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The South Asia Institute at Columbia University A Professional Development Course for K-12 Teachers

A Short History of Pakistan
taught by S. Akbar Zaidi

Time: Dates: Location:

Thursdays, 5:30pm –7:30pm January 20 – February 24, 2009 (no class on February 17) Room 207 Knox Hall 606 West 122nd Street, between Broadway and Claremont

"A Short History of Pakistan" has been organized primarily for 9-12 high school teachers to address topics in the New York State Global Studies curriculum. It will feature five lectures and will be taught by Visiting Professor S. Akbar Zaidi. All readings and materials for the course will be provided by Columbia University at no charge to registered participants. Registation is required to attend the class (see below). Course Description and Schedule In recent years, Pakistan has been in the news largely for reasons which relate to the rise of fundamentalist Islam across the globe, and as a consequence of the war on terrorism. Opinions about Pakistan being a rogue state with nuclear weapons which might fall into the hands of Islamic ‘terrorists’ cause much concern in western capitals. Military governments alternating with inefficient and corrupt civilian governments, cause further concern, with fear that that the economy will collapse, leading to major social upheaval. In essence, the fear is that a nuclear, ungovernable Pakistan, with heavily armed Islamists roaming the streets of the major cities in Pakistan, will destabilize the region and threaten western democracies and capital markets. Although often being termed the ‘most dangerous place in the world’, Pakistan deserves far greater and more serious understanding than the caricature which makes headline news every 1

required separate homelands. February 3: Politics. The basis of Pakistan was found in the ‘two nation theory’. trying to establish their dominance. in the middle of the 20th century. January 27: Independence and Two Partitions On 14 August 1947. in 1947. where it was suggested that the Muslims and Hindus in undivided India made up two ‘nations’ and hence. this time of Pakistan. enlightenment and fundamentalism. the problems and challenges it posed for a new nation. with some sources (largely official Pakistani sources) stating that the Idea of Pakistan found its roots at the time of the Arab invasion of parts of what was later to become ‘India’ (as early as 712) and which lead to the spread of Islam in the Indian sub-continent. January 20: Muslim Separatism and the Idea of Pakistan Pakistan emerged. resulting in a second bloody partition in the India sub-continent. There is much debate about when Pakistan was ‘created’. from a British India which was partitioned and achieved independence. In this session. India was partitioned. faith and the different types of identities of the Muslims of a pre-colonial and colonial India. we will examine the nature and form of the 1947 independence of Pakistan. the military has been in government for more than half that period. IV. with the creation of Bangladesh. Yet the Idea of what became Pakistan was rooted in politics. Whether this is in the form of broader narratives such as modernity and tradition. This economic performance of the military requires a closer and more careful look. and yet others. Pakistan’s civilian governments have had to struggle to find legitimacy and to keep the economy afloat. we will try to examine why democracy continues to be weak in Pakistan and why the military’s sh adow looms large on the political map of Pakistan. III. Democracy. making some analysts argue that the military is ‘better’ for Pakistan. This short course. the economic record of military governments has been better than that of civilian elected governments. February 10: Conflicts Within and Around Pakistan As in many developing countries and societies. various conflicts and contradictions exist in Pakistan. and whenever there have been elections and attempts at democracy. and an East and West Pakistan were created from Muslim majority areas. Pakistan achieved independence one day prior to Indian independence. This first session will examine the different ideas and positions about the Idea of Pakistan and the reasons which led to its creation. the country does often depict a dismal scenario of being 2 . based on five sessions. Moreover. and the Military In the 67 years of the independence of Pakistan. Other scholars date the beginnings of a Muslim identity and consciousness somewhere in the 19th century. II. or between ethnic groups and between religious sects in Pakistan. will hope to make participants aware of a people and their history in one of the more volatile regions of the world.other day. and how the creation of an East and a West Pakistan made this creation even more difficult to sustain. In this session. I. as does the eventual consequence of military rule in Pakistan.

or the most dangerous place in the world? In this final session. This session will try to examine the political economy of the different conflicts in and around Pakistan. two-year college instructors or students enrolled in education degree programs. If you would like to register. and African Studies. modern and prosperous nation. and the Graduate School of Arts & Science Department of Middle Akbar Zaidi is a Visiting Professor at Columbia University. Instructor biography Dr. Primary readings S Akbar Zaidi. Oxford University Press. NGOs. and history. For additional information. and see where and how the state has failed to manage such conflicts. South Asia. Shuja Nawaz. Karachi. REGISTRATION: Participants must be K-12 teachers. 2005. please contact William Carrick at wac2112@columbia. please include your name. level of students taught. anticipated graduation date. Attendees may register for the entire course or register for individual sessions. published in 2010. Along with internal fissures. he has research interests in development. Apart from his interest in political economy. Zaidi taught at Karachi University for thirteen years. His other books include The New Development Paradigm: Papers on Institutions. Students should include their school and degree program. He is one of Pakistan's best known and most prolific political economists. Second Edition. through May 2012. South Asia Institute at Columbia University a perpetual conflict internally.html 3 . His most recent of twelve books is Political Economy and Development in Pakistan. school affiliation. and the Wars Within. Gender and Local Government (1999). Crossed Swords: Pakistan. Zaidi holds a PhD from the University of Cambridge. and Issues in Pakistan's Economy (2005). 2008. Karachi. and a brief statement of career goals. with a joint appointment at the School of International and Public Affairs. and where possibilities for prosperity and stability exist. we will examine where Pakistan continues to fail as a society and country. Pakistan has also had numerous conflicts with countries in the region. or by phone at (212) 854-4565.sai. Oxford University Press. Its Army. the social sciences. please contact William Carrick at or at (212) 854-4565. S. or have questions. and was a visiting Professor at Johns Hopkins University in 2004-05. February 24: Contemporary Pakistan and Possibilities for the Future Does Pakistan have a viable future as a democratic. Issues in Pakistan’s Economy. and subjects taught. or will it always be referred to as a failed state. having fought four wars with its neighbor. One needs to be able to understand the nature of these conflicts and understand why they exist. To register.columbia. particularly with India.