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Week 1: Introduction to Routing - Lecture

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Introduction to Routing
Command-Line Interface | Configuration Modes | Password and Banners | Interfaces | Static Routing | Interface Configuration Lab Discussion | Tutorials | Studymates

Command-Line Interface Internetwork Operating System (IOS) is Cisco's router operating system. A router can be configured by using a browser or through Command-Line Interface (CLI). Unlike a browser, a CLI can be used to configure any command on the router. A kernel mediates between the login shell and the router's hardware, and manages the various tasks required to implement the routing function. The login shell is the environment that issues commands as standard or privileged users. Cisco also supports a wide variety of network protocols, such as FTP, TFTP, and Telnet. Some of the available methods to configure a Cisco router are through the following:       Console Port Telnet access HTTP access SNMP management Configuration file using a TFTP Server Auxiliary port

The CLI allows all commands of Cisco IOS to configure a router. This allows you to configure, monitor, and troubleshoot the configuration of Cisco devices. The various types of modes in CLI Mode to configure a router are User exec, Privileged exec, and Global configuration. Configuration Modes The User Mode views the statistics of a router, such as its interface status and routing table. This mode does not allow you to view the configuration files. Global Configuration Mode allows the administrator to set a password to secure a router, configure interfaces, enable and configure routing protocols, and create banners. In this mode, you can also modify the configuration stored in the memory.

The enable password is used on routers running older versions of IOS. console. and Telnet passwords. and using banners. The following steps allow you to set these passwords: Enter config t command in the Router# prompt to invoke the global configuration mode. The enable secret password is encrypted in the configuration file and overwrites the existing enable password. setting passwords. Password and Banners Different types of password options to restrict access to routers are listed below:      Enable password Enable secret password Auxiliary password Console password Telnet password The enable password and enable secret password are options used to grant access to the privileged mode. These passwords are set in the global configuration mode using the following commands:   Router(config)# enable secret Router(config)# enable password The user mode passwords include the auxiliary. Execute the login command followed by password to authenticate.Configuring a router from the command line involves configuring the host name. Banners displaying messages are used to configure messages to users and administrators and the legal disclaimers to the users. The show interface command allows you to view and verify the configuration of an interface. The shutdown and no shutdown commands in the interface configuration prompt enables and disables an interface. Enter line command to enter the configuration mode. and the interface configuration commands. The following banners are available in Cisco routers:     Message of the day banner (motd) Login banner (login) Exec banner (exec) Incoming banner (incoming) Interfaces An interface is configured to enable a router to communicate with other devices. The command optionally allows you to verify any specific interface configuration: show . other console-line commands. The interface or int command in the global configuration mode chooses or modifies an interface on a router.

As a result.interface. "you can't get there from here!" Static routes are not ideal for large networks. To verify the changes. interconnect all devices using the appropriate media. Alternatively. Static routing is created by manually entering routes into the routing table by editing the configuration file that loads on router start-up. If the static route is configured as a permanent route and then goes down. Since they cannot change after they are initially configured without manual effort. First. interface activation using the “no shutdown” command and. Interfacte Configuration Lab Discussion This week’s lab assignment will provide the opportunity to practice the skills introduced in the first two chapters. Static routing provides a router the way to definitively identify the next hop to a particular destination. use the show startupconfig command in the privilege mode. the general sequence is: 1. In order to get the most of the labs I would suggest that you make sure that you closely study the examples in the textbook. use: Router# copy running-config startup-config. Any outage or downed router will require a manual configuration to create an alternate route. Of . A primary advantage of static routing in a smaller network is its simplicity. To save all the configuration changes on the router. i n the case of DCE serial interfaces. Static Routing Static routing is a manual process and is the simplest form of routing. Also via this interface. the “clock rate” command. One issue with static routes is that they do not handle network outages or down routes/connection well. The show running-config command in the privileged mode allows you to verify the entire configuration on the router. interface configuration consisting of ip address and subnet mask assignments. it will be like the old saying. Specifically. All the changes made in the configuration file is saved in Non-volatile RAM (NVRAM) using the startup-config command since RAM is a volatile memory and all changes made get erased once the router is rebooted. a network administrator can enter routes manually. Static routes are entered at a computer terminal by a network administrator and cannot be altered by the router if a failure occurs. noting the general sequence of events. they are referred to as static routes. It does not work well on large networks where the routing information has to be changed frequently and a large number of routers have to be manually configured when a change is needed. static routes offer a single point of entry into the network. General Sequencing Assuming that the addressing scheme and hardware selection have already been created. an advantage of static routing is that it is more secure because parts of an internetwork can be hidden since no routes are being exchanged.

Enable the RIP routing protocol by executing the .course in our lab environment this step has already been performed for you. their default gateway) are not accessible. There are two simple steps to enable the RIP routing protocol on each of the routers. The default gateway address is that of the local router interface that is addressed to the same network as the PC. The steps are: 1. a. 3. The last method is to have the routers communicate network information automatically with each other by activating a dynamic routing protocol such as: RIP. The dynamic routing protocol used in our experiment is the RIP routing protocol. the specification of a default gateway. The moment that an interface is addressed and activated a router will enter that network’s address into its route table and label it with a “C” indicating a directly connected network (also known as a local network). A method of populating the route tables must be implemented. After the routers have “converged” (e. However. 2.” c. Application and Print Servers) can access each other’s resources. their route tables have consistent routes to all networks) every device should now be able to communicate with every other device and most importantly. At this point in the configuration process all devices are able to communicate with their directly connected neighbors. “ip route network subnet mask exit interface|next hop router interface address {optional administrative distance}. (e.g. As you have learned. The procedures are explained in reasonable detail in the “Sample Solution” of the lab. This process will allow the routers to exchange route information automatically with each other. This takes into consideration all utilized router and host interfaces and in the case of PCs. EIGRP or OSPF. Access to any remote networks must be learned. there are three ways that routes are placed in a router’s route table. a brief introduction to the configuration of the RIP routing protocol will prepare you for this section of the lab. access to remote networks (those networks on the other side of a host’s directly connected router. b. In order for hosts to access resources on the remote networks all routers must have paths to these networks in their route tables.g. 4. The most direct method of populating a router’s table is for an administrator to manually configure routes by entering them using the static route command. File. However. This is really the only configuration activity used in this week’s lab that is not sufficiently covered in the first two chapters of this week’s readings. each computing device (PCs. Assign addresses and subnet masks to all interfaces of all interconnected devices and make sure that the interfaces are all active.

Remember that the purpose of using dynamic routing is to make the job of configuring the routers a simpler process not a more complicated one. the commands to launch RIP routing would be: 3. Router2(config-router)#network 192. The last step is to enter the network addresses of only the directly connected networks of the router.168. The most commonly used command for initial testing is the ping command. Using the routers in the figure below as an example. However.30. This will place the router in the router configuration mode. 2.0 6. Please fight the urge to do this. 9. Using the PCs in the example network a successful ping test from the PC connected to the LAN of Router1 to that of the PC connected to the LAN of Router2 would be: .0 Notice that there are two networks directly connected to each router and there are two “network” commands executed on each router to indicate the networks that should be advertised. the ping test can be performed to intermediary points in order to discover the point at which the ping test fails and hopefully the misconfigured or failed device. The simple ping command can be issued from the command line of any network device.10.168. Ideally at this point we can begin to use the network and everything will work as intended.0 7. a successful network configuration would be verified by having every host receive successful “responses” from every other host on the network. Generally. In the case of a failure.command: router rip command from global configuration mode. The format of the simple ping command executed from the command line is: ping {remote host ’s ip address}. we will have to test connectivity using “network utilities” such as: the “ping. At this point both routers will have three networks in their route tables.168. 8. Router1(config-router)#network 192.0 Router2(config-router)#network 192. Router2(config)#router rip 10. two that are directly connected and one that was learned from their neighbor. A commonly made mistake is to perform the “network” command for every network in the diagram. Router1(config)#router rip 5. 5. traceroute (tracert from a Microsoft based PC) and telnet” commands. accessing and utilizing resources often requires applications to be installed on the network devices and initially these are not available so.20. 4.168. Router1(config-router)#network 192.10.

168.168. hence the three columns. for a more detailed description of the commands refer to the Sample Solution. . Remember that the ping test fails when no ping response (echo reply) is received. The “tracert” command executed from the command line of a Microsoft based PC or the “traceroute” command executed from the command line of a Cisco router or switch can be used to identify a failure at an intermediary device. However. A successful tracert is shown below using the same hosts as the ping test above. Tracert performs these tests three times.168. This is a common occurrence due to the time that is lost to the ARP process that occurs on Ethernet networks. Remember that you can perform the experiment as many times as you wish and it would be excellent practice to repeat the lab until you completely understand all of the procedures and commands. A ping failure can occur due to a variety of reasons.10.30. The round trip time is the time that expires from the moment that the echo request is transmitted until the time that the echo response is received. If we were to perform the ping test again all four tests would be successful and our loss percentage would be 0 instead of 25%. the PC at 192. When you login to the Element K site and start your lab read the Scenario to get a better understanding of what you will be attempting to accomplish.1). After processing the received packet. Further investigation would be necessary to discover the exact point of failure in the network.2 (the PC on Router1’s LAN) and sent first to its default gateway (the fa0/0 interface of Router1: 192. Notice that the test packet originated from host 192. The ping response may not be received because the ping request (echo request) never makes it to the destination or because the ping reply never makes it back to the sender.4.168. 6. Router2 processes the packet and forwards it to the final destination.30. Router 1 forwards it to Router2’s serial interface at: 192. Each column measured in milliseconds is the “round trip time” to each hop along the way and represents a separate test.Notice that the first response timed out. For the remaining tests there is no delay because the MAC addresses are now in cache and can be accessed quickly and we see successful tests.2.20.