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GENERAT@ ETECTRIC

PL]BLI5I]EO BY GENERAI LLLCTRIC COMPANY 1 LARGL

LAry]

P L]LPART[IENT / NEIA PARK / CLEVELAND, OHIO

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An architectural rendering (shown) or model treated with fluorescent paint and irradiated with black light will give a client a
realistic impression of how a full scale completed project will look lighted at night. Also, with the rendering or m0del, the architect
can demonstrate dramatic uses of black light in show window displays, advertising signs, special decorative effects for holidays, etc.

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NEAR-ULTRA\,|oLET radiant energy (energy not visible to the human eye) causes certain materials to fluoresce or emit visible Iight. The normal human eye is sensitive only to radiant energy between 400 and 700 millimicrons in wavelength. Thus, lamps which produce primarily nea r- u ltraviolet radiant energy in the 320 to 380.millimicron range are popularly called "black" lights. This term is quite descriptive since the ultraviolet energy from the "light" source cannot be seen by the human eye, but the effects of the light on special materials can be visually dramatic. When black light is directed at a fluorescent material, an energy conversion takes place. The material or chemical sensitive to ultraviolet energy absorbs the energy, then re' radiates it at longer wavelengths (in the 400 to 700-millimicron range) to which the eye is sensitive. The energy conversion is similar to that which takes place in fluorescent Iamps, i.e., ultraviolet energy in the lamp activates the fluorescent phosphor coating to produce visible light in white or any other color.

APPLICATIONS
materials fluoresce u nd er black Iight without th e need for special treatment. Commonly used types of lubricating or cutting oils fluoresce, so black light can be used to detect oil leaks or stains. ln the textile industry, black light is used to detect oil stains, to reveal invisible fluorescent markings that outline stitching or cutting lines, and for grading inspection of raw materials.
Ma ny

Fluorescing dyes, added to paint, or clear lacquers or varnishes, permit checking for completeness and uniformity of coverage after they have been applied to a surface. Under black light the treated surfaces glow; uncovered portions remain dark. Common applications of this are found in the theater, ice shows, advertising displays, etc. Black light can also be used to detect cracks, pits, or other defects in metal parts. Non-magnetic metals are coated with a fluorescing penetrant. The excess is removed and surface cracks appear as luminous streaks when irradiated with ultraviolet.

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ULTRAVIOLET

VISIBLE SPECTRUM

A somewhat different process is used for inspection of metals that can be magnetized. The area to be inspected is first magnetized- Defects that cause a break in the mag. netic path create a leakage magnetic field. Ferrous particles treated with a fluorescing dye are then applied. When the excess is removed, the particles will remain at the defective areas and are revealed under black light.

Black light fluorescent and mercury lamps are

used for most black light applications. Filament lamps are sometimes used as sources of black light, but they are weak and inefficient.

special filier-glass bulb that transmits near-ultraviolet energy but absorbs nearly all ofthe visible light produced by the filament. Because of the heat thus
confined, the lamp should be operated intermittently (5 minutesON and l0minutes OFF)and must always be installed in a porcelain socket. Since the bulb may fail if heated, the lamp should be used in a

250-watt Purple X incandescent (or filament)lamp is made specifically for black light service. It features a

INCANDESCENT LAMPS: The General Electric

reflector covered by a metal screen.

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fluorescent

Allhough filament lamps are inherently weak X lamp is useful for such purposes as close-range exarnination of minerals and other materials for fluorescence. For viewing sketches drawn with fluorescent inks, paints, or chalks, a single lamp in a suitable reflector is sulficient to iuadiate an area up to 3 feet square.
and ineflicient sources of black light. the Purple

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all mercury lamps used for black light applications require external filters.

M ERC U RY LAM PS: l'Iosl mercury lamps produce both visible and black light. Those designed for black light applications are made with bulbs that transmit a high percentage ofthe near-ultraviolel energy generated by the mercury arc. With the exception ofthe H100BL38-4 lamp (which has a filter glass bulb that absorbs nearly all of the risible light generated),

lamps are now largely replacing rnercury lamps for such service. N{ercury lamps are still the preferred sources wherever high concentrations of black lighr are needed oyer relatiyel) limited areas. For small installations, particularl-v v'here mounting space is at a premium. the compact H100PSP38-4

er.er, the more eflicient black

light

I,'or developing black light ellects over large areas, such as ice rinks and theater stages, the H250A37-5 lamp ancl, to a lesser extent. the H400433-1, have been rvidely used in the past. llow-

spot lamps or the ll100PFL3B-1 flood lamps are recommended. Roth types of lamps are designed rvith PAR-38 hard-glass bulbs on which filter loundels can be clipped. One disadvantage of mercury lamps is that they require several minutes $'arm-up time to reach full black light (or visible light) output.

of black light fluorescent lamps: BL and BLII


1ypes. The

FLUORESCENT LAMPS: There are two kinds


RL lamps di{ler frorn standard fluorescent

lamps only in the composition of the phosphor which

radiates most of its energy in the near-rrll,raviolet region, peaking at, about 350 millimicrons.

The BLB lamps are much like the BL lamps but have an added feature in that the tubes are made from a special lilter glass. The glass absorbs nearll all of the visible light and transmits a high percentage of near-ultraviolet energy thus making
external JilLers unnecessary.

effective. Therefore, a light-absorbing filter is usually used between the black light source and irradiated sLrrface. With the BLB fluorescenl lamps. the H100BL38-4 mercury lamps, and the Purple X filter lamp, the filter is an integral part of the lamp.
Transmission characteristics of filters depend on composition and thickness. Composition cletermines the relative spectral transmission of the filter, i.e,, the relatir.e amounts of radiant energy of various wavelengths that it transmits. Some

FILTERS: Xl[ost sources of black light produce some yisible Iight which, in most applications, is undesirable. If the visible light is not liltered oul, it reduces brightness contrasts and makes the displax- less

filters, for example, pass virtually no visible light

and not much ultraviolet either. while

ible light and a great deal of near-ultraviolet. Scienl.i{icall-v designed black light filters are available in molded squares or roundels and in

others (deep-blue sheet glasses) transmit appreciable vis-

sheet glass. They are used in all black light applications that require a high degree of absorption of the visible light. Some of the deep-blue sheet glasses are being used as black light filters although they were not originally intended as such. Howerer, sincc lheir near-uIIrarioleI lransmission is high and their cost low. they are used in many applications in which some visible light can be toleraled.

Here are the G-E lamps most commonly used as black light sources. Add itional information on bal' lasts and circuits is ava ila ble from your G.E lamp

are based on the o utp ut of the F40BL flu oresce nt

representative. Relative black light energy data

as 100; the data represent radiation from 320420 millimicrons for incandescent and fluorescent, and 320-400 millimicrons for mercury.

Types of Black Light LarrPs


Lamp
INCANDESCENT
Adva ntages of inca ndescent black llght
la m M. O. L.

Orderlng
ps:
Cod e

lnches

Base

1. 2. 3. 4.

They require no ballast or transformer.


They are low ln cost and I ghtweight. They have the r o\dn f lters.

25AA21l60

4\'Ae

I\4

ed iu m

They deLiver

full black light output

as

soon as they are turned ON.


M ERCURY
H

A5A3
B5A3 /U V

lv4ed

um

Advantages

of biack lght mercury lamps:

Medi!rr
ogu I Ad med iu rn
N4

62 62

100A4/r

1.

The larger sizes are the rrost powerful sources of b ack light in common use,
re ative

H100A38.4
HlOOBL3B 4
l OOPSP3B 4 H IOOPFL3B 4
H

6a 68
9 18 1a

2. Il\ey ate
se ves

y compact, lend themp..

to good optical control, and per. rnit longer throws of I ght than are
pos\ olp

med. Skt. Ad med. Skt.


Ad
N4

H175A39 22

ogLr

120
165

\^/r' ''Lorosce_!

la 1

r25AA3t,5
H400A33-1

flogul

270

3. 4.

They are ava lab e w th bui t-in reflectors

H400A33 1/T16
18 H 1000A34 12
H

in PAR'38 spots and floods.


The H100BL3B 4 is avai ab e \4ith a filter glass bulb.

260 750
765

700A3

5-

1000A36 15
L

FLUORESCENT

F4T4/B F6T5/B
F6T5/
B

Advantages of black lieht f uorescent lampsl

F4T5.i B L F4T5 /'B L B


L

Un.Bpin
n. B pin [4in. Bip n
f,4

4
4 3
7

LB

N4in. Bip n

6
13

1-

They are the most effcient source of


b

FBT5 /'B L

ack lght.

FBT5/B L8 F 14TB/ B L

2.
3.

There is virtual y no visib by BLB lamps.

e ight

F15Ta/B radiated
F

I 5T8I'B LB

tVln. B pin t\4in. B pin Nled. Bipin Vled. B pin Med. BiDin
ft4ed. B pin
2A

8
21

F2Ar12lBL
F2ATT2IBLB

20 42
31 53 57 65

visible light and permit inexpens ve sheet glass

BL lamps radiate relative y little

F25r12lBLlza
F25r12lBLl33
F3OTB/BL F30T8/B LB
F4OB L/5 F4OB L
F4O

Med. Bipin Med. B pin lvled. Bipin


N4ed. B pin

20 25 30 30 65

filters to be used in many applications.


4.

36
4B 4B

The I near sources ensure an even and on elongated


su

and efficieft distribution of black lght


rfaces. sources.

BLB

4a
4B

5. They are relati!ely coo

F48Ti 2/ B L/HO F64T12lBL,/HO F12r t2/BLlHa F48 PG 17l 1PR


F F

64
72 42 64

They deLiver ful UV output as soon as they are turned ON.

42r 6lBL 6416IBL


L

Vled. B pin kled. Bipin Med. Bipin Vled. Bipln Recessed D.C. Recessed D C Recessed D.C. Recessed D.C. Single P n
1

54
130) 100 a1

40
40 60

120
'170

190 220@
74@
11
65.,.1

F9618/B

96
4B

SingePn
l,,4ed.

150O
92

F40T12/BL/rS
FCBT9/BL
FC12T 1O/B L FC12T 1O/BL/H O
a3)

1t/z
11/e

Bipln

4A

73

a(d am.)
12(d ia m.)

4 Ptn
4'Pin
4-Pin HO

Rapd start Ao.watt BL and BLB lamps


can be d rrrned and flashed.

1/4

12(dlam.)

rt4

22 32 50

38
63

PAR-38 bulb.
el.

Lamp operation at 3.0 amps

285.

O Operate lamp wlth two 40W preheat ballasts in para

O 300 ma lamp current.

I
FOODS: Black light is used to inspect shelled pecans to detect borers which, in visible light, are the same color as the nut meals. Under black light, the pecan meats fluoresce a deep blue, and the borers glow a brilliant white. Contamination of flour ancl grain from liquid
excreta of rodents is readily detectable under black

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light. l3lack light is ellective in revealing ring rot in diseased seed potatoes. \Iold formation and fungus growth on manv varieties of fbod show up
prominently under black light. Breaks in the hulls of seed beans can be detected easil-v under black light because the bean meat fluoresces while the hull does not. Sour eggs are detected b1. egg+andling devices that project a narrox.beam of black light through the eggshell. At the breaking tables, blar:k light from overhead luminaire. maLe- il ca-r ln rp.,,gnito .i,'rtr cgES
which fluoresce green or blue.

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ABOVE
Blacklight teveals fluorescent crayon pleat marks which would be invisible under ordinary light. BELOW Flaws and breaks in solder conneciions in printed crrcuit

TEXTILES: Black light is used to detect oil stains in gray


goods, to rcveal invisible fluorescent pattern markings applied to fabrics for stitching or cutting, and

boards are easy to detect using black light.

during various grading inspections of raw materials. Both RLII fluorescent antl mercury lamps are suitable for these applications.

SANITATION: Black light is used in restaulants to reveal food deposits clinging to cooking utensils and tableware after washing. It is used in public rest rooms lo check cleanliness (urine splatterings, soap. and
grease srnears fluoresce). Hotels. indLrstrial plants.

and olher establishments track dov'n rodcnLs by black light fluorescing their urine trails. Dairies use black light units to inspect stalls, equipment, and animals. MINERALOGY: Black light is usetl by prospectors, geologisLs, and hobbyists as an e{Tective means of locating and identifying yarious minerals many of which fluoresce in characterislic cokrrs.

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CAST AND MACHINED PARTS: Two inspection techniques involving black light
are rvidely used in industry today. One, used with magnetic materials, requires that a strong magnetic field be set up in the part to be inspected. Cracks or other discontjnuities in the part interrupt lhe magnetic field and force the flux lines oulside the part. These leakage fields, acting as local magnets, attract and hold fluorescent ferromagnetic

to permit checking for completeness qnd uniformity of coverage after the coatings have been applied to surfaces. When examined uncler black light, the treated surfaces glow while lhe uncovered portions remain dark.

to coat the part. When the part is inspected under black light, flaws are revealed wherever the fluorescent particles have concentrated in or near a discontinuity in the material.
particles used The other method consists of coating a metallic or nonmetallic part with a fluorescent penetlant. The penetrant is drawn into surface defects by capillary action and becomes visible when viewed under black light.

FLUID POWER SYSTEMS: Black light is used to detect leaks in hydraulic systems, tanks, and pipe lines after adding fluorescent tracer dyes to the liquid in the system.
Where oil is the fluid used. the natural fluorescence of the oil makes black light inspection particularly

desirable. Aircraft fuel tanks and refrigerating systems are regularly inspecied with the aid of black light.

EMBALMING:
Fluorescent chemicals are added to the embalming fluid injected into the circulatory system of a body. The body extremities are then examined under black light to determine rvhether the embalming

PROTECTIVE COATINGS: Fluorescent dyes, colorless in visible light,

are

frequently added to clear lacquers and varnishes

fluid has been uniformly distributed.

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A nachined metal pa as it looks under ordinary general lighling. RIGHT Under black light, glowing fluorescent dye reveals a crack in the same pari which at left looked like an acceptable part under ordinary light.
LEFT

LAUNDRY: Black light makes possible the use of invisible laundry marks which are highly desirable from the standpoint of appearance of finished work. Conventional laundry marks are always unsightly and cannot be applied to all pieces of laundry. Invisible marks, however, may be stamped conveniently across the front of garments and on flat work where they are easily seen under black light. For the sorting operation, fixtures with 100-wat't mercury lamps have been used over the laundry bins. In some cases. the fixtures are mounted on electrified ducts to permit moving them across or along the aisle between bins to cut down on the number of fixtures required. A more practical arrangement, since the development of the black light fluorescent lamps, is to mount aluminum reflectors containing these lamps over the aisles between bins. Positioning and spacing ofthe fixtures must be determined by the size and disposition of the bins. Fixtures must be close enough to ensure getting the radiation to all bin openings.

VENDOR PARTSI
Black light has enabled many prime contractors to

dislinguish betlrcen idenlical parls supplied by


several subcontractors. Each subcontractor's prod-

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ucts are marked in some distinctive way with invisible fluorescent ink. Later, after the parts have been assembled, the prime contractor has only to examine the assembly under black light to determine at a glance the origin of the several components. If any of them is defective or not as specified, he knows which subcontractor is
responsible.

CHARTS: Maps and charts irradiated by black light can be studied or referred to in the dark. They can be printed in fluorescent ink, or conventional maps can be made fluorescent by swabbing the under surface with fluorescent lacquer. Reference marks and data notations on radar plotting screens are easily seen and distinguished under black light when made by fluorescent crayons
of various colors.

CRIMINALS:
Finely ground fluorescent powder is used to identify criminals. The powder is dusted on money, securities, and other valuables and around places where they are kept. If a theft occurs and there are suspects, examination of their hands under black light will help identify the thief. The same technique is often used to identify persons who have turned in false fire alarms. Fluorescent tracer pastes are
used

in similar

ways.

STAMP COLLECTIONS:
Philatelists have found that examination of siamps under black light reveals types of tampering. I-or example, washed-off cancellation marks, invisible in ordinary light, are plainly seen under black light. Several commercially available devices for examining stamps and other small objecis employ one or two lo\y-watt BL or, more commonly, BLB black ligh t fluore.cenl lamps.

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t6Ff-

lnvisible iluorescent ink marks which glow under black light are used at this amusement park as a te'admission control system.

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Black light fluorescent Iamps find wide application today as sources of near - ultraviolet energy in whiteprint or diazo copying machines (For many years these copying processes have been referred to as photoreproduction, but more recently the industry is using the term reprographics.) The spectral emission of these lamps is a close match to the spectral sensitivity of most diazo materials, thus making them very elficient for this application.

l. Pre-sensitized offset plates. 2."One-shot" contact printers. 3. Silk screen printing. 4. Photoresist. 5. Photo templates. 6. Ultraviolet photography.
USEFUL "LIGHTED" LENGTH OF BLACK LIGHT FLUORESCENT LAMPS FOR REPROGRAPHIC APPLICAIIONS

Lamp Type
F

Useful Length (inches)


14
15 9 13

14T8/B L

Fl5T8/81 &

Whiteprint machines utilizing black light fluorescent lamps are considerably slower than machines using high-pressure linear mercury arcs. However' these machines o{Ier the advantages of small size, portability, Iow price, and on-the-job copying. \rarious equipments are available for reproducing singlesided translucent or transparent originals from Bl x lI inches in size up to originals 42 inches in

BLB F30T8/BL & BLB F20T12lBL & BLB F 25r \2 / Bt /24


F

30 20
25 25

30
1A%
22V2
27 yz

25T t2 I BL 133

F4OBL & BLB

40
65

42%
42y2

F4OBL/5
F

42T6

/BL

32*
44" 65*
60

34
54

F6416lBl
F96T8/BL F4aT12/BL/HO

88
40 56 37

widlh b5 any reasonable length.


Other reprographic processes which may employ black light fluorescent lamPs are:

F64r12lBL/AO F72r12/BL/HO
F48PG 17l1PR

a0
85 110

* Watts are for 300 ma. oPeration.

RTGHT

Diazo copying equipmenl requires a source of near-ultraviolet energy. To make a copy, a transpareni or

transl!cent original is postioned over a specially coated


copy sheet; both sheets ate fed into the copier. The ultraviolet energy in the machine de activaies or "kills" phoioDEVELOPER

COPY OUT

sensitive diazonium salts on all areas

of the

coated

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shet not blocked by printing, artwork, etc., on the original Where the ultraviolet rays are blocked, the salts remain "alive" ready to form a visible image when developed by dty, moist, ot thelmal one of three processes

ORIGINAL OUT

BLACK LIGHT

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EXPOSURE SOURCES

OUTDOOR SIGN BOARDS: Black light on outdoor sign boards represent

of the fastest-growing display techniques. To be really efTective, a black light sign must be located in relatively dark surroundings. Often, the signs are lighted by both black light and visible light. The black light is usually applied continuously, and the visible light, from filament lamps, is flashed ON and OFF automatically by a timing mechanism. However, the recent development of circuits and equipment for flashing and dimming rapid-start fluorescent lamps now makes it possible to flash the black light. The appearance of the sign is dillerent under black light than under visible light and is still di{Terent under a combination of the two. It is possible, therefore, to show three distinct messages and scenes. Fluorescent figures, leiters, or designs can be made in invisible colors or can be camouflaged by being painted on a nonfluorescent background of the same color. When these designs are illuminated by visible light (or by the combination ol visible and black light) they are not seen. When irradiated only by black light, however, they stand out brilliantly from the dark, nonone

Wattage requirements for sign boards irradiated by black light fluorescent lamps are approximately 2 to 5 watts per square foot of board.

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sHow wtNDows;
In store show windows, black light displays are much more effective at night than during the day and are most effectiye in windows that are at
least somewhat removed from other brightly light-

ed windows or signs.
recommended

BLB fluorescent lamps are for irradiating backgrounds or pro-

viding an over-all wash of black light. H100PSP38-4 PAR-38 mercury lamps or H250A37-5 mercury lamps in concentrating reflectors are best for spotlighting. These lamps require external filters.

CHRISTMAS DECORATIONS:
Christmas tree ornaments and other holiday decorations may be painted, sprayed, or dipped in fluorescent, chemicals and then irradiated with black light. With Christmas tree ornaments, the black Iight sources are usually located on the floor at the foot of the tree. For the home. either 15 or 20-watt BLB fluorescent lamps in aluminum reflectors, or

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100-watt PAR-38 mercury lamps with filters are


suitable. The size and proportions of the tree and the number of black light units used determine whether concentrated or flood distribution is best. The display is most effective in a darkened room.

fluorescent background.

l\Iercury lamps have long been used on large outdoor signs, but in recent years the black light fluorescent lamps have become popular because of their higher elficiencies. The 40-watt, size is used most, The lamps are mounted end to end in two rovvs at the top of the board in parabolic aluminum reflectors. Often, for brilliant displays or for displays located where there are competing brightnesses, double rows of lamps are mounted at the top and bottom of the signs. For permanent outdoor installations using black light fluorescent lamps, the BL lamps with separate sheet-glass filters are generally the most economical. For indoor displays where enclosinEJ fixtures are not needed, the conyenience of integral-filter lamps often justifies using the more costly BLB types.
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MURALS: Black light murals are effective in theaters, nightclubs, and cocktail lounges and where there is little general illumination. Elongated lamps are well adapted to lighting elongated surfaces. Since fluorescent lamps are linear sources that produce black light much more elficiently than mercury lamps, they are the logical choice for most mural lighting installations. Both the BL and BLB types are suitable. The BLB is the easier to use, especially where space is at a premium, because it requires no external filter. Mercury lamps are useful when relatively long throws of light are
necessary and where a round beam pattern is better

suited to filling the space to be irradiated. The black light sources should be mounted at either the top or bottom of the mural and well away from it. Often, the bottom position must be ruled out because of the dilnculty of mounting the lamps

far enough away from the wall. Ceiling-mounted black light fluorescent lamps are usually concealed in a cove or above a suspended ceiling section. \'Iercury lamps are often recessed in the ceiling. Fluorescent ceiling decorations are treated in much the same manner as murals. The black light sources, however, must be mounted on the walls or on columns, usually in some sort of decorative bracket or molding. Reflectors should be used with both mercury and fluorescent lamps to ensure maximum utilization of the ultraviolet energy. The Pt\R-38-bulb mercur-v lamps have built-in reflectors and require much less space than lamps that use external reflectors. Llsuall), concentrating tJpes of reflectors are rrsed rilh fluores, r'nl latnps. The filter tubes of BLB fluorescent lamps provide arlequate filtering for mosi mural applicalions.

Relatively dense filters should be used with other black light lamps since little visible light can be tolerated in such applications. Some care should be taken in widespread use of black light in public areas. Modern Jaundry detergents generally contain fluorescent, materials ("whiteners") which remain embedded in the fibers of *'asbed fabrics. When black light concentrations are high in public spaces, the e{fect may be to reveal feminine undergarments prominently through sheer dresses and blouses. with resultant embarrassment.

COSTUMES AND UNIFORMS:


Spectacular siage effects are among the oldest and most familiar of the black light display techniques. Although they nr.r longer offer the same elements of

mystery and novelty that they once did, they still make possible weirdly beautiful colored lighting effects that cannot be produced in any other way.

BLB

fluorescent lamps have largely replaced filtered mercur-r'lamps in such applications. Filtered carbon-arc sources are still used for black light spotlighting where long throws of light are required.

RIGHT

are musts in successful ice extravaganzas. Audiences are thrilled and delighted by the beauty ol the colors fl!orescing !nder black light,

Black light productions

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Black light is becoming more and more widely used in insect control. Since the e-ves of many night-

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fl1ing inse, t' are parlicularlr scnsili\e lo nearultraviolet and blue light, black-light lamps are
used in many types of electric insect traps. Some of

these blackJight traps use a combination of one or

more types of fluorescent tubes to attract the insects and either electric grids to kill them or containers to trap them for identification and counting. The tube-type fluorescent blackJight lamps, are available in ls-inch to 4-foot lengths as well as B and l2-inch tl ia mcter circular shalcs. I3lackJight insect traps oller a new means for controlling night-flying pests and moths. E)iperiments are being conducted in various parts of the countryin farms and gardens. Iltomologists use blacklight traps to capture and identify insects when they first appear to help del.ermine when crop dusling and spraving are nee<led to prevent infestation. I-or example, in tobacco fielcls, these traps are highly ellective against moths and tobacco hornworm. Home orvners use black-light traps to make outdoor living enjoyable after dark. and owners of amusement, parks, miniature golf links, marinas, molels, and refreshment stands use them to attract insecl,s away from customers.

While blackJight lamps aLtract insects array from areas of human activity, the areas themselves should be tighted by lamps which emit colors invisible to the insecls, i.e., predominantly yellow. Thus, a combination of such lamps provides the
most ellective bug control.

TOP A black llght, suction type insect trap. lnsects, attracted to the !ltraviolet lamp, are sucked irto the container by the draft irom lhe fan. CENTER black-lght, electric-grid type insect trap. The insects, attracted by the lamp, are killed when they contact the charged g(id. BOTTOM p -Gnvily flow type tra for collecting tobacco hornworm insects alive for U. S. Department oi Agricult!re studies. A Fl5T8 black light lamp rs rnounted in the cenier of four baffles, which the insects hit, are stunned, and fall down the lunfel into the cage.

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into the design of a black light installation that it is often easier and faster to use a simple tlial-and-error approach rather
So many variables enter

than spending a large amount of time on complicated theory and engineering principles. Pages 'l and 5 are valuable guides in determining which light source

to

use.

Filters range from high to low in ultraviolet and/or visible transmission. The higher the visible transmission, the greater will be the elTect of "masking brightness" on the nonluminous surfaces of the irradiated area. This elfect, however, will depend in part on the reflectances and colors of

these surfaces, on the surrounding brightnesses, and. of course, on the nature and purpose of the installation. Basic information appears at the bottom of page 4 plus a table below on filter factors for various blackJight transmitting glass filters. Many dilTerent types of black light materials are available. A partial list of suppliers is shown on page 1.1, for black light fluorescent paints, lacquers, water colors, inks, dyes, chalks, papers, fabrics, phosphors, etc. Below a table is given on glow factors of typical fluorescent materials which gives a designer a general feel of the relative responses to be expected from various colors.

GLOW FACTORS
OF IYPICAL FLUORESCENT MATERIALS BLACK LIGHT PAINTS,
LACQU ERS, WATER COLORS

APPROXIMATE FILTER FACTORS


For Various Black-Light Transmitting Qlass Filters

(Based on transmission at 350-360 millimicrons)


ROU NDELS

DAYLIGHI TYPE PAINTS,


LACQU ERS, WATER COLORS

FLAT SHEET GLASS

RED
O RANG E

o.o2 0.04

RID
ORAN
G E

0.03 0.06
0.11

YELLOW GREEN

0.04
o.o7 o.o2

BLUE

YELLOW GREEN BLUE

0.09

Various "Pot'Blue" Glasses 0.60-0.85 Kokomo#400 0.75 Corning#5874 0.65


6%-tNCH MOLDED SQUARIS

#5A76 #61 #5A74 #41 #5873 #51


TUBULAR FILTERS

Corning Kopp

0.65 0.50 0.30

o03

Corning filter-gtass
0.80 0.65 0 50 0.30 tubes tor use over BL
Jluorescent lamps are made in various sizes

Corning#5970 Corning#5840 corning#5874 Corning#5860

and densities.

MAINTENANCE:
systems. black light installations are subject to deterioration. Black light output of the lamps gradually decreases, and dust and dirt accumulate on lamps and reflectors. In fact, the output of black light fluorescent lamps depreciates more rapidly than that of conventional fluorescent Iamps. Fading of the irradiated fluorescent materials is an added cause of depreciaiion. This may be slow or rapid, depending on the material and the conditions of use (whether indoor or outdoor, for example). Information on deterioration of fluorescent chemicals in their various forms
and uses should be obtained from the rnanufacturers.

Like conventional lighting

be kept in service for an appreciable length of time, design allowances should be made for depreciation in black light output. Initially, the outpui of the insl.allation should be higher than what might be considered necessary to compensate for output depreciation as time passes, The number of variables involved makes it diflicult to give accurate maintenance factor information that applies to all cases. However, maintenance factors of 0.5 for black light fluorescent lamps and 0.6 for mercury lamps are suggested {or permanent installations that are cleaned twice a year and are located in areas which are not unusually dirty.

If a black light installation is to

$r
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(This list is not necessarily complete. Additions and corrections to it will be welcomed.)

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r4

OTHER G-E PUBLICATIONE ON LIG H TING AND LAMPS


TP-101. . . GENERAL LIGHTING DESIGN Contains basic information about the lurnen method of general lightirg deslSn. Booklet includes tables lor footcandle
levels, room ratios, coefficients of utiliza-

'o

tion on luminaires, as well as lighting


comfort design data. (16 Paees)

TP.1O9 . .

MERCURY LAMPS

Covers all mercury lamp tyoes, design characteristics, and operating features. G'E and ASA mercury lamp designation

systems are explained. lnformatlon

is

ancluded on auxiliary equipment, spectral data. as well as eftects of variations in line voltage, over-wattage operation, Power

interru ptions, etc.

(16

pages)

TP"110 . . . INCANDESCENT LAMPS Describes in introduction evolution of today's incandescent lamps from Edison's tirst electric filament source. Basic lamp parts, how lamps are rnade, types of lila_ ments, bulbs, bases, and filling gas are thoroughly discussed. General classes of lamps and operating characteristics are described. (32 pages)

TP-1II ...

FLUORESCENT LAMPS Explains that fluorescent lamps are pop_

ular and widely used because of their


high efficiency, long life, low brightness, minimum heat, and wide choice of sizes, shapes, and colors. There is a thorough but concise coverage ol lamp parts and operation, phosphor materials and spec. tral data, classes o{ lamps, basic lamP systems, ballasts, and other lamp char-

acteristics. (24 pages)


TP"118 . . . LIGHT MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL Covers fundamental terminology used in light measurement and control. Readily

available portable light-measuring are d iscu ssed plus precision laboratory


equipment. Six basic methods ot controlling laght atter it is emitted are explained,

(24

pages)

15

t.
:

LARGE LAMP DEPARTMENT

GENERAT@rrr CT Rtc

GENERAL ELECTRIC LARGE LAMP SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT OFFICES


SALES DISTEICTS (To obkin sales and Iahni-l lnrormat on) CITY ALEAIIY, II. Y. ATLANTA, GA. BAI.TIMOSE, MO.
879 ZIP

SEBVICE DISTBICTS (To 0rder Lamps and to 0btain Shippiis lnformalion. Local Warehouse Stocks mainla ned ai lhese Poinls) ZIP Builalo Serv
120

No

Telephone No 482.3345 875,09?l


24?-570Q 332.6200

No.

Telephone No. 856.0800

MadkonAve.

BOSTO , MASS.
BUFFALO, N. Y. CHAhLOTTE, N. C.
.

120 oltley Drive 1401 P ker Rd. 50 lndostr a P. Newion Upper Falls, ivlass.
625

- -

- - - - .

t22a8
30324

oltley Dr

2t22/
02164 142A2 2824? 60606 45206 44112

0. aware Ave. l00l Tuckaseecee Rd.


165 No.

883.7381 3/6-6585

CHICAGO,ILL.

Cana Sl.
sau St.

332-4ttZ
961.4343

ctNctNIATt, oHto
CLEVELAND, OHIO DALLAS, TEXAS , oENVEB, COLO.. oETROtt, MtCH. HOUSTON, TEXAS
,

990

1'l

l40l Parker 50 lndustrial Place,lewton Upper 98 Nydnu c l00l Tuckaseegee 4201 So. Pdlaski 49 Cennal

ve Rd. St.

Disi

98 Hydraul.

Si,

Tafl Ave. 6500 Cedar Sp. nss Rd. 501 E.44th Ave. 15135 Hamiton Ave.
12910

26t4264
351-3725 388-4611

75235
80216 48203 71421 46205

883.0200
667-7595

4219
.

chmond Ave.

DtotaNAPoLts, ll{0. N. KANSAT CttY, MO.


LOS ANGELES, CALIF. MEIIPHIS, TEN . ILWAUKEE, WIS..

Rd.. Rd Ave. 12910 Taii Ave. 6500 Cedar Springs Rd. 6501 E.44i[ Ave 15135 Nam lon Ave. 5534 Annour Dr.
C nc

14210 30324 21227 Fa s, Nlass. 02164 14210 282A8 60632 45202 44112 /5235 802]6 48203 710?0
Eufialo, N Y.

8/5 0921
242-57QA

332.6200
856-0800

376 6585 254 6161 421 6810 266-4404


351-3725 388-4611 883-0200

923 2549
6810 3568 7541

251I E 46 Sr. 20rl Ean 16th Ave. 2747 South lvla I Ave. 20ll So. Laiham Sl.
5300 N. Sherman Blvd.. 500 Sl nsof Blvd. 26 washinston St, 2nd iloor 135 Co ege St. 4800 Fiver Rd. 570 Lexinelon Ave. 999 - 98th Ave Rl. 202 at Expressway P 0. 8ox ?99 . X ns ol Pru$ a, Pa. 238 W. Ca60n St. 2800 N W. Nela Sl. 1510 Dw Lawn orive P0.Box862/

64t L6
90022 38109 53209

545 4291 471-3568 723.2541 948 2642 462 3860

nnai serv. D sl , 49 Central Ave.. Cinclnnat, 0 45202 421 200 Easi l6lh Ave . 64116 471 2747 Souih lMalt Ave 9AA/? 7t3
So. Lalham St.

?021

5300 N. She.man B vd.

MINNEAPOIIS, MINN. llEWAAK, l{- J,

554t3
07017 06510

i89.7286
824.5200
562-9828

ltEw

HAVEI{, col{N.
Y.

EW OALEANS, LA.

t0t2t
100?2 94603 19406

835-642t
751.1311

t{Ew YoiK, N,

OAKLAND, CALIF. PHILAOELPHIA, PA. PITTSAUNGH, PA. FONTLAND, O8E.

569 34?? 688 5900 471 223 28? 788 622 429 248
9050

atcHMot{D, va.

a0cK

tsLAND, tLL.

1ll

Foullh Ave.

SEITTLE, WISH.

sT. touts, Mo..


TAMPA, FLA.
.

2400 Sirih Ave, South 1530 F?iruiew Ave. 815 Nonh 26ih Sl.

15219 97210 232?6 61242 98134 63132 33605

2t0l
/644
3405 8081 6930
I

500 Slinson B vd. 133 Boyd 07103 N Y. S*v. Dist,75 ll Woodhaven B vd , G endale, N.Y. Ll2?7 4800 River i0l2l 75 11 woodhaven Blvd , Grenda e 1122/, N 11227 999 98th Ave 94603 Ri. 202 al Expressway. P 0. Box 19406 X ng oi Prussia Pa 238 w. ca,son 15219 2800 N.W. Nela 97?14 Ba lihore Serv. Disi., P.0. gox7427, Bal\nate, Md. ?12?7

Sl.

. 38109 . 53209 . 55413

948 264? 462 3860

t891286
824.5?00

Rd.

299

835 6421 896 6000 569 3422 688 5900 471 9050 ?23 2tAt 24? 57AA 788 3405 622 8081 429 6930

st. St

Lll

Fourlh

l7l

2400 Sirih Ave., 1530 Fairv ew 815 Norlh 26lh

Ave. Soulh Ave. Sl.

6l?0?
98134 63132 33605

'' add lio o lr' Sa "\ Dr 'r"r P4ddqld 16r\ r ps 18qol.1",ri'F( co'slllror'lel"plo-"dr"lo/L1d"

ipd aoor" C

t ,ole (o pj.'ld'pD, Ger"dl ll"I "-p

io,.

General Offices: Nela Park, Cleveland, Ohio 44112