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Summer ICE Program 2013

Reading Comprehension Quiz Write the three main businesses that appear in the reading. Where does this reading talk about?

Environmental Elective

According to the reading, (Please circle one) a. 1% loss of species in the Amazon Basin happens every day. b. Annual 1% loss of tropical forest causes the extinction of 11 to 16 species per day. c. 11 to 16 species are annually extinct. d. Of 300 tree species per hectare in the Amazon Basin, 11 to 16 tree species are cut every day. What the deforestation in the Amazon Basin present? Write your own word. According to the reading, what are the factors causing this rapid deforestation? (Please circle either True or False) a. There are abundant forest resources. True (T) False (F) b. Beavers cut trees. c. Brazilian government policies (e.g., highways, and subsidization for agriculture). d. Manipulation of peasant farmer by the cattle industry. e. Cattles eat very fast. f. Rapid degradation of pastures. g. The deflation of beef price. h. Acid rain. i. j. Land speculation. Peasant farmers need to earn a livelihood. T T T T T T T F F F F F F F T T F F

In the 1960s, what do the Brazilian government and a couple of other foreign nations favor?

Summer ICE Program 2013

Environmental Elective

Because of developing highways, Brazilian citizens moved to the Amazon frontier. What was the benefit for people who moved to the frontier? What is the most popular form of agriculture in Brazil? Is the form effective? Why? Why not? According to the reading, what is the largest impediment to Amazon development? How much do fertilizers and weed management cost per hectare? How about clearing forest? According to the reading, (Please circle one) a. Every year, 4 million residents are forced to move. b. Every year, 150,000 residents are forced to move. c. Every year, 4 million people are visiting to Brazil. d. Every year, 150,000 Brazilian students go to study abroad. What did the government do for farmers and ranchers regarding cattle productivity? According to the reading, (Please circle one) a. Only 30 to 50 of the 300 tree species in Amazon rainforest are commercially useful. b. 300 tree species in Amazon rainforest are all commercially useful. c. Of the 300 tree species in Amazon rainforest, 30 to 50 are not commercially attractive. d. 300 tree species in Amazon rainforest are not commercially attractive at all. Why are the forest management techniques so important? What is stumpage value? What systems of agriculture have been popular recently? What are the non-market values of tropical forests?

Summer ICE Program 2013

Environmental Elective

What are the three reasons that we cannot put a price tag on nature? What are the two methods that the reading introduces to estimate non-market values? Write the potential damages caused by deforestation.