

a mere assertion that has often been

repeated, but never been proved.

The name was
but

technically

applied, during the Bi&hmana. period, to

Aryan people who

had belonged

to

a certain

caste,

who had

forfeited

their caste-privileges

by

their

own

neglect of the duties

pertaining to the

first

stage, brahma-^arya.

There were

actually three classes of them, according as the forfeiture

affected

them

personally or dated from their parents or

grandparents.
'

All the three classes could be readmitted

Jonm. As. Soc. Bombay, XIX, p. 358 (they use silver coins).

6
after

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF
performmg
certain
sacrifices.

RAMAKiS/SHiVA.
In the modern lan-

guage vrStya has come to mean no more than naughty
or unmanageable.
It
is

curious to observe

how

the Buddhist revolt was
if

mainly based on the argument that
spiritual freedom, as

emancipation or

enjoyed in the

third,

and more

par-

ticularly in the fourth stage,
life

was the highest goal of our
for
it till

on

earth,

it

was a mistake to wait
in

the very

end of life.
a pupil,

The Buddhists were

one sense Vratyas who

declined to pass through the long and tedious discipline of

who

considered the performance of the duties of

a householder, including marriage and endless sacrifices,

not only as unprofitable, but as mischievous.

Buddha

himself had declared against the penances prescribed for
the Brdhmanic ascetic as a hindrance rather than as a help
to those

who wished
and
society.

for perfect freedom,

freedom from

all

passions

desires,

and from the many prejudices of
It

Brahmanic
for the

seems almost as

if

the

early

Buddhists, by adopting the

name

of Bhikshu, mendicant,

members of

their order (Sawgha),
all

had wished to
though

show that they were
BrShmanic principles
of tradition, and

Sawznydsins, carrying out the old

to their natural conclusion,

they had renounced at the same time the Vedas, the
all

Laws

Brahmanic

sacrifices as

mere vanity

and vexation of

spirit.

Sa^znyftsins or Saints.
Similar ideas existed already among the Brahman s, and we meet among them, even before the rise of Buddhism,

SAMNYASINS OR SAINTS.
with

7

left their

men who had shaken off all home and family, lived by
from
all

social fetters,

who had

themselves in forests or

in caves, abstained
their

material enjoyment, restricted

food and drink to a startling minimum, and often

underwent tortures which make us creep when we read
of them or see them as represented in pictures and, in

modern
naturally

times, in faithful photographs.

Such men were

surrounded by a halo
little

of

holiness,

and they

received the

they wanted from those

them and who
saints,

profited

by

their teaching.

who visited Some of these

but not many, were scholars, and became teachers
lore.
it,

of ancient
surprised at

Some, however, and we need not be

turned out to be impostors and hypocrites,
profession.

and brought disgrace on the whole

We

must

not forget that formerly the status of a Sa»znyasin pre-

supposed a very serious discipline during the many years
of the student

and the domestic

life.

Such

discipline

might generally be accepted as a warrant
controlled

for

a well-

mind and
Saints.

as security against the propensity to

self-indulgence, not quite
so-called

uncommon even
this

in the lives of

When

security
life

is

removed, and

when anybody

at

any time of

may

proclaim himself

a Sawnyasin, the temptations even of a Saint are very

much

increased.

But that there were

real Sa»znySsins,

and

that there are even
off the fetters of

now men who have completely shaken passion, who have disciplined their body
their

and subdued the imaginations of

mind

to a perfectly

marvellous extent, cannot be doubted.
called Yogins, as having exercised Yoga.

They

are

often

as names expressive of the Godhead. by Svimin Rama511 seq. or best. the concentration of our thoughts on a thing or the idea of a thing. of four kinds —Mantra. Ha^^a- yoga is is concerned with the general health of the body.. Ascetic Exercises or Yoga. a. and. and Ha^a-yoga. trolling the breath so pro- Ra^a-yoga to consists in conIt as control the mind. effort as a technical term. sive of deity. as practised at present. so that we become almost Here again the ideal image of a god. This Yoga. concentration. in one sense. Mantra-yoga all repeating a certain word again and again. however. and though supplying the means only be helpful for philosophy. a variety of Kapila's SS»«khya-philosophy. originally the idea that it meant union with the deity has long been given up. 8 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. As described p. was observed that when fixing our attention suddenly on anything new we hold our breath. and it was supposed theresure to follow fore that concentration of the mind would be the holding back of the breath. Lay consists in Ra^a. the Yoga philosophy ascribed to Pata«^li. are the ducing absorption in God. it knsh«inanda in the Brahmav^din. Within certain limits Yoga seems to be an excellent dis- cipline. we ought all to be Yogins.. means application. or the PrS«4yima. Yoga. particularly a word expres- and concentrating is one's thoughts all on it. Laya-yoga one with it. it that are supposed to has been elaborated into a complete system of philosophy. was soon elaborated into an artificial system. and supposed to produce concentration by certain portions of . consists.

perceive a divine fragrance. and though impostors among the Indian Yogins. and similar contrivances. any support. Walter. and the achievements of modern Yogins I confess also are often very startling. by fixing the eyes on one point. That what is called a state of Samadhi. difficult to No doubt it is believe all the things which the ancient Yogins are credited with. All this is fully described in the Yoga-S(itras. 1893. is great for people. though to am in bound to say that the evidence that has is come me support of the last achievement most startling'. a work that gives one the impression of being perfectly honest. difficult to believe I find it equally them or not for to believe them. that they hear voices from the sky. I believe. admitted by medical and certainly authorities. that they no pain. psychiatric exist is. can be produced by the very means which are employed by the Yogins in India. or a trance. that they feel Yogins go without food can sit unmoved for any length of time. or that the ideal God appears before them. we should be careful not to treat all these Indian Saints as mere impostors. little I must claim I the privilege of Thomas a longer. but if people's thoughts. ' no doubt. We are told by eye-witnesses and trustworthy witnesses that these weeks and months. 9 the body. HaMayogapradlpikd. and lastly that they have been seen to sit in the air without St. The temptation.ASCETIC EXERCISES OR YOGA. who are believed See also H. . the same authorities tell us that Yogins can see the forms of gods and goddesses moving in the sky. particularly the tip of the nose. that they can mesmerise with their eyes and read All this I can beheve.

There are many who know absolutely nothing either of the history or of the doctrines of Christianity. or are by deep religious feelings. in And if they have been brought up filled a philosophical atmosphere. but without an real faith or love.lO to THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKS/SHiVA. without even having had an idea of what Christ history of really taught or He was meant for in the mankind. or to enter even who are able on subtle discussions of the great problems of philosophy and answer any questions addressed to them. almost in- credible to us. Now So the religion taught by the disciples of 'BAmakrishna. where his disciples have been actively engaged in preaching to his doctrines. comes to these hungry souls without any outward authority. not only to pretend. to pretend to be be what they are beh'eved to be. They repeat what they have learnt. religion of large But we have only to remember what the numbers of people what consists in who call themselves Christians. Such a man was Ramak«sh«a. among Christian This may seem very strange. nay. nay. they have simply learnt their catechism by heart. in the end. even his gospel and winning converts audiences. or if they do. they would very naturally become what the MahSt- mans are described to be —men who can pour out their souls in perfervid eloquence and high-flown poetry. it atom of Yet every human heart has its religious yearnings. who has lately obtained considerable celebrity both in India and America. has a hunger for religion which sooner or later wants to be satisfied. B&maknsh/za. but really to believe what others believe of them. far from being forced on . inspired.

it was explained as end of the Veda. though there may be some exaggeration are stated to have in the number of those who call become consome in verted to the religion of R§. and finally developed in the commentaries ' This is the explanation given of the name of Vedanta. .e. the highest object of the Veda. there can be no doubt that a religion which can achieve such successes in our time. while it calls itself with perfect truth viz. Svitranta. it of their own free choice.makrishna. and . the end or highest object of the Veda. the goal. it is heathen and despised of their is religion. &c.maknsh«a himself never claimed of a to be the founder new religion. i. A chosen religion is always stronger than an inherited religion. lastly as the end. But it is probably an after-thooght. such as SiddhSnta. while those who never knew what real religion meant are enthusiastic in proclaiming any truths which they seem to have discovered for themselves and to which their heart has yielded a free assent. and was systematised later on in the Sfitras of Badarayawa. and hence we find that converts from one religion to another are generally so zealous for their new faith. deserves our careful attention '. which was founded on the Veda.RX.. it was probably meant at first for no more than the subject-matter of the Veda then. If they listen to own free will and if they believe in any part of it. the Vedanta. them. He simply preached the old religion of particularly India. as it stands at the end of Brahma»as and Aranyakas. Hence. Like other compounds in anta. the oldest religion and philosophy of the world..MAKRISHNA. more on the Upanishads. . and though who now reality themselves converts to the Vedanta first may have made but the step towards real Christianity. it is I I to them it at first a at all. Ra.

so as social reforms were concerned. Pawiri Baba of Ghazipur. who was a great reformer with a strong leaning towards Christianity. Dayananda thirdly. But he mentions four among deserved that title : his contemporaries who first. of Dayinanda we have far accounts. and in whose company they have sought the sanctifying influences of character and example.' he continues. commonly called the ' Faramahamsa of Dakshi«esvar. the Sarasvatt. and others. Sarasvatt. four ascetic saints These. raon. of the first. He also was willing to surrender his belief in the divine revelation of the Br£ihma»as. and lastly. and serve with profound respect and humility. There were several leading Vedanta preachers in India during the last years. He initiated a great reform of BrSh- manism. secondly.12 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF Even RAMAK/irSHiVA. because he never passed through the proper discipline and did not live the life of a SawnySsin. . every ascetic saint whom Providence may bring to us. Sikh Nagaji of Doomare the our Ramak«'sh«a.' The impure become pure in the company of Bay&nanda Of very the full life Sarasvatt. Ramak«sh«a fifty by no means claimed to stand alone. as he did. well known in England and America. Sadhus. and seems to have been a liberal-minded man.' he adds. ' whom our friends have from time to time duly honoured. Keshub Chunder Sen. and in living the life of a recluse. of Samkara. was not counted as one of them. sometimes called Paramaha»zsas. for a time unfortunately connected with Madame Blavatsky. in preaching that religion. ' May we respect.

the Sa/wnySsin would have nothing more to say to her. form still a very important and growing sect in India. some people said. that keeps aloof from all European influences. his became greater and greater.dayAnanda sarasvatI. him by Madame Blavatsky. Bengali or Sanskrit other at hence they did not understand each while later on. she did not know they be. but his followers. under the He name of Arya- Samdj. But this and when he perceived what her real objects were. which show great familiarity with Sanskrit and very wide reading. know English. till at last his op- ponents. from the time that he fell into the net spread for lasted for a short time only. though judgement. though he retained it 13 in full strength with regard to the Vedic hymns. He first. His name became better known in Europe also. He condemned idolatry and even polytheism. He published large commentaries on the Vedas. suspected of having poisoned their dangerous died suddenly. She was not quite the Maitreyi he had expected. the orthodox and unchanging Brahmans. food. Fawd. were rival. as well. did not . is The second Saint was Pawiri Baba known of him. but his recent death of Ghazipur. Little has created a painful . ported the at the same time an utter want of critical He sanctioned the remarriage of widows. age of boys and and altogether showed himself to caste. free from many prejudices as and all the rest.ri Bd^ba. supin favour of raising the marriageable movement girls. understood each other but too However that may he certainly seems influence to have been a powerful disputant.

the old man was burnt to ashes. to have deliberately last thrown himself into sacrifice. to have sprinkled himself fire over with incense. then to have set to the four corners of his lonely house. the fire. e. there.14 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF all RAMAK/JZSHiVA. It is difficult to get an exact account of anything that Indian Social Reformer. He never allowed the and no one ever saw him except his Once every week or ten days. The venerable man. 1898. He had lived for about thirty and was venerated as a Saint by the whole native community. 1898. however. thus performing Before anybody could rescue him. the present age. he sensation over India. had told him that he could not any longer bear the misery which the Kali-yuga. own dwelling- house. he little sus- pected what his brothers meant. and what remained of him was consigned with due ceremony to the sacred waters of the Ganges. June. seems to have covered his whole body with all clarified butter. always ' All this happened only a few months ago. i. which consisted of one room. a small temple. he would come up to the gate and converse for a few moments from within with any one who happened to be younger brother. years at Ghazipur. The last nine years. June 19. it and when the his flames had taken hold of on all sides. however. gate to be opened. Interpreter. Inside there was a small flower-garden. a well. living by walls himself in a compound surrounded by high and his and protected by a formidable gate. had brought upon India. had almost entirely withdrawn from the world '. after taking his usual bath and performing his devotions. His younger brother always remained within But though his saintly brother calling- distance. .

His teaching was probably much the same as that of RSmakr«sh«a. and honours before they sincerity of quite believe in the truth and the any teachers tortures and reformers. called is Paramaha^zsa. and for the crowd at large even the power of working is miracles by no means out of fashion yet as a test of being an inspired sage. Rammohun Roy and Keshub Chunder Sen on They world and its evidently want to see a complete surrender of the pleasures. Scholars who like to cavil and raise a smile . friends. and mere reformers such as the other. and sufficient authority for the fact Keshub Chunder Sen as a he well deserved a place by the side of such men Sarasvatt Dayinanda and and R&makrishna. The people of India evidently distinguish clearly between these professed ascetics saints on one side. is explained as who lives on air. riches. penances is Having undergone severe and likewise an essential condition of Sainthood. happens in India. sometimes a contraction of Pavanahari. while others consider proper ending to his saintly sacrifice as the life. a The best-known name by which some of these sages are name that hardly lends itself to translation in English. I 5 The conflagration of the house in which the old Saint had lived for many years cannot be doubted. as a Sage and a Saint seems that to have is been generally recognised. nor the discovery of his burnt body.PAWARI BABA. however. he spelt Pahtri. but I have not been able to get a more it. accurate account of His position. His name Pawari. ascribe the his voluntary to an accident. unwillihg to fire But some of his admit his self-immolation..

1 6 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF ^MAKRISHNA. though he was a married man and travelled much and moved in the world. Bebendran&th Tagore. study. not the same bird. He has reached considered a very high age in India. the Prime Minister of Bhavnagar. The same apphes to Debendranath Tagore. was the head of a wealthy and Though he he spent in influential family. is Besides. deserve a place very near to the Paramahawsas in our estimation. //t'te But though these Paramaha»?sas form an by themselves. though it is the same word as goose. the friend and constant patron of Keshub Chunder Sen. we know how many men there have been and are even now in India who. The Keshub Chunder Sen also. most of his life in retirement from the world. far more important is part in the history of the Brahma-Samij than account of a visit commonly supposed. in his the strict rules life own case. As the friend Keshub Chunder he has acted a Sen. is and contemplation. tried hard to revive. as much as that of any Paramaha»?sa. though for a time separated from him. of was a life of extreme self-denial. of prescribed for the ancient SawnySsins. translate it literally it at every by Great Goose. meditation. and we and protector of are glad to hear that he has written an autobiography to be published after his death. We life know how Udayashankar. The following lately paid to him by some members of life the Brahma-Samdj will give us an idea of the of this . but that ancient title would be more faithful to render by High-soaring Eagle. hawsa. by the asceticism and saintliness of their lives. custom or tradition of the Hindus. now what eighty-two.

DEBENDRANATH man. I sit by myself and enjoy this company.. less and hear much fewer words. my Yoga with the internal world is rapidly increasing. But that no loss to As my dealings with the external world are decreasing." As he spoke these words ' his countenance glowed with emotion. his letters. The Maharshi was came here external world has to speak. I I have got the essence of these me now. that from the True and the we go to the Infinite person. No effort on my part is now required for communion. I might have talked much c . but which are hardly for publication. and is am enjoying the sweetness for So there now no. things within thereof. story. He " Since you three months ago. fit I 7 am in possession of some of which are very instructive. if On being asked he remembered the the verses different occasions on which he selected from the Ved^ntic " I cannot texts to form the liturgy of the Brihma-Samdj (published : by him many years call ago). my communication with the I see things is been much diminished. Some friends who visited him lately give the following account of their interview with the old Saint. that then we find in the Infinite infinite splendours and behold his infinite mercy and other attributes. Intelligent I fully agree with you. to the spacious verandah on the where the venerable old man was seated on We bowed down the first reverentially and took our said : seats. 'We were conducted second a chair. much me. more need and me to go to the texts. the Saint replied back to my mind after such a length of time the process through which these texts were brought together from different Upanishads. I TAGORE.

a but could find none. In all haste I my acquaintance. Every object seemed to I fulfil and press me came back. I then left Calcutta in despair and fall After a two years' stay there. had you before this. repaired to the hills.. who would have my feelings and join hands with me. so able to talk of I be with you. I me to go to Calcutta and resume this divine my was so much engrossed with voice that nothing would give me rest. man after my own heart. I saw at once that he was exactly the . the Only True God. Brahmananda (Keshub Chunder Sen) made to reverberate the Divine injunction the Lord's will.1 8 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ7SHiVA. lived in and "I am living the life of a recluse. I have now very to connect me with the world. I then badly wanted a companion. Now I have become little quite useless to the world. long ago. the Maharshi continued. the of the river Sutlej suggested to I my mind a sacred lesson. Long. but do not know of what use will be." life When we been in life replied that we did not consider his to have vain. come a short time with you on these subjects. while I was studying the Upanishads. Now my mind much is mostly occupied with things I shall not which the eyes see not nor the ears hear. a great light dawned upon my soul and I felt that India would one day worship Brahman. and as came back. The energy and earnest- me now is roused only by seeing you. I have no energy ness you see in left. heard a voice urging holy work. . I tried almost all the men of light and leading of the time. I have written an account my life as I have been moved by the it Spirit of God.. as he had given the world an example of a with God.

is spirituality. and particularly to Bengal — our weak. have published my work about salvation. While our minister was with us in the we did not realise our nearness unto you so much. the next world and I a small volume. " that is very true. As the mother loves her decrepit child more tenderly.9 DEBENDRANATH TAGORE. Samij unless will it not be able to attain to that feature of accepts you. up to We passed the greater portion of the nights in conversation about deep spiritual matters." The Maharshi replied " God has called you to preach the Brahma Dharma to this poor countryof India. even two in the morning. C 2 . BrahmSnanda even told me when he would be gone." " Yes. but has not yet accepted you. those whom he would leave behind would express and promote my cause.hmaflesh. and helpless country. I find his that words are going to be fulfilled now. the Br3. The present deplorable state of its the BrS. so God For has shown this greater love to these His poor ones. right I I man whom I wanted. much comforted and helped'. why was led by the Spirit to come back My joy knew no bounds. make an offering of it to you. this special grace are peculiarly thankful to God.' ' Unity and the Minister. 1896. we indigent.hma-SamSj owing to : non-acceptance of you. in Paraloka and Mukti. Jnly 12. I and has made you particularly for your work. As you represent Yoga or direct vision of God. Our impression is that the Brahma-Samij has accepted RSja Rammohun Roy." we replied. I could then discern to Calcutta. God last has shown special fit favour to you.'' After these words the pilgrims departed.

and but seldom seen or even suspected by those who tell us so much about car the palaces. of one Rai ShaligrSm Saheb Bahadur. May.Western Provinces. and they represent a power which ought not to be entirely neglected by the rulers of weak. We have but to open the Indian papers to meet with notices of men who as have led the same saintly and God- devoted life Debendranath Tagore. 1898. together with his fellow-actors who sup- ported and often guided him in his unselfish and devoted endeavours. where he rose to be Postmaster-General of the North. the might of Juggernath. indigent. who are venerated as Saints in their own own country. but who nevertheless It is quite possible that have not reached the rank of a Paramahawsa in the eyes of the people of India.. . was worth preserving and interest the true friends of India. helpless Bengal. life has spent a very active and useful as an oiEcial in the Post Office. the RSjahs and Maharajahs. some of them would be critics. Still disposed of as fools or fanatics by European they hold their own ' place in their country. of the mutiny in 1857 It seems that the horrors made a deep impression on his mind. We read in the Prabuddha Bhirata. p. Saheb Bahadur.20 I THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJJ/SH^A. the Towers of Silence. or the Caves of EUora.' Bai Shaligrd^m Saheb Bahadur. thought that this glimpse at what passes in India is within doors. One more case and I have done with my imperfect sketch of the stage on which RdmakWshwa appears before us to act his part. 132 seq. who is now about seventy years of age.

No wonder from this therefore that after wrtnessing the its horrors of the mutiny and suppression. the Post Office At last one of his colleagues at recommended his elder brother as a spiritual For two years he attended his his teaching with that of the guide who could be trusted. From his very youth. and he said to have devoted all much time from his youth onward through official life to the years of his the study of the Sacred Scriptures. he should have to get happiness wished to flee den of misery and it unalloyed and permanent where alone could be found. and feed him with own hands. lectures. and . writings. and children butchered before his eyes. and children. to his cook his meals. his mind had been is filled with religious and philosophical questions. which he fetched salary also from a place two miles distant. compared During Upanishads and other holy or Chela.RAI SHALIGRAM SAHEB BAHADUR. Every morning he could be seen carrying a pitcher of pure water on his head for the Guru to bathe in. and spent the All his home affairs were superintended by his Guru. women. who used for the support of rest in charity. however. the rich reduced to poverty. so that the idea of the world's impermanent and transient nature took complete possession of him and estranged him from all that had formerly enlisted his interest and occupied his energies. but they could not help him. His monthly it was handed over to the his pupils. He went to consult several Sa^^znyisins and Yogins. He used to grind the flour for him. 21 He saw thousands of men. the poor raised to unexpected and undeserved wealth. and then became his devoted pupil else his stay at Agra he allowed no one to serve his master. wife Saint.

no way left Accordingly he Agra. but the Saint would not allow When he. at large. and did not approve of one of their caste cooking the Saint's food and eating from his dishes.22 this THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAUAKRISBNA. with great success. After member of another caste. and for as it many years held his new post at Allahabad. saying that the discharge of his official duties interfere with his spiritual progress. it no one could even look lamp burning on and thus the upper story of his house without being influenced to renounce the world. When last heard of the old man was his house besieged every . having introduced many reforms and useful changes in the Postal Department. was appointed Postmaster-General of the Northfell West he on his knees before the Saint and begged his permission to retire and enter soul and body would in into the true spiritual life. is said. to become useless to the community still alive. at the Nay. but the Saint once more refused. Often those who came to listen to him were so inspired by his teaching that they renounced the world and began to lead the life of Sawznyisins. because the Saint was a the Khetris. so that it became was said a general belief that whoever went to Rai Shaligrim would forsake his family that and become an ascetic. and im- parted spiritual instruction to those his who came to seek for help. some time the from the postal service. himself free and justified in leaving He then became a Guru himself. to forsake his relations. It was not till the death of his felt Guru in 1897 that the Postmaster-General the service. that of pupil wished to retire it. was done in spite of the opposition of his castemen who were Kayasthas.

nor should I venture to say that they .makn'shna. though of course in different surroundings and ever under different conditions. cases mentioned here may suffice to show that 'R&. but he himself regards such things as unbecoming.RAMAKii/SHiVA. Assistant-Surgeon to the Viceroy. and in many cases injurious. that the late Doctor Makund Lai. but their performances would probably be considered as fabulous. He more holds meetings day and night for the purpose of im- parting religious instruction. The people are convinced and below his dignity. good and made between Brihman and ^lidra. both male and female. so that he has hardly than two hours left for sleep. These cases are as well authenis ticated as anything that likely to be. we turned our eyes to the ancient literawe should see Sa»«nySsins in large numbers. who flock there five from different parts of the country. rich bad. and however much the old SawnySsins in India who system of the Four Stages as described by still Manu may have changed. and no distinction is and that poor. was in the habit of sending to him patients who had made themselves senseless by excessive practice of Prd/zSyama. was by no means a social solitary instance. The few that. there are of the ancient live the life Sa^znySsins. comes to us from India If ture of that country. restraint of the breath. Everybody is welcome. 23 day by large numbers of persons. It is said he can work miracles. and that by a mere look he brought them back to their senses. and taught them that this practice was of little good.

before all own religion. We possess indeed full but they are often so it strangely exaggerated. we shall feel less by and his doctrines. recognised by Keshub Chunder Sen as pre-eminent surprised among his life his contemporaries. what we mean by well authenticated. If I give ' much as possible unaltered. but derived so little benefit from them that things he denounced the whole system. If now we turn our attention again to the fourth of the Paramahai^sas. preferring in all what he called the via media. that reduced themselves by ascetic exercises to mere skeletons ^ or became raving madif men ings can hardly be doubted. . against such we may judge by the warn- excesses which appear at a very early time in the ancient literature of the country. how- ever. I applied therefore to one of his most eminent pupils. not only as useless but as mischievous. asking him for me what he could tell of his venerable teacher. that even this it account as is not quite free from traditional elements. however. went through the tortures of Brdh- manic ascesis.sins The fact. who. that seemed almost hopeless to form a correct and true idea of his earthly career and his character. See > remarkable instance in Mrs. to write down own knowledge of his from him a full descrip- It will be easily seen. accounts of his life. Sa»2nyS.24 are THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF some of these RAMAK/S/SHiVA. I have a reason for it. nay so contradictory. and I received tion of his Master's life. Flora Annie Steel's 'In the Pennanent Way. instance his is A well-known he founded that of Buddha himself. but accept him as one of a class which has always existed in India. Vivekinanda. as then practised.' 1898.

by the give and take of dialogue. both ancient and modern. a kind of Durchsprechen.a subject.THE DIALOGIC PROCESS. Even Hegel's itself. the movement I should of the idea by that leads irresistibly from positive to its negative and to conciliation. We also. the autobiographies and remin- . it will give us an insight into the way in which a new grows. of the greatest importance in history. conversation. but acts under much more special Process in reporters. or rather a new sect. has prefer to call origin in what by a wider name the Dialogic Process. It is in reality what is called in German the threshing out of<. logical Process. or what the Greeks called a speaking forward and backward. in the description of the facts as they really is We can watch here what is really a kind of Dialectic Process which at work in all history. or dialogue. religion. both ancient and modern. or what is called oral and must produce happened. It reaches the writer must be distinguished from the Mythowhich forms indeed a part of rules. There is hardly a single fact in history which can escape it being modified by this process before of history. it. Dialectic Process. The Dialogic Process. can watch the Dialogic Modern History though we have here and newspapers. Such as it 25 is. This Dialectic Process all as applied to the facts of history comprehends the changes which are inevitably produced by the mere communication and interchange of ideas. springs up and It will place before our eyes the transformation which mere tradition will repetition. by the turning of thoughts from one side to the other.

beyond what he thought and spoke in his own mind. made of it. and when very often two or three generations had passed away before the idea of recording certain facts and certain sayings occurred to a chronicler or a historiographer. so It is extraordinary that many historians should have completely neglected this Dialogic Process through which ever)^hing must pass before it reaches even the first recorder. whole face of Europe. beyond what he said to my friend Abeken. how many contradictions explained. It was meant to tell the world of the supposed insult which Benedetti had offered to the King That telegram marks one of the most decisive history. Bismarck's What do we know even after own confessions. if historians would only learn one lesson. forgetting that it could never have been absent. Shall we ever know the ipsissima . nay perfectly natural this how intel- many miracles would become and ligible. We can only guess what it must have been in times when neither shorthand nor printing existed. when writing and reading were the privilege of a small class. iscences of great statesmen which would this Dialogic infection seem to render impossible or harmless. Let us take so recent an event as the telegram sent from Ems. whether as justifying or condemning the war that sprang out of it. events in I am writing. beyond what the people in Germany and in France thought of it.26 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKi?/SHiVA. that we do not and cannot know of any historical event that has not previously passed through this Dialogic Process. How many difficulties would have been solved. said of it. who wrote it out and sent it off. where of Prussia. it modern has really helped to change the of it.

that of the old King in his conversation with Benedetti and in his com- munications with his ministers. his tone of voice. and yet they had passed through one Dialogic Process only. or less violent according to circumstances entirely absent. How can we ever hope to escape from the transforming power of oral tradition ? The changes wrought by I believe. that power are of course more . what was intended by the words used by Benedetti. they never are. by the Emperor. and every reader of French Memoirs this knows by time the real word which that historical is said to have been uttered at moment. has told us what he meant when he had the cooked telegram published to all Does the historian know then Here in what really happened. the tone of voice in when parts of Europe the echo all this own words and thoughts. And nowhere and of are they more In evident than in the accounts which have reached us of the founding of new religions their founders. Benedetti himself has told us what what the Emperor replied . and by Bismarck ? Ems the very spot is shown where the words were spoken. Bismarck himself the world. La guarde meurt. though opinions vary even on We possess now the version given by the French diplomatist which different is totally from that given by Bismarck. the consternation or chuckle the iron chancellor heard from of his all 27 verba of Benedetti. every reader of modern history is acquainted with the words put into the mouth of the French officer at Waterloo. And yet happened he but yesterday. Again. this point.THE DIALOGIC PROCESS. . actually said. the Emperor's reply. mats ne se rend pas .

such as they were in all his time. It will remove endless difficulties by which honesties in which we are ensnared. high above angels and above all gods (devas). scholars well known some excellent have actually denied that there ever was such life a person as the young prince of KapilavSstu. is the highest form of being in the world. showing the estimation which the gods were held by which Buddha and their followers. Atideva. whatever religion they may profess. must suffer the consequences of this Dialogic Process. according to him. fuller accounts than of let it And be rememis bered that no revealed or miraculous character for claimed Buddha's biographies. potentially. being satisfied with having been a man on earth. and all is. that the case of Buddhism. is one of the names in assigned to Buddha. This inevitable influence of the Dialogic Process history cannot in be recognised too soon. many a face disguised by a misplaced apotheosis his truly will look upon us again with All honest hearts. If we after only once understand that one day. loving. endless diswe have ensnared ourselves. even a communication given from heaven. of whose and doings and sayings we possess the founders of any other religion. even in reality.28 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF it is rAmAK/J/SHA^A. human. one week. and divine eyes. many a story distorted by the childish love of the miraculous will regain its true moral character. which. nay that Buddha himself rejected exceptional any such claims for himself and for his apostles. many a self-made difficulty will vanish. above in gods. one year any communication. must be infected by the breath of human thought and of human weakness. will feel relieved and .

that stories absurd to European of miraculous events in childhood. with every wish to be truthful. would of what they were inis us poor unbelievers. he never would simply be thrown away on however well authenticated.. religion clearly to have been. first on the recipient that is. particularly where can be traced back It is for this to pure and perfectly natural sources. its may be of some interest to ourit selves both for own sake and for the light which throws on the conditions under which every up and to religion has to grow be recorded. I had made as clear as possible to VivekSnanda that Master. very reason.THE DIALOGIC PROCESS. much exposed its to the frailties inherent in Whatever the origin of a religion human may be supposed depends nature. VivekSnanda himself a man who knows . would sound students. and because this process can in be so seldom watched. can tell us of his master. on human reacts and is to study that human it nature as it on one of the most useful lessons of Comparative Theology. that even this slight sketch of what a disciple of R&makrt'shna. but can generally be traced its later results only. as possessed in real life. grateful if they 29 dialectic or it once thoroughly understand the dialogic working of oral tradition. produce the very opposite effect tended for. however the accounts hitherto published edifying they perfectly of his might _ be to his followers. we know. nothing so nature. growth from the very soil. and that descriptions of miracles per- formed by the Saint. of apparitions of goddesses (devi) communicating to the Sa»znyisin a knowledge of languages and literatures which. Nothing is so human as religion.

Ka- mars. and thirty-two miles south of Burdwan. 19. various Indian papers immediately after . England and America I and perfectly understood what meant. was born in the village of KamSrpukar. in the Zillah Hugli. His life on earth began on the 20th of February. 1886. husbandmen was the and oilmen (Telis).. situated about four miles to the west of the Jah3. as far as I could. mostly blacksmiths. we are told.30 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF HAMAKRISliNA.nSbad subdivision. and has not been continued.m. life consulted another account of the of Ramalw/sh«a published in the late numbers of the BrahmavS. Yet even his unvarnished description of his Master discloses here and there the clear traces of what I call the Dialogic Process. well. as published his death.din. and ended the i6th of August. TLdxaSLkriahn&'B Life. 1833. and hence called Kamarpukar. I a. it And am really glad that does so. vartas).^ The village in which he was born was inhabited chiefly by people of the lower castes. with of carpenters. and the irrepressible miraculising I tendencies of devoted disciples. 'BAvaakrtshna. But I am sorry to say that this account stops with No. and not what he or actually was. Karmakars. or in familiar abbreviation. His father head RSma- ' Even dates are inaccnrate in the biographical notices of in kfishna. if only it helps to teach us that no historian can ever pretend to do more than to show us what a or a fact seemed to be to him or to the authorities it man whom he has I to follow. have also. some sprinkling (Kai- cowherds (Gowalas).

of anybody. on account of a prophetic dream of to Gya. to his child The it name given was GadSdhara. a man and pure in mind. have been otherwise than that his mother simplicity rich Chandrama«i Devi.1 RAMAKiJ/SHWA of the S LIFE. while on a pilgrimage telling him that he. to Vish«u appeared. a name holds the club. The father proved his independence while still living at . particularly what Vak-siddhi. told. was a great lover of God. It could hardly also. stood up whenever they saw him coming. would always come to pass. We are told that Mathura Ndth. straightforward what is rumour but of which another Rumour says and name for the Dialogic he possessed supercalled is — Process we spoke —that natural powers. and saluted him. the deity. only Brahmanic very poor. which means that everything he good or bad. which means one who was given him. we are told. and of Vish«u. came to her once and pressed her to accept a present of a few thousand rupees. but to his astonishment she declined the offer. He who was highly reverenced by all the people of his village. figure.. in 3 the village. was later in life that he began to be called BAmakrishna. nay who would never talk frivolity in his presence. that his father. was a pattern of and and kindness. family settled Though from the original he would rather starve than stray strictest path of Brdhmanical orthodoxy. We are told. power of speech. his father. whose name was Khudiram ChattopSdhyiya. and we could hardly have expected anything else. his whom. It would be born as son. handsome of independent. the devoted disciple of her son.

he There. and the able to find any good leaves On finding these. miles from the place where he half the way. he would go of Raghuvira to finish himself. He had a little plot of land outside the village. left his village. he refused. through the help of some to managed make a poor hving. and in the sowing time. he After more than came across a Bel- beautifully covered with new-grown to a ^iva. oif their old leaves. and returned daughter. and yet he religious was always profusely generous to the poor and hospitable to everybody.32 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAK/JJSHiVA. own ancestral property. he at once climbed up the tree. There to is a story that 'R&makrishna. a village two or three miles east of Dere. without going to see his He was a great lover of Rima. and migrated KSmarpur. true friends. Dere. on his village The Zemindar of the side. home to worship ^iva. performing every kind of worship. fourteen travelling tree. The Bel-trees were casting man had not recently been to offer to 5iva. and his tutelary deity was the pure and divine Srt RSma^andra. wanted him to appear as a witness on his threatening him with confiscation of his property if and ex- pulsion from his village. put a few grains of rice in the name on the ground first. some twelve or lived. and they use It them in worshipping the god was spring-time. These leaves are very sacred Hindu. to Khudiram refused. after getting a man to plough the field. green leaves. and then order the labourers . gathered as many leaves as he could carry. and trying to realise religion to its fullest extent.'s father was going his daughter pay a visit to one day. living chiefly in the company of men.

for the morrow. the divine Rama. It is said that that little plot 33 of land produced enough. and enact trees. the doings of Sri Krishna. in the One the broken stone images of in later days. and never cared told. about four miles to the north of Calcutta. and his judgement was held as final by the old people of the village. After hearing a religious drama. and the 5rimad Bhagavata. The young after hearing child used to repeat the whole of the religious operas and dramas. it in the fields. the Mahabhirata. to maintain the whole of the He ever depended upon his Raghuvlra. e. the acting.. under the Sometimes he would JDuild an image of the god and worship it with his companions. in At the age of six he was well versed the PurS«as. . we are he were of had kin. Krishfia. likewise in the Ram^a^za.RAMAKRZSHiVA S LIFE. them once. even from his childhood. or the hero of the race of Raghu. the music. is still &{ which he repaired to be seen temple of Dakshi«ex- vara of Rani RSsmoni. teach them the different parts. a class of men who preach and read these Purawas for the enlightenment of all over India. by hearing them from the the uneducated masses Ka/. lived. and everything.4aks. He of could draw and make images of gods himself. he would gather his playmates. something in him which attracted everybody and made people love him. He was a very good judge of the merits and defects of the statues or images of gods or goddesses.Siva. the work. He had a very good musical voice and a taste for music. as long as he family. g. as if their own kith and even at the first appearance. (His knowledge of D . His son R&makn'shnu.

and the Bhigavata must have been in Bengali. fell and produced such thoughts a trance. and very often a whole host of ascetics and religious in men would come and village. the Mahibhslrata.) who was his friend. Ramkumar Chattopa- . and present were astonished. he was walking in the fields one day. explanation. all It is the custom in India to gather the learned pandits or professors of the neighbourhood at a funeral ceremony. a question arose about some intricate points of theology. In one of these gatherings in the house of the Liha family. built by the Ltha family. though it would easily lend itself to further poetical expansion. PurS«as. of white cranes moving along The he contrast of colours was so very beautiful and dazzling to his imagination. a flight The sky was very clear and blue. tnfantiae. and hear their tales of travel.) He was the youngest child of a family of three sons and two daughters.34 the THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR7SHJVA. in him. that down in (This would admit of a very natural pathological and may therefore be perfectly true. knew a word The pilgrim road to Puri passes through the outskirts of the village where he lived. The boy them and decided it quickly with his all simple language. talk to them on mark their habits. take shelter the Dharmasili or pilgrim-house. according to Mozoomdarj of Sanskrit. the Zemindar of the Ramakr/sh«a used religious subjects. and the professors could not Ramakr/sh»a went to come to a conclusion.) (This might be taken from any Evangelium Before he reached his teens. and he saw it. to go there very often. the Riiniya«a. His eldest brother. as he never.

none of the higher castes to the would come temple and take food there if she drew the deeds in her krtshna. is stands on the side of the Ganges. The temple five It of the goddess Kali at Dakshi«exvara. after name and He told his brother plainly he would never care for that kind of learning. never dream of practising these precepts in their own run after lust and gold. she being of a lower caste. or spiritual director of Rani Rasmoni. He yearned to learn something which would raise him above Himself. and would not take any cooked food in D 2 .RAMAICR/SHiVA S LIFE.d. The eldest brother of SiA Rima opened was appointed as priest to the temple. about miles to the north of Calcutta. at that time that he protested vehemently against his brother's taking service under a 5fldra woman. the sole aim of which was to gain a few pieces of silver. on Brahman and MayS. was established in 1853 a. was taken to this what was school. or a few maunds of rice and vegetables. own name. The temple deeds were drawn in the name of for the Guru. and give him as a recompense God From that time he kept aloof from the school. dhyaya. they would but fame. all these. The two RSma- brothers came on the day when the temple was first and established. on soul is how lives. but his disgust to find that after all their high talk on the being and non-being. At the age of sixteen father with Ramak«sh«a. was a very learned professor of the old school. having been invested by his own the sacred Brihmanic thread. 35 He had his own school at Calcutta. and one of the finest temples in India. or one of the lowest caste. liberated by the realisation of Atman. but such were the caste prejudices of 'krishna.

however. After the regular forms of there for hours and hours. because So. because he could not see his mother as perfectly as People became divided in their opinions regarding him. Sincere as he always was. He consented at and became a recognised worshipper of the goddess Kdh. amidst all was forbidden in the 5istras. and some took him to be a great lover of God. take charge of the duties. nor did he ever do anything which he did not thoroughly believe. and would not be comforted. the rejoicings of the day. the holiest place according to the Hindus. return again. singing to his hymns and mother. He now it began to look upon the image of the goddess Kali as his mother and the mother of the universe. Sometimes he would weep he wished. he could do nothing from mercenary motives. At night he went to the grocer's close by. that he' should be allowed to cook which is his own meals by the side of the Ganges. he lost all consciousness of the outward world. till talking and praying to her as a child for hours. his brother A few months afterwards became incapable of conand requested Rama- ducting the services through krishfia. and returned his brother to Calcutta.36 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAi/iAKRISHNA. and all this . it the temple precincts. illness. took a pice-worth of fried paddy. But after a week his love for at his entreaty made him live there. to last. He sit believed his to be living and breathing and taking food out of worship he would hand. and he consented to on condition. Some held the young priest to be mad. he was the only man who kept his fast. in which some fifteen to twenty thousand people were sumptuously entertained.

religious.— HAUAKRISHNA S LIFE. husbands to lust their in becoming sensuality. and they went and found the He used to hold that some women were born with The former would all the qualities of a Devt. or Samidhi. at E. placed them on her feet and addressed her as mother. 37 His outward madness as the manifestation of that mother and brothers. and he would prove to them. and some with the opposite qualities help their the Asurt. and taking some flowers. the wife of a gentlestill man.Srimatt Saroda Devi or Sara- damani Devi by name. and had never seen him hands lifted as in before. came to see him once at Dakshi^exvara afterwards. That trance did not . He ' ordered them to burn some incense before her. A woman. and would never lead them distinguish and and he could them by years mere appearance. or the demoniacal. . a perfect stranger to him. love. many She was of a noble family. It is said when his mother and brothers were looking after a suitable bride for him.lmak/-«sh«a told his disciples once that she had the it qualities of a Devi in her. fell into a deep trance with her the act of blessing. who was then five years of age. and mother of five or six children. he himself told them that the daughter of such and such a man was destined to be joined to him in marriage. and that she Was endowed with all the qualities of a goddess or Devi. thinking that his imagination would his calm down when he had a young wife and a family of own to look after. bride. took him to his native village and married him to the daughter of RIma Chandra Mukhopadhyaya.' And the lady who never knew anything before of meditation. yet looked very young and beautiful.

melted into one flood of and he appealed to the goddess to have mercy on him and reveal herself to him. He began. Crowds assembled round him and tried to console him. ' Mother. but instead of toning down. Of men he used crowds of select to tell the same. instances of the This is one of many same kind (evidently cases of hypnosis). would attain to perfection on After his marriage he returned to Calcutta and took upon himself the charges of the temple again. said. oh my . when the blowing of the conch-shells proclaimed the death of another day. then she drove back home. tears. and when she opened her eyes they if were quite red. Her attendants had to support her while she got into a carriage. leave her for and he got frightened at the thought that her husband would accuse him of some black magic. who had enjoyed the highest pleasures the world can give. He used to say. when men and boys came life. he would realise and point out some whoj he and of the little would religion in this rest he would say that they must enjoy life a longer before they would have a sincere desire for religion. His whole soul. as it were. therefore. his fervour and devotion increased a thousandfold. No mother ever shed such burning tears over the death-bed of her only child. him to learn. and he gave vent to his sorrow. some hours. to In his later days. saying. ' That man who had been an emperor had seen the in this life in his former birth. and she looked as she were quite drunk. and who vanities of earth.' them all. to pray to his mother Kail (the goddess) to bring her back to her senses. By-and-by she came to herself.38 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA.

took him to the best physicians in Calcutta to get him cured of his madness. man could love his God or Goddess Mother with as much children ? nS. and thinking of putting an end to himself. as he could not bear his loneliness any longer. For instance. another day has gone. devoted as they were to to imagine that a lust gold. believe it Sometimes he doubted whether these visions were really true. I could believe them if true. and not resulting from a disease of my brain. and would speak . and then he would became calmer. in love and devotion day by from Devi One day as he was feeling his separation very keenly. and saw his mother (Kalt) in a vision. if indeed as lost. But all their skill was of no avail.' still 39 have not found I People thought he was mad. if such and such a thing happened.RAMAKR/SHJVA S LIFE. or that he was suffering pain. for curing his disease. mother.' and at the very ' would invariably happen. and thee. These visions came to him again and again. it So his friends gave him up Meanwhile he increased day. who never was once came to would come under the big banyanto me. ' I them true. Only one physician of Dacca told them a great Yogin or ascetic. for from some acute how was and it possible for them.th. even hour he ex- pected. to name and fame. Babu MathurS- who had always had a love for this young Brihman. this temple. and then he would say.' though he tree this afternoon. the two young daughters of RSni Rasmoni. and that that this man was all their pharmacopoeia were a disease was useless at all. he lost all outward sensation. he said one day. intensity as they loved their wives and The son-in-law of RSni Rasmoni.

and the addressed him always as Father whenever he spoke to him. and telling him to be consoled. Then from time to time. and would remain in that state for hours. for till became longer and longer it was no longer possible course of duties. it objected to but shortly is said. would get entranced. when he saw them standing under the tree at the exact hour. that day forward he looked upon him as God Himself. brought for the goddess. These visions grew more and more. He appointed conduct the regular whatever he liked. nephew of 'Kimakrishna. especially Zenana had never come when young. trans- figured into that of the god and from. And what was his astonishment a perfect stranger to them. he saw the body of Rimaky«sh«a ^iva. he would adorn at first the flowers. going and RSmakr/sh«a. so much so as to appropriate to himself the offerings Sometimes forgetting to adorn himself with this. and calling him by name. and his trances in duration. after- MathurSnath wards. These ladies of the place. but somehow or to a public other they got a strong desire to see that temple that very day. and thought himself as identified with his mother. and they got permission to go there.40 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. he would entirely lose his own identity. for the Mother Kill would surely have mercy on him. prescribed in the man should put a flower over his own head is and think of himself as the very god or goddess he to worship. services. again. as he put the flower. to and left him free to do . 5astras that a every one saw daily him it to perform his is For instance. the image.

men.1 V. raged within him during these years and made it everything topsy-turvy. He thus began the twelve years of unheard-of tapasya. and a sweeter smiling and said. ' despair he cried out. you don't give up the love of your body self? ' and of your said. result of calling Mother.' he continued. anon a sweet voice would come. hair grew ' look to the it preservation of my body. but I will learn say. ' My if ! how ' could you hope to realise the highest truth.AUAKRISHNAS The fection LIFE. till became matted. could not even doze. " from Yea. used to bring me some food daily." and the same voice would ! my son " ' 'I did not once. deluging I used to tell my mind and urging ! me forward. is this upon thee and believing son in thee?' And face. Tiridaya. and some days succeeded and some days did not succeed in forcing a few mouthfuls . or ascetic exercises. but they would not. he put his finger within the sockets of the eye. He thought some^ and holding a looking-glass In his the before him. Looking back he said. My it. to these years of self- torture in his later days. my mother. ' little A torrent of spiritual light. " Mother I could never learn from these erring thee. and I had no idea of My nephew. that the lids might close. 'that a great religious tornado. He had no idea then that He never had a wink of sound fixed. but ran eagerly to attain per- and realisation of God in all His different aspects. as it were.' lasted for so long a time. oh ! my mother. but his eyes would remain always open and times that he was seriously ill. 4 ardent soul of Ramakr/shwa could not remain quiet with these frequent visions. sleep during these years. and thee alone.' he would come then.

'Sometimes. realise but it can never help thee to bliss. impressed with the queen's It has the power of bringing you rice and vegetables. which cost about 1. but never help to realise the ever-existent knowledge and . the ever-existent it. But what was the astonishment of Mathurinatha when the next moment RimakWsh«a threw it. RAMAKi?7SHiVA. and prayed. it. one day put a shawl fringed with gold round him. 'It increases vanity. would calls tell my My soul ! this is what the world face. who was very devoted to him. saying. of building houses. and taking some coins in my right hand and a handful of rubbish soul. the left." in I lost perception difference between the two my mind. it on the ground.' About time Mathurinitha. are they but and that they are low in so and pariahs. " Mother destroy me all idea that I am great. Then mixing all and the rubbish in my hands. " all money of is rubbish.' he 'I would sit by the Ganges. knowledge and as rubbish. this rubbish.500 Rs. of feeding the poor.42 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF throat. down my clean in it though I had no idea of Sometimes I used to go to the closet of the servants and sweepers and ! with my own hands. money Ganges. and doing all that the world calls great. and threw them both into the No wonder people took me for mad. while repeating is the time. and that I am a Brahman. the coins Regard therefore. can bliss trampled and spat on the and began to cleanse the floor of it room with it." the Brahman. money. for who Thou many forms?"' said. At first he seemed to be pleased with it. with some gold and silver coins and a heap of rubbish in I by my " side.

Then a Brihman She smeared lady came and cured me of it in three days. ' I felt sensation of the and a was my body I used to stand in the waters Ganges. She had a voice and was versed in music. and nobody could induce her to say anything about them. lady was. S LIFE. .' ' About this all time. She was as if some goddess had come to this earth to help men to perfection. and could recite book after book from memory. moved by the sorrows and sins of this wicked world. She seemed to have known full well that she was destined to help three very advanced in attaining particular personages.' said. She had given up the world. practised Yoga (ascetics). had been informed by his divine . and the pain are told. 43 and therefore he is no better than a piece of such a burning torn rag. and was roaming all over India in the red garb of a Sawnyasin. with the best pandits of the country. and she combined in herself qualities that all the physical and intellectual would raise any man fine or woman high above well ordinaiy mortals. we She was versed and mythologies of India. an extraordinary in the philosophies vanished in three days. She could hold her ground Tall in argument graceful. for it over insufferable. perfection.RAMAK/JZSHA-A (Sat-kit-Snanda). Nobody knew anything of her birth or family or name even. wood paste and put garlands my body with sandalon my neck. with my body immersed up to the shoulders wet towel over my head all through the day. who were Rimakn'shna.' Now this Brihman Bengali woman. attained to some wonderful Yogic powers.

attain perfection. showing that all these physical It manifestations come to an ardent lover of all God. mother that she would come and teach him the certain way to two. and I she recognised him and said. was not mad. and again in times to Sii Chaitanya. as the body were from which Sii RamakWsh^a was suffering at the time. All people were astonished at the wonderful learning of this Brahman lady. and quoted passage after passage. and have been searching I for thee for and to-day krishna. the beloved of Krishna. His devotion and love knew no bounds. long time. To prove that he scriptures.' Up had not found a single soul Ramawho could understand to this time purity. Sri Chaitanya. in flames. later when both of them felt deeply the pain of separation from their beloved (God). this too.44 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. were given. centuries before. by which he overcame them. was mentioned in these Vaishwava scriptures as having happened to the shepherdess of Braja. He ' recognised her at once. his have found thee. and the remedies For instance. but they could not understand how she could sympathise and place even above herself this halfcrazed Ramak/7sh«a they took him for. four hundred years back. have found out the other a long. was recorded in these books that these states physical and mental did happen to the great religious reformer of Bengal. if all burning sensation. these cases relief In both sandal- came by smearing the body with . superhuman devotion and perfect and the arrival of this woman was therefore a great relief to him. the lady mentioned some Vaishwava got the manuscripts from some learned pandits. to the stainless Sii RadhS.

and the false sensation passed away. The lady lived there for years. One night. render his passions subservient to his reason. 45 wood paste and wearing garlands of sweet-scented flowers. days. time Rimakft'shna. practise all the different sorts of and made her friend Yoga which make a man complete master of his body and mind. His teachers were astonished at the short time in which he all came to the realisation and attained the end of these ascetic practices. The Brdhman him that the same had happened all sorts to Chaitanya and other Yogins. above the fearless and unbiased disposition which is essential to everybody who desires to this know the truth and the whole truth. began to practise Yoga. and ordered side. deep concentration of thought. This practice was continued for a few and the sight of so much some food gradually acted upon the mind. which would come to all who arrive at that stage of Bhakti. when he was at practising Yoga. At another time during her an insatiable appetite. or the physical discipline. and. but a state of physical disturbance. he was very much frightened two strings of clotted blood . She applied the same he suffered much from remedies for three days. which makes the body strong and He began by regulating his breath. stay appetite was there. However much he might eat. The lady held it to be no real disease. the preying upon him as if he had taken lady assured nothing. or love of God. About enduring. of dishes to be put into his room on every day and night. and produce a thorough and all. and the trouble passed away. and went through the eight-fold methods prescribed by Pata«^ali.RAMAK/J/SHiVA S LIFE.

but a great living there at the time Yogin who was came.46 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAM. powerful. and they feel the identity for time. tall. such as Vak-siddhi. and his He had taken the vow of the order from . to It was because he had to teach that many men. man of great learning and purity and possessed of certain psychical powers. A few days to R4makr/sh«a had offended him by pointing out him his certain defects of his character. he was not permitted to enter into that Samadhi (trance) from which nobody returns. and do good to them. The temple services were then a hands of one of his cousins. before. to his help. those who by the to of God were bom some be the great teachers of mankind. so much so that his cousin cursed him and said that blood should come out of mouth. Haladhiri. So Ramaknsh«a was frightened.AKRISHNA. muscular. perceives his identity with the Supreme and never returns any more to speak of his religious experiences to others. By this time Ramakr«sh«a had learnt still all that the BrShman and lady could teach. power of speech. his coming out of in the mouth. and he becomes absorbed in Samadhi. initiated when a Gn^nin him (a true philosopher) came This into the truths of the Vedanta. will Only a few returned. and very after inquiring into his case assured him that it was good that the blood had come out that way. namely. his blood rushes to his brain. He explained to him that when a man has attained to the perfection of this Yoga Self. but after that the blood flows out again and they are able to teach. was a SawnySsin named TotS-puri. In their case the blood rushes to the brain. but he was hankering after higher truths.

the is Nirvikalpa stage of Samadhi. ? Come. he once recognised in him a great Yogin and a perfectly-prepared ground for the reception of the seeds of the highest truths of religion.' Kkmakrishna. him how he was to meditate and how to realise unity. After three days of practice he attained to the highest. said that he did not know what he should do. he was roaming over the country.RAMAKiirSHiVA S LIFE. and I will teach it to who never did anything without first asking his mother (the goddess Kdli). Vedinta. He life. and never caring to ask for food all from anybody. 47 very boyhood. When if doors of palaces might have been opened to him he had only wished. He addressed him way at once and said. and never rested under a roof. never remaining more than three days in any place. was a living illustration of the truth realised. sitting on the at border of the Ganges. He wore no the clothes whatever. and after a hard struggle had succeeded in realising the highest truths of the Vedinta. then. ' My son ! do you want to learn the to perfect freedom you. but he would go and ask his mother. where there no longer any perception of the subject or of the object.. He came back in a few minutes and told the Sa»2nyasin that he was ready. he passed the night always under a tree or the blue canopy of the heavens. Free as the wind. Tota-puri made him take and told the vow. teaching and exhorting wherever he could find a sincere soul. when properly rule of can become a practical On seeing Sri R^makrishna. and helping them to attain to that perfection which he had himself that reached. even in winter and in the rainy season. The Sawznyisin was perfectly bewildered at the .

as very holy.' and he kept his word. and in his turn learnt disciple. and ridicule when Ramaky-/sh«a is made him understand thou. that in the Absolute there it no nor God. and omniscient. a pipe out of the same fire. that is beyond is all speech or thought. many things from his own as a story told it of the Sawnyasin. nay. however. and said. you are right. . Is this the way that you look upon everything as Brahman ? Is not the man himself Brahman as well as the fire? What is high and what is low in the sight of a GwSnin ? The SawnySsin was brought to his senses. nor I. man came and lighted his The Sawnyasin felt enraged at this sacrilege. He for. He it. it could never understand. when a gentle scolding came from his disciple. and said. the Absolute is within thought and speech and within the limits of the mind. however. Brother. who said. Rlmak«sh«a's love his Mother (the goddess Kali). I My boy ! what realised after forty years of hard struggle. which mind is subthis servient to the universal mind and consciousness . you have arrived at in three days. ' rapid progress of his protdg^. as there the least grain of relativity left.. I dare not call you henceforth I will address you as my friend. From this day forth you shall ' ' ' never find me angry again. As long. would talk of as mere superstition. He always kept a and regarded by this fire One day he was sitting and talking to Sit Ramakn'sh^a.' my disciple And such that was the love of stayed with this holy man for Sri Ramakr«h«a There fire is he him for eleven months. universal consciousness was to him his mother and God. 48 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA.

Their bodies and minds could never bear it. 'I this period for six of his his later days. My body would have died for want of nourishment. he was After six months the body gave way under these severe irregularities. This disease. inits He recognised my state of Samddhi. But this my body is Sattwa particles (pure elements) and can bear made up of much strain. and when all methods failed to restore sensation or conscious- ness to this body of mine. remained months reach. in Looking back to he said. he Ramak«sh«a was said. to consciousness. his E . Some after produce any response. they cannot return to their individual consciousness again.RAMAKiJ/SHWA S LIFE. force and he would immediately days when he could not down one or two mouthfuls of food before I was lost again in deep Samidhi. and with dysentery. slowly gently. life. in that state of perfect union if which people seldom and they reach it. and took much terest to preserve this body. so that the pain might bring me back to consort sciousness. he would even strike me with a heavy club. even very sorrowful. did much in and laid up bringing him back or two.' a severe beating. while I was unconscious of very existence. In those days I was quite unconscious of the outer world. 49 After the departure of TotS-puri. in a month When the native physicians had cured him. himself tried to remain always in union with the absolute Brahman and in the Nirvikalpa state. Rkmakrishfia. but for a Sadhu (an advanced religious ascetic) at that time who came and stayed there for three days for my sake. He used to bring some food every day. Sometimes he succeeded in awakening a of partial consciousness in me.

The shepherdess of Braja had this sort of love towards husband. and at succeeded in gaining his He saw the beautiful form of Sri K«sh«a in a trance. They even prohibit ordinary men to read the books which treat of this love of still RSdhd and K«'sh«a. in in order to realise this love. love. they say. can understand until this love of SA RadhI and Sn Krishna all he is perfectly free from carnal desires. No man. R^mak«sh«a. of a child to his parents.50 deep tise THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. This is one out of many wonderful things that life. After having thus devoted himself to Vaish- «avism. he practised in turn in India. and there was no thought of any carnal relationship. happened in his coincidences. the divine Knsh«a. religious zeal took another turn. dressed himself women's attire for several last days. a woman. and a wife to her The highest point of love is reached when the human soul can love his God as a wife loves her husband. even many other religions prevalent Mohammedanism. of a friend to his friend. always arriving at an to learn understanding of their highest purposes in an incredibly short time. thought of himself as ideal. Whenever he wished and practise the doctrines of any faith. according to the Vaishwavas. he always found a good and learned to man do of that faith coming to him and advising him how as it. becomes manifested relations practically in any one of the following —the re- lation of a servant to his master. and was satisfied. or vice versa. because they are under the sway of passion. realise the He began to pracThis and Vaish«ava ideal of love for God. which is They may be explained much the same as to say happy they were .

and bUss. dropped them a few yards off the place where he was sitting. He took the materials joyfuUy. of Kali.va s life. K . He found the place very secluded and fit for carrying out his religious practices without disturbance. instance. Each of these to arrive at that different religions seemed to him a way 2 One. all After religions true.. and for three days he could think of nothing and speak of nothing this peculiarity in all but Jesus and His love. of . the just sticks.e. of Jesus. he was sitting one day under the big banyan-tree (called the Pancha-vatI. later days he was thinking of practising the tenets of Christianity. and cannot be explained. but his visions when they vanished they seemed to have entered into him. wonderful. of the Akhanda Sa^>^^idSnanda.Siva. that he always saw them outside himself. of Krishna.ramakr7Sh. 51 To give another such practising At the time when he perceived the desire of and realising religion. eternal existence. the undivided and knowledge. built his little hut. when the all tide came up the necessary to river and brought along with a httle hut that was the make rope and all —and —the bamboos. This was true of Rama. or the place of the five banyans) to the north of the temple. and with the help of the gardener he practised In his his where Yoga. — and of every other god or goddess or prophet. these visions and his realisations of different he came to the conclusion that all rehgions are though each of them takes account of one aspect only i. He had seen Jesus There was in a vision. He it was thinking of building a little thatched hut in the place.

He KSlt. new one could never look upon any woman in her. which was not unnatural lost all idea girl one who had of the existence even of his own body. Then again she heard he had become a great religious man. who was fully worthy of such as him she wanted nothing from him her husband. become mad. saying that her Rs. as she all pleasures. The had in the meantime attained the age of seventeen or She had heard rumours that her husband had in eighteen. day forward she lived within the temple compound. Ramakr?sh«a received her very kindly.52 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. asked her blessings. worshipped her with flowers and incense. and was that deep grief. Having obtained permission from her mother. practise whatever her and began to husband taught Mathuranitha offered her the sum of 10. said that even then he saw his mother. all During these years he forgot entirely that he for had been married. to the Dakshiwef- all vara temple. and then a deep trance. try he could never see anything He addressed her as his mother.000 declined. but she husband had attained perfection by renouncing gold and for any. told became lost in The wife. From her. living . and that the as his wife. and she did not care She is was determined to follow him. about thirty or forty miles. and allow her to remain near him and cook do what that little his meals and she could for his health and comfort. as a child does from his mother. she walked the way. She determined therefore to find him and to learn her fate from himself. the Goddess and however much he might else. but that he would teach her how to realise God. a hero. but told her that the old Ramak/-«sh«a was dead..

men. but he wanted to hear it again because the book was so beautiful.rXmakrishna's still. and which to read were about to be read. seeing things at a distance. He had attained disciples to great Yoga powers. But persons who went to him have found abundant proofs of his possessing such powers as thought-reading. that unity with Brahman. told his that all He these powers would come to to take a man as he advanced. As he was hearing. and healing a disease by simply willing. another of his disciples came and asked him whether he was understanding the original verses. rather a hindrance in the it inasmuch as diverted the attention of man from his highest goal. but he warned them never any heed of the opinions of men. The one great power of . predicting future events. and he requested one of his disciples it to him in the original verse. He said he had heard the book before. with an explanation of it. and therefore knew all of it. The power of working miracles was way to perfection. he had such a wonderful memory later that once heard. life. and trying to forward the work her husband began. They had not to please is. 53 revered by all for her purity and strength of character. helping others of her sex to religion and perfection. looking upon her husband as an incarnation of God Himself. and he repeated at once the purport of some of the verses which followed. had no proper education. but he never cared to display these marvellous powers to anybody. but to try to attain the highest perfection. In his days he had a desire to hear the AdhyStma RSmaya«a. he never forgot what he Though R&raakrishKa.

that he wept bitterly. and with the SawnySsins who were living in these places. was that he was able to change a man's thoughts by simply touching his body.54 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF ^kUAKRISHNA. such as the famous Tailanga SwSmin of Benares and Gangi MitS. On his way back he was so much struck by the poverty of a Vaidyanath. but they tion felt In others produced no outward changes. that he nearly made up his mind to reside there for ever. At B«'ndabana he was so much struck by the natural scenery and associations of the place. and lost for some hours it all sensation of the out- ward world. But the memory of his old mother made him return home. of B^/ndabana. instance. for would feel that their thoughts never ran after carnal pleasures afterwards. that their thoughts had received a new direc- and a new impetus. use. About that time Mathuranatha and his family a pilgrimage. which he made most and which was by In some far the most wonderful. in which they saw visions of gods and goddesses'. but as a great religious teacher (Achirya). and so on. this touch produced immediate Samidhi. by which they could easily travel in the path of progress in religion. as far as visited all the sacred places of the Hindus They Brm- dabana. The carnally minded. as an incarnation of God Himself. These SSdhus assigned to him a very high and regarded him not only as a Brahma^Snin. but of forming acquaintances with all the religious men. and took RSmak«sh«a with them. the miser would find that he went on did not love his gold. position. nay. village near and would not go from . and Ramakn'shzza took the opportunity not only of seeing the temples.

gave proper clothing and some money to each of the with villagers. about two miles temple of Dakshi«ejvara. all bees seek the and not the rose the been bees.' This saying of ^ri 'R^makn'shna. the perfect unselfishness. Keshub was so much impressed with full of the highest knowledge. so engaged was he in teaching. exhorting. So Mathurtnitha and departed fragrance fed the whole village for several days. the waters of From day-dawn to night-fall he had hungry no leisure to eat or drink. began to Numbers of earnest men. flock to him to receive instruction and to drink life. the . of all sects and creeds. RSmak^sh^a's interview with Keshub was was in the year 1866 that of prayer and seclusion in a brought about in this way. and in their turn knowledged him as their spiritual director (Guru). Ramaknsh«a contented. touched as they were by the wonderful purity. and by the simple language religion in which he propounded the highest truths of and philosophy. till But the people of Calcutta knew him not to Babu Keshub Chunder Sen went It him and wrote about him. The full-blown rose. and went to see him. Men possessed of wonderful Yoga ac- powers and great learning came to learn from this illiterate Paramaha»zsa of Dakshi«efvara.RAMAKR/SHNAS LIFE. and sheds its around. and ministering to the wants of these and thirsty millions. the bees come of themselves. Keshub was leading a life garden house at Belgharia. has verified often and often in his own life. 'When the rose is blown. the childlike simplicity. heard of him. 55 the place without seeing them happy. the simple words. from the BAmakrishna.

became changed. for some of the more earnest would remain and spend the night with him. that he began to come often and often to him. him in a boat and proceed a few miles up and down the on some points of river. a few years he proclaimed views of religion as the New Dispensation. which Keshub published. and Keshub would gently touch his feet that he might thereby be purified. Sometimes he would or would take invite the Paramahawzsa to his house. From time would be lost in a deep Samddhi. At night. which was nothing but a partial representation of the truths which Ramaknsh«a had taught for a long time. he had no rest. and life Keshub's whole later. and numbers of highly-educated men of Calcutta and women of noble family began to pour in to receive instruction from this wonderful Yogin. A brief sketch of the teachings of RSmakr/sh«a. his sleep. (knowledge) and his experiences. began to teach till them and too. He then used to question him religion to clear away his own doubts. and how he arrived at them. were cient to rouse a wide interest in the Faramaha^.izsa. his till. Though this incessant labour . and the deep trances of Sri kWshwa. and suffi- a few of his sayings. He own then forgot and talked to them incessantly about Bhakti (devotion) or Gnina.56 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKK/SHiVA Rama- wonderful love of God. He would sit for hours at the feet of Rimak«'sh«a and Ramakrishwa listen with rapture to the wonderful sayings on religion to time of that wonderful man. them from morn evening. talk to RAmakrishna. A strong and deep love grew up between the two.

ever. till throat became so constricted that he could not swallow even liquid food. losing consciousness and of his disease. Babu Mohindra Lai strictest silence who advised him to keep the effect. and coming back he would his talk incessantly as before. yet he would not In the meanwhile the crowds of increase daily. ' he would I would also. upon him. such as he used to have every day. Even when the passage of efforts. at 10 o'clock in the night. out of comsilent. all passion for them.' which by-and-by developed into cancer. .. He was removed to Calcutta. they were mistaken. and the best engaged. from which he never returned. felt such an aversion to gold and silver . he would never stop his He was undaunted and remained as cheerful as 16. he entered into Samadhi. to take rest. but the advice was to no Crowds of men and women gathered wherever he went. men and women began to and he went on as before.. and he. When pressed say. alas. RAMAKRTSHiVA S LIFE. &c. during which the best doctors even could not find any pulsation or beating of the heart but. if by so doing salvation. a suffer willingly all sorts of bodily pains. began at last to tell 57 rest.' could bring one single soul to freedom and In the beginning of 1885 he suffered from what as is known 'the clergyman's throat. such as physicians were Sircar. would not remain Many a time he would be of his body lost in a Samadhi. on August 1886. took it His disciples at first to be an ordinary SamSdhi. and death I hundred thousand times. and waited patiently to hear a single word from his mouth. Ramakrishna.

' he said. In his later days he tortions. free. first. even when he was asleep. or eternally and an incarnation of God with the Nitya-muktas. as Krishna. Never would he claim for himself any high position. disciples fits He had would touch the ground reverently where his trodden. could touch no metals.58 that THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF kXmaKRISHNA. He was a wonderful mixture of God and man. would speak of himself as the same soul that had been born before as Rima. not even iron. before anybody He told MathurSnStha. he could not even touch them. He he was free from and the practices and struggles after religion which he went through were only meant to show the people the way to salvation. 'comes out . 'The fruit of the pumpkin. and his fingers would become contorted and paralysed for a few minutes.. He himself would never be addressed as Guru. all In his all ordinary state he would talk of himself as servant of men and women. him shortly. would produce physical con- His breath would stop. born again as Rimakrishna. of them. or teacher. But every now and then strange of God- He then became changed into a diiferent being altogether. long disciples knew him. all for them alone. that he had many all who would come said that to and he knew all eternity. and a simple touch. He had done Himself. or as Buddha.. He would say he was a Nitya-mukta. even when the metal had been removed. He spoke as if he had the power of giving anything to anybody. He looked upon them as God. as Jesus. He then spoke of himself as being able to do and know everything. He consciousness came upon him. and then the flowers so it is .

and ''his hands became and stiff. As soon as anybody spoke anything of religion or straight into the state of straight on God. it and he broke But The surgeon came and bound it till it up and advised him not it was quite cured. he declined the profly and added if that he would have to his gift away from the place Mathurinatha pressed upon him. offer At another time another gentleman made an result. he went SamSdhi. was impossible.REMARKS ON RAMAKJJ/SHJVA S or those for the LIFE. a posal. and the injured hand had to be bound up again. his flesh. This went on for months. and the wound.000 Rs. his hand. but come down unconscious good of During the state of SamSdhi he was totally of himself and of the outward world. with the same Bemarks on This is all Bftmabr/sh/za's Life. I had warned him repeatedly not to send me . Mathurinatha proposed again and again to hand over to him the temple of Dakshiraexvara and a property year. 59 who are free from others. that VivekSnanda sent me when I had asked him to write down whatever he could gather from his own memory and from communication with Rdmakr/sh^a's other disciples.000 Rs. and it took six months or more to cure that simple fracture.' all eternity. felt and the surgeon had to come when he came back to consciousness. to him. fell At one time he It down upon a piece of live coal during this state. burned deep into but he did not know for hours. At another time to use his foot slipped. in to extract the coal. but yielding an income of 25. of some 25.

while a doubt or a denial is treated as a sign of unkindness. master. no doubt. there to believe or to repeat anything that might place his master in an unfavourable light. and philosophies. What believed and told by everybody in a small village. and I believe he I understood what meant. chiefly by his friends and admirers. received a proper RSmakWshwa had never and yet spoke with authority about the ancient hterature and religion of his countrymen. possibly of envy or malice. of the Brahman lady who was will messenger and teacher to Ramak/fshwa. is Given his own veneration for his departed a natural unwillingness. this heavenly apparition was. his master was dead when nisi is these records were written. an incapability. nay. and the de mortuis nihil bonum is deeply engraved in every human heart.. 6o mere THE LIKE AND SAYINGS OF TlXmAKRISHNA. But when I first heard of this lady was represented as a kind of goddess who met her pupil in a forest and instructed him. such as I had read about his Giiru in several fully Indian periodicals. far sound to us it. everybody has something new to add in confirmation of what everybody is ready to believe. fables. from probable. Purawas. like another Sarasvatl. is is not likely to be contradicted and if once a man looked upon as different from others. in the Vedas. nay. all The difficulty that had to be solved by the fact that classical education. The fact that he was ignorant of single know a Sanskrit. is . for The story. sent as a instance. as possessed of superhuman and miraculous powers. that he did not word of the sacred language of India. Yet we can hardly fail to see the first beginnings of the ravages which the Dialogic Process works even in the first generation. Besides.

to say nothing of his constant intercourse with learned men who would have warned him any question he chose to was really not against mistakes and answered ask. If this BrShman Devi is lady was called a goddess. and has been distinctly asserted by one of his great admirers. Some exist in Bengali translations. some favourable. 6 denied by nobody. the Rev. He In stands aloof from the propaganda carried on by Ramak/7sh«a's he speaks of him in the highest terms. a letter : which he addressed to ' me in September. he in the wrote Both in Keshub's Life and Teachings. become men. and a man who speaks Bengali of the classical Sanskrit texts can guess the meaning of Sanskrit as an Italian may guess the meaning of Latin. between deity and humanity to is very small gods are believed it. Mozoomdar must be counted disciples. without much ado about Mozoomdar's Judgement. that an lightened lady might well have been spoken of as an In India the distance . P. might be suspected of partiality. C. Fortunately in our case we have the testimony not only of Vivekinanda. and men gods. but as a favourable witness. as a devoted disciple of RSmaknshwa. Thus the Dea ex machina wanted. Mozoomdar. who. and may have given him all the information which he wanted for his own purposes. course he Of knew Bengali. incarnation of the goddess Sarasvati. others unfavourable. but we have several inde- pendent witnesses. we must remember that not much more and en- than a ladies. title of honour given to high-born and illustrious exceptionally well-informed nay. 1895.1 mozoomdar's judgement. and .

' His speech at times say. with us requires to be veiled. and I would not withI wrote in his praise. or has ever been brought. difference filthy. But there was another side of his character. because was not edifying. as you draw a single a real Mah^tman. could be brought. which has been brought against writers like Zola. it is the philosophical backbone of every He did not is doubtful whether he spiritual wisdom was the know a word of Sanskrit. a great is between what is filthy and what meant to be I doubt whether the charge of intentional filthiness or obscenity. which of course one could not take up. In a country where certain classes of men are allowed to walk about in public is places stark naked. he was. His result of genius and practical this. language too not likely to veil what is. I have frankly and warmly expressed my estimate of that saintly our obligations to him. India. and knew enough BengSU.' There there in is is a ring of truth and impartiality about jealousy. and even no sign of which often breaks out. observation. was abominably filthy. against .' Here we see another ingredient of the Dialogic Process. For all that.62 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RkUAKRISUNA. man and it old Theistic Review. word RSmak/ish«a was not in the least a Vedantist. There however. Bftmakmh^a's Iiangoage. As to his filthy language. among religious reformers and their followers. we must be prepared for much plain speaking among Oriental races. which national cult. except that every sciously imbibes from the atmosphere around Hindu unconsome amount of Vedantism.

there are passages against which our modern racter. if they were now removed by . which has never been an Indian view. has generally been left out in English translations. Roy. yet we object to Bowdlerised editions. would be more careful in their expressions. and clear-sightedness can never all be obtained. though not necessarily BrShmans by birth. treating of worldly wisdom. RSmakr?sh«a. Keshub Chunder Sen. But a certain directness of speech which would be most England is evidently not regarded in that light that and every scholar knows many of their classical In poems. nay. and passionlessness.RAMAKRTSHiVA's LANGUAGE. nay. contain passages which simply do not admit of translation into English. has lately A most useful edition of the three ^atakas been published by Purohit Gopi Nath.' to have been so. Bombay. dis- passionateness. taste revolts. by no means the same On the contrary. the object of the poet is to warn people against voluptuousness. the second. even their Sacred Writings.. not as something in itself criminal. and their friends. is But the spirit of that Sn'mgiia-Sataka. because the indecencies are never of an intentional cha- and would seem us. but as a hindrance in obtaining that serenity of mind without which the highest objects of life. love.A. even in the Bible. It should not be forgotten that in Homer. the three centuries (jataka) of Bhartn'hari. serenity. M. that of love. as that of Zola's novels. 1896. It is quite true that 63 Hindus who belong socially to the higher classes. in Shakespeare. We seldom find any blemishes of that kind in the writings of Rammohun offensive in in India.

'k. and saying that our her was of the . India. is what he calls his almost is evi- barbarous treatment of his wife. she was seventeen But it is this can hardly be called barbarous in where a recognised custom that a girl of five years of age. What he means till dently that he forgot or neglected her years of age. Ramak«sh«a's widow. he received her with that she ness. if he would only enlighten her mind and to serve make her to see and God. means unusual in Eastern. and deeply interested in the religious movements in India. nay. C. 1898. On July II. as his wife was at her parents' when he married for years before her. Mrs.aia. received not Strange to say. she writes from ^rm3. should remain house she migrated to the house of her husband and his parents. who had gone Ole Bull. She called us her children. and was quite satisfied to live with him on his own terms. for volenti non fit injuria.riahna.gar in Kashmir: the first 'We were foreigners who were visit to allowed to see Sarada-devS.64 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJZSHWA. in Western countries VivekSnanda told us that when his wife at the age of seventeen real kind- went to find him.'s Wife. the widow of Ramak«'sh«a. Another charge which Mozoomdar seems to consider as proved against Rajaakrishna. Such a relationship is by no means without a precedent. violin the widow of the famous player. again by no also. I many days ago a to visit letter from an American lady S. Hd. in a state And that a man such as Ramakr/sh«a live is described to have been in is should decline to maritakment. and cannot be called barbarous.

her assent that he should lead a Sa»«nySsin's life.' strange that a man of Mozoomdar's knowledge and experience should have considered the resolve of kn'shnn's wife to live with RSma- him as a Sawznyasini as bar- barous treatment. 'When she gladly gave her husband. praying earnestly for such purity of motive that she might never fail him. she felt 65 no strangeness in being with us. even times it were not in agreement with suggestions given. and became his disciple. however incredulous might justly be on such matters in our own country. receiving daily instruction.rAmakjj/shjva's wife. She had also taken the vow of poverty and chastity. who in her case was her husband. who has any complain . to whom she had been united by child-marriage. she gained his intimate friendship. right to If she was satisfied with her is life. and in renouncing the natural joys of a mother. and love between husband and wife really impossible without the procreation of children ? We Hindu honesty. She herself evidently did not think so. one should listen to directions for spiritual advancement. she became with him the spiritual parent of It is many children. . she replied to the effect that when one and had chosen a Guru or obey all his teacher. life During the years of her with him she was his adviser.'s spiritual marriage. When asked to define the obedience to a Guru. nor have I heard of any other cruelties on the part of her husband. Lord. I know of must learn to believe in at Kimakrishna. we no one else who has taken offence Anyhow. but in things temporal one could most truly serve a Guru by if at using one's own best discernment.

B&makr2sh»a's Influence on Eeshub Chunder Sen.. RamakWshwa master? That may be to who brought so. but how often have disciples been instrumental in bringing out their He then continues bring charges against RSniak«sh«a. and he was the last man to withhold the name of master and teacher from Ka. can clearly perceive that when- ever a saint takes leave of virtues.— 66 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKRISHNA.' he out of obscurity. Mozoomdar. ' 'Whoever he may If he writes. who evidently completely misapprehended whatwas implied by the influence which I said that Ramak«sh«a had exercised on Keshub Chunder Sen. or any one else from whom he had received inspiration. which may be true or not. If I see an ordinary minstrel. to I consider that a lac of rupees has come I my house. but Keshub Chunder Sen was never chary in giving credit where credit was due. relative of A Keshub Chunder Sen. an ascetic comes. however. or instruction. encouragebe. ' his disciples.' tells us.' ment.. I love to learn at his feet. is Keshub Chunder * if there could be priority in philosophical or religious It was Keshub Chunder. and others as very anxious to establish the priority of Sen.na. I desire to leam from him. no one repudiated the title of Master or Guru more emphatically than Rimakrjshwa. disciple! me he pours into my heart his To some extent I become like him I am a bom On the other hand. . but have nothing . I leam much by hearing his hymns. A disciple Rimak«sh«a and Keshub may mean many things.xnakrish. A more painful misunderstanding has arisen with regard to the exact relationship between Chunder Sen. as truth.

my hands. nor was he a Brahman by birth like RSmaknsh«a. he did not prostitutes. I gladly state that neither RimakHshna act as Guru •Sishya. one of Keshub Chunder Sen's relatives should have objected to Ramakr/sh«a being represented as the Guru of Keshub. has repeatedly admitted. As to myself.Smak/-/sh«a. and thereby totally misrepresented. and their was a great pity that in a jealous mutual relation should have been treated spirit. perhaps safer than in those of his rela- I stood up for him when his nearest friends forsook him and turned against him. . to 67 do with the If.RAMAKiJ/SHiVA's INFLUENCE. has ever accused him of cavillings any excess in drinking. where the relation between Guru and ^shya is a very pecuhar and very definite one. as we are told. Keshub and Ramashow sufficient If moral abhorrence of alone in this ' he does not stand quite he did not among the founders of religion. But that he learnt from Ramak/7sh«a he. true relation between kr/sh«a. phases in the later spiritual development of F 2 Keshub Chunder Sen. as yet unexplained. is can only say that Keshub Chunder Sen's memory quite safe in tives. Both had no words but words it of praise and love for each other. honour the principle of teetotalism according to Western notions. Such bickerings and would have been most distasteful both to Keshub Chunder Sen and to E. as far as I know. Keshub had no well as I real Guru. I can under- stand that in India.' no one. as Mozoomdar. If my words could possibly have been misunderstood in India. The only thing that did or Keshub Chunder Sen as interested me was whether the influence exercised by the former on the latter might possibly account for certain.

and possessing them like spirits.68 It if THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAK/J/SHiVA. Thus the p. and in far too severely. late : Rajam live Iyer wrote in the will certainly Prabuddha Bharata. that 'the strange Ramakn'shwa suggested to Keshub's appre- mind the thought of broadening the spiritual strucown movement. though an obscure spark of in the system. By whatever terms these words mystic and ecstatic may be. may yet linger if it The Vedinta to at will. developed the conception or.' Whether toward the end of his life Keshub became mystic and ecstatic in his utterances. as flying in the leaving the body and wandering in space unob- structed like a ghost. if translated into Bengali. or get stiff like a corpse. I gladly leave to others to decide. Mystic has no such corresponding terrible meaning English as its term seems to have in Bengdli. enable him to preserve his as long as he pleases. and whether his concept of the Godhead as the Divine Mother was inspired by Ramakrishwa. if it 123 The Vedanta be mysticism seek to make life a man without food. ' People always seem to imagine that mystic has something to do with mist. animadverted on by many of Keshub's European admirers. would be a real help in judging of we knew that — to Keshub Chunder Sen his quote the words of Mozoomdar — ' association with Kimakrishna. selectivism of ciative again. to enable man work wonderful feats. will be mysticism seek air. and doing similar things . of the Motherhood of God'. and which ture of his was so severely. R. B. dead entirely life to the world. in English they mean exactly that spirit which pervades many of the utterances of the so-called New Dispensation. or entering into the bodies of others.

vedAnta-philosophy.' alive. that I tried to trace different sources. nor do I feel certain that even Keshub Chunder Sen had studied Sam- . An honest under- standing between East and West. He was not a man possessed of a scholarlike knowledge of the ancient system of the VedSnta-philosophy. Vedflnta-philosophy. cannot be furthered by the somewhat childish misunderstandings of Keshub's self-constituted advocates. the of the VedSnta-philosophy. I quote these tion of the term mysticism. Keshub himself would have been the last person to approve of the spirit that pervades his friend's passionate. more dead than others. well-intentioned advocacy. if it seek to The VedSnta make a man read be the thoughts of and lay him in an eternal trance. I trust. but fraud and jugglery and show what the VedSnta is not. which was one of Keshub's highest ideals. surely such local jealousies and backbitings may be ignored. 69 will certainly mysticism others. when he would be both with reference to himself and to words partly to show the misapplicafor all this . It was in order to my conviction that some later phases in Keshub's so-called New Dispensation were not essential to his simple them back to their If original teaching. and or certainly never was. some of RSmak«sh«a's safely followers have made capital out of these remarks. though. should not be called partly to mysticism. in the eyes of Keshub Chunder Sen express RSmak«sh«a. If now we return originator to RSmakr?sh«a. I can assure Keshub's zealous advocate that I never looked as upon Kiraakrishna. of an unnatural character.

70 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHJVA. easy. Indian to the backbone. the the Vifish/a-advaita difference). thoughts in Keshub's writings quite unexpected references to and we often meet with subjects. both in Keshub Chunder admixture and in Ramak«"sh. not ex- European cluding railways and gas. What Sen's is curious. Advaita School (non-duality school). RSmdnu^'s famous commentaries on is. no doubt. in the sayings of Rimakrishna. before the English Government began its educational work in India. highest goal of the Veda. is the of European ideas. difficult to say whether we should treat the Vedinta as philosophy or religion. properly called is Vedanta or the a sprinkling. the two being really inseparable from the Hindu point of view. School (non-duality school. of European . but there clearly and sometimes far more than a mere sprinkling. It is old Indian philosophy. which in fact. however. to give if by no means a short abstract of that ancient philosophy. It is necessary to explain in a few words the character of that Vedanta-philosophy which all is the very marrow running through It is the bones of RSmakWsh«a's doctrine. like the air breathed more or less by every It is Hindu who cares for philosophy or religion. and seems always to have existed. the Vedanta spirit kara's or Sdtras. But both were thoroughly imbued with the of that philosophy. under three different forms. however. particularly it we consider that exists now. with a and the Dvaita School (real duality school). The bulk of their the teaching is.2a's utterances. Neither the one nor the other would have spoken as they did. the last of which seems hardly to have a right to the name .

The Advaita or non-duality school. an approach to or a union with Brahman. with a difference. but simply a becoming what it has always been.ta. Considered as a case of philosophical athletics. Absolute only. like everything and can be nothing but Brahman or the Absolute. whether we call or it God. but nevertheless is 7 so called. holds that there is and there can be one follows to be. though wrongly conceived. is The human soul. as we are by AvidyS or Nescience. the rigidly . for all those who could not own souls. bring them- selves to deny reality to the phenomenal world. and his followers. and It is diffi- some and I individuality likewise to their cult to say which of the two schools was the more ancient. for a time though misconceived by Avidya or Nescience. else. after Professor Thibaut's am bound luminous exposition. or Advaita. . the eternal basis of every The second a school. but there were Virish/Sdvaita expositions and commentaries long before RdmSni. to acknowledge. the it Unknowable Brahman. is The desire of each individual soul not. of Vedanta. so that by the strictest rules of logic that whatever is or seems can be that one told. called Vij-ish/^-advaita. the Infinite or the Absolute. chiefly represented by Sa.^. reality only. that the Vifish/idvaita interpretation seems to rdya«a. non-duality. a recovering and recollection of its true being. a recognition of the full as and undivided Brahman apparently individual soul. was evidently intended for larger public. me more It is in keeping with the Sutras of Bidalived in true that Ramdnu^ the twelfth.1 VEDANTA-PHTLOSOPHY.mka.Sawikara in the eighth century. as commonly supposed.

Sa^zkara condescends to say Avidya or Nescience. or the world as reflected in our consciousness. the manifold phenomenal world. is one and the same turning. man (or Atman). without variableness or shadow of This. but some- own ignorance when. must itself have some cause and this. our whole body. does that. This creative Nescience once Brah- granted. nay. does not possess any but qualities (vijesha).TiL to command makes no concessions of any kind. not it even those of being and thinking.— 72 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF fail RAMAKii/SHJVA. seems all modified into that is phenomenal.ra. To every attempt to define or qualify Brahman. as knowledge. should be considered as impediments or . as held or as beheld by AvidyS. is not allow illusion. with all all its individual subjects. but Samkara. . what he calls the Brahman. we imagine we see a serpent. everything else proceeds smoothly enough. in He begins and never parts with his conviction that whatever itself.Samkara has but one answer No. while what we really see is a rope. for instance. monistic school cannot Sa. is both being and thought. No ! When the question is asked as to the cause of what cannot be denied. as the vulnerable point of Samka. that their cause strikes is that . Here hes what inclined to a Western mind sophy.mka. namely. is. Our instruments of fetters rather. and all its is individual objects. our admiration. and repeats again and again is as an Nescience neither real nor unreal. reality. whether senses or mind. which causes the phenomenal world to appear.'s Vedanta-philo- We should feel say that even this AvidyS. and yet we run away from it in all earnestness thing exactly like our as if it were a real cobra.

clearly but are they not. come very near to the Greek Xdyoi. where we read ^ : ' The omniscience and omnipotence of the Atman its are hidden by union with the body. And here the difficulty arises With us they are — are these Upidhis. and their perception as such. : As endowed with burning and fire but both are hidden when or is has retired into the wood covered with ashes. senses.VEDANTA-PHILOSOPHY. It touched upon. but hardly decided. the result also of that universal beginning- AvidyS. with the Upidhis formed by Avidya from forms. ' or the archetypes of everyobjective elements which in fact the constitute animate and inanimate bodies. these misleading organs of knowledge. Upidhis. which thing. in the same manner. In reality there Deussen. Then follow the material objective world.' And here we have the simile light. and this what causes the hiding of the omniscience and omnipotence of the Atman. p.. like everything that we less call created. the cause or the result of Avidyi? the cause of AvidyS . But all whole this is illusive. &c. and Buddhi (thought). . that is. there arises the error of the is names and NSmaAtman not being different from them. Manas fire is (mind). by Sumkaxa. is. the objects. 115. such as body. that rfipa. which one feels tempted to by impositions. through the union of the Self with the UpSdhis. by the union with the body. in his commentary (pp. It is under the influence of that AvidyS that Brahman assumes or receives names and forms (namarflpa). translate 73 as they are called. without which Brahman could never have This is become even phenomenally creative ? is a point that requires further consideration. 789). 787. System des Vedinta. senses.

man has become then carried along into the an actor and enjoyer. instead of remaining a distant witness of the world. both being one and the same thing. or the Highest. freedom. the concourse of the world. He is SsLmsiiSL. and that they themselves are this is and Man thinks that he an Ego dwelling in the body. and in every individual soul? the answer besides Brahman. what then is One without a Second. Ekam If advitiyam. no individual to things. As an Ego. which belongs to already the world of illusion. ful Good works may be in producing a proper state of mind for receiving it is knowledge. comprehending and reasoning. the One without there is a Second. seeing and hearing. This salvation or freedom finds expression in the celebrated . and which at the as being and same time helpthis Paramatman.74 are THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKS/SHiVA. but by knowledge alone that men can be saved and obtain Mukti. they only seem exist so long as Nescience prevails over Atman or Brahman. you ask. real in all things is. or the Aham. and goes on from change to change. the One whom nothing . no individual souls (^vas) . but this answer can be understood by those only who know Avidya. till in the end he discovers the true Brahman which alone really himself is called Atman or exists. world that. Self. reasoning and lies acting. he becomes the creature or the slave of his accumulated acts (karman). and by knowing it have destroyed it. is Others believe that the this or that. and not by good works. Atman and Brahman. while with the strict Vedintist the true Self deep below the Ego.

He is allowed to possess within himself certain powers (jaktis). the Atman. 75 thou art tvam e. as also we saw. His chief attribute. thought or intelligence. words Tat but that. in admitting that there can be only one thing real. that God. not thou. so that both the objects and the souls which he controls are entitled in their individuality to an independent reality. Rstmanu^ is less exacting. but he allows what ^awzkara denies. He is at one with Sumkaia. that strenuously Brahman possesses is attributes.e. but he is likewise allowed to possess omnipo- tence. is spoken of as mara. so that both the material objects of our experience and the individual souls (^vas) may be In this considered as real modifications of the real Brahman. and the Brahman are one and the same. the Brahman . which. i. omniscience.EKAM ADVITIYAM. the ruler within. and other good qualities. asi. Though RSm^nnga creation. modified capacity Brahman Lord. He is then called the Antarydmin. the (^it) and both the thinking (a^it) are and the unthinking his world supposed to constitute body. and not merely as phenomena or illusions (mSya). thou art that. supplied both the material and the efficient cause of the world. yet the only existing current idea that the God created the world out of nothing else can. out of His own energy. Strange as ^awkara's monism may seem to us. according to Raminu^. namely Brahman. i. mean nothing than that nothing can ever exist by the side of God. Self. strictly speaking. ^awkara boldly denies. would hardly accept our idea of all he teaches evolution or a process by which that existed potentially . the seeds of plurality. love.

visible. though what cause undergoes pariwima. in order to become what we call effect. while in its undeveloped state (pralaya). becomes real and objective is at last. and absorbing only does again when the time comes. but what is is the same. and individual in this phenomenal world. Instead of holding with Samkara. objective. that we are deceived about Brahman. participate in all his powers except one. that we turn it aside or invert it (vivarta) while under the sway of Nescience. development. that BAminuga. as with and that the soul is really supposed to like approach the throne of Brahman. sending forth the phenomenal world. teaches that Brahman potential in what is him at first. governing it it. meant Could Their our evolutionists have wished for a better ancestor ? phraseology may be different. the Lord.76 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF ukUAKRISHNA. Raman^§a recognises the merit of good works. Ramanu^ Brahman distinguishes between effect. both becoming real only in their recovered identity. we call e. a personal god would be as unreal as a personal soul. Another important difference between the two &i»2kara's highest goal consists in that while Brahman recovering itself by knowledge. the personal God. but likewise to I jvara. i. Brahman as a cause and as an but he teaches at the same time that cause and effect are always the same. With him. . that of creating. is. and allows a pure soul to rise by successive stages to the world of Brahman. becomes or in a subtile invisible form in the one Brahman. Thus not Ramanu^ allow individuality to individual souls. material. really changes. to become Brahman. to enjoy there perfect felicity without fear of new births or of further us. transmigration. while with Samkaia.

but is looked upon by him as Lower Know- Brahman as the Lower Brahman. together. 4. and his tolerated worship (upisana).ea of God would to be in his eyes the same. and even the recommended as practically useful. is it worshipped as (Ved. That Brahman is called aparam.Sawzkara. though differing on what we should condo not accuse the fol- most essential points. with freedom from karman (works) and from further transmigration after death. What RamSnu^ salvation. a pratika or persona of the Godhead. whether of philosophy or The followers of 5a»zkara lowers of Ramintr^ of downright error (mithyadar^ana). the we might almost is say as persona or the trpoirainou of the Godhead. he is often worshipped by RSminu^ and his numerous followers. that this life even in (^tvan all mukti). the outward face or appearance only. knowledge alone that can produce eternal recovered Brahmanhood. it tolerated. such as eternal virtuous man to happiness. lower. It seems strange that the followers of these two schools of Vedanta have so long lived in peace and harmony sider the religion. even under such popular names as Vishnu or Naraya«a. and this. and being a merely personal God. and. Sfltra III. the personal personal trvara or Lord would be conceived as the pratika. 52). is ']'] thus represents as the highest truth and as the highest goal to be reached by a man seeking It for is not altogether rejected by . salvation. The Jewish and Christian id. and sagu«am. But it is true is. qualified. though ignorant. With ^kwkara that ledge. but . A worship of that may lead the pious God makes and the God be what he it is. in fact with freedom from the law of causality.EKAM ADVITIYAM.

though due to Avidya. das Ding an sick. or illusion. him- not say that it is it is or that that it is not real. that for all practical purposes (vyavahira) the It phenomenal world may be treated as even seem to tion in exist (videri) real. to every kind of itself which does not intrench tion behind the ramparts of revelaa natural approach and miracle. is to What it is phenomenal A is not nothing. or if only our eyes. they are phenomenal. to adapt religion any other philosophy. The difficulty is to find to it from the position which we occupy in looking at philosophical and religious problems. by the withdrawal of AvidyS. first sight this Vedtnta-philosophy no doubt. I tried before to open . of. inevitable Avidya. Even the phenomenal world and the individual souls. is lute. and it it is the aim of the Vedinta- philosophy to annihilate proving thereby. are opened see the truth. but have their reality in Brahman of Nescience only.78 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKitrSH^A. could not founda- unless it had its real is Brahman. All he can say is that there. Besides. it by Vidysi. always the appearance of that which call is and remains whether we the Brahman. the Unknowable. self will Sa.mksxa. as we saw. it in Kantian language. the Absoor. even by the strictest monists. recognised. humanly speaking. nay. that Avidyi is. but real. not real. the Atman. considered as empty or false. itself to that one wonders why should not have been discovered by the philosophers of any other It seems to solve all difficulties but one. Nescience by science. it but after some time one grows it so familiar with it and becomes so fond of country. is would seem. start- At ling. are not. The only riddle that remains Avidyd or Nescience. often called MayS.

the thoughts or as architypes of all phenomenal things. is names and forms. That Brahman can the easily be proved to have originally meant word. names and what idea. apparently is the very opposite of that of the VedSnta. Nama-rfipa. the result of Nescience or AvidyS. but as Nama-rupa. without a second. in order to cannot be doubted. in its another version.EKAM ADVITIYAM. It is curious only that what the Greek philosophers called the logoi. Lest it should be supposed that I had assimilated the Hindu idea . Neo-Platonism. what all is 79 the cause of things? and we met with the answer that that cause must be one. Avidya or Nescience was called in to explain what cannot be denied —the names variety of our sensations. express the same words are thoughts realised. because the very presence of a second would limit and condition that which unlimited and unconditioned. whether of Brahman or of the Godhead. that the world dialectic progress represents the idea in from mere being to the highest manifestations of thought. and Logoi. and still Christian philosophy more striking. or.nta. namely. makes though coincidence between VedS. the constant changes in the world by which we are surrounded. one of its doors by asking the question. namely. it would be hazardous to think of any historical connexion between these ancient conceptions of a rational universe. explain what is to be We saw how. the whole creation the word or the expression of eternal thoughts. nevertheless the same. were by the Vedanta treated not as the expressions of Divine Wisdom or of Sophia. only looked at from a lower and higher point of view. names and forms. that as is named. This Greek conception.

147. to exercise exists intelligence. . c. 1. Such an however. and when the opponent remarks is that intelligence telligence. Nama-rupa. but as a system of thought with which modifications. He holds that Brah- man is pure intelligence. Here the Hindu philosopher would step in at once and say that ' "'. 75. pp. 60 seq. or ourselves nearer to the may be looked upon not simply as a and curious system. that living in the is the words of the Veda ^' mind of the creator even before the creation Might not this have been written by Plato himself? Ti'uGi (r€aUTiSi>. know thyself. Das System des Veddnta. so that strange ourselves. We may try now to it another door for an entrance into the Vedanta-philosophy. even before the creation. as being with Brahman and becoming the origin of the world. possible only : if there are objects of inif he replies 'As the sun would shine even there were no objects to illuminate. which. p.v I subjoin a literal translation ^awkara's commentary (p. Cf.8o THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJJ/SHiVA. 96. of the word. nay. too closely to the Greek conception of a passage in of the Logos. ' ' See Denssen. which may help in bringing the Vedanta nearer Vedinta. Deussen. vyS^iklrshite). Brahman would be intelli- gence even his if there were no objects on which object. the names and forms. with certain we can appropriate for our own purposes One of the most ancient commands of Greek philosophy was the famous Tvadt o-eaurdv. as yet undeveloped. i). namely. we can sympathise. but striving for development (avyakwte.

indeed. air<5s we can never reach. this. na. that we cannot go beyond the senses. is. is In the true sense of the word. the aurdi. postulate. but which except by hypothesis. this is likewise the very highest object of their 8 own philo- sophy. cannot be the body. to us through we see that all we know comes the five senses of seeing. and smelling. First of all then the Vedanta would say. See the Self by the Self! But like true philosophers they would let no word pass unchallenged. no. atros. No. because sooner or later ceases to be. and that what we call knowledge consists in the not of any realities. or that which is what we are. but they are only the instruments of our knowledge. we not say that our senses or Self? senses The Vedantist would Our are wonderful indeed. hearing. as which we may underlying these images. they G . called a philosophy of negation. Not not that. only that they express it more fully by Atmanam atmanS. tasting. sat. the Self. that we our never have nor can have more than sensuous images of the world and of ourselves.1 TNOei 2EAYT0N. which tries to arrive at the truth by a repeated denial of what cannot be the defines its It often own character by Na. has it no right to be called being. and nothing can ever cease to be. not eternal. it is not real in the highest sense of to If therefore we want know what is truly real. pajya. touching. and would ask at once. the body (deha But or sthflla^arira) cannot be the if aMs or the Self. the body not. first instance of these images. or by the Self ? who or what is meant by the The VedSnta-philosophy has been truth. might as a whole are our reply again. is if it really As the body reality.

namely. of action. They are to us states of consciousness. we should call much vanish. ether. viz. they perish with the body. or vi^nina exists. arise and and cannot as the body. little states of less our They come and be called real go. Besides the five Hindus senses call ^«Snendriyas. as In all these images we may distinguish the subject or the active element. Self. the elements also . and the object or the passive element. The images brought to us by the senses. corresponding to touching water. moving. they are not even our Ego. existence. and cannot therefore constitute our real senses which the Self. grasping. and procreation. the latter for action from within to without (karman). corresponding to hearing. kinds. sponding to seeing . or in the form of knowledge its and can exist as only. The passive or objective elements are what call matter. therefore or eternal. on which we depend for all our knowledge. and earth. only.82 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. corresponding to tasting. light. is according to the divided into five by which perceived. the former five being intended for action from without to within (upalabdhi). But though to us elementary matter known. corresponding to This is all that we can legitimately mean by the five elements. the it Vedanta does not deny its reality. corre. air. senses of knowledge. This is an idea peculiar to the Hindus. the senses of excretion. it we are ac- customed to five senses and is this matter. smelling. they admit five other senses which they call karmendriyas. speaking. form part of our body. whatever may say about If the objects of our sensuous knowledge are all the result of Avidya. are what consciousness.

for instance. first. then Ap. The as first represented as red. far A would seem. ether. is This so-called V&nMk&xa. if As. and as constituent elements of the human body they are 2 . however. and this threefold division is actually found in the . These three elements in also are represented being mixed G three proportions. one element each element only. five-folded. with the addition of akSja.na. of a later age to which we owe such works diiferent and. as it as the very popular Vedantasira. however. the third as black. as sup- plying food. or. the second as white. would seem to have been three.TNaei SEAYTON.Oandogya. without being is mixed up with is. including and lastly light. that to contain one preponderating and small portions of the others. fire. sensations correspond- nomenal ing to others. water. where the three elements are called Anna. reality. The most primitive conception of the constituent elements of the world. in the ancient VedSnta. the . namely. VI. there are few. Te^s. must share that fate. or quintupling it not to be found. it It is true that Anna means is otherwise food. These three elements could not possibly be overlooked. as they are arranged there.OSndogya Upanishad five. 2. and what is watery. as the vehicle of sound. and Ap. what is fiery. is more primitive conception of the elements found in the Upanishads. earth. 83 and cannot claim more than a pheany. but can here be taken in the sense of earth only. Anna. belongs to the refinements. supposed to be quality. and not always improvements. however. Te^s. and warmth. or. We generally find in India four elements. what is earthy.

no. and life. blood. no. No. which must be permanent and real it is an instrument only. and there- fore called anta/%kara«a —the inner organ. the earthy portion being manifested in faeces. the Manas. that this central sense also falls It . It is and producing nothing but confusion. they cannot we are real. But though language. as a doorkeeper. which must be unchanging. and Manas. as we are told. marrow. It is it may be used in that sense in ordinary has a narrower meaning for the central in Sanskrit philosophy. originally. all treated as material. represented as passing through three forms of development. This. Manas it is etymologically closely connected with mens and has therefore been generally translated by mind. it applies with equal strength to what is sometimes called the eleventh sense. cannot be the Self. should not be allowed to preis judice us against what simple and primitive and rational in these depositories of ancient thought. and speech. they are not what in search of. and eternal. easy to show under the Vedantic No. Can these passive and active senses be the Self? the Vedantist says again. the watery portion in urine. flesh. We see here the . But if it is asked. There are many of these purely fanciful speculations to be found in the Upanishads. be the airos. the fiefy portion in bones. pre- venting the impressions of the different senses from rushing in simultaneously. and as products of the earthy element. however.84 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. If this applies to the ten senses. meant and combining organ of the This Manas performs faculty senses of perception and action. what we ascribe to the : of attention (avadhana) it acts.

l. the example of others and translate or Verstand. if we mostly done. With us Verstand is what distinguishes men from animals. by soul. the confusion becomes still greater when we attempt Atman. it was supposed at a peculiar later time that each must have if it its own meaning. as is For instance. that we are embarrassed rather than helped by this wealth. it The worst of is that as there are so many words. and. as would seem. going on within our antaAkara«a.rNOei 2EAYT0N. not even. 258. while in it the Vedanta Manas is not denied to animals. itself It is easy to understand that each language by can seldom give us well-defined terms for the various manifestations of our perceptive and reasoning powers. same confusion which exists elsewhere. And if we were to follow Manas by understanding is we should render what meant as chiefly a perceptive and arranging faculty by a name that implies reasoning from the lowest to the highest form. p. scholastic definition soon came in to assign to each that special meaning which it was to have in future. 85 There is is such an abundance of words expressive of what us.u. our mind in its various manifestations. In the meantime the stream of artificial languages flowed on in complete disregard of such barriers. had not. It to plants ^ seems better therefore to retain as much as possible * Deussen. . and with every new philosophy the confusion greater became if and greater. we should be rendering free from all passions by a word which generally implies the seat of the passions. what is to render the psychological terms of one by translated those of another language.

discrimination. instead of understanding or Verstand. for no more than the But it and superintending perceptive organ. shows his powerful grasp by comprising under Manas. however. Images are formed into concepts and words (sawkalpa). the technical terms of Sanskrit philosophy. the general name activity. being meant at first.^itta. some of which all are sometimes treated as separate faculties. literally vital spirits. The Manas central is then treated. We is shall see that even in Sanskrit itself the confusion very great. itself. has many functions. the PrS«a. but not as one of the Indriyas.msa. and the names of some of them are interchanged with the names of the or what Manas thought. we also find which include the Manas. By the side of the Indriyas. these may be called into question {sa. Sawzkara. PrS/zas. it This simplifies his psychology very much. though may lead to misunderstandings also. thought Vi^«ana. of Manas. there being modated or more terms than can be accombe kept distinct one from the other. or mind or thought. . for perception is and mental . and as a conditio sine so-called qua non. the vital breath. or senses. and to speak of Atman or the Self instead of soul. like the senses. that passes from Mukhya the lungs through the mouth. or possibly mind. sometimes understanding. as part of the body. I believe. for instance.86 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RlMAK/i/SHiVA. so that Manas is sometimes reason. if not to say foolish. and which again in a very artificial. We have Buddhi. manner is divided into five varieties. Manas gives us the images (Vorstellungen) which consist of the contributions of the different senses fixes it .ya. it tells us this is this (nij/^aya) and (adhyavasSya).).

AaddhS. Dhl. were etymo- logically rather than from definitions given by ^a»zkara himself. are any of thfe Manas. 87 (vikalpa) against each other. Dhriti. i. there are two things presupposed. self-consciousness or Ahamkira. Vi^ikitsS. Manas. and weighed judgements. Dht. so as to give us Here then we should have it in a rough form the elements of our psychology. nay of my Ego. the other he to we speak of my distinguish senses. whom my it belongs. but Self. or simply we mean Brahman. the Ego-making. or Buddhi.. or shame. or Xitta. wisdom. the true and eternal It is clear that when we say my body. Adhr/ti. and judgements. But we should never say : my because that is tautological the Self cannot belong to any one else. fear. they are composite. one thing the body. such as KSma. and consequently the distinguishing between subjects and objects. No. TNOei 2EAYT0N. the Self of all. unbelief. So again when mind. According to him.e. are all or any of these the true Self? the Vedantist answers again. nay even i. our Ego. we were to say my Self. Brahman as hidden within us and If if . they come and they of. but must be confessed that they were never minutely elaborated by the Vedanta assigned philosophers. concepts. images. cannot be what we are in search Self.— . desire. doubt. different Even the meanings here assigned to the so psychological terms. all are the Aha^zkara. Manas gives us everything impressions. attributes of But when we ask. is the Manas. Hrt. decision. they are temporal. Ajraddhd. wavering. we could only mean we say our Self. belief. no . they go. between a possessor and what for the being he possesses. e. we time Self.

but something beyond. for the Atman ? to The Greek sages have hardly any answer to give . This was discovered in the lotus of the heart it in true Self-consciousness. so to say. the Vedantist them the was seldom more than the Ego. the Vedinta-philosophy . Then what remains auTcSs for the airos. something not touched by the law of causality. vanishes and there remains the this Sukshma-. was discovered as not-personal Giva. enjoying. they are reduced to a seminal within the world. it says all that the Self all not. is As I said before. At the time of death the organs of knowbefore us. the body that migrates from birth to birth and becomes again But when real and again a Sthula-&rira.Sarira also he was and always will be. nor acting. dwelling selves will decay. 88 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. the it remained for ever a mere looker-on. a material body. untouched by anything. Ahawzkara. and though the outward organs thempowers remain. a philosophy is of negation it says No. while with it is distinctly not the Ego as opposed to a Non-Ego. their potentia or in what is called the Sfikshma-^Sarira. something neither suffering. though dwelling in the personal or living Atman. but what the Self defies all words and thoughts. no. it is still.. freedom has once been obtained. but that without which neither gross nor the subtile this the true airSs. . ledge are not supposed to be destroyed absolutely.. but while there is another life or potential form only. body could ever exist. nor the Self. is. or Brahman as The form assumed by the determined by the deeds : body in every new existence is and thoughts during former existences under the law of causality. the subtile body. Atman only.

does not doubt. This is the Self in the innermost the sky. as the Veda says. this I shall become when parting from hence. He who has this. larger than the larger than all worlds. or of this III. One Power. unconcerned one. silent. The the allall- working. till breath. whether we call it the Brahman or the Atman. Its will is truth. silent and unconcerned. we Upanishad II. all-tasting one.TNOei 2EAYT0N. but these attempts never go so far as a definition of these two.' This subject as is treated again and again. larger than the atmosphere. life body. embracing the Universe. light (ether). Very it much we saw is it treated in the in the Taittiriya ^Mndogya. earth. is this the Self in the innermost heart. being. all-scenting. all-willing. There are passages in the Upanishads where attempts are made to bring us nearer to a conception of the Self. then the thought. It is this Self . it works all. One till find treated covering after another there removed. 89 Our thoughts and our words return from it baffled. larger than it. is embracing. it scents all. First vital there remains in the is end reit the pure Self. and with at last nothing remains is but the Self full of This called the sap or the essence. this Brahman. smaller than a mustard- seed or the kernel of heart. the its and the end of its all. the body of flesh and blood moved. it tastes all. then the Manas. In the XHndogya Upanishad is we read: 'Surely this universe Brahman. 14. It form. It should be worshipped in silence as the beginning. its Self the infinite wills all. Its matter is thought. 1-7. This is the Self in the innermost heart. bliss.

without a second. and rest in the invisible. nor gross he is without parts. finding peace the immaterial.' is Whether such a being is can be called he. if the Self real the world is not. neither subtile activity. without fraud. viz.. nor she. and the second. short. without is without spot. this. without beginning or end. the same final result. . the unfathomable. go THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAK/e/SHWA. however wise a says : ' man may think himself. for he neither he It in the very highest sense of that un- differentiated pronoun. nor fearing anything. one sense of the word.' Every name that can be imagined is ex- pressing what really inexpressible. long as anything else is left. Both may. hidden anywhere. perceived in this changing is and that our own Self too can be nothing that in perceived as changing. never growing old. the inexpressible. not fading nor dying. as being born. arrive at eternal. be called nothings in reality that in is though they are everything else is comparison with which is nothing. he is without and within. We thus see that both methods. still. is If the world real the Self not. he unborn. that brings bliss. Brahman . as living and dying. is that the Self of the world can be nothing that world. there is So no peace and no Or. rest. he is very doubtful. the first that started from the postulate that the true Self must be one. is is assigned in the neither long nor Upanishads to Brahman. as 'YS^avalkya He who knows knows for everything. which holds that the true Self must be unchanging.

only reached by methods. and without an argument is that everything that called mystic has really nothing to do with either religion or philosophy. Good works. TAT TVAMASI. whether milk. the full reality gods of the world are gods phenomenally. that because good works in- cannot secure salvation. metamor- phosed and hidden time by AvidyS. 9 1 Then is follows the final conclusion that these two Selfs are different one and the same. Final Conclusion. These ideas date. but . have already drawn attention to the false reasoning. according to the Vedanta. but always recoverable by VidyS or by the Vedanta-philosophy. certainly do not lead straight to salvation. I carried to last consequences. but even without the schools they seem to be imbibed with the mother's They are often exaggerated and caricatured so as become repulsive to a European mind. but in their purity and simplicity they contain an amount of truth which can no longer be safely neglected by any student.FINAL CONCLUSION. but the same may be if said of almost every religion its and every philosophy. but in all are the Godhead. to of philosophy or religion. Man man phenomenally. or disposed of as mystic. That it may lead to dangerous consequences no one would deny. call for a it Atman or Brahman. It can no longer be put aside as merely curious. the world is world phenomenally. Tat tvamasi. without a definition of what is meant by mystic. or Nescience. therefore bad works also are different or harmless. in a more or less popular form seem to earliest to pervade the Hindu mind from the the latest They are taught in the schools.

that That a Saint cannot what sense sin. cannot be deeply enough impressed on apostles likely to the minds of the modern in the of Ramak«sh«a that nothing would be more lower their master and their own work eyes of serious people than the slightest moral laxity on their part. above morality. on to they represent the salvation. another that he should from any defect of knowledge lapse from his passionless state it and perfect could not be imputed to him as a httle uncertainty on that point even but we know as yet far sin. There are too many passages in which strict morality is enjoined as a sine qua non for Vedintic freedom to allow any one to use a few doubtful passages in defence of immorality. of Spinoza and Kant. from the Vedanta. I confess there is among ancient authorities. but as helping us partial on towards Every one of these contains . has it been held true not in India in this It is only. not as containing dry. but is easily seen either true or false. cut the' truth. a Knower. Sciens non peccat. to begin to criticise to improve We and study the systems of Plato and Aristotle. It is one thing to say that such a man cannot sin because his passions if are completely subdued. the full and perfect truth. too Uttle of the classical Veddntic writings to speak with confidence on such a point. or a defence of any such laxity on the ground is that a G«anin. When we it have will first learnt all that can be learnt it. or. if possible.92 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF first RAMAK/J/SHiVA. be time it. whether in India or at home. while evil essential step that leads deeds form a barrier that keeps a first man or from making even the step in his progress towards knowledge and beatitude.

TAT TVAMASI. 93 truths which might easily be proved to lead to dangerous consequences. as shown by one of representatives.FINAL CONCLUSION. down to Herder. in dialectic genetic or development. That the illustration of this evolu- tionary process of the world. a historical study of its all philosophy. should stand incomparably higher than anything attempted from R^manuga. It is most unfair to represent a man Darwin. I am not concerned with Indian its philosophy. its illustration like of it quite another. so that we may not be swayed by every itself as philosophical breeze that announces it new. that there should have been an angry contest as to the first who was really discoverer of what has been discussed again last and but again during the if two thousand years. rejected by Samkaxa. and. in our time It will hereafter sound almost incredible that the philosophical public should have been startled by the idea of evolution as a philosophical novelty. the very thing which he himself would have most strongly deprecated. who was the most eminent observer of nature. What is necessary to us at present. who would deny ? historian of philosophy the idea is But to the one thing. an abstract philosopher. more is than at any previous time. At present. nay. the evolution advocated by Rdminu^. however. What is pari«ama. may be. He himself distinguishes very clearly between philosophy or Gnina (knowledge) and . far more thoroughly than by its most recent advocates. Jiure ef simple. not evolution. Ramak«sh«a. though it has been discussed again and again before. but with effects its on the recent popular mind of India. that of India not excluded. as a philosopher. as given in our time..

a philosophical treatise. the so-called at. clear that From all we can learn. Calcutta. knowledge. a dreamer of dreams. arrived at by long continued such a pitch faint of nervous excitability that he could at any moment away or fall into a state of unconsciousness. he simply poured out short sayings. and the shades I of the it atmosphere in which he moved. by a powerful control of his breath. he recognised the Divine Presence where enthusiast. 'Rsimakrishfia. if it least suspected.' the anthor with a telescopic. But such dreams also have a attention right to exist. or in a trance. is fully The Hindu System of Religions Science and says. Gnhia. and ascetic exercises. ' Art. and the people came was at the to listen to them. thought useful to add a in short sketch of Vedantic thought. he was a poet. ^ This Samadhi may be looked however. whether the speaker full time in possession of his faculties. an you like. and he himself was a Bhakta. or the Revelations of ' Rationalism and Emotionalism. or in a dream.94 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAK/tTSHiVA. Bhakti reciprocates the Supreme Loving . devotion.. C^ana Will. discovers the Supreme Intelligence. much more than a GnSnm and that It was in order to show the background lights from which Ramakr/sh«a emerges. a worshipper' or lover of the deity. treated by Kishori Lai Sarkar in his interesting little book. and Gnina. Bhakti with a. and have a claim on our never composed and sympathy. or a knower. Samadhi. from This difference between Bhakti. sees GnSjia. the discoverer of a new idea or the pro- pounder of any new view of the world. microscopic eye. Bhakti feels the sweetness. 1898.' perceives the essence. or. things which others But he saw many had not was seen. Ramakr«sh«a was nC sense of the word an original thinker. it is quite he had. devotion or Bhakti.

as one recovers but the true Samidhi consists in losing oneself or finding oneself entirely in the Supreme only Spirit. but even death could body and recovered his breath only.&m. for during which the soul is supposed to be with Brahman a time.. sleeping with dreams. the had always Self. one of the four states. by means of a small efficacy of their remnant of to and through the become the instructors is and saviours of mankind. he remained so long that his friends were afraid it he would never return to consciousness. had become what will be. sleeping without dreams. the Highest glory. freed from all the clouds of appearances.THE SAYINGS OF two RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. B. is This deep. as either purely physical or as psychical. and so last at the was at time of his death. it and dying. He had fallen into a trance. his Self. His sayings or Logia were collected and written down by some were translated into Sanskrit .'krtBhna.a. but able to return. that can return. 95 From points. A few it men who have wish reached are enabled to return from their Ego. in all been and always its Atman. is From this Samidhi there is no return. no longer it had Brahmahood. its lay hold of his his. because there nothing left it. unconscious sleep waking. an ordinary SaraSdhi a man may recover from a fainting fit. in Bengali. The Sayings of his pupils. With Ramakn'sh^ea fallen into this often happened that when he had in it deep sleep. Some- thing very like Samadhi the state of deep dreamless sleep. personality. and of the whole phenomenal world. and he never awoke. and independent of individuality.

and he he was. of which there are several collections. from repetitions and contradictions. because they are in prose. He himself never wished to appear different from what he was. for he was ignorant of English. much to leave out some of insipid. uttered evidently on the spur of the moment. not such as we wish him often seems to have Besides. I thought at first of arranging them under different heads. collection of I received a complete Viveka- them from 'KS. and not from books. but found that this would have destroyed their character and made them rather monotonous reading. are different. I had done made himself out worse than so. and by no means I his sayings.men who would not have been ashamed of suspecting me .&makrishna. and tinged here and there with European ideas which must have reached RSmakr/sh«a through his intercourse with Anglo-Indians. as I believe they are. in metrical form. with such corrections only as seemed absolutely necessary. to our mind.'s own pupil.vaakn'shna. however. I give them as they were sent to me. The sayings of 'R. suggested by the impulses of the moment. well States known by his missionary labours in the United and England. they seem in bad taste. they give a true picture of the man and free of his way of teaching. into English. nanda. such to he was. or even blasphemous. But should I not in doing so have offended against historic truth? We want to know the man who has exercised and as is exercising so wide an influence. if have been. I know that there are . Sanskrit sayings. There are many that remind us of old all.96 and THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rXnLAKRISUNA. should have liked because. but by no means very systematic.

97 of a wish to represent the religions of the East. ticularly VivSkS. and the indifferent. as better than they really are.. described in India as the trick of to sell or to the rice-merchants who wish buy a rice-field. and may continue to do good for centuries to come. a very old trick. tares No. find many a lesson to learn from Ramakr?sh. some truth that will startle them as coming from so unexpected a quarter. on the other hand. but which in India has done good. I have to thank my friend Mozoomdar. which may seem too high and too spiritual for is ordinary mortals. would be easier than to pick out a saying here and and thus This is to show that they are all insipid and foolish.THE SAYINGS OF and very RAMAK/JZSHJVA. doing good. both ancient. the bad. are interesting because they represent an important phase of thought. for the ready help they have rendered me in publishing this collection of the sayings of their departed Master. more par- and several of the disciples of RAmakrishna. there. an attempt to give prominence to the devotional and practical side of the Vedanta. will They make it clear that the Vedinta also possesses a morality of its own. the good. and who offer you a handful of good or bad either valuable or worthless. I said. H .za's sayings.nanda and the editor of the Brahmavadin. In conclusion. and because they show the compatibility of the Vedinta with other religions. grains to show that the field is To my mind these sayings. let the Few thoughtful readers will go through them without finding some thought that makes them ponder. modem These are the wheat and the men who would remain together. Nothing.

water.THE SAYINGS OF RAMAIC^/SHiVA\ Thou no 1. viz.' another 'vtri.' and another 'pa«i' —so is the one Sat-^t-ananda. not red. both went to the person who always lived under that tree and had watched the chameleon in all its phases of colour. 3. and by others as Brahman.' You are mistaken. but Not being able to settle the matter by arguments. but findest them not when the sun are stars. but their publication will have to wait for another opportunity. is called As one and the same material. Canst thou say that there then. because thou beholdest not the Almighty in the days of thy ignorance.' a third 'aqua. is no God. blue. seest many stars at night in the sky. tree One said. by some as Hari. . said. say not that there 2. rises. contradicting the chameleon is him. Two is persons were hotly disputing as to the colour of a chameleon.' ' The chameleon on that palmThe other. O man. the Everlasting-Intelligent-Bliss. different people by different names by —one calling it ' water. ' of a beautiful red colour. invoked by some as God. by some as Allah. ' Some more of R^akrtsh»a's sayings have been sent to me lately. in the heaven of day? So.

is sir. it is blue. and 'The elephant and said.' The ' person knew that the chameleon its an was animal that constantly changes that it he said yes ' to both these conflicting statements. 4. The devotee who has seen God in one aspect only. But he who has seen Him in His manifold aspects. The third belly.' That person again humbly colour. is not the chameleon on that tree of a red colour?' other disputant said. ? ' to dispute amongst themselves passer-by seeing that as to the figure of the elephant. 'Yes.' The What do you say ? How is it ? It is ' not red. in that very form and name you will Him. The elephant is like a winnowing basket. In whatsoever name or form call Him. ' like a big The fourth touched the ears. ' All these forms are of one God. 'Yes.THE One of them said. The person replied. 'What you are disputing about They told him ' everything.' The elephant The second touched is the trunk. The Sat-^it4nanda likewise has various forms.' He has forms and has and many are His forms which no one knows.' like a thick stick or said. and like a pillar.' is 'The elephant touched the jar. A is it them thus arbitrate. are the Many that lead us to you desire to see names of God. and said. 99 Sir. knows Him in that aspect alone. and infinite the forms know Him. is alone in a position to say. ' One is touched the leg of the elephant. of and asked him to That man said. elephant. Four blind men went to 5. see an said. sir. God is multiform. None you H 2 . club.' Thus they began quarrelling. ' SAYINGS. said. thus replied. for no forms.

but His aspects are different is as one master of the house father to one. so one God is described and called in various ways according to the . why God is painted differently by different A. brother to another.. who have seen one aspect only of the birds in As the same sugar is made into various figures of and beasts. and is called by these different persons. loving to call Though He may be worshipped variously.: lOO THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJUSBNA. its ears are like winnowing baskets. having is different forms and names. If the is it then that the religionists ? God of every religion is the same. its legs are like pillars. but elephant is proboscis all is like that. so one God ages. It is belly is like a water-vessel. Q. The It is has seen the elephant. yet it is one is God that being worshipped in all these various relations and modes. different and husband to a names by those third. &c. 8. so one sweet Mother Divine is worshipped various climes and ages under various names and forms. not like a winnowing It is basket. The the combination of quarrel these. not like a big water-vessel. its not like a thick stick or club. its elephant is not like a pillar. some him Father. As with one gold and various ornaments are made. 7. worshipped in forms and different countries and has different names.' In the same manner those Deity. God is one. e. creeds are Different but different paths to reach the Almighty. others Mother.

Similarly. yet every place is not fit to be visited by for water may be used washing our serve the purpose of ablution. at all . and others again may not be touched are different kinds of places. a pillow-case. though it is the Almighty dwells in every place. e. jars. man. in His various aspects) by His devotees. As one kind of another may and others may be drunk. so there We may approach some. is —but all are made of one clay. cotton. but is all contain the same black. but the Divine dwells in them 12. we can enter into the inside of others. 9. so one God is enjoyed different 10. U. is 13.THE particular aspect in SAYINGS. but we must not go and face the animal. So is all. dishes. lOI which He appears to His particular worshipper. All waters are brooded over by Nariya^a. but worshipped in aspects. others we must avoid. another black. a fourth wicked. So it is true that God dwells . One and the may be made to taste differently. another blue. &c. feet. but every fit kind of water true that is not for drink. but his aspects are many. according to the modes of preparing it. is plates. Man be is like The colour of one may is red. In a potter's shop there are vessels of different shapes and forms — pots. So God one. it is with man —one beautiful. one another holy. even at a distance. It true that God is even in the tiger. same fish variously (i. different ages and climes under different names and God is one.

it. but have not realised . move away in his mind. is The Master said: 'Everything that exists it literally. he met with an The driver (m^hut) shouted aloud from his The pupil argued high place. Niriya«a. than in those who have gained no such 15. Why did you not pay heed to his warnings ? 16. so As many have merely heard of snow but not many are the religious preachers who have read attributes of seen only in books about the God. and obeyed by a large following. God. nay. you are The elephant is God also. ' ! ' ' Thinking thus he did not move. 'All right. While he was passing through a elephant. The Master said. the Supreme 18. be regarded is as one. who are honoured. His scripture (the Bhigavata). The pupil understood but not in the true street. i. Spirit.' ' I02 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHJVA. and dashed him aside. The manifestation of the Divinity must be under- stood to be in greater degree in those respected. influence. but associate with the wicked. is Man or animal. sage or knave. God. in one and the same 17. Move away. are all to and His devotee light. God. He was and going back to his Master. not meet that we should 14. he related the whole adventure. Every being Niriyawa. At last the elephant took him up by his trunk. the whole universe.' spirit. but God in the shape of the elephant-driver was warning you also from above. it is even in the most wicked. severely hurt. so What fear has God of Himself? is the elephant also God.e. Why should I move away ? I am God.

now God now as a lover. also. he alone can tell what are the attributes of God. or and when that ceases to act. i. it. in the body. As the lamp does not burn without live so man cannot without God. God tells the thief to go and and at the same time warns the householder against the 23. &c. stop. Put the pot with its ingredients on the it it.. So it is the fire of Brahman man that causes the mind and the fire senses to perform their functions. be so hot as to burn your finger when you touch But the heat does not belong to the tained in in it. oil. 21. and yet apart from . in different aspects. He who has tasted He who has enjoyed now as a servant.THE SAYINGS. nor anything con- but is in the fire. am the judge that condemneth and the executioner 22. rice in will it. in the thief. snow can say the society of as a friend. &c. pot. pot. ? How body doth the Lord dwell in the body like the plug of a syringe. them tasted in their lives. it what is like. that whippeth. fire . ' I am I the snake that biteth and the charmer that healeth. the senses the organs. it. Says God. He dwells e. and the or potato.' steal. but have not understood its real essence. 20. or as being absorbed in Him. 19. IO3 not got And as so many are the religious teachers many may have seen but who have the only a glimpse of Divine Glory. The human body is like a boiling mind and the senses are like water.

I04
24.

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKRISHNA.
The Lord can
pass an elephant through the eye of

a needle.
25.

He

can do whatever

He

likes.

As

fishes playing in a

pond covered over with reeds
outside, so

and scum cannot be seen from
the heart of a

God

plays in

man

invisibly,

being screened by MiyS, from

human
28.

view.

A man

sitting

under the shade of the Kalpa-v«Tisha

(wishing-tree) wished to

be a king, and

in to

an instant he
have a charm-

was a king.

The

next

moment he wished
if

ing damsel, and the damsel was instantly by his side.

The

man

then thought within himself,
!

a

tiger

came and

devoured him, and alas
a tiger
!

in

an instant he was
:

in the jaws of

God

is

like that wishing-tree
is

whosoever in His

presence thinks that he
such, but he
all his

destitute

and poor, remains as
fulfils

who

thinks and believes that the Lord

wants, receives everything from

Him.

27.

The

landlord

may be

very rich, but
to

when a poor
satis-

cultivator brings a
heart,

humble present

him with a loving

he accepts

it

with the greatest pleasure and

faction.

28. While a bell

is

being rung, the repeated ding-dongs

can be distinguished one from the other, but when we
stop ringing, then an undistinguishable sound only remains
audible.
other, as

We
if

can

easily distinguish

one note from the
;

each distinct note had a certain shape

but the

continued and unbroken sound when the ding-dongs have
ceased
of the
is

undistinguishable, as

if

formless.

Like the sound

bell,

God

is

both with and without form.

;

THE SAYINGS.

IO5

29. As a boy begins to learn writing by drawing big
scrawls, before

he can master the small-hand, so we must

learn concentration of the

mind by fixing it first on forms and when we have attained success therein, we can easily
fix it

upon the

formless.

30. As a marksman learns to shoot by first taking aim at large and big objects, and the more he acquires the facility,
the greater becomes the ease with which he can shoot at
the
smaller marks

on the

target, so

when

the

mind has
it

been trained to be fixed on images having form,
easy for 31.
it

becomes

to
is

be fixed upon images having no form.
the Absolute and Eternal Brahman, as well

God

as the Father of the Universe.
is like

The

indivisible

Brahman
limits,

a vast shoreless ocean, without bounds and
I

in

which

can only struggle and sink.

But when

I

approach the always sportive (active) personal Deity (Hari),
I get peace, like the sinking

man who
is

nears the shore.

32.

God

is

formless,

and

with form too, and

that which transcends both form

and formlessness.

He is He
the

alone can say what else

He

is.

33. At a certain stage of his path of devotion,

devotee finds satisfaction in
stage, in

God

with form; at another

God

without form.

34.

The God
As
at

with form

is

visible,

nay,

we can touch

Him
35.

face to face, as with one's dearest friend.

one time
is

I at

am

clothed,

and

at another time

naked, so Brahman

one time with

attributes

and

at

another without.

;

I06
36.

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJJ/SHiVA.
As water when congealed becomes
is

ice,

so the visible

form of the Almighty

the materialised manifestation of
It

the all-pervading formless Brahman.
in fact, Sat-^it-inanda solidiiied.

may be
ice,

called,

As the

being part

and

parcel of the water, remains in the water for a time
in
it,

and afterwards melts
remains
appears.

so the Personal

God
into

is

part

and

parcel of the Impersonal.
there,

He

rises

from the Impersonal,
it

and ultimately merges

and

dis-

87. His
too,

name

is

Intelligence
is

;

His abode

is

Intelligence

and He, the Lord,

Intelligence Himself.

38.

Two

are the occasions

when
is

the Lord smiles,

first,

when

brothers remove the chains which partition off the

family property, saying, 'This

mine and
is

that

is

thine;'

and secondly, when the patient and the physician
says,
'

on the point of death,

I will cure him.'

30. Lunatics, drunkards, and children sometimes give

out the truth unconsciously, as

if

inspired by Heaven.

40. The sun
the Lord

is

many

times larger than the earth, but
it

owing to the great distance
is

appears like a small disk.

So
far

infinitely great,
fall

but owing to our being too

from

Him we

very, very short of

comprehending His

real greatness.

41.

Knowingly or unknowingly, consciously or unconwhatever state we utter His name,

sciously, in

we

acquire

the merit of such utterance.
into a river

A man who voluntarily goes

and bathes therein gets the benefit of the bath

,

THE SAYINGS.
so does likewise he
another, or

I07
into the river

who has been pushed

by

who

while sleeping soundly has water thrown

upon him by another.
42. Satan never enters the house wherein are always

sung the praises of Hari.
43.

A king having committed the mortal crime of killing
in order to

a Brihma^a, went to the hermitage of a sage to learn what

penance he must perform

be

purified.

sage was absent from home, but his son was there.

son hearing the case of the king,
of

said,

'

Repeat the

The The name

God (Rama) three times and your sin will be expiated.' When the sage came back and heard the penance prescribed
by
in his son,

he said to him in great wrath,
at

'

Sins committed

myriads of births are purged

once by but once uttering

the

name

of the Almighty ;.

O

son, that thou hast
!

how weak must be thy faith, ordered that name to be repeated
go and become a KinXlindkla. of the

thrice
dala,.'

For

this olfence of thine

And

the son

became the Guhaka

RS.miya«a.
44. Consciously or unconsciously, in whatever way one
falls

into

the trough of nectar, one becomes immortal.

Similarly,

whosoever utters the name of the Deity voluntarily

or involuntarily finds immortality in the end.

45. As a large and powerful steamer moves swiftly over
the waters, towing rafts and barges in
its

wake, so when

a Saviour descends,

He

easily carries

thousands across the

ocean of Mllyi

(illusion).

When Bhagav^n . As when . So likewise act the Saviours. it can carry a hundred men.51:1 Rima^andra came to this world. Him to be the God So when God descends into this world. nels. adjacent flxed chanall When are saved through His grace. The Siddha only saves himself with much and trouble. A reed down may sink with the weight of even a crow. seven sages only could recognise incarnate. and makes one watery surface of But the rain-water flows away through the Saviour becomes incarnate. 49.I08 46. 51. it overflows rivers all and streams. few only can recognise His Divine nature. incarnate. one or two of them come then. raft ones) only save When a mighty of wood still it floats down a stream. The Avatira like the or Saviour is the messenger of God. When the flood comes. Christs. to the feet of the Almighty. innumerable are the refiige toil So when a Saviour becomes men who find salvation by taking under Him. lands. They carry multi- tudes of men. 48. He is Viceroy of a mighty monarch. The Siddhas (perfect much pain and penance. down into this world now and and produce mighty changes and revolutions. &c. itself. KrishnsLS. heavily laden with the cares and sorrows of the world. Rimas. On the tree of Sat-^it-inanda there are innumerable . THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmAKR/SHWA. The locomotive engine reaches the destination and also draws and takes with it a long train of loaded wagons. 50. and floating does not sink. themselves with 47.

THE
there
is

SAYINGS.

lOQ

some disturbance
religion in

in a far-off province the king
it;

sends his viceroy to quell

so whenever there

is

any

waning of

any part of the world,

God

sends His

Avatdra there.
52. It
is

one and the same Avat^ra
life,

that,

having plunged
is

into the ocean of

rises

up

in

one place and

known

as
is

Krishna, and diving again

rises in

another place and

known

as Christ.

53. In

great depths of the wells only

some seasons water can be obtained from the and with great difficulty, but
is

when

the country

flooded in the rainy season, water

is
is

obtained with ease everywhere.

So

ordinarily,

God
is

reached with great pains through prayers and penances,
but when the flood of Incarnation descends,

God

seen

anywhere and everywhere.
54.
logist

A

Siddha-purusha (perfect one)

is

like

an archaeo-

who removes The who

the dust and lays open an old well

which was covered up during ages of disuse by rank
growth.
Avatara, on the other hand,
sinks a
is

like a great

engineer

new

well in a place where there was

no water
only

before.

Great

men

can give salvation to those

who have

the waters of piety and goodness hidden

in themselves, but the Saviour saves
is

him too whose

heart

devoid of

all love,

and dry

as a desert.

55. Think not that Rima, Sit^, .Sri Krishnu, R^dh^ Ar^na, &c., were not historical personages, but mere
allegories, or that the Scriptures

have an inner and esoteric

meaning

only.

Nay, they were

human

beings of flesh and

no

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF
are,

RAMAKiJ/SHJVA.

blood just as you
their lives

but because they were Divinities,
historically

can be interpreted both

and

spiritually.

56. the

None knoweth

the immensity of the sacrifice which
it

Godhead maketh when

becomes incarnate or becomes

flesh.

57.

The

Saviours are to

Brahman

as the waves are to

the ocean.

58. What is the state which man and well-cooked food

a Siddha attains ? (A perfect
are

both

called

siddha.

There
&c.,

so

is a pun here on the word.) As potato or brinjal, when boiled properly (siddha), becomes soft and tender, when a man reaches perfection (Siddha) he becomes all

humility and tenderness.

59. Five are the kinds of Siddhas found in
(i)

this

world

:

The Svapna Siddhas
The Mantra Siddhas

are those

who who

attain perfection

by means of dream
(2)

inspiration.

are those

attain perfection

by means of any sacred mantra.
(3)

The

Ha/lfet Siddhas are those

who

attain perfection

suddenly.

As a poor

man may

suddenly become rich by
rich family,

finding a hidden treasure, or

by marrying into a

many sinners become pure all of a sudden, and enter the Kingdom of Heaven. (4) The Kripk Siddhas are those who attain perfection through the tangible grace of the Almighty, as a poor man is made wealthy by the kindness of a king. (5) The Nitya Siddhas are those who are ever-perfect. As a gourd or a pumpkin-creeper brings forth fruit first and
so

THE
then
his
its

SAYINGS.

Ill
all

flower, so the ever-perfect is

born a Siddha, and

seeming exertions

after perfection

are merely for the

sake of setting examples to humanity.

60. There

is

a fabled species of birds called 'Homi,'

which

live so

high up in the heavens, and so dearly love

those regions, that they never condescend to

come down

to

the earth.

Even
fall

their eggs, which,

when

laid in the sky,

begin to

down

to the earth attracted

said to get hatched in the middle of their

by gravity, are downward course
once

and give

birth to the

young ones.

The

fledgelings at

find out that they are falling
their course

down, and immediately change

and begin
instinct.

to fly

up towards

their

home, drawn

thither

by

Men
and

such as Suka. Deva, Nirada,

Jesus, Sa.mkai^ktya.

others, are like those birds,
all

who

even in their boyhood give up

attachments to the things

of this world and betake themselves to the highest regions
of true Knowledge and Divine Light.
called Nitya Siddhas.

These men are

61.

The Divine

sages form, as

it

were, the inner circle of

God's nearest

relatives.

They

are like friends, companions,
circle or

kinsmen of God.

Ordinary beings form the outer

are the creatures of God.

62.

When

the shell of an ordinary cocoa-nut

is

pierced

through, the nail enters the kernel of the nut too.

But

in

the case of the dry nut, the kernel becomes separate from
the
shell,

and so when the

shell is pierced the kernel is
i.e.

not

touched.

Jesus was hke the dry nut,

His inner soul

1 1

2

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAUAKRISUNA.
shell,

was separate from His physical

and consequently

the sufferings of the body did not affect Him.

Once a holy man, while passing through a crowded street, accidentally trod upon the toe of a wicked person. The wicked man, furious with rage, beat the Sadhu merci63.
lessly, till

he

fell

to the

ground in a

faint.

His

disciples

took great pains and adopted various measures to bring

him back

to consciousness,
little,

and when they saw
'

that

he had

recovered a

one of them asked,
'

Sir,

do you recognise
replied,
'

who who

is

attending upon you ?

The Sadhu
finds

He

beat me.'

A true SMhu
foe.

no

distinction

between

a friend and a
64.

The swan can
do
so.

separate the milk from water;

it

drinks only the milk, leaving the water untouched.
birds cannot
Similarly

Other

God

is

intimately

mixed up
a pun

with MiyS. ; ordinary
M3,yi.

men

cannot see

Him

separately from

Only the Paramaha»zsa (the great soul
'hawzsa,'

—here

is

on the word
throws
oflF

which means both soul and swan)

Mtyi, and takes up

God

only.

65.
well

The wind
that

carries the smell of the

sandal-wood as

as

of ordure, but does not mix with either.

Similarly a perfect

man

lives in the world,

but does not

mix with
66.

it.

A perfect man is like a lotus-leaf in
it lives.

the water or like
is

a mud-fish in the marsh.
the element in which 67.

Neither of these

polluted by

As water

passes under a bridge but never stagnates,

still its body. the trunk moves about for signs of Similarly. dives into water. In the play of hide-and-seek. 69. The boy. As an aquatic bird. make such a man carry on the functions of but that much is not sufficient to bind him again to the world. some showing the though the Aha»zk^ra (vanity or egoism) is beheaded in the perfect man. a down by the fetters of the man is no longer bound world. but the water does not wet its plumage. but all ashes. but not an idea of vanity (Ahawkira). When life.^). the player once succeeds in touching the non-player.3 THE so SAYINGS. but the world does not touch him. yet sufificient of its vitality is left to physical life . by once seeing the Almighty. 71. 'The Free' who never hoard 68. he is no longer hable to be made a thief. so the perfect man lives in the world. is burnt retains its shape intact. As a rope that has become it . if 72. to carry on the functions of the body. however be. so that nothing can be is bound with similarly. by touching . such as a pelican. A man totally devoid of Mayi as the not survive more than twenty-one days. the man who emancipated retains the form of his egoism. Ornaments cannot be made of pure gold. the head of a goat is severed from time. he must have some Miyi. Some So long alloy must be mixed with will it. Similarly. 70. called the grand-dame (Boo. small man it may has body. 1 1 money passes through the hands of it.

the latter destroys in a individuality moment it all its and selfishness. without being pursued. there is make him a thief. the case with him who has once touched the Whether he dwells of the Almighty. 74. and sinks the soul is vessel into the deep. and though former form Similarly. feet of the Almighty. The iron. thirsting after self-improvement. but will remains always gold. outward form of a is man who has touched the of the Almighty evil. and Similar feet is never return to its former condition. is the Boofi. once converted into gold by the touch of the Philosopher's stone. are sure mix so if that the milk can never be separated again. 76. nothing will ever contaminate him. So the neophyte. Similarly. separates its planks. free to go wherever he wishes. the feet it retains its becomes incapable of injuring any one. to when brought into contact. The loadstone rock under the sea attracts the ship it. in no fear to him who has once touched the 73.114 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF kXmAKRISBNA. but he no longer doeth any 75. or it thrown into a rubbish-heap. Milk and water. mixes . may be kept under the ground. in the bustle of the world. and plunges in the ocean of God's infinite Love. not changed. Thus. when the human attracted by the magnetism of Universal Consciousness. The steel sword turns into a golden sword by the it touch of the Philosopher's stone. sailing over draws out all its iron nails. or in the solitude of forests. and no one can this world's playground.

indiscriminately with all sorts I 1 of worldly men. and confusion of reason. is As long a man is far away from God. all reasonings.5 THE SAYINGS. he is in the midst of the noise . performs of worldly works. On the contrary. without ever being affected evil influences. live when the soul once attains God- head. but the milk into butter. she fondles the newborn baby the livelong day. may by its in any company. it and enthusiasm When. argument. arguments. however. So long as a man is far from the market. is But no sooner a son born. than he finds no longer any relish in them. you convert water. all sorts Thus man. and discussion but when once a person approaches the Almighty. the newly-married remains deeply absorbed in her domestic duties. his happiness now consists only in serving the Deity and doing His works alone. some one and so on. On the contrary. and he understands the mysteries of God with vivid and clear perception. and kisses it with intense joy. but his former faith. he hears something like aloud and indistinct buzzing only. but no sooner does he see the Almighty. Similarly. 77. and no longer finds any pleasure in them. 78. also die away imperceptibly. but perceives distinctly that for potatoes. he not only loses his ideals. in his state of ignorance. and discussions cease. than she leaves off all her house- hold concerns. So long as no child girl is born to her. I 2 . another for Brinjal. floats no longer mixes with over it it. 'Ho! Ho!' bargaining as But when he enters the market he no longer hears the uproar. love.

. hovers round the flower. you will not find pleasure any more in and fame. he who has found him becomes 80. Mamma have no ! ' You also are now But playing in this world deeply absorbed with the dolls of wealth.' has reached 83. it is its its buzzing sound but when inside the flower. finds no pleasure in raw treacle slept in a palace.. he who has in wiU not find pleasure in lying down . The man who no more. Leaving off" all run to Her. it and has not tasted emitting it its honey. and fame. Little children play with dolls in a as they like. 79. drinks nectar noiselessly. but if the vessel be does not require daily cleaning. 'Mamma. God requires prayers or penances He who has once tasted the refined and crystalline . So if a man does not contemplate the Deity daily. for still. will get rusty. SjA RS. when he has it he becomes 81. it ' Yes. The naked Sage. So long as the bee is outside the petals of the lotus. ' Il6 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA man calls aloud.' To him of gold. So long as a 'Allah Ho ! Allah Ho ! (O God ! O God !). and fear or anxiety. honour. used to say. . honour.makr/sh«a replied. if you once see the Divine these you will Mother entering wealth. Totapuri. 82. sugar-candy. but as soon as their mother room apart just in they comes throw aside the dolls and run to her crying. in. So long as a man quarrels tasted and disputes about doctrines and dogmas. his heart will grow impure. he has not tasted the nectar of true faith still. be sure that he has not found God. it ' If a brass pot be not rubbed daily.

86. 87. But when he has seen Him. but heard. silently enjoys the vanities and he BUss Divine. the man who has not found God all is full of vain disputations. ' How big is the tree and how tain small the grass ' But when he ascends the mounhigh peak to the plain below. no such noise is Similarly. sometimes he becomes im- patient of relating his experiences even to those of his class. any one but Similarly. So the soul that has once found favour in the sight of the Lord does not want the paltry things of this world. own . save to her own companions. A woman naturally feels shy to relate to all the talk she daily has with her husband. 85. 1 1 7 So the soul that has once tasted the sweet- ness of the Divine Bliss finds pleasures of the world. When is a man is in the plains he sees the lowly grass and the mighty pine-tree ! and says. but when opened there remains no distinction of high and low. no delight in the ignoble 84. nay. a dirty hovel. the indistinct and looks from its mighty pine-tree and the lowly grass blend into one mass of green verdure. a devotee does not like to relate to a true Bhakta (devotee) the ecstatic joys which he experiences in his Divine communion . disappear. When water is poured into an empty vessel a bubbling when the vessel is full noise ensues. She who has a king for her lover will not accept the homage of a street beggar. Divine sight So in the sight of worldly men the there are differences of rank is and position.THE SAYINGS.

both experience great happiness feel loth to separate. The yQHng of a monkey clasps and clings to its mother. .) herd of cows. 92. life a good devotee gladly sacrifices his for his God by does the renunciation. The moth once . Why free the God-lover find as such pleasure in addressing is Deity its Mother? Because the child is more with mother. The young kitten cannot clasp its mother. This is because it depends upon its own strength but the 93. like a hemp-smoker. let But only a cow enter. What is the strength of a devotee ? He is a child of God. If a strange animal enters a is driven off by the combined attacks of the whole herd. Thus. and tears are his greatest strength. 89. self-reliance Such the difference between entire resignation to the will of God. kitten runs no such and risk. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAJCR/SayA. but mews piteously whenever it is near her. . seeing the light never returns to darkness the ant dies in the sugar-heap. as the mother herself carries is it about from place to place. If the young monkey lets go its hold on its mother.Tl8 88. and consequently she dearer to the child than any one else. finds no pleasure in singing the praises of the Almighty alone. (The hemp-smoker never finds pleasure in smoking alone. and all the other cows will make friends with her by mutual and licking of bodies. when a devotee meets with another devotee. but when a scoffer enters the circle they carefully avoid him. 90. it 91. but never retreats Similarly. therefrom. it falls down and gets hurt. The pious man.

96. at his once retires society. which from is sure to break down all fetters. The Stone may remain will myriads of years in water. its catch the rain-water It floats when the star Sviti is about on the surface of the sea with it mouth agape. iron The still flint it may remain like for myriads of years under iire.THE 94. until Sviti-rain. till it succeeds in catching a drop of the marvellous it Then dives down to its sea-bed and there has succeeded in fashioning a beautiful pearl Similarly. 95. faith. rests. there are out of that rain-drop. It is SAYINGS. water. So is the true devotee firm in his all Though he may as remain surrounded by the impurities of the world. he has succeeded in gaining eternal peace. So the strong trials heart of the faithful does not despair in the midst of . enters into the till deep recess of own heart and rests there. and if in their diligent search one fortunate enough he to meet such a Guru and get from him the much-longed-for logos. He for becomes entranced soon as he hears the name of the Almighty. and the water softened into never penetrate But clay is soon mud by the contact of water. he never loses his faith and love. does not lose its inner Strike it with whenever you and out flows the glowing spark. eager aspirants that some true and who travel from place to place in search of watchword from a godly and perfect preceptor (Sadwill guru) which open for them the gate of is eternal bliss. it. its II9 bed at fabled that the pearl oyster leaves the bottom of the sea and comes up to the surface to in the ascendant.

101. through tears of love sheer ecstasy. never get tired of it.I20 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAICR/SHiVA. even a grain of one Divine within They become ecstatic with attribute. No one can contain him all His attributes. and that I am Her son. and hours 102. together. So is the faithful devotee. God is like unto a hill of sugar. Similarly.' he replied. 99. and the object known ? ' To which Good man. trifling cause. A logician once asked Sii Rimak«sh«a. ' 100. and the more pleasure do you find in scratching. A man who finds all the hairs at the bare of his body standing on end mention of SjA Hari's name. easily How all sweet riches is the simphcity of the child ! He prefers a doll to and wealth. 98. the greater grows the itching. and who sheds on hearing the name of God. But the hill remains as large as before. The more you scratch the ringworm. No God one else can throw aside wealth and honour to take only. A small ant carries away from it it a small grain of sugar. So are the devotees of God. he has reached his last birth. faith is and persecutions. knower. but the man of weak shaken even by the most 97. 'What are knowledge. I do not know all these niceties of scholastic learning. I know only my Mother Divine. When grains are measured out to the purchaser in . the bi^er ant takes from a larger grain. the devotees once beginning to sing but continue for hours His praises.

such attendants. insincerity. Dala (schism) does not take place in a party unselfish whose adherents are guided by pure. to see if even with his lifelong devotion he fails God. the measurer unceasingly goes on measuring. 103. cannot always observe the rules of propriety. and motives. A true hke a who has drunk deep of the Divine Love is veritable drunkard. in Bengali. Dala (sedge) does not grow in large and pure water-tanks. is God Himself who why constantly inspiring thoughts is and the sentiments in the hearts of His devotees. while the attending women women supply him with basket-fulls of grain from the main store. while. 121 the granary of a rich merchant. 105. and bigotry. and that reason the latter are never in lack of new and that wise thoughts and sentiments. and. broad. soon find their thoughts have become exhausted. like petty grocers. (' Dala.) . while a merchant who has but lately taken himself to the plough The true believer is discouraged by one season of drought. nor it is is his store so inexhaustible. may not rain for twelve consecutive years. A it born farmer does not leave off tilling the soil. the book-learned. while the The meaincessantly supply him with grain. surer does not leave his seat.THE SAYINGS. devotee 104.' means both sedges and schism. but in small stagnant Similarly. on the other hand. but it takes firm root in a party whose advocates are given to selfishness. But a small grocer has neither Similarly. as such. and miasmatic pools. though is never discouraged.

and understanding sat that a great sage was in a trance (Samadhi). a thief. they pass their —to-day in one house. giving me a share?' So he began to eat along with the dog. it The snake never digs a hole for but hves in the hole made by able. Sawyisins make no houses for themselves days in other men's houses in another. So let me after ! escape in time. He now has been sleeps ex- breaking into some house by night. and said. are like snakes. lying here. how The that thou eatest alone. a drunkard came upon the sage. ' feast. he went up to him and is it embracing Brother. all and am he not going Last of came a sage. and touched him. deals in cotton twists can alone quality a particular twist is of what number and made. to rub gently his holy feet. 108. and seeing a dog eating the remains of a him.122 106. people of the place naturally thought . a thief passing by. and hausted. a roadside himself. A ' sage was lying in a deep trance (Samadhi) by . down. An itinerant Sadhu came once upon the Kali said. he ran away. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKjRJSHJVA. I Hallo thou hast fallen into the ditch by taking a drop too much. The Yogins and Sawy3sins itself. The sage alone can recognise a sage. to-morrow He who tell 107.' Soon ' Thus thinking. The police will very soon be here to catch him. to tumble. saw him. without saying. So the Yogins and the . it the mouse. and began 109. and thought within is This fellow. When one hole becomes uninhabit- enters into another hole.' am steadier than thou. temple of Rini R^samam.

sha. he began to chant forth some hymns in praise of and the temple appeared to shake through the fervour of his devotion.THE SAYINGS. e. is The quality of forbearance of the highest importance to every man. 114. all meaning 'forbear.' sibilants {Sa. The true religious man is he who does not do is anything wrong or act impiously when he alone. the bad and keep the good pious men. when 111. even such is the case with He is truly a pious man who is dead even in all Ufe. whose passions and dead body. . there is none to look after and blame him. i. rejects the sand and goes off with the sugar-grain so pious men sift the good from the bad. i. is 113. It the nature of the winnowing basket to reject . Goddess. 1 23 the him mad. and various other disguises. e. Sugar and sand may be mixed together. in dirty clothes. but when misfortune. 112. letters are alike In the Bengali alphabet no three in sound except the three 'forbear. and poverty approach them..' 'forbear. Then the people knew him to be a great Sidhu. The true Sidhus roam about like children or mad men. Worldly persons perform acts with a many pious and charitable hope of worldly rewards. they them all. 110. and sa). but when standing before the temple of Kili. but the ant .' This shows that even from our childhood we are made to learn forbearance in our very alphabets. forget sorrow. desires have been destroyed as in a 115.

" Harish and Girish are too much attached to me. Kaw' when caught by a cat. 'You will never find any opportunity of practising Yoga (devotion). Ridha-Kr/shwa the livelong day. cries 'Kaw." desires.' At this a Sadhu remarked. so long as they hear rehgious talks . 117. You will say afterwards. those high and noble and become as impure as before. and begin to practise Yoga. but no sooner do they enter into the daily routine all of the world. Flies at times on the sweetmeats kept exposed . Some one I shall said. So it is with worldly when the men. and will me see that son married. fire. but it becomes black as soon is as taken out of the as he full is So also As long he is in church or in the society of pious people. are like the parrot that repeats the Divine ' name but Radha-K«sh«a." They do not like to leave my company Then you wiU desire perhaps. in the furnace it is it is red-hot. as yet. " Let Harish have let a son. 116. ' When my boy Harish grows up. and give him the charge of the family j then renounce the world.' And thus there be no end of your sit 119. of religious emo- but no sooner does he come out of those associations than he loses them alL 118. forgetting the Divine name. I wiU get him married. A spring cushion is squeezed down when one its sits upon it. is So long as the iron the worldly man.124 They ' THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAILR/SHJVA. tions. but is it soon resumes original shape pressure removed. They are full of religious sentiments. than they forget thoughts.

which is : A poor Brahma«a once came to one of those familyaffairs. now on and now on the sweet like the while the free soul of a Yogin bee that always drinks the honey of else. Why are you wasting your time in begging of me?' The Brihma«a. he I never touch money. . in the family. and nothing 120. God's holy presence. is The good man. the Tired with his importunate entreaties man at last resolved in his him a rupee. ' to beg some When Sir. an illustration was cited to refute such an argument. But the honey-bee never on objects. The worldly lives man is like a filthy worm that always and dies in filth. replied. but their natural tendency for soon brings them back to the dunghill of the the other hand. When it was argued that a family-man {Grihastha) may remain it. flies. on always absorbed in the beatific con- templation of Divine Beauty. men. mind to give however. 1 25 shop of a confectioner . the beggar asked of him some money. taste filth of Divine sweetness. The worldly men are like At times they get a momentary world.B. is the good the filth man is of the world like the fly that sits . but may have no concern with and consequently may remain uncontaminated by the as follows world.— THE for sale in the SAYINGS. N. who are unconcerned with family money. and has no idea of higher things. would not go away. but no sooner does full a sweeper pass by with a basket leave the sweetmeats of filth than the flies and sits sit upon the filthy filth-basket. and always drinks honey from the flowers.

can do for you.' The man of course had no other alternative.' replied the hus' band. dear. . and as such are very poor specimens of humanity. I shall see what Then going in. 'Look here. is very poor and we should not the wife. the man . ' give him less than a rupee. the net it 121. and told him. in great excitement at the ' name rupee. you like. a poor Brllhma«a is in .' 'No is !' replied I cannot spare that much if here a two-anna-bit and you can give him that. this typical family-man told his wife.great difficulty. come to-morrow. and received only Such uncontaminated family-men are solely a two-anna-bit. he being unconcerned.' 'Well.126 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF ' RAMAK/J/SHiVA. I Well. Similarly. like leaves or stones. Next day the beggar came. and having once entered they cannot get are caught. who was the manager of all his affairs. to give I is have your made up my mind opinion about are!' it?' him a rupee. it but as to enter the net than to get out of is easier to enter the it. dear. Seeing the water pass glittering through of bamboo frame-work \ the small fry enter into with great pleasure. after having once entered A trap for catching small fish. and wants something of me. it. Rupees are be thrown away without any thought. world than renounce ' it. What 'Aha! what a generous not. foolish out again —and men it is enter easier into the world allured by its false glitter. and he took what his wife gave him.' sir. to fellow you of a she replied. in an apologising tone. being himself unconcerned in all such worldly matters. really henpecked persons who are guided by their wives.

like the moist match. They do not like to take off the mask. 125. unless they have played for some time. and Do not think yourself to be a Many centuries have rolled away and the world has not produced another (kanaka. as great sacrifices as an but all these he does. and then they will leave off the mask own accord. a while. and wealth. is only this solitary example. where men perform many under various disguises. for Let them play of their 124. though preached to him innumerable times. man who lived in the world and yet attained But throughout the whole history of mankind His case was not the is there rule. I 27 Men always quote the example of the king G^anaka. man may be endowed with may take as much and make makes and intellect as pains and trouble as a Yogin. The general rule that no one lust can attain greed. is soaked in and greed. so religious 126. 123. not for God. and the slightest mention of the the fire name of the Deity kindles of love in his heart. SAYINGS. but for worldliness. heart of the devotee is The like a dry match . This world parts is like a stage. spiritual perfection unless he renounces (Panaka. God may be A worldly great as that of kanaka. enter into a stone. as that of a perfection. ascetic . As water does not advice produces no impression on the heart of a worldly .THE 122. and can never be heated to enthusiasm. honour. but the exception. lust But the mind of the worldly.

even as the crop of a pigeon 133. but can easily earth. so religious advice affects and soon passes out on the worldly souls. but also prevents others from hearing them. &c. As soft clay easily takes an impression. howmuchsoever you may preach it religion to a worldly 131. As the water enters in on one side under the bridge. and abuses religious men and and scoffs at prayers. heart of a believer. By talking with a worldly man one and can feel that his heart is filled with worldly thoughts desires. societies. other. 130. man. that The alligator has got such a thick and scaly hide it . 132. will have no effect upon his heart. so the advice of the pious be driven into the does not affect the soul of a worldly man. is filled with grains. Remove the and is quiet again. It enters into them by one ear and goes out by the other. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF sluAKRISHNA. no weapons can pierce So. but not on the soul of the worldly man. So the .. As a nail cannot enter into a stone. they fall off harmless. so also the Divine Wisdom on the heart of the devotee. 129. It enters into the 128.128 127. on the contrary. but not so impresses itself a stone. praises of the Almighty. religious dis- courses. So long as the fire is fire beneath. that The characteristic of a thoroughly worldly listen to man is he does not only not hymns. without making any impression upon their minds. the milk boils and it bubbles.

so to reach the Almighty one must practise the many devotions. many devotees and keep Keep loser. thy own sentiments and faith to thyself. K . so long as his spiritual exercises. There are three kinds of dolls. the made made of stone. 137. but afterwards it As to approach a monarch one must ingratiate officials that oneself with the keep the gate and surround the throne. 134. who will not absorb struggle at As when fishes are caught in a net some do not all. the second will absorb its a large quantity of water but retain third will form. Otherwise thou wilt be a great 136. or Bhakta. the second made lose of cloth. some again struggle hard to come out of sorts the net. the least drop of true knowledge. he goes on with cools down. while the be impervious to the water. Do not talk about them abroad. while a few are happy enough to effect their escape by rending the netj so there are three of men. who is full of Divine bliss and knowledge and the third represents a worldly man.THE SAYINGS. The first doU represents the man who merges Self ' his self in the Universal it. the first of salt. 1 29 heart of the neophyte boils with enthusiasm. as company of the 135. well as serve wise. and All-pervading the ' and becomes one with that is Mukta purusha j the second represents a true lover . and the third in water. If these dolls be immersed its first will get dissolved and form.

sent. fettered (Baddha)..I30 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHWA. viz. honour. 138. 140. Two men went man no sooner entered into a garden. &c. and released (Mukta). the vain guerdon of their learning. for all is all mere to the while their mind is thinking about how get money. keeping the coarser and rejecting the finer. but all the while he looking down into the charnel-pits in search glibly of putrid carcasses. how many mangoes each and what might be the approximate price of the whole orchard. but talk. made his acquaintance. respect. 141. The other went to the owner. What is the good of counting the leaves and making vain calculations? of intellect is The vain ' man uselessly busy in finding out the why and wherefore' of creation. it Now who is the wiser of the two? Eat mangoes. So the book-read pandits speak it and volubly about Divine Knowledge. As sieves separate the finer and coarser parts of a pulverized or ground substance. The is vulture soars high up in the air. The worldly-wise the gate than he began to count number of the mango-trees. wriggling (Mumukshu). power. even so the wicked man takes the evil and rejects the good. will satisfy your hunger. and quietly going under a mango-tree began to pluck the fruit and eat it with the owner's conthe tree bore. Once a dispute arose in the court of the Maharajah . 139. while the humble man of wisdom makes acquaintance with the Creator and enjoys Supreme Bliss in this world.

like Krishna. not a proper Sidhu avoid the company of such.. A Br3. Similarly none should compare one Deity with another.Siva nor seen Vish«u. The 144. 142.. — 'No. The news soon spread like wildfire that the Br^hma/za killed the sacred animal. laying down a garden. the external Sii like tusks and the inner grinders. taxed with the sin denied saying.hma«a was day and night. addressing the Rija. When the dispute grew hot Sire. &c. The S^dhu who is distributes medicines. it. for none of the disputants a really had seen the Deities. Now the Br4hma«a was a so-called VedSntist. so the God-men. . after it Brihma^a it seeing the cow destroy it his favourite plant gave such a sound beating that died of the injuries received. and uses in- toxicants. as to I31 Burdwan among the learned men who was the greater Deity. I a wise pandit remarked. and when have not I K 2 . and looked One day a cow straying into the garden browsed away a mango sapling which was one of the most carefully-watched trees of the Brihma^a. When man has really seen a Deity. 143. he comes to know that all the Deities are manifestations of one and the same Brahman. while their heart and soul rest far beyond the pale of Karman. As the elephant has two sets of teeth. there. how can I say who the greater of the two?' At this the dispute stopped. neither is have met . to Siva. act and behave to all appearances common men. ^va or Vish«u.THE of SAYINGS. Some gave ' preference others to Vishwu.

' is a beautiful garden. whose garden Brihma»a Indra skilful — is this?' — 'It ' Mine. while taking the advice of many may lead to confusion.' Brihmawa — ' All this has been done by me.' 132 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiiZSHiVA. sir. God thee. see ! how that is neatly artistically he has planted the trees BrS. one must abide by the directions of him who knows the way. and said.' 145. The trees are planted under Indra — Indeed ' my ! personal supervision and direction. 146. As when going to a strange country.' O. . it is my hand that has done if it.hma«a — 'Well. also my work. and as Indra is the presiding Deity of the hand. is hard poor Indra to be held responsible for the killing of the cow. and you take it credit for all the lines for works in this garden. so it is any one has I. for You have and got a gardener. will send the true and proper Master (Sad-Guru) to is Earnestness the only thing necessary. It is very ably But who has laid out this road? planned and neatly executed. so in trying to implicitly the advice of reach God one should follow single one Guru who knows the way to God. you are very clever. came to the owner of the garden.' Then Indra done with joined hands said. Indra and not Indra in his Heaven heard all this. 'When all these things are yours. If thou art in right earnest to be good and perfect.' incurred the guilt of killing the cow. killed the cow. assumed the shape of an old Brahma«a. 'Sir.

he met ' man and asked him. But such a man hence the necessity of a Guru or Guide. Similarly those who want to reach God must 149. As he wanted to reach Calcutta he should have stuck to the road pointed out to him by the first man. 148. on the Almighty with 1 33 Whoever can call sincerity and intense earnestness needs no Guru. He from whom any thing whatsoever is The great Avadhfita learned an Upaguru. follow one and one only Guide. Going in that new road for some distance he met a third man who pointed him out another road to Calcutta. Many from roads his lead in to A certain man home a distant village towards the metropolis. The disciple should never criticise his own Guru. 150. He brings man and God together. . Thus the traveller made no progress. started had twenty-four such Gurus.' The man ' ' ! did so.THE 147. no You must retrace your footsteps and take the road to your left. but Upagurus (assistant Gurus) The Guru may be is many.' Proceeding some distance. 'What road said. O. The Guru is a mediator. must I take to reach this Calcutta soon?' The man 'Follow another road. should be only one. SAYINGS. says. He must implicitly : obey whatever his Guru Says a Bengali couplet Though my Gnrn may visit tavern and My Gnra is holy Rai Nityananda still. still. is rare. Calcutta. Is this the shortest road to Calcutta ? The man replied. He asked a man on the road. but spent the day in changing one road for another.

if any one criticises and censures thy Guru. while vanity the death of man. children in Bengal call the moon their ' maternal uncle. but it is difficult to act 157. I. talk bagfuls of religion. thought within himself. mi. is seeing this. no doubt river The ' next day he also tried to walk over the pronouncing I. si.') 154.' by mouth. Well. Take the pearl and throw the oyster-shell away. Common men it. . there such a power even in my name ? Then ! ' I must be very great and powerful. instru- So it is easy to talk religion. or egoism is Faith can achieve miracles. so God (The the Father and Guide of the whole Humanity. ' The Guru. having firm faith in the infinite power of his Guru. sol. frailties of thy 152. la. I. re. but act not a grain of life is while the wise man speaks little. 153. is Leave his presence at once. but good Chelas (disciples) are very rare. is As the moon the uncle of every child.' but no sooner had he stepped into the waters than he sank and was drowned. 151. religion. Follow the mantra (advice) given thee by thy Guru and throw out of consideration the human teacher. Gurus can be had by hundreds. but not so easy to sing or play them on any ment. 156. It is easy to utter 'do. Listen not. walked over a river even by pronouncing his name. 155. A disciple. fa.134 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SffiVA. but his whole a religion acted out.

my wife. What you wish verily. The ripe Ego thinks. 135 yourself. my body. . on the contrary. one ripe and the other unripe. 164. are not at goes all off. God cannot shine upon the heart. nay. 161. 160. give heat and light to the whole world. or hear. though of times. but leave still marks behind on the trunk. may be rubbed and is scoured hundreds It Egohood also such an obstinate creature. Similarly. but it can do nothing when the clouds are in the sky and Similarly.' thinks. its traces remain.THE 158. my room. whatever not mine. active for evil. The sun can its rays. &c. my child.' 162. there will remain the mark of egoism. 163. finds Him. but they leave scars behind. that he who yearns God. for say unto you. so long as one has this body. But these traces of egoism do not bind such men to the world nor cause their re-birth. There are two Egos in man. or feel. never leaves us completely. do 159. The but petals of the lotus drop off in time. so long as shut out egoism is in the soul. ' Nothing this is mine . however. The cup which it garlic juice is kept retains the nasty odour. ' The unripe Ego. Verily. So when true knowledge comes egoism These. This is my in house. how high soever a man may advance in spirituality. I others to do. SAYINGS. even body is am always free and eternal. I I see. their The leaves of the cocoa-palm fall off.

and he has no signs of a pious man ' in him. and he thinks himself so too. He never falls into a snare. of oil. pronounced the who name of Hari the ground only once. and he thought there was no greater devotee than himself. But all this wisdom can supply him with no foul matter. 165. this rustic Nirada said within himself. vanity. go round and come back with but beware lest a drop of to the ground.136 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmAK/J/SHATA. and cultivate his acquaintance.Sri Narada. take this cup it. as soon *as falls. Vanity is like a heap of rubbish or ashes on which it the water. Vishrau said. dries away. The this fall it Lord city Nirada. 167. and steals the food with the greatest dexterity. he thought of new full acquaintance. rose early in the morning. go to such and such a place. Once upon a time conceit entered the heart of the Divine Sage N^rada. He flies off at the slightest approach of danger.' Nirada did as he was told. and taking his plough went out to all till day long. and on his . I see How can be called a lover of God ? him busily engaged in worldly duties. ' Reading his heart. At night he went to bed after pronouncing the ' name of Hari once more. all Of the birds of the air the crow is considered to be the wisest. there is a great Bhakta of mine there.' Nirada went there and found an agriculturist. better living than filth and This is the result of his having the wisdom of the pettifogger.rada then went back to the Lord his and said all said.' NS. Prayers and contemplations produce no effect upon the heart puffed up with 166. the Lord .

This one cup of forget did so divert your attention that even you did me altogether. There are three kinds of love.tha). mutual. 'Well. 'There . yea. at all.' With such a violent love the attracted soon. The unselfish love The lover only minds the welfare and dearest of the beloved. no matter whether the beloved weal or woe. just as women of V^hd^-vana saw in 5rt KHshna. selfish. forest. A true lover sees his God as his the shepherd nearest relative. and only looks towards suffers its The own selfish love is the lowest. but look to that rustic who. I my Lord/ replied Nirada. not the Lord of the Universe (G^agann4tha). in three days I must find God . own happiness also. nay. In mutual love the lover not only wants the happiness of his or her beloved. On their way they saw a tiger at The Gninin or knower of God said.. A lover and a knower of God were once passing through a a distance. if The lukewarm lovers take ages to Him. I37 how often did you remember me this ' in your walk?' 'Not once. 171. return he was asked. still carrying the heavy load of a family. remembers me twice every day. unselfish. It happiness.' 168. Nirada. with a single utterance of His name Lord go to I will is Him to me. but their own beloved (Gopin3. 170.THE SAYINGS. ' I must draw attain perfection in this life. but has an eye towards his or her is of the highest kind. 169. 'and how could cup brimming over with oil oil?' when I had to watch The Lord then said.

and did . brother. is no reason why we should At let flee . no difference between pure knowledge and pure 174. come for us run away. has access even into the harem of the Almighty. ultimately Knowledge and love of God are There love. Why should we trouble the Lord what can be accomplished by our own exertions ? 172.empty basket of fish close to her nose. A group of fisherwomen on their way home from a distant market held on an afternoon. while the Love of The Knowledge God of is God may be like likened to a man. for entry only up to the outer rooms of God. is one and the same. were overtaken by a heavy hailstorm at nightfall in the middle of their way. to take shelter in a florist's house they Through the kindness of the flowers florist were allowed to sleep that night in one of his rooms. and so were compelled near at hand. a woman.' Every one gladly agreed to the proposal.' this the lover said. owing to it. is . and thus prevent this troublesome smell of flowers from attacking our nostrils and killing our sleep.' 138 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmaKB/SHJVA. accordingly and soon all began to snore. where some baskets of sweet-smelling supplying his customers. Knowledge has save a lover. Such. get even a wink of sleep. ' one of them suggested a remedy by saying. Let each of us keep her . but no one can enter into the inner mysteries of God a woman 173. indeed. the Almighty ' God will certainly protect us. and they could not. No. had been kept of the for The atmosphere till room was too good for the fisherwomen.

When the fruit grows the petals drop off of themthe Divinity in So when thee increases. Similarly. The new-born it calf falls and tumbles down So scores of times before learns to stand steady. the slips are many before success is achieved. all 1 39 the power and influence of bad habits over are addicted to them. those who 176. while the other end was fastened to a weight. A tame mungoose had its home high up on its the wall of a house. and love are not to be reckoned as desires at all. The mungoose with the appendage runs and plays in the parlour or in the yard of the house. but his true home come down into the . devotion. will vanish. or sugar-candy among sweets. a man has his home is high up at the feet of the Almighty. world by 176. but as Divinity itself. in the path of devotion. but no sooner does it it get frightened than at once runs up and hides it itself in its home on the wall. But cannot stay there long. or as the pra«ava ('^) not to be counted as a word. 177. its irresistible As Helonchi (Hingcha repens) should not be counted among pot-herbs. selves. because even a sick common man can use them without is injuring his health.THE SAYINGS. One end of a rope was tied to neck. . the weakness of humanity in thee 178. as the weight it at the other end its of the rope draws down. and it is constrained to leave home. so the desires of holiness. he is constrained to attractions. Whenever he his frightened by adversity and misfortune he goes up to in a short time God.

185. 181. Mother dances Her dance 184. Samidhi is the state of bliss which is experienced . It bites when any one approaches to catch it. Similarly. (3) Thou the Master. he who has acquired spiritual knowledge can never be polluted by lust and greed. since both are deluged with Divine bliss. It is manifestation of the Blissful Mother takes on the bosom of dead Divinity (^va) that the Blissful celestial. shouldst sacrifice thy body. 180. die before the higher place. to find Thou God. Some get tipsy with even a small glass of wine. in turn. 179. Humanity must die before Divinity manifests itself But this Divinity must.I40 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHJVA. Others require two or three bottles to cated. He finds God the quickest whose yearning and concentration are the greatest. But the person who has learnt the snake-charm can not only catch a snake. Similarly. When a man realises one of the following states he becomes perfect: — (i) All this am I. make them intoxi- But both get equal and full pleasure of intoxication. some devotees get intoxicated with celestial bliss by coming in direct contact with the Lord of the Universe. but carries about several of them like so many ornaments. and riches. The snake is very venomous. But both are equally fortunate. (2) All this art thou . 182. mind. 183. and I the servant. while others become full of ecstasy even by a glimpse of the Divine Glory.

upon a if shelf. 180. your heart sure to remain ever full to overflowing with the Divine fervour of sacred love. and then employ yourself in other forgetting Him all then you are sure to find within a short time that your heart has become poor and vacant and devoid of But if that precious love. under the sea. and enrich your the while. has acquired the perfection of contemplation. 141 some time. and bosom with the love of affairs. 189. When the grace of the Almighty descends. when one all floats upon the lies ocean of Sat-/^it-3. dales and valleys. He who at the time of contemplation is entirely unconscious of everything outside. the water in will dry up in a few it days but you place the same pot into water it will is remain filled as long as is kept there. Even such Fill the case with your love to the Lord God. again put into 186. There are hills and mountains. So in the state of Samadhi.THE by a is SAYINGS.nanda. outside. it and set apart . If you it fill an earthen vessel with water. 188. A jar kept in water soul is full of water inside and in Similarly the immersed God sees the all-pervading spirit within and without. every . God for a time. being kept out of water for it. live fish which. but they are not visible from the surface. you keep your heart immersed is always in the depth of that holy love. 187. human consciousness latent in him.

101. so unselfishness. sends from his own stores the necessary seats. palm-tree. devotee. plantain. so before the Lord cometh. knowing this you should not dispute. into the heart of 195. The accumulated ignorances and misdoings of innumerable births vanish before the single glance of the Almighty's gracious look. before... 142 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKRTSHiVA. to his servant. He sends love. all trees. As a king. 192. When in the Malaya breeze blows. Shallow water in an open field will in time be dried up though no one may is lessen it by using it. &c. but worthless and worldly men remain as before. Sec. righteousness. So when Divine Grace descends. ornaments. the reverence. having stamina become converted into sandal-trees but those which have no stamina remain unchanged as them. faith. precede the advent of the Lord. yearning. So a sinner totally sometimes purified by simply resigning himself absolutely to the and mercy and grace of God.. so that the latter receive may properly him . As the dawn heralds in the rising sun. The darkness of centuries is dispersed at once as soon as a light is brought into the room. 104. like bamboo. one will understand his mistakes . food. . 193. men having the germs of piety and goodness in them are changed at once into holy beings and are filled with Divinity. &c. purity. &c. before going to the house of his servant.

THE SAYINGS. The faith-healers of India order their patients to full repeat with conviction the words. 197. but the grace of God all in them time. and he who wants faith wants 202. There are some fish which have bones. some men have many purifies and others have few. Wantest to Unfurl the sails of thy boat (mind) thou make rapid progress through the ocean of life. but no one seeth Him until the Lord revealeth Himself to him in His mercy. 108. 198. sects matter nothing.' The patient repeats off. the only clue to get to God. there it. no illness at all. Creeds and perform with Faith is Let every one faith the devotions and practices of his creed. is 'There is no So ill- ness in me. Fans should be discarded when the wind blows. light So does God see every one. but no one towards can see him so long as he does not turn the himself. and. the illness goes if you think yourself to be morally weak and without good- . and others have one. 201. 199. thus mentally denying. The breeze of His grace is blowing night and day if over thy head. He who all. Prayers and penances should be discarded of when the grace God descends. the bones sins many sets of all but as the eater cleans so and eats the fish. has faith has all. 200. 1 43 A policeman can see with a dark lantern (bull's- eye) every one upon whom he throws the rays.

and the at last. A sage gave him an amulet and man. began to walk over the waters. Q. ' river. It is faith in the name of the Lord that is for faith is and doubt death. How can I perform devotion when I must always think of my daily bread? A. When shall I be free? A. taking This will carry thee across. with one jump crossed the ocean through the firmness of his faith in Rima. and he opened the amulet to see what was Therein he found. you will really find yourself to be so in no time. 204. simply faith. He for whom made thou pro' workest will supply thy necessities. A man it wanted to cross the said. self-will be merged the 207. Is this the only No life. works miracles. the sacred ' name of Rima. Here the through servant achieved more than the master. When thy I-hood in (egoism) will vanish. Know and power will believe that you are of immense power.144 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKi^SHJVA. Q. God hath vision for thy support before he sent thee here. 205. sooner had he said this than he sank down. ness. 206. his faithful monkey-servant. When he in it. But Hanum3. (Ceylon).n. come to you 203. Out of the myriads of paper kites that are made to . written on a bit of paper. The man secret ? ' at this said deprecatingly.' The in his hand. reached the middle of the river curiosity entered into his heart. and thy Divinity. Bhagavin Sii Rama^andra had to bridge the ocean before he could cross over to Lawki.

got. the badge of authority ? As the humblest is subject wearing the badge of the King by heard with respect and awe. Instead of preaching to others. all one worships God that time. He The alone is the true ' man who ' is illumined with the Spiritual Light. that is enough preaching. is soon dissolved therein.' and free from chain is '. What do you say about the method of religious preaching employed now-a-days? A. him who is and are all sides taught. so the human soul loses its in- dividual existence when it falls into the ocean of Brahma. only one or two get free from worldly bonds. not this inspiration. only one or two rend the string and get So out of hundreds of Sddhakas. It is inviting hundreds for when the food supply is sufficient one only. Hast thou O preacher. O preacher. 1 45 in the air. all free. 208. 211. . thou mayest preach will but that be mere waste of breath. soul enchained is ' man. He who to strives to make himself from free.Siva' (God). free. so must thou. and can quell the riot showing his badge . thrown into a basin of mercury. the order and inspiration from God. When a flower opens the bees come from uninvited and unasked. is Hundreds come sides. no one knows whence.THE fly SAYINGS. As a piece of lead. all obtain first So long as thou hast thy life. if 210. the real preacher. 212. 209. Q. of persons to dinner. 213.

stood upon while a high place and began to declare the good tidings to all the people. knowing its inestim- able worth. Some get food at 9 a. but so long as this exalted knowledge distinctions. the itself is shrivelled up. The Avatiras are of the latter class.: 146 214. 'What it I impart my dear. . the Siddhas are of the former. in this life or after many 218. in the evening.m. No man keeps a total fast. When becomes ripe and falls of itself. others at noon. not reached.. while the he who has Kingdom of Heaven. The Guru to thee. fruit other. artificially but when unripe it fruit is plucked and ripened does not taste so sweet and becomes perfection. invaluable to himself.' and the disciple kept it all But when the Guru imparted that knowledge to another of his disciples. heavier scale of a balance goes rises up. one must observe caste . lighter THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF The one RAMAKiJ/SHArA. goes less cares rises down to the world.m. all will and others some time or see God. said to one is of his disciples. down while the Similarly he who is weighed down with too many cares and anxieties of the world. it tastes very sweet. that is God is in all men. Similarly. but they all men are not in God the reason why suffer. and not liking to enjoy it all alone. others at 2 p. There are two sorts of men. up towards 215. 216. So when one has attained falls off observance of caste distinctions of from him. at lives. the latter.. keep to thyself. 217.

Seeing dear. Then there is no distinction of a Brih- mana. Q. this is thy own handi- —the mark scratched by thy own ' nail. is bleeds. all fetters fall off of themselves. The God Kirtikeya. but the slough be taken off earlier. the sacred thread-sign of caste falls In that case itself. Mother. the slough falls it off of itself.' THE SAYINGS. difference he should not forcibly throw 222. or a ^lidra. hast thou forgotten having scratched a cat this morning ? 2 . the storm of true knowledge (the knowledge of one universal existence) blows. Darling. Similarly. away of But so long as a man has the consciousness of distinction and it off. army. when caste.' Kirtikeya asked in wonder. how ! is it ? I never replied. it is impossible to distin- guish an Afvattha (pippal) and a Vafe (banian) tree. Child. 219. he asked of her. remember ' to have scratched thee ' The Mother I. wife ? Why do you not lead a family life with your A. When the knowledge of self obtained. Mother. 221. mark of a scratch • on the cheek of his Mother. a high caste or a low caste. Q. the distinctions of caste from him. there can be no distinction of 220. but is wrong for the ignorant to it break sHch distinctions. once happened to scratch a cat with his going On home he saw how have you there was the this. 1 47 So When a storm blows. When a wound if is perfectly healed. the leader of the Heavenly nail. Is proper to keep the Brahmanical thread? is A. when the perfection of knowledge fall off reached by it a man. got that ugly scratch on your cheek ? replied. ' The Goddess Durg^ work.

I am creation. I see in arrayed in the garb of immorality and shamelessness. sporting in a different way. the comes from one common all reservoir. this. a cow or a bull. although the water does not belong to these pipeSj but comes from the heaven above. Whomsoever thou never to marry. When families. . as my Divine Mother. and again. 224. I woman 223. I see in them also the Mother Divine. for hurtest. cheek get marked?' The Mother replied. gas. 'Yes.T48 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJJ/SHiVA. thou hurtest me. the Lord Almighty. 225. &c. namely. Kirtikeya said. I did scratch a cat but how all did your child. As the rain-water from the top of a house may be discharged through pipes having their mouth-pieces shaped like the head of a tiger. So the rehgious teachers of climes is and ages are but as many lamp-posts flowing through which emitted the light of the spirit constantly from one source. so are the holy Sadhus (saints) through whose mouths eternal and heavenly truths are discharged into this world by the Almighty. I look upon chaste women of respectable them the Mother Divine arrayed in the garb of a chaste lady .. 'Dear nothing exists in this world but myself. But the life of the light. when I look upon the public women of the city. .' Kartikeya was greatly surprised at was mother to him. and determined thenceforward Every woman consider every whom would he marry? I am like Kartikeya. The light of the gas illumines various localities with various intensities. sitting in their open verandas.

There always a shade under the lamp while light illumines the surrounding objects. similarly. 149 The teachings of The cries of all jackals are alike. does not think about his own lower and higher self. the wise men of the world are essentially one and the same.THE 226. the man the hereafter. forgets his own outer and inner affairs (i. The difference between the two is as between treacle and refined candy. remembers 231. Q. it is like a high-caste Brihma«a living in the quarters of the outcastes. all SAYINGS. So the is Spirit of a Prophet mani- fests itself at a distance. fall 232. The seeds of Va^avintula do not to the bottom of the tree. or like a gentleman dwelling in the back slums of the town.e. but is absorbed in the affairs of other selfs). 230. its 233. 227. When the mind dwells in evil propensities. 228. If a man sees a pleader he naturally thinks of cases and causes . He who is absorbed in others' affairs. while strangers by his own kinsmen stand agape at his wonderful tricks. Whatever gives happiness in this world contains a bit of divine enjoyment in it. tree From the shell they shoot far away from the and take root there. So the man in the . 229. his God and What is the reason that a Prophet is not honoured ? A. on seeing a pious devotee. The kinsmen of a juggler do not crowd round him to see his performances. and he is appreciated there.

if thou wantest to be great. can reflect it fully. mirror and polished metals. of the good is The anger like a line drawn on the surface of water. 236. If a white cloth is stained with a small speck the . charmed by immediate proximity of a Prophet does not understand him. The waters of a swiftly-flowing current move round and round the pious grief.. 234. So on is the Light Divine. &c. only a momentary aberration. but the fool 237. be low and meek. but quickly crossing these they resume their former course. 240.. The heavier scale goes down and is the lighter one rises up. fall So the hearts of sometimes into the whirlpools of despondency. The sunlight is one and the same wherever it falls but bright surfaces like water. 238. always bends low. it is and unbelief. It falls equally and impartially all but the pure and clean hearts of the good and holy Sidhus only can fully reflect it. It does not 235. 239. always puffed up with vanity. So. hearts. A tree. blackness appears very ugly indeed by the contrast smallest fault of a holy so the man becomes painfully prominent by his surrounding purity. Those who live afar off are his spirit and extra- ordinary power. 1 50 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA. but last long. laden with fruit. As in a pane of glass on which quicksilver has . So the man of merit and ability is always humble. in eddies and whirlpools. which does not last long.

and then thou wilt get the knowledge of the True. but becomes soiled according to The rainthe medium dirty. so a sincere Sidhu and a hypocrite are found out when they are rubbed through the touch-stone of persecution and adversity. and become as ignorant it as a child. is pure. the passes through. it. So long as one does not become Simple Forget like a child. Then only it becomes fit to be made into a sharp sword. so in the chaste heart of a totally abstinent man is reflected the image of the Almighty. contain predictions of the But squeeze the book. and can be bent any way you . 245. about all the worldly knowledge that thou hast acquired. As by rubbing gold and brass on a touch-stone. Money can it procure bread and butter only.THE been laid. 242. if it Do not consider therefore as were thy sole end and aim. annual The Hindu almanacs rainfall. their real worth becomes known . Q. 15I one can see his face reflected. 241. 243. but merely reading them not make one religious. SAYINGS. One has to practise the virtues taught therein. one does not get Divine illumination. If the roof and the pipe be discharge 244. and not a drop of water will be got out of So also many good sayings will are to be found in books. 246. is dirty. The iron must be heated several times and hammered before it becomes good steel. water it Why do religions degenerate? A.

Sivsi. is. So are all bigots : they do not see anything better than their own creeds. the at God ^va Howutter- was sorely displeased with him. 248. and the other half pleased side that of Vish«u. But the man was as undaunted as in his hearing. and when he (6'iva) burning incense to his beloved God well as audacious he was careful as enough to press the nostril of Vish«u. This time he appeared as Hari-Hara. ever. displeased. 249. and world.S5va.152 like. began to tease him by ing the this. and his sight. After a few I shall never be pleased with thee. Seeing him altogether inexorable. before hammered with the persecutions of the he becomes pure and humble. this the man was on the and half He laid his offerings offer the side representing and did not anything to offered the side representing Vishnu. own but eschew all bigotry and intolerance. the children of the village once vanished from ever. name of Vish«u Displeased with the man hung two bells to his ears. that body was At that of . one side of his days ^va again appeared to him. but hated One day Siva appeared to him and said. 247. There was a all ' other Deities. Remain always strong and steadfast in thy faith.' But the man was inexorable. lest the fragrance should be pleasing to Vish«u. the other half of Hari-Hara. man who worshipped . which he used to . Be not like the frog in the well. The frog in the weU knows nothing bigger and grander than its well. so long as thou hatest the other gods. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rXmAKRISHNA.Siva. So a man must be heated several times in the furnace of tribulations.

and every other member of the family. The is difference between the like the difference modern Brdhmaism and Hinduism between the single note of music and the whole music. ring as soon as the boys cried out the 1 53 in names of Vish«u. A truly religious man should think that other re- also are paths leading to the truth. order to prevent the sound entering his ears. ligions them all. Some years ago. and at the same time loves her similarly. when the Hindus and the Brahmas Sii were preaching their respective religions with true earnest- ness and great zeal. mother-in-law. 250. As the young wife in a family shows her love and respect to her father-in-law. We should always maintain an attitude of respect towards other religions.' is work done through both . He is still so much hated for his bigotry that every year at a certain period the boys of Bengal break with a cudgel. and this serves down his effigy him right. do not despise other Deities. 253. content with the single note of religion is The modern Brihmas are Brahman. husband more than these . 252. And thus he was known by the name of Bell-eared. but honour 251. ' I see that my Mother parties. tion to the Deity of thy being firm in thy devo- own choice (Ishfe-Devati). some one asked Bhagavin Divine getting her Rama- kr!sh«a his opinion about both parties^ on which he replied. or Gha«/i-kar«a. while the Hindu made up of several notes producing a sweet and melodious harmony.THE SAYINGS.

of these powers. and told him of his grand replied. he went this the to his Guru. Visit not miracle workers.' 259. They are wanderers from the path of truth. 257.' and Haribala means 'Hari like quicksilver our strength. it (When a man show itself in takes calomel. steals means 'He who is our hearts. and the tears of happiness flow from the other extremity. the power of walking over Overjoyed at this acquisition. 258. Beware them not. A youthful disciple of 5rt Rimakn'shwa once acquired the power of reading the heart of another. do not waste thy energies on these petty 260. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF Hari (from hri.' A washerman keeps a large store of clothes and has . to steal) RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. he rebuked him and said.1 54 254. things. The and the tears of happiness flow from the two different corners of the eye. The tears of repentance flow from the side near the nose.) tears of repentance 256. ordinary men do the same by paying a penny to the boatman. A man after fourteen years of last hard asceticism in a lonely forest obtained at the waters. sooner or later is sure to the shape of eruptions on the skin. When he related this experience to the Master. Their minds have become lie in entangled in the meshes of psychic powers. and desire as temptations. what thou hast accomplished fourteen years' arduous labour. which the way of the pilgrim towards Brahman. Sin can never be kept concealed. child. ' Shame on thee. ' At Master after My poor boy. feat.' 255.

ness. into coins and threw them into the But the jar still remained empty. He now upon began to starve himself and his family by living insufficient. coarse.' ' made?' At once Go home. but could see no one. save one which was half Now arose the desire of filling this the heart of the barber. He opened them one last jar in another and saw them filled. while contentment is all happi- A ' barber was once passing under a haunted tree when he heard a voice say. the granted his request. Men the having no original thoughts of their own are like washerman. 261. The barber then it requested the King to increase his pay as was not sufficient to maintain him and his family. 'When the merciful God is is so good as to take pity even on a poor barber like me. and the cupidity of the barber being greatly roused by the spon- taneous offer of such vast wealth he spoke aloud.THE clothes are SAYINGS. all filled. of gold ? The mysterious voice again repeated the words. jar. 1 55 a rich wardrobe. latter As he was a favourite of the King. there anything to be said as to my jars accepting the kind offer so generously the reply came. Greed brings woe. So he sold all his gold and silver ornaments and converted them jar. but these are not As soon as the washed his wardrobe becomes empty. I have already carried the The barber after ran in hot haste to his house. and cheap food. throwing all his savings into the but the jar remained as empty as ever. . ' Wilt thou accept of seven jars The barber looked round. thither. his. and was transported to see the promised jars there.

1 56 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. It is very pleasant to scratch a ringworm. the King seeing his sad plight. but the is after-sensation very painful and intolerable . his pay and emoluments. take back thy gold. to save all The barber now began and throw them no sign of being all filled. Whosoever accepts is the riches of a Yaksha abject sure to I be reduced to such an and wretched plight. it. inquired of ' ! him by when far thy pay was half of what thou gettest now.' and he returned home after to find the seven jars vanished. Nevertheless he began to live happily 262. and healthy. jars of gold ? The barber home-thrust. and with clasped his majesty hands asked the King as to who had informed ' The King answered. terrible to contem- . taking with them his life-long savings. care- worn. so the pleasures of the world are very pleasant in the beginning. and became as wretched and miserable Hallo as ever. but the greedy jar showed He now began to live by begging.' to his senses The barber was brought tree by this advice and went to the haunted and said. ' O Yaksha. Now this what is the matter with thee? ' Hast thou accepted the seven was taken aback by about the matter. but their after-consequences are very plate. Do away money at once. and dejected. One day saying. but with double that pay I see thee morose. have known thee through with the it. this invariable sign. is Thou canst not spend a farthing of That money for hoarding and not for spending. contented. into the jar. thou wast happier and more cheerful.

there is little chance of our beholding therein the brightness of God. The beatific vision occurs only in the heart which is calm and rapt up 266. As one can ascend to the top of a house by means of a ladder or a bamboo or a staircase or a rope. in heart and the impure and unclean who are subject to Miyi (illusion) never perceive the glory of the Bhagavin (the Venerable). So all Bhakta cleaves unto his God for ever^ and leaves else. then. 269. As on the troubled surface of rolling waters the moon shines in broken images. so diverse . Like unto a miser that longeth after gold. Q. So long as the heavenly expanse of the heart troubled and disturbed by the gusts of desire.THE 263. heart pant after let thy Him. life in molasses. the eating of which produces colic. The soiled mirror never reflects the rays of the sun. the perfect God with partial light only. as the clear mirror reflects the sun. is 266.tyk. It is like I 57 the world like? an Amli. A. but never leaves them. Why does a Bhakta (one full of the love of God) the forsake everything for the sake of God? An insect flies from the darkness as soon as any ant loses the its light meets its eyes . What fruit. all is SAYINGS. But the pure in heart see the Lord. in divine communion. 267. skin and stone with but very little pulp. Be holy. so on the unsettled mind of shines a worldly man engrossed in M. 268. 264.

like Why cannot we see the Divine Mother? all She is a high-born lady transacting all. allow others also the faiths. seeing but seen by none. you your wish to see Him. . pleasures. every one mistakes. worships God. After finishing his task he saw that not field . you will say that there is no water in it. her business from behind the screen. you complain that you cannot see God. by going near Her and behind the screen of MiyL As you same rest firmly 272. With eyes covered with the film of If ofiF Miyi eyes. If you desire to see the water. on your own by their faith. Dispute not. If God is Omnipresent.158 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmAKJI/SHJVA. Her devout sons only see Her. 270. liberty to stand own By mere disputation you shall never succeed in convincing another of his error. remove the film of Maya from 271. and comforts) he and ambitions. why do we not see Him ? Standing by the bank of a pool thickly overspread with scum and weeds. remove the scum from the surface of the pond. and every also are the religion in the world shows one of these ways. understand his own 273. a drop of water had entered the all the water had gone underground through several big rat-holes. A husbandman was watering a sugar-cane field the whole of a day. When will the grace of God descends on him. Such is the state of that devotee who. Though daily praying. ways and means to approach God. cherishing secretly in his heart worldly desires (of fame.

a The as parable of Brahman and his low-caste As soon Miyi him. Is good to create sects ? (Here is a pun on the word 'Dal. Tantras. He whose heart for anything no time He who looks for fame and honour. she flies away. A priest had no he thou was once going to the servant with village of a disciple. But the Brahman or the Absolute has never been defiled.' which means both a as 'the rank growth 'sect' or 'party' as well pool.) 276. 105. forms sects (Dal).') on the surface of a stagnant in The 'Dal' cannot grow a current of water: it grows only in the stagnant waters of petty pools.: : THE SAYINGS. ' seeing a cobbler. servant Him by human speech. and those who ridicule piety and the pious. is found out. Hallo ! good man. makes no progress because the of his life-long devotion he has not advanced one step. for no one as yet has been able to express 277. earnestly longs after the Deity has else. The Vedas. saying. and the Pur^«as. wilt accompany me as a servant? Thou shall dine well and . addressed him. have come out of human mouths. He On the way. those Keep thyself aloof at the time of thy devotion from who scoflf. is 159 runs to entire devotion waste through the rat-holes of his desires. (Cf. and at the end the same man as before. it 275. and 274. and all become as if defiled (as food thrown out of the mouth becomes polluted) because they have been constantly repeated by and have the sacred scriptures of the world.

longer. go and bring my shoes from there. looking at the priest said. made no response. but the servant remained silent. is little 279. art. What is the relation between (Pivdtman and Paramitman. I cannot stay here any to his heels. how can I reprethat. be cared for.' nor speak to or make cobbler agreed. another ' repeated inch. come Sir.. The Brihman of his disciple. 'Never mind Do tell anybody what thou one. ' it again and again. ! At getting annoyed. while the priest was sitting at prayers in the house Brahman came and addressed the priest's servant. Fellow. hearing this began to tremble with and Sir. In truth they are one and the same. the personal and the Highest Self? As when a plank of wood is stretched across a current of water.' The cobbler replied.' The servant. so the indivisible appears divided into two by limitations (Upidhi) of M%3. Reverend not am of the lowest caste. ? Hallo Sirrah ! How is darest thou not obey a Brahman's command The cobbler piteously What thy caste ? Art thou not a cobbler fear.' So saying he took 278. ! 'O venerable O venerable Sir I am found out. the moved not an Brihman angrily said.— ' l6o wilt ' THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJJ/SHiVA. I along. acquaintance with The At twilight. sent your servant?' The any priest said. true to the words of his master. the water seems to be divided into two. let me flee. The Brahman repeated the order a second time. so compass points towards the true North. There long as the its chance of a ship running astray. So life if mind of man — the compass-needle of the ship of . but the cobbler last.

he turned round and said. A heron was slowly walking to catch a at it . approaching him. l6l oscilla- turned always towards the Parabrahman without it tion. you are the contemplation of the Paramitman.' When I sit me follow my devotions let me not Guru. will steer clear of every danger. ' The Avadhflta. Avadhflta. and before finishing attend to anything else. not even a passing look at hunter. you are be my When bird.' I sit in its mediof my mind concentrated on object meditation as yours has been on the 281. casting it. An angler was fishing in a pond. Hard by the road through which the procession was passing he saw a hunter deeply absorbed in aiming at a bird. but was rod. ' but the fact. my 282. tation let ' The Guru. there was a hunter aiming an arrow bird was totally unmindful of this saluting the heron.THE is SAYINGS. saluting the Sir. Behind. Brother. said. ' saying. The Avadhflta. with the beating of drums and the blowing of trumpets. 'What saluted in you have been said. fish. which float way leads to such and such a place ? ' The of the rod at that time was : indicating that the fish was nibbling the bait so the man did not give any reply. When M I sit in meditation let me . said. all attention to his fishing- When is it the fish was caught. sir?' The Avadhdta let him and Sir. asked. your example. and with great pomp. The Avadhfita saw a bridal procession passing through a meadow. and perfectly inattentive to the noise and pomp of the procession. 280.

soul. If thou wishest to thread the needle. state of the bird the Avadhfita.' he cannot be undisturbed and at peace with him- 284. for you have taught me that so long as man does not throw off the burden of the worldly desires he carries.l62 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF VtlUAKRISHNA. humble. behind me. ' You are my O Kite . when it was instantly kites kite. and was at once the crowd of and of crows transferred their kind attentions to the the fish. and poor in desire. let Getting tired of this annoyance. tree. new owner The first kite left unmolested. human Guru whispers the sacred formula into spirit the Divine Guru breathes the into the 285. and remove extraneous fibres. all thread pointed. Seeing this quiet and tranquil it. and never turn back to see who is follow your example. saluting said. So thou wishest to concentrate thy heart on God.' 283. The the ear. self. For whoever did so was instan- . went the crowd of and crows screeching and cawing. spirit. No one dared that way. be meek. to pass A snake by dwelt in a certain place. make Then the the if thread will easily enter into the eye of the needle. and sat calmly on the branch of a Guru. which were screeching and In pecking at it. and remove all filaments of 286. the kite caught by another go the fish. kites whatever direction followed it. and were it trying to snatch the fish away. A kite with a fish in its beak was followed by a host of crows and other kites.

merciless ! But ' alas they are so ' The sage smilingly said. and seeing the bruised and battered condition of the good snake. you should keep every one a consider- able distance by Similarly. and in this way there was no end to his troubles. bite My dear friend. do not injure assent. and so every one began to tease him. same time. In a few days all the neighbourhood began to think that the snake had lost all his venom. friend. Fortunately the sage again passed by that way. anybody in future. 'Hearken. I I simply advised you not to any one. make thyself feared and respected. and inquired the cause of his distress. that road. the sage said.' and nodded a The sage went his snake entered his hole. bite him. Some pelted him. ' At this the snake replied. this is because ! I do not injure any one. after your advice.' livest in thou the world. taneously bitten to death. at the others. was very much moved. Holy sir. and thenceforward began to life of innocence and purity without even attempting to harm any one. thou to bite reply. but did not tell you not to frighten others. others dragged him mercilessly by the tail. but be not. injured by M 2 . thinkest Seeing the snake. if hissing at him. and was overpowered by the gentle' ness of the Yogin. he lost all his ferocity.THE SAYINGS. Do not injure any one. and was no more dangerous. still Although you should not at bite any creature. At the sage said. 1 63 Once a Mahitman passed by after the sage in order to and the serpent ran But when the snake approached the holy man Well. me ?' this The snake was abashed The snake bowed own way and the live and made no friend.

he went over the book carefully once more and appeared before the king. kings and courts. O king.' However. his closet. When the bird has flown away from it. who was the wiser of the two. From day forward he gave .' a king's court. and learn the scripture thinking within himself. but go first The Brihman went his way. no one cares any longer for the carcase. that you I yourself have not mastered that to book thoroughly. 288. So when the bird of life away. O Br§. well knew that a man who has read the BhSgavata would seek more to know his own Self than honour and wealth in Bhigavata. I am well versed in the holy 289. that all vanished before unclouded vision. wealth his and fame. the vanity of running after the bubbles. 290. but thought there must be some meaning for this behaviour of the king. shut himself up in self and applied him- more than ever to the study of the book. As a lamp does not burn without oil.' ' make you my tutor. By and by hidden meanings began to flash before his intellect. He the went home. ' scriptures. promise well. How have not mastered the Bhagavata when I have been reading the book over and over again for all these years. A learned Brahman once went over to a wise king and said. foolish the king is to say I well. riches and honour. one cares no has flown longer for the cage.hman. so a man cannot live without God. I intend to teach thee the holy book of the The king. THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rKwAKRISHNA. The away. Hear. ' I see. king told him the same thing again and sent him The Brihman was sore vexed. He replied.164 287.

We should persevere is ourselves to reach our final goal as long as there no help let from above. 292.THE SAYINGS. we give up fanning. and went to his house to Seeing the BrUhman. Where is God? How can we get to Him? in the A. which found perch upon the topmast of a ship. him then stop labouring and persevering . he said. There are pearls in the sea. and never returned to the king. its 294. being disgusted with the monotony of the task and the discipline imposed well-wishing upon him by his and thoroughly experienced preceptor (Guru). see what he was about. God. make me is As long as there no breeze blowing. So there is God world. you must dive deep again and again until you get the pearls. getting tired of flies its position. we fan our- selves to alleviate heat. 293. 1 65 himself up entirely to attain perfection by the worship of A few years after the king thought of the Brihman. but when that help comes to any. returns at old roost upon the masthead. Q. . away ! to discover a new place of rest for last to its itself. at the true meaning of if the scriptures I am ready to be your disciple. ' upon his knees and I see you have now arrived . fell all radiant with the divine light and love. but you should persevere to see Him. one. so when an ordinary aspirant. but when the breeze blows both for rich and poor. How does the soul stay in the body? As the piston stays in a syringe. weary and exhausted.' you will duly condescend to 291. otherwise not. As in mid-ocean a bird. and alas without finding any.

But when once evil inclination you grow strong in will no worldliness or . and pure as a dewdrop. wicked become godly through your holy . 302.1 68 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAuAKRISHNA. its all you cannot derive A young plant should be always protected by a fence from the mischief of goats and cows and httle urchins. 303. So when you have but it little faith within you. is of family. their appearance over the forehead. while your mind has made the world any benefit thereby. and seen to lose the glow of health from his cheeks. 301. A boat may stay in the water. weight of the responsibilities of a feels the man jolly. 304. may find shelter under its and fill their stomachs with its leaves. What you tell think you should say. you should protect from the evil influences of bad company and worldhness. harmony between your thoughts and your words . if you merely that God is your in all in all. while wrinkles gradually make air. but the world should not live in him. care. Let there be a otherwise. free as the morning fresh as a newly-blown flower. and anxiety. faith. can- not derive any benefit from him. He who thinks his spiritual guide a mere man. by binding himself in time to the world by the indissoluble tie of wedlock. but water should not stay in the boat. Blessed is he that remains a boy throughout his life. dare approach your holy presence will and many who are contact. But when once a herd' of cows it becomes a big tree. then he no longer appears but wears the look of dejection. a flock of goats or spreading boughs. An aspirant may live in the world. all.

1 66 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rXmAKRISBNA. no confidence in him. may and take you for a sacrifice to the Goddess Durgi then. all If your good luck leads you safe and sound through crises. In the month of June a young goat was playing near his mother. having forth into the broad world ever in search of a new adviser. launches loses all hope. and. fruitless which has. when. these then you can hope to make a all feast of Ris-flowers in the beginning of November. my darling. now on the unclean sore of the human body. You will have to many crises before you can hope to feast on The interval between the coming September is and October not very auspicious to you . ' it is not such an easy thing as you seem to think.' replied the dam. 295. a species budding abundantly during the time of the Rislili ' Well. will have to pass through in the course of one's 296.' Like the dam in the fable. he a is sure at last to return to his original master after search. he told her that of he meant to make a flowers festival. As the fly sits. for some one . there comes the <ragaddhit«-pfl^. however. increased the reverence of the repentant aspirant for the master. again. and now on the offerings dedicated to the . we should not fold crises hastily approve of the aspirations which our youthful hopes may entertain. if you will have to get through the time of Ktli-pUg^ you are fortunate enough to escape through that period. when almost all the surviving male members of our tribe are destroyed. remembering the mani- which one life. with a merry frisk. pass through Rds-flowers. feast of Ris-flowers.

(See 225).. affairs So long world he as a is boy has no concern with the is of the as merry as the day long. it not a very easy affair to collect and concentrate 299. merry. and are scattered in all directions . which seem to be uttered by those proceed from the men themselves. The new-born It calf looks very lively. thus seeming to come out of descends from the sky mouths. so. while in reality they throne of God. when the directions is and is occupied with human mind many things runs in diverse in the world. wears a dejected and sorry appearance. if you are always on your guard. it no its evil spirits will be able to enter your heart to rob of goodness. 300. while in reality it even so are the holy instructions that come out of the mouths of godly men. As thieves cannot enter the house the inmates of which are wide awake. and gets almost reduced to a skeleton. all its and the jumps and runs day long. so. very difficult to 298. far from being merry. As it is gather together the mustard- seeds that escape out of a torn package. so the SAYINGS. it. and. But when he once . As the rain-water falling upon the roof of a house flows down to the ground through spouts grotesquely shaped tigers' like the tiger's head. and only stops to suck the sweet milk from rope placed round its dam. is at 1 67 mind of the worldly man and one time deeply engaged in religious topics and itself in at the next lust. THE gods. blithe. it But no sooner is neck than begins to pine away gradually. moment loses the pleasures of wealth 297.

THE SAYINGS.
305.
large,

1 69
set

If

you wash the body of an elephant and
sure to get himself dirtied in
tie

him

at
if

he

is

no

time, but

after
will

own room he by the good influences of holy men you once become pure in spirit, and then allow yourself the liberty to mix freely with worldly men, you are sure to
to his

washing him you

him down

remain clean.

So

if

lose that purity soon

;

but

if

you keep your mind
spirit.

fixed

on

your God, you

will

never more get soiled in

308. Where does the strength of an aspirant
in his tears.

lie ?

It is

As a mother

gives her consent to

fulfil

the

desire of her importunately weeping child, so
safes to

God
for.

vouch-

His weeping son whatever he

is

crying

307. Meditate on

God

either in

an unknown corner, or

in the solitude of forests, or within your

own mind.

308. Chant forth the sweet name of Hari (God), keeping
time
all

the while by clapping your hands, then you will
If

acquire mental concentration.
sitting

you clap your hands,
fly

under a

tree,

the birds on the boughs thereof will

away

in all directions,

and when you chant
all evil

forth the
will fly

name
away

of Hari and clap your hands,

thoughts

from your mind. 309. 310. As the same
cutlet,
fish is

dressed into soup, curry, or
it,

and each has

his

own

choice dish of

so the Lord

of the Universe, though one, manifests Himself differently

according to the difierent likings of His worshippers, and

each of these has his own taste of God, which he values the
most.

To some He

is

a kind master or a loving father,

I

70

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR7SHJVA.
husband or a

a sweet smiling mother or a devout friend, and to others a
faithful

dutiful

and

obliging son.

311.

Bow down and
hearts have

adore where others kneel, for where

so

many

been paying the tribute of adoration,

the kind Lord will manifest Himself, for
312. There are
to attract

He

is all

mercy.

men, who, although they have nothing

them

in this world, create

some attachments
free.

for

themselves, and so try to bind themselves to this earth.

They do not want and do not like to be who has no family to care for, no relatives
generally takes a cat, or a

A

man
for

to look after,

monkey, or a dog, or a bird
;

a pet object and companion

and thus
Such
is

slakes his thirst for

milk by drinking mere whey.
or Nescience over humanity.
313. 314.

the power of

Mkyk

A
fit

patient, in high fever

and excess of

thirst,

imagines that he can drink away quite a sea of water ; but

when
water,

that

of fever goes and he regains his normal

temperature, he can barely quafiF off a single cupful of

and

his thirst
it.

is

at

once appeased with even a very
feverish

small quantity of

So a man, being under the

excitement of Miyi, and forgetful of his

own

littleness,

imagines that he can embrace the whole of Divinity within
his

own bosom, but when
is

the illusion passes away a single

ray of Divine Light

seen to be sufficient to flood him

with eternal divine
315.

bliss.

A

man, under the influence of very high fever
is

and

in excessive thirst,

placed between a row of pitchers

THE
filled filled

SAYINGS,

171

with cold water and a set of open-mouthed bottles
with flavoury sauces.
Is
it

possible for the thirsty

and

restless patient in

such a case to refrain from either

drinking the water or from tasting the sauces placed so

near him, although thereby his case

Even such
senses

is

the case with the
his

may become worse? man who is under the
and misleading

maddening influence of

ever-active

when he

is

placed between the attractions of woman's
side

charm on the one
It is

then

liable to

and those of wealth on the other. him to behave properly, and he is deviate often from the true path and thus make
difficult for

his case worse.

318.

None

ventures to keep milk in a vessel in which
lest

curd had formerly formed,
curdled.

the milk

itself

should get
for
fire.

Nor can the
lest
it

vessel

be

safely

used

other
It
is

working purposes

should crack upon the

therefore almost useless.

A

good and experienced pre-

ceptor does not entrust to a worldly
exalting precepts, for he
is

man

valuable

and

sure to misinterpret
designs.

and misuse
he ask him

them
to

to suit his useful

own mean
work
that

Nor

will

do any

may

cost a

little

labour, lest he

should think that the preceptor was taking undue advantage
of him.
317.

When

a certain quantity of pure milk
it

is

mixed with
and much

double the quantity of water,
labour to thicken
milk).
it

takes a long time

to the consistency of Kshira (condensed

The mind

of a worldly

man

is

largely diluted with
it

the filthy water of evil and impure thoughts, and

requires

I

72

THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKJUSBNA.
time and labour before anything can be done to

much
purify

and give the proper consistency to

it.

318.

The

vanities of all others

may

gradually die out,
is

but the vanity of a saint as regards his sainthood

hard

indeed to wear away.
319.

Of

the grains of paddy which are fried in a frying-

pan, the few which leap out of the pan and burst outside
are the best fried, being without the slightest
tinge
;

mark of any
mark

while every one of the properly-fried grains in the
sure to have at least a very small charred

pan
give

itself is

of a burn.

So of all good devotees, the few who altogether
it

up the world and go out of
least

are perfect without any

spot, while

even the best of those devotees who are in the

world must have at
in their character.

some small spot of imperfection

320.

We
;

cannot say that
is

God

is

gracious because

He

feeds us, for every father

bound

to supply his children

with food

but

when

He

keeps us from going astray, and

holds us back from temptations, then

He

is

truly gracious.
illusion

32L

If you can detect
it

and find out the universal

or MiyS,

wUl

fly

away from you,

just as a thief runs

away

when found
322. Fire

out.
itself

has no definite shape, but in glowing
fire is

embers

it

assumes certain forms, and the formless
Similarly, the

then endowed with forms.

formless

God

sometimes invests Himself with definite forms.
323. Should we pray aloud unto

God ?

Pray unto

Him

while the husk or chaff if is considered to be of no importance. he would surely have been successful in getting water. without shifting the site of the well from place to place. Although in a grain of paddy the germ is considered the only necessary thing (for germination and growth). object of faith. it still the unhusked grain be put into the ground will not get sprout up and grow into a plant and produce rice. Such is the case with regard to men who continually shift their positions in faith. but having dug down least to the depth of twenty cubits he could not find the was to feed his well.THE SAYINGS. There he dug deeper than before. A man began to sink a well. in I 73 can any way you like. still So again he selected another it deeper than before. was little short of a hundred Had he had the patience to devote even a half of the whole of this labour to his first well. but even then he could not find any water. To . for He hear even the footfall of an ant. 325. trace of the water-spring which So he for the desisted from the work and selected another place purpose. but was also of no alto- At last in utter disgust he gave up the task gether. He is sure to hear you. He who tries to God by mere book-learning is like of Kift (Benares) man who tries to by means of a map or a the give one an idea picture. The sum total of the depths of these three wells cubits. without being doubtful as to 326. spot and dug avail. In order to meet with success we should devote ourselves entirely to a single its efficacy. give one an idea of 324. a crop one must needs sow the grain with the husk on but .

and being much pleased he took sandal-logs as he could carry. So the next day he went at last on even beyond the place of the sandal-wood. but it is essential for the growth of the The shell itself is of no use to the man who has got the pearl. saw him at work. at the germinating matter itself one wants to get he must first perform the operation of removing the husk from the seed. pearl. Once a Sawnyisin. away with him many and sold them in the to market and derived much profit. So rites and ceremonies are necessary religion. who was wending his way through the forest. The woodcutter till obeyed the injunction and proceeded onward to he came a sandal-wood as tree. They are the receptacles and consequently every man central truth. is The pearl-oyster that contains the precious pearl in itself of very little value. 328. intimating to him that he would be a gainer thereby.1 if 74 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAjIAKii/SH^A. but simply advised him to proceed onward into the interior of the forest. neither are ceremonies and rites necessary for him who has attained the Highest Truth —God. small A woodcutter led a very miserable life with the means he could procure by daily selling the load wood brought from a neighbouring forest. and . must perform them before he reaches the 327. Then he began think within himself tell why the good of Sa»?nyisin did not him anything about the wood the sandal-trees. for the growth and perpetuation of a that contain the seeds of truth. and advised him to proceed onward of into the interior recesses of the forest.

Next day. for He who would learn to swim must attempt swimming some days. 330. they will affect you in no way. does a man get his salvation? When his egoism 332. and selling it much at the in the market got much money by it.THE SAYINGS. you want to swim in the sea ineffectual attempts at of Brahman. and then the midst of wealth and women. copper-mine. and then break open the fruit will if the sticky milky exudation of the trouble you. he proceeded further advised him to do. If you oil smear the palms of your hands with jack-fruit. without stopping still. and diamond-mines. and took much of it he could carry. you must first. first 329. When a sharp thorn finds its way into the sole of one's foot. make many before you can successfully swim therein. When dies. not stick to your hands and yourself with the true live in So you first fortify knowledge of the Universal Self. No one can venture to swim in the sea after So if a single day's practice. he does not stop in his progress after attaining a few extraordinary and supernatural powers. 331. one takes another thorn to get the former out. he at last eternal becomes really rich in the knowledge of truth. and sold got even more money. and he took copper as he could carry. and Such is at last became exceedingly also the case with If man who aspires after true knowledge. and with him as as the SMhu it all had and came upon a as silver-mine. . with 175 him as came upon a copper-mine. and so daily proceeding further and the further he got at gold-mines rich.

and costly articles.1 76 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKiJ/SHiVA. casts and then both of them away. If this body pious and devout is worthless and it ? transitory. gold. why do full men take care of No one takes care of of an empty box. 335. 334. All protect with care a chest precious jewels. The pious soul cannot help taking care of the body in which the Divine one dwells. one dis- should gently take the water from the surface. and not it is disturbed the sediments will rise up from the bottom and desire to make the whole water muddy. and waste not your energies in useless scriptural discussions and arguments. is but the to fullit. being himself free from all duality. does away with both knowledge and ignorance in the end. So relative knowledge alone can remove the relative ignorance which blinds the eye of the Self. faith be pure. the man who attains the highest Gnina. 333. The tender bamboo can be easily bent. grown bamboo breaks when an attempt It is easy to made bend bend young hearts towards good. have firm If you and slowly go on with your devotional practices. but the heart of the old escapes the hold when so drawn. 386. The little brain will otherwise be muddled. To If drink pure water from a shallow pond. As both such knowledge and ignorance are comprised truly under Nescience. for all our bodies form the playground of the Deity. turb it. The locomotive engine easily drags along a train of . or knowledge of the Absolute.

340. 338. and so on. So long as the heart of man is directed towards God he 341. let In whatever circumstances he may be him always take heed that his heart does not swerve from the true path. The magnetic needle always points towards the North. pays no heed to this noise and turmoil. and yet do not allow one drop of water spilt. In our theatrical exhibitions wherein the life and com- exploits of Krishna.' But the person who plays the part of Krishna. 337. cannot be lost in the ocean of worldliness. are exhibited. and devotion to Him. placed. passing through leading all and many men along with them to God. Every man should follow his own religion. 339. ancient path. 1 77 firm in their faith So the loving children of God. For the Hindus the the best. 342. and hence it is that the sailing-vessel does not lose her course. and goes on complacently chatting and smoking .THE heavily-laden carriages. feel no trouble in the worries and anxieties of life. man who is illumined with Others are men in name only. the path of the Aryan Rishis. come. a follow Mohammedan is should Mohammedanism. the performance mences with the beating of drums and the singing aloud of 'O K«sh«a. to be so must the traveller in the path of virtue walk along. He alone is the true the light of true knowledge. the way with one another about their own joys and sorrows. SAYINGS. As all the village maidens in India carry four or five pots of water placed one over the other talking upon their heads. come. O dear one. A Christian should follow Christianity.

' with lip-prayers only. 346. indifferent. verily the . calls The Lord cannot delay coming when man upon Him from the depths of his heart overflowing with deep love and devotion. in the But as soon as the noise ceases. and exertion : make no harmony no effort. 347. never O Lord. and his loud utterances will in all cease for ever. O Lord . What is the nature of absolute reliance ? It is that happy clining toil : state of comfort felt by a fatigued worker. come. As dry leaves are blown about here and there by the wind. green-room behind the stage. and hurriedly comes on ' So long as the religious devotee cries. in with His and can have no and put forth of their own. There is no Path and smoother than that of ba-kalami will is ' («V).' 344. orator What do you person think of the man who is a good and preacher. safer 343. to have no consciousness that anything mine. Come. and the pious sage NSiada enters on the stage with sweet and soft music and calls upon K«sh«a to come out with a heart overflowing with love. Ba-kalami means resigning the self to the of the Almighty. Lord will come when the Lord does come. who depend upon God move will. 345. but whose like a spirituality is undeveloped ? left He is who squanders another's property in . and have no choice of their own. so those will. K«sh«a finds that he can no longer remain to the stage. when at leisure after a re- on a pillow he smokes a cessation of all hard day's it is anxieties and worries.1 78 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR7SHJVA. the heart of the devotee will melt in divine emotion.

pillar gyrates fall. SAYINGS. 350. of the world. 348. He and pours down a volley of abuse upon all religious and men. 349. busily engaged in household affairs. but borrowed. but so think ye also knows well that that she has no claim upon Lord God in it . As a wet-nurse in a rich family brings up the child if it of her master. Know thyself. A worldly man is best known by his antipathy to whatever savours of religion. or to utter the holy name of God. As a boy holding on to a post or a round it with headlong speed without fear of a so. for it I 79 He can costs him nothing. and thou shalt be free from all dangers. 353. As an unchaste woman. whose real father is the It is useless to 352. as the ideas he expresses are not his own. He does not like to hear any sacred music or psalm. loving the baby as were her own. fixing thy hold firmly on God.THE trust with him. No spiritual progress can be made without discrimination (Viveka) and dispassion (Vairigya). societies otliers from doing the same. scoffs and even dissuades at prayers. even so. 351. easily advise others. is all the while thinking of her secret lover. and thou shalt then know the non- N 2 . do thy round of worldly duties. O thou fix man but thy heart always on the Lord. pore over holy scriptures and sacred Shastras without a discriminating and dispassionate mind. perform thy worldly duties. you are but trustees and guardians of your children Heaven.

and try to discriminate the real firom the unreal. it goes about uproot- ing trees and shrubs. of the holy and wise is 358. but as soon as the driver pricks on the head with the goad he becomes quiet . or muscle. so it will by analysing the ego be found that there is not any real all entity corresponding to the ego. is moved to tears at the mere mention of the name of Hari. but becomes calm at once when struck with the goad of discrimination. my ego ? Is it my hand. or tendon ? Ponder I. 359. or flesh. have firm faith in the efficacy of repeating the name of Hari. and thou shalt know that there is no such thing as As by continually peeling off the skin of the onion. or foot. The companionship one of the main elements of spiritual progress. The soul reincarnates in a body of which it was . deep. The truly devotional and spiritual practice suited for this Iron-age (Kali-)aiga) is the constant repetition of the name of the Lord of Love. When egoism drops away. 357. 356. The ultimate result of such analysis manifests is God. If thou wishest to see God. so the him mind when unrestrained wantons in the luxuriance of idle thoughts. 354. 355. or blood. Divinity itself. Devotional practices are necessary only so long as tears of ecstasy do not flow at hearing the He needs no devotional practices whose heart name of Hari. When an elephant is let loose. What is and the Lord of all.l8o self THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rKmAKRISHNA.

362. How may we conquer the old Adam in us? When the fruit grows out of the flower. no worldly ideas fills mind. thinking just before its l8l last departure from this world. and then God-vision impossible. the when the divinity in thee inweaknesses of thy human nature will all vanish So. Devotional practices necessary. arise in the may therefore be seen to be very When. of their own accord. When does the attraction of sensual and worldly ? is pleasures die away In God. having thrown the bait and the hook into the water. 364. so the devotee should love the Lord with all his heart and soul. there a consolidation of happiness and of all pleasures. who is Indivisible all Ever- Existing Bliss. 361. In what condition of the mind does God-vision take place ? God is is seen when the mind agitated is tranquil. watching patiently until the bait is caught by the . When it the mental sea reflect by the wind of is desires. by constant practice. 363. creases. How should one love God ? As the true and chaste his wife loves her husband and the niggardly miser loves hoarded wealth. tion in the They who enjoy Him can find no attraccheap and worthless pleasures of the world. waits calmly for hours together. the petals of the flower drop off of themselves. 365. then the god-idea alone it the soul. cannot God. even when on the brink of eternity. and does not leave 360. anxious hook a big and beautiful Rohitta-fish.THE SAYINGS. to How may we find our God? The angler.

under the eyes of he changes becomes all very pious. Moist and reverence within and ultimately begins hearts of worldly wood placed upon a fire soon becomes dry. inquires fully into their grievances. the devotee is fish. 370. the society of the pious drives away the moisture of greed and lust from the men and women. who patiently goes on with his devotions sure at last to find his God. 366. to the head-quarters his ways. then the fire of Viveka (Discrimination) burns . 369. The agent of a rich Zemindar. and Ignorance to diversity. 371. The rice-water dissipates intoxica- So doth the society of the pious relieve worldly men. Knowledge leads to unity. and tries to mete out impartial justice to The tyrannical agent even becomes good through the effect fear of the landlord. So wicked cannot be easily changed. 367. Similarly. all.1 82 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF rAmAKRZSHJVA. But when he comes back his master. tyrannises in various ways over the tenants. from their intoxication. to bum. The society of pious men is like the water in which tion. rice is washed. awakening awe them. intoxicated with the wine of desires. 368. treats the tenants kindly. a curled hair. The it heart of a sinner is like You it may pull ever so long. but will not succeed in making also the heart of the straight. when he goes into the mofussil or interior. and by the of his society. Similarly. and in them. Similarly doth the society of the pious make even the wicked righteous.

so the mind should be invigorated occasionally by the society of the pious. SAYINGS. the less becomes the noise and when is fully fried the bubbling ceases altogether. 376. 374. When unavoidably entering into places where there may be temptation. will Throw an unbaked cake make a sort of boiling noise. the true hero. so the mind should be kept a-burning by the society of the pious. So long as a man has little knowledge. attains perfection. 1 83 fire How should one pass his or her hfe ? is stirred As the on the hearth from time to time with a poker to make it burn brightly and prevent it from going out. tion Coat thyself with the turmeric of Discriminathose of this and Dispassion (Viveka and Vairigya) and will is alligators not approach thee. he goes about lecturing and preaching. evils that She will protect thee from the many may be lurking even in thy heart. 375. . but when make the perfection of knowledge is obtained. Avarice and Anger. 373. That man who. Cannot the . too much for them. As the blacksmith keeps alive the his fire of his furnace by the occasional blowing of bellows. he ceases to vain displays. We must dive deep into the ocean of the Eternal- Intelligent-BUss. it But the more it it is fried. carry always with thee the thought of thy Divine Mother. of flour into hot ghee.THE 372. Fear not the deep-sea monsters. living in the midst of the temptais tions of the world. as the scent turmeric 377.

but it not always is last long ? why does The fire made by the burning of the is bamboo blowing.184 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAlIAKfi/SHiVA. Those who live in the world and try to find salvation are like soldiers that fight protected by the breast- work of a search of fort. fire soon extinguished unless kept alive by constant Continual devotion necessary to keep alive the of spirituality. 380. or sing profane songs. and other substances subject to putrefaction. 382. Give me. By thus analysing the body. or carrying the religious mendicant's tambourine and cymbals. ? 379. . marrow. while the ascetics who renounce than to the world in God are like soldiers fighting in the fort is safer open field. a utter light man can never and profane things. our love thereof vanishes. 381. presence of thy mother shame thee away from evil deeds and evil thoughts? 378. Dressed in the Sawnyisin's orange robes. How may we is conquer the love of things flesh. Pray to the Divine Mother in this wise. Should the devotee adopt any particular costume The adoption of a suitable costume is good. a collection of bone. life? The human frame blood. Sometimes peace reigns in the heart. To fight from within the fight in the open field. . But a man dressed in the smart style of a beau will naturally have his heart inclined to think low thoughts and sing low songs. made up of decaying It is filthy of flesh and blood and bone.

but he will remain pure if he out of 386. is sure to arise in his or her mind. if however small room without blackening it may be. for then will lose something of its sweetness and cohesion. and remains in the midst of the world. is said. if So one some partial perfection in the world. 1 85 O Mother ! love that knows no incontinence. a man or a woman lives in the age. if there be the smallest tinge of worldliness neophyte. it When the butter produced by churning the should not be kept in the same vessel containing it the remaining whey. will be tainted . 385. company of one of passion. If there water. it 387. continues to mix with it the worldly. is 384. in the Similarly. It should be kept in pure water after attaining still and in a different vessel. whey. likely that lives is he it. As persons living in a house infested by venomous snakes are always alert and cautious. and faith adamantine that cannot be shaken.THE SAYINGS. 383. however small. with your caution. the a small hole in the bottom of a jar of it whole water flows out of by that small aperture. Two persons. You cannot some live in a sooty your body to all extent. all his exertions come is to naught. still his or her opposite sex of the same with the greatest circumspection and control over his or her some carnal thought. So. so should in the world men living allure- be always on their guard against the ments of lust and greed. began together the rite of .

' The peculiarities of creeds and sects matter little or nothing. ' ! ' ' ! 388. But people carefully preserve the box that contains virtuous cannot money and other valuable property. As a little can have no idea of conjugal affection. O child previous births.' end of the night. The but take care of the body. 390. by the horrors of the earUer portion of the night the other at the was favoured with the vision of the Divine Mother Then he asked her. even so a worldly man cannot at all comprehend the ecstasy of Divine communion. the temple of the soul in which God has manifested Himself or which has been blessed by God's advent. 389. Thou the other man become mad ? didst become mad many times in thy various too. The body is it is transient after? and unimportant. performed in invoking the Goddess Klli by the terrible process called ' &vasidhana.' (This Tantrik invocation is the cemetery yard. Everlasting. All-embracing Bliss ? To her MahMeva thus rephed. faith the devotions Let every one perform with his and the duties of boy or a girl own creed. ' The root is faith. and now at last thou seest me. There are various sects among the Hindus sect or . Why then so much looked No one cares for an empty box. O Lord ! what ' is the root of the Eternal.1 86 THE LIFE AND SAYINGS OF RAMAKR/SHiVA.) One invoker was frightened to insanity . . the invoker sitting on the body of a corpse in a dark night. which which creed should we then adopt ' ? Pirvati once asked Mahadeva. Mother why did The Deity answered.

393. but the burnt clay does not. Soft clay admits of forms. and ultimately are resolved in degrees . long as he in communion 392. As the water and bubbles have its bubbles are one. man becomes He can then both in God and in the world equally well. float on the water. the tail 394. iron it is SAYINGS. so the : Gtv^tman and the Param^tman are one and the same is the difference the other is —the is one is finite and small.THE 391. it can both in water and on land. So the human being with God. So those whose hearts are consumed with the desire of worldly things cannot realise higher ideas. infinite the one dependent. It is black the is man? The moment godly so removed from is fire. and as the their birth in the water. . live When of the tadpole drops off. free. the other independent. into water. 395. 187 How long does godliness remain in it is is red so long as in fire. When the tail of ignorance live drops off.

.

may live in the live in evil. — man's home 175. When the MS. 228. 55- in- Aspirant. Adore where others do. the. 146. —301. 167. 73.'] Adam. shortlived in good men. Advice of many. visible form of. Ar^ima. lasting. light spirit. 134. 311. 224. Anger. Brahman. reflected. twenty . Almighty. 12. BengSU.four at feet of. 148. Almighty. — world like. leads to confusion. human being and Divinity. it was necessary to assign two numbers to some of the sayings in order not to disturb the figures of the Index. ' This Index was made for a collection of the Sayings of Rdmakrishna. 77. how 361. Affairs. danger of being absorbed in otiiers'. Gurus. 74effect of. Avadhfita. dwells in every place. safety. sight of. to conquer the old. grace of. Alphabet. 306. the. Agriculturalist and Vish»u. sin. it should not world him. 263. As these had to be left out when they occurred the second time. fruit. . 112. Amid Ant — gives — power — power makes a man capable of — absorbing — arguments cease presence — how to reach. tears. the materialised manifestation of the formless — disperses accumulated ignorance and 191. but of. Ahamkara. vanity or egoism. — 147. 36. — transmits truth through teachers. of. 72.INDEX TO THE SAYINGS ^ [Tie references in this Index correspond to the numbering of the Sayings in this volume. — image 240. which was sent to me in manuscript. like a bird. of. 190. fo. of. 237distinguishes sand from sugar. 225. came to be printed there were several sayings which had been given twice. 11 1. — source of of the 224. the strength of. 294. in 78.

— all-pervading and formless. 266. Bengal alphabet. INDEX. loses in of. 379. Boy and goat. 334. 148. Chameleon. doll of. Contentment is happiness. never discouraged. of. 141. glory of the. Body. recognised by seven sages. 248. Baddha. BrShmana and parable of. Believer. 313. 300- 155Child. existence ocean — temptations in path towards. — Human soul individual 208. — temple of the 390. — hides behind MayS. true. Avat^ras. — Bhagavan. distinctions of. 52- Br^hmaism and Hinduism. 241. Bnrdwan. inexpressible. Cat scratched by K^rtikeya. 51. Blmd men. very rare. 36. 167. journey to Ceylon. 261. 81. resigning the to will of Almighty. lover. kite. Chelas (disciples). Contemplation. in. — Almighty a manifestation — Saviours are to Brahma as waves to ocean. 203. Children at play. transient soul. Ba-kalami (sic). 218. of. SA Rama/^dra. I^eities. Bigotry. 380. Costume of devotee. 253- 252. 290. 222. 72. and the elephant. 5. — and 283. 390. Brahman out. 57. many colours of. 287. 277. 282. Kn'shna and Christ as. both Avataras. his garden. (Brahma). 144. 242.I go fisher. Books. — sea 330. — and king. 3. story of. the. to be eschewed. like frog in well. scnpture. Brahman (Brahma). 221. — manifestations 141. Boon or grand-dame. 119. Barber and jars of gold. mere reading of. story — and Samnyasin. perfection of. 31- fire of. Brihmanical thread. Brahman and low-caste servant. burnt and soft. will not make a man religions. 221. — keep knowledge to themselves. of. 36. — God the Absolute and Eternal. Cage. in hide and seek. 49. 97. Caste. playground of Deity. roads lead to. Bhakta or true 290. Bee like a Yogin. 137. 392. 136. sometimes with- AvatSra or Saviour. simplicity of. 136. visible of. fettered. 342. 268. — and heron. — and 281. Christ and KWshna. Bigot. 203. 393. Clay. . 247. MahdrSjah of. Bubbles and water are one. — 267276. mind to perform 20. disregarded by a perfect man. 220. many — knowledge Bh^gavata. of. Avadhfita and hunter. 216. no value when bird has flown. 103. 10. self 35. Calcutta. sometimes with attributes. 219. Conceit of NSrada. Ceylon or La»«k3. its causes functions. 343. — and unimportant. 188. 261. messenger of God. likeness between. Cloth.

380. sedges and schism. 319. 118. Darkness of centuries dispersed at once by light. manifestations of Brah- — 149. slips in scoffers for — 163. never eradicated. 274. Earnestness. 161. 222. to all man. marks of. the self 206. God — never wearies of Do yourself what you wish to relate experiences. manifested in greater degree in those who are honoured. — Communion. Dolls. Devotion. Egoism. Devotee. Dala. —124. — though Humanity. 191. difficult to of. practise. stages in path of devotion. and sects. at increase of. — many path 178. 154. necessary. 105. disappears when knowledge comes. 141. — a good one very 155. — keep aloof from during. Egos. — shuts out God from the heart. who to are simple as a child. praise. 361. faith in 388. — to be honoured. fired — loath — — made God. — death gets 331. Desires of holiness. . — pleasure meeting a — weakness of humanity vanishes — the strength 92. DurgS. 222. necessary to Disciple. 102. mother of Kirtikeya. impartially on Light — Illumination. 275. 160. of. 33- —179. loi. 92. Devotees. Crow. and love not to be reckoned among desires. Doubt is death. reminds — progress stopped by —273costume 379. and — merged surrounded by impurities of — manifests when egoism world.INDEX. 164. 239. 183. ^91. continual. — heart by name of God. desires. Mother every woman. 158. —223. Divine Glory. 230. 145. 389. desires itself only. daily contemplation of. 97. Dispute not. Deity. Deities. 353. 176. 166. salvation. — manifests 177. two in man. — away. of. tears. 14Sacrifice those 241. in. 162. Devotion. power of Guru. wisest of birds. death of — a child of God. 250. effect in on man. those out of the world are perfect. — inspired by God. 136. itself after retains faith love. matter nothing. only comes falls all hearts. men of God. Creeds. — keep up fire of spirituality. 88. Divinity. 204. fests itself. devotion. necessary. sacrifices life to in Incarnation. 272. rare. in fellow. must not criticise Guru. incomprehensible to worldly man. 56- 91. paths to reach the Almighty. the three. 87. dies 353. of. 200. — drops away and Divinity maniof. 141. 6. 95. — how possible when working daily bread. 82. — not be compared. 205. others to do.

70. 22. root of Eternal Bliss. III. 79. of. 23. Fault of holy man intensified by surrounding purity. 322— the Father of the Universe. 34. King. 22. different in the. 96. — both judge and executioner. — dwells the body. 154. story of young. 238. — with form — live 19. contrasted. 15. Cagannatha. of argument and reasoning when away from. . 304. 309. 26. compared with stars by day and by night. God. 8. 64. wants all. 272. 333. Garlic. Gim&a. — — — — Faith. moves after decapitation. (Tnana. he who has found Him. 325. — the — warns the householder. 201. has all. 92. of. — with and without form. 202. — many aspects 10. Free. 75. 33. infinite of. 203. — appears whatever form to us Him. Fisherwomen. weak. — present even in or wicked man. 5. working of. 200. in light His Scripture and His devotee. 322. yet apart from — omnipotence — screened by Miyi. lasting. only clue to reach God. 31. (7ivStman and FaiamStman. tiger 13. must devote ourselves to single object of. 15. — impossible to without. 2. Fly and honey-bee. — — — — — — — — multiform. 4. eadsts is. Faith-healers. 278. 295. when shall I be? 206. i. incites thief. 80. — — devotee a child quiet.192 Elephant and blind men. 122. ends all qnarrel and dispute. the Absolute and Eternal Brahman. 'Forbear' in Beng^. is life. 162. we to — ways of worshipping. 248. 78. puffed up with vanity. 61. — divine kinsmen — ordinary men the — separable from MSyS. — reached by prayer and penance. — God — God. Lord of the Universe. 21. he who has. 124. 9. who has not. 202. is visible. 204. Fool. 37. easily shaken. should be protected in the beginning. 272. 32. story always PS- 174. 20. — Love — man the midst of confusion sages. 388. like 61. Frog in a well. — both the snake and the charmer. INDEX. odour of. liberty of. like 25. 24. 270. Fire of Brahman. in 332- — Goat. 393. — no Flint. achieves miracles. 7- of. 247. be steadfast in. is of. how to attain firm.. knowledge of the Absolute. in it. 169. creatures of. definite shape. in desire different call 4. tme. re- lation between. 53- is Intelligence. 201. worshipped under names. 236. — the wishing-tree. 204. of. J 6. —31. 21. retains inner fire. — everything that — to be regarded same as 3. 119. 86. 28.

— how to reach. only realised 18. 197. 43. 113. — Ever-Existing footfall ant. knowledge of. like a woman. — 182. 142. how long it remains in after. God-men. feel anxiety. 102. 211. 210. God. 193 on. — why trouble Him what we can do ourselves. of. — will send Master. man too far away to comprehend. . God. — 153he who yearns 159. to — concentration necessary to ing 184. purifies sin. — shut out from heart by egoism. God. on. — gives order and inspiration to preacher. in — His devotees. — must be calm orderto 203. like after — Omnipresent. I£0. same. 199. 112. us. 1 God. name of. in. INDEX. of. iji. — seven jars of. of. dearest. sifted by pious inspiration. all all all in. 172. Gold and brass. and man. of. prayers and penances discarded when it descends. — in men. — Soul immersed — resignation to mercy 195. 100. sacrifice all of. miser — heart pants gold. 360.. to concentrate the heart — man cannot without. to love. Godly men. man. meditate solitude. attributes of. 297. greatness of. Inspires by- like a hill of sugar. — only reached by 200. 40. 93. bad. 172. will of. God. find. 148. — will 217. — only a lover enters the inner mysteries 172. 201. — source of holy —297. — knower 171. 146. 391. — men not 215. 269. Indivisible Bliss. — attracted by violent 170. 364. 320. worship of. — how 349. how attained. 285. God-vision. grace of. 41. fast to. 205. of. —— 44. — perform worldly holding 350. — heart must be kept of love 187. — book-learning can give no idea 324— children no 336— those who depend on. ecstasy on neanng. — provided for before sending us into the world. 215. — all-pervading 189. finds. resignation to. for 363- God. God. Good and men. for. find- full for. — Father and Guide of Humanity. God. of. Godliness. 173. 184. Spirit. 164. move m harmony with will 345. merit in. inspired by God. God. too vast for man's comprehension. souls beyond pale of Karman. of. God. like a man. — nearest and 169. into by communion with Him. how on. see. live all in see. — devotee reminds men 230. 145. — hears of 323. 288. 89. ultimately the faith. 98. 365. preachirgenough. and love. — 292. — how best found. duties. —3°rholds us back from temptation. 264. 270. love of. love. 98. how distinguished. brought together Gum. never mind 305 fixed soiled.

manifests 183. 3°2- 392- — sent by God. sects among. vrith — Guide. 259. com— 254mental concentration acquired prised under ignorance. to be before Divinity Happiness. itself. 53. monkey of 203. — easily influenced when 335directed young. igg. Hero. ' steals hearts.of ecstasy on hearing of Brahman. tears of. deity. to concentrate on God. 151. 165. Satan. God is. — leads to by chanting name 308. 147. be low and meek if thon — must be guarded. Habit. Haribala. — power of reading effect on. divine. Heart. 34°— must not swerve from path. prayers and penances discarded. efficacy in of. is disregarded. guide to God. 261. 192. 227. 198. Hinduism and Brahmaism. Hindu almanacs and rainfall. 150. Goptnatha. 37. efficacious virtue of. deity of hand. a breeze always blowing. 273. Jack-fruit. - Honey-bee servant and fly. 235. he who attains perfection amid temptations of the world. towards God. 341- . contrasted. 247. Greed brings woe. prayer has no Intolerance to be eschewed. 60. pants after after gold. Iron changed to gold. one to be chosen. the. — not to be — Mediator. Heart. . no pleasure in smoking alone. spiritual. diversity. 90. — between human and criticised. 146. 43- — of man. personal Humility. 149. 235. is our strength. companionship bird. 144. 148. wise.194 INDEX. 31. — consumed worldly thmgs. Human frailties of teacher. 332. Hindus. true. — praise exHusbandman and sugar-cane. Gohaka A'S«//ala of Ramayawa. 149. beloved. 329. 73. 367. true . God like miser —— Grace of God. — contentment. 252. 145. Bhagavan Sii RSmaj^andra. Hemp-smoker. 264. lost in 208. 197. 357. 375. 236. 'Hari 254- Indra. 388. Hari. —cluding He who our Ignorance and knowledge. 169. — repeating name Incarnation. •^ how 285. purifies sin. 119. divine. wonldst be. 253- 242. Humanity must die of. 152. in 42. flood Individual ocean —355. Great. name of. 299. — necessary. Grace. Homa. divine enjoyment in whatever gives. power of. when it descends. 261. more than mere man. is Guru. faith of. of.' Intelligence. 146. existence. difference Holy and 358. 284. . Hanuman. 174. changes men. — in powers 154.' of. full of vanity. — to be implicitly obeyed.

Mahatman and 286. effect on. selfishness. 241. heart must be kept life. Him. like perfect man. snaJce. — — Life sacrificed to God by renunciation. 317. of God. — of God. 222. Nescience. — of how conquered. 192. Love. falls impartially hearts. &c. 236. Light disperses darkness of centuries. 160. — of Love. causes egoism 173. 191. Jesns. 378. a religion acted out. • to disappear. ardent and lukewarm. until self. — physical pain no KaU. — knowledge of God 172. Kartikeya. no. 364Lotus-leaf. 367. always humble. 387. 315. little noise. 26. Lead. 239. temple inner Soul separate from physical shell. 168. ultimately the same. is. repetition of name all of. — prepares heart to 194. dissolved by mercury. AvatSras. LawjkS. — home at of Almighty. live O 2 . 62. converts to —a makes a 374. Malaya breeze. 88. life and exploits both of. in. — of merit. — playing the world child with 81. 75.INDEX. 288. leader of heavenly army. 72. 172. 208. God. Knowledge. — heated in furnace of persecution. in trees sandal-trees. — — spiritual. 176— illumined with Spiritual Light. — 173. existence. illumines true man. 172. — and ignorance comprised under Mahadeva on 388. rite of invoking. Karman. worldly knowledge.of one universal Lust and greed. — leads to 332. 157. — freed by touch of Almighty. how conquered. — 109. 311. true. condensed milk. — unseen He reveals Him196. 212. advent preceded by unreceive 62.. unity. on all Loadstone rock. true. — entry only to outer rooms of 187. 195 of. divine. like full of. — of God. 180. 142. truly religious. Kshlra. Christ. — two Egos 161. 212. heart of God-men beyond pale of. —342and 52. difference like a. fish. emancipated. 339. goddess. — Soul enchained 213. of wise man. Kalpa-vriksha. — mercy. Ceylon. — easily led away. like a woman. 203. 170. of. 172. like burnt rope. Kite and 383. wishing-tree. Lover of God. 378. love of. Krishna. effect true faith. a man. — — and knowledge.. 193. Lord. u8> like doll. his feet true. love. — cannot without God. no on him 219. three kinds of. — and ultimately the same. 246. Man. 66. — no when alone. who has acquired Icnow— of True. gained by forgetting ledge.

then on — every being 44- by. does not reflect rays of sun. NSriya«a. trough of. 43. 332. ruled — invigorated by society of pious. sole end and aim. 260. fever of. . 266. 17. who merges Self. plains. 271. 202. Mother. 140. Marksman. never —305elephant. 44- in pronounc- — without sorts of. 175. to. 76. 298. Men. the world. 312. 267- Nitya Siddhas. — ocean 270. 89. false. Mind. Money. different in. 94. Mantra of Guru to be followed.196 Man becomes INDEX. 6. 67. — knowledge and ignorance comprised under. 154. Mnktapurusha. 30. 59. worshipped in various forms. wards. the formless. invisible. to. 215. concentration of. released. 377— necessary prayer 382. — 266. in God. merit mg. learnt first by fixing it on forms. 203. 45. 88. Uncle Moon. why 271. 278. Miracles worked by faith. — covered with film 270. — propensities 229. pearl. away as soon as found out. of God.' 153Moth. 279. 204. 395. 167. not or ' Moon human frailties disregarded. is. Mutual love. invisible. like water passing under a bridge. like — mask of Brahman. 151. Mirror. limitations of. Mercury dissolves lead. sea. 216. 313. 12. flies —377. 215. makes immortal. — God — not — two all three sorts of. like vultures. Mother Divine. Nescience. 30. view. — mask of Brahman. screens God from human of. 85. to concentrate. Mountains and — worldly man engrossed 267. Divine Sage. himself in the Universal Mungoose in house. illnsion of. — of. 64. having seen light never free when tail of ignorance drops off. 372. connected with. harmed by mixing with life. — compass-needle of ship of —279. all water brooded over original thoughts. NSrada. Nectar. one 136. 25. how trained. Pandits. Deity addressed as. soiled. Oyster. evil of. spiritual in. view from. — under the — eyes screen Mukta. ever-perfect. 71. Ocean of Sat-^t-Snanda. warning against. 29. Farabrahman. 60. soiled. Mayi. power 312. Money. 356. — fixed on God. of. — 314. 137. Name in all. 41. 224. 186. 137. 208. Neophyte. 373Miracle-workers. 313. 321. 86. or MSyi. difiScult — exercises necessary — 133worldliness 384. 168. — or Nescience. returns to darkness. power of. to life. mind turned to- . of. — God intimately — — protects from temptation.

a tondistone. yet alive. II. sonal. manifests itself at a distance. a acted 157. Perfect man. nature of absolute. RSs-flowers. 257. 21S. Persevere until help comes. Perfection. 370. 74. division of. Persecution. comes to those who think they have it. 281. 68. Power. 70. 64. 69. 344. 209. 372. mvigorates mmd. from Imper- Pure in heart see God. 294. learnt with vanity. — Prayer and penance not necessary to him who has reached God. like rice-water. Religion. 276. 85. 94. why not hononred by his own kinsmen. 232. 211. story Pura«as. — every. 38. 69. 231. God. Pelican. 238. — human being and Divinity. 351. Rama. bow fashioned. state of. 157of wise man. ParvatJ or Eternal Bliss. reflects image of Almighty. 242. not wetted by water. Parents. — 193of holy men. the. rela- 197 tion between. only temporarily despondent. 269. Reliance. 1 14. 130. 115. defiled by constant repetition. position. 181. 219. rises and the elephant. of. guardians. difficult to act. Prophet. 15. — with — discarded when grace of descends. Property. in the world but untouched by it. appreciated at a distance. and trustees of children. ParamStman and GivStman. life religion out. — to keep in difficult intensifies faults. the world. drives away lust and greed. 232. worthless without inspiration. sifts good from bad. 202. a way to reach God. RSsltla festival. spirit of. 66. 82. 295. Preacher. — not from books. 220. 38543. 112. Parrot and Divine Name. 291. Personal God. no difference in Divine sight. 1 99. Pillow-case. Rank and —369— — — 373Potter. inspired by God. 9. 165. Philosopher's stone. 221. 65. 295. 233influence every- Psychic powers. 113. 234society of. Pearl. diffused — — — — •240. where. present method of. Pious man. 27^" 393contemplation of. 266. 55. . Paramahamsa. freed from egoism. makes many-shaped vessels out of same clay. easy to talk. dead even in life. makes wicked righteous. no effect on worldly man.INDEX. 245. observes no caste distinctions. dangerous. 347Preaching. 211. soul and swan. 388. Pupil. man compared with. Purity precedes advent of the Lord. 36. 73. no effect on heart filled — —156. God undeveloped spirituality. Prayer.

state to which he attains. Saviours are to Brahman as waves to the sea. 135. Religious preaching. Salt. Sadhu. — — — — no distinction between friend and foe. Sages. 365. in of. 326. few 207. — kinds perfect 58. carries thousands across ocean of May£. . — 36.198 INDEX. wicked man compared to a. — truths. 216. 54. the. Bliss. 275. Religion. — solidified. —243respect — paths all for other. Selfish love. false. 50. 48. Sage. — makes 63. 63. rite of invoking goddess Kait. 2. 251. but of no use. how created. discovered in persecution. 68. 93. Self-reliance. retains form iwhen burnt. 169. like God. kinsmen of —= man and well-cooked food.javas^dhana. 136. trance. Sand and sugar. Siddha. like an archaeo- Saint. — Sieve. 42. like a snake. leading to tmth. 245. 136. 138. 58. tmnecessaiy to him who has attaine^ighest growth. Rites and ceremonies. Samnyasin. characteristics of. 47. 46. Sandal. 239. (saints). 61. Religions. Sects and creeds matter nothing. Self. 59. Rope. trance. state of bliss. trees changed to. five of. 388. save themselves by pain and penance. 327. 135. 109. doll of. 48. danger S^dhus dispense heavenly Shepherd women of Vrindavana. get free. Rohitta-fish. 209. Satan kept out by praise of Hari. 186. 48. — — among Hindus. 168. 337. why they degenerate. 185. universal. the. 108. in 108. 57. 45. Salvation got by death of egoism. 388. distingoished by ant. sentiments. Divine. 206. recognised alone by sage. — knowledge 221. 47. 109. true and false. 387. — to rekindle sent religion. and the wicked man. dissipates intoxication. spread knowledge. Ocean the Everlasting — — various forms. S4carries multitudes to feet of — — Almighty. reflect Light Divine. 108. 336. — Sat-^t-Snanda. Saviour. has no home. of. 143. — Samadhi. rites and ceremonies necessary to growth of. 225. Siddhas. tree of. 112. ' Sadhakas. 331. 106. Reticence very desirable. Rice-water. by Malaya breeze. LiteUigent 3. 251. 192. and the dog. necessary for growth of i'eligion. — 107. 186. 46. 318. of. — merged Divinity. every man should follow his — own. vanity of. 369. 51. not to be talked abont. saves all. 300. lowest kind. Siddha-pnmsha logist. .

of saint. Treacle and candy. VairSgya. drunk- — — loses individual ocean of Brahman. 329.Siva. free is . of. distinguished of. 165. which the greater. Vish«u or . Vedas. human being and divinity. fire of. 213. 112. effect 12. 278. by 141. 232. free is. 286. in — — Universal Conscioijine'ss. 141. 371. Self. all religious paths leading to. never concealed. — from chain — enchained man. Tears. difference between. Sugar and ant. 55. existence 208. 1. Soul attracted by magnetism of Teachers. defiled by constant repetition. best from surfaces. 276. — no on 136— power of walking 258. 293. and — — Stone. soars high but searches for carrion. is — having Godhead. 266. dispassion. Sin. Tantras. 227. 126. Vulture. 18. Spiritual Light illumines true 212. God present in the. of repentance and happiness flow from different corners. 393. Stars. 75. . magnetism of. defiled by constant repeti- Sli KfishKa. unby world. strength of a devotee. 352. knowledge of. 13. Swan. — and bubbles are one. attained influenced i^ 76. and Vish»u. 96.Siva. human being divinity. knowledge of. 64. Thoughts and words. — and bigoted worshipper. 213. — doll tion. man. Va^ravSntula tree. limitations. harmony between. Truth. Water. purified by grace of God. Existence. 318. 249. sand. Siva. main elements 358. 352. 224. 55. — how body. uttered by lunatics. 356. 376. Tadpole. 255. of. Sinner saved by resignation to will of God. many. invisible by day. 147. Vanity. — immersed God. 276. 219. Sv^ti. 154. Unselfishness precedes advent of the Lord. death of man. 213. Upagurus. Snake and MahStman. which the greater. 168.INDEX. 94. 303. 140. 92. reflected SvSti-rain. — ards. stone. 126. 195. impervious to water. power — — polished Viveka. star. peculiarity of. on. : of. SttS. 376. 306. 359. purged by uttering Name of the Almighty. — progress. highest kind. 239. Unselfish love. and children. seeds of. 94. 39. Tiger. 96. dis- UpSdhi. 164. discrimination. Snow. 189. Universal Consciousness. RadhS. 75. 251. 193. 395. 136. 197. 353. like heap of rubbish. 43. 136. — re-incamation it stays in — progress impossible without crimination and dispassion. 199 — — — soul from chain. Sun. channel through which light is transmitted. brooded over by Nar4ya«a.

116. 301. 125. 124. World. Wind. Wife and mother. Zemindar. desires. — not mix with. of Divine Communion. perfect man lives in of worldly thoughts. — attraction 175. — cares weigh down. Winnowing basket. 116. love of God like a. of. 65. antipathy to that savours 121. 138. Woe. 223. 328. — aspirant may 106. 129. 241. 192. difference live in and those who renounce. — contamination gotten. for unchanged by Divine Grace. never roused to enthusiasm. 37°- INDEX. like a sieve. 127. influence on neophyte 76. 214. Woman. 207. preaching enough. 383. Worldly knowledge. of.200 Wicked man. — like Smla Yaksha. nninfluenced by good advice. Worldliness in neophyte. a snake. a thoughts and 368. — 121. motive for good deeds. Words and thoughts. — impossible to attain perfection cannot comprehend ecstasy 122. Yoga. has no home. 296. religious feeling evanescent in. — — like a bee. 60. 381. 117. — a Worship of God. story of. lUce stage. 115. — no attraction those who 305heart with worldly have tasted Divine 83. fruit. 172. 95. 123. between those who light of. 119. Worldly bond. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY . riches 261. full — the. in. 65. in. lose purity by mixing with. advanced mind. 113. — make yourself feared and 118. 128. 261. of. men harmony berenounced but does who have heart of. 13a. filled God shines in partial false glitter like trap. 119. 77. perfect — and more on mind 267. 303. 131. Worldly man. Bliss. of 348. to 286. like spring cushion. those living in should be on their guard. 370. 26. 222. irresistible of. 130. 126. few freed from. — to enter than renounce. tween. World. 385. every woman the Divine Mother. carries all scents. characteristics of. righteous in society of pions. — Woodcutter and SawuySsin. 263. re- difficult practise. like live in. to be for- Wishing-tree (Kalpa-vnksha). spected Yogin. no power over perfect man. 384. brought by greed. agent of. 69. all easier religion. oxford: HORACE HART. 389.