t

o

t
o

resr deratr*i
STRUCTURAL LIGI{TING

I
o
TP.107

LARGE LAMP DEPARTI\1 ENT

0

GENERAT', , EtECTRtC

What

is

structural lishtinS?
Structural lighting is the term used by lighting designers to describe light sources built into the home as a part o{ its finished structure. Sometimes called "alchitectural" or "built-in" lighting, it denotes a custom il)stallation, designcd and assembled to fit a particulal situation. Because structural lighting is built right into \!alls and ceilings, it can be designed to blend lvith any perlod decorative motif or color scheme. It can blend or contrast with its background. Since it has very little styling, structural lighting does not become dated in appearancc. One of the major functions ol structulal lightlng (Fig. 1) is to lighten and enhance rvalls ancl ceilings. This is iniportant because lvalls and ceilings account for three quarters, or morc. of room surfaces in a home. 'lhe walls are the background 0f the home laudscape. Light, ivell-lighted walls appear to recedc. IIence, rvall lighting extends the visual area. increasing the apparent
space.

|

-_-;t.a_-,.-_--ro-.___

With structural lighting. colors ol rvall coverings and draperies become more vivid and u,indows have daytime charm, even after dark. Because the najor source of light in the room is the entit'e u'all surface instead of a small fixture or lamp. the rcsulting room lighting is soft and relatively shadorv free. This "horizontal" Iighting molds forms and features in a rrorc flattering lvay than light from above or belolv.
Fig. l

o

lis.2d

wolls improve vis!ol comforl. The lishled in Fis. 2o lorm o plecsing ond.onforloble bdcksround for the well lighled book this womon is reoding. Fi9. Fis. 2-Lishted
droperies

2b i5 the some scene, but without struciurol lishtins. Here the womon?s eyes would be constonily t.yiis io odiu5t beiween ih€ hish briqhrness of ler book ond the surrounding dorkness.

)

vAtAltct

BRACI(ET

J
c0Rl ct

.i

Basic Forms of Wall Lighting
O

'fhere are three structural lighting technrques for rvalls tn"t are easy to install ancl have \\,ido application ttroughout the home. The most popular is the Jighted valance irhymes rvith "balance"l. This is al$,ays used with a u'indow to provide "night'timc sunshine." 'fhe fluorcscent wall bracket looks a lot like a valance, but is used mainll' on inside lvalls arvay from windorvs. Easicst to install is thc cornice rvhich is mounted at the junction of rvall and ceiling and can be used lvith or lvithout a windou'.

How much structural lighting is necessary?
TABLE I

_

RECOMMENDED TYPES AND SIZES OF STRUCTURAL LIGHTING INSTALLATIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL INTERIORS
TyDe

(or comb nat on) ot
ng AppLcable

slruciura Light

12it.
sq ft 0ver 250 sq. fl.
185 to 250 16

Valance cornice,
Valance, corn ce,
15

fl

wa bracket wa brackel wa
bra.kel

light ng

ior every

Va ance. corn ce.

8

ft.

3ti
6 Up

it.
6 tt. Va ance, cornice Va an.e corn ce.

io

125 sq.

il.
It.

3tt
4 il.

12510 225 so. Il.

8ll
16

wa brackei wa bracket

ovs

225 sq.

ft il.

Valan.e,.ornice wall bra.ket

40 lo 80 40 lo 80

so fl. sq ft.

6ii
8

Table 1 is a guide to the number of feet of structural lighting neces" sary for major areas of the home. In many cases, the structural lighting technique is used instead of a lighting fixture for general lighting. In many rooms, added fixtures lvill be desired to provide specific task or decorative illumination. Walls can also be lighted by recessed louvered incandescent "hihat" fixtures. It is best to use ?5-watt R-30 or 150-watt R-40 flood lamps. These should be centered 10 inches from a solid wall or 12 inches from a window rvall. One fixture is used for every 32 inches of wall length.

o
DESIGN INFORMATION

Valance Lighting
The lighted valance is always connected with the window. It usually directs light both upward over the ceiling and downward over the rvall and drapery.

^-. Fis. 3

Vo lo nce rocebocrds con be simple ond blend in with the rdom decor.

Valance faceboards can be simple and unobtrusive as shown in Fig. 3. Or, they can be as decora-

Fis.

mdny types ond desiens of foceboords.

4-Some of

rhe

)

tive and stylish as the imagination rvill allow. A wide variety of faceboard materials are available (Fig. 4) that can be trimmed with moldings, scalloped, notched, perlorated, papered, upholstered or painted. Faceboards should have a minimum width of 6 inches and seldom should be wider than 10 inches. Nominai B inch lumber usually works quite well for vaiances 8 feet or longer.

Back ol Faceboard Painted Flat \ /hite
The inside of the faceboard should always be painted flat white. The onlv exception to this would be the bottom 7lz to 2 inches on a very deep valance. It is possible that this bottom strip might be seen from outside the window and there{ore can be painted to match room decoration. If the back of the faceboard is not flat white, the valance will trap the Iight produced, and the resultant color of light in the room may be distorted
I I

12" T0 cflHilG 10"

Fig.

iion of downword light.

6

A sood exomple of

o

+
ir"[*I

Fig.

5-Locotion ond in+ollqt;on of o

volcnce.

I

6rt

trocks shorld be kepi os close Fi'.7 window woll os possible. Droperles should to the -Drcpety

Spacing Itetween Lamp and Drapery
The most critical dimension of a valance is the spacing between the fluorescent lamp and the front surface of the drapery material as shown in Fig. 5. There must be at least 2 inches between the center of the lamp and the front face of the drapery material. This insures that the draperies will be more uniformly lighted from top to bottom. Draperies hung near the tops of their pleats hang straighter, causing less interference wlth the light. To get the proper spacing it is usually necessary to allow 3 inches between center of the lamp and the drapery track. Often, this requires mounting the fluorescent channel out from the wall by means of wooden blocking or metal straps. In normal drapery installation conditions, the inside of the faceboard should be located about 6Yz inches from the wall. If, bulky draperies, or a double track is used, the faceboard might have to be extended to a distance B inches or more from the wall. Fig.6-9 show both good valance installations and some of the problems in achieving desirable light distribution.

Fig.

when lhere is insufficienr

8-A "bortling'up" of

l{,
lisht,

I
4.
I

t\

.1
*

Space lrom Top of Faceboard to Ceiling
A l0-inch space between the top of the valance faceboard and the finished ceiling is recommended. Valances that are closer than this to the ceiling will trap light near the ceiling and produce a "hot streak" of light. If there is less space than this available. the valance should either be closed at the top, or the fluorescent cornice should be used. To assure a wide spread of light on the ceiling, the fluorescent channel and lamp should be mounted close to the top of the faceboard.

\.-.,'€

\$
.i'

A..AF tstr?i

lrri.

*{€:a:"1,r-

{,

r
thot

t'". t -

n.," ihe droperies ore hung so
rd ond intercept the llshr.

Wall o

Fl uo rescent
B

rackets
OF FACEBOARD

The wall bracket is probably the single, most useful structural lighting device in the home. It can be used in any room of the house. Basically, there are two kinds of wall brackets; the construction differs depending on lvhether the bracket is to be used high on the wall for general lighting, or lower on the rvall for specific task lighting.

INSIDE

y'

1LAT,/'
WHITE

High \A,all Brackets
A high wall bracket is really a valance rvithout a window. It is used as a source of general lighting for a room. Quite often it r.vill be used to balance the illumination from a matching valance at an opposite window. Many of the same dimensions and construction techniques must be observed as when installing a valance. The inside of the faceboard must be white. The fluorescent lamp and channel must be located as high up behind the shielding board as possible so the light will spread evenly and far out over the ceiling. The fluorescent tube should be at least 3 inches out from the wall (Fig. 10) to provide a smooth distribution of light over the wall. This reduces the chance of hot streaks of brightness above and below the shielding board. A minimum oI 10 inches between the top of the shielding board and the ceiling is recomrnended (Fig. 11). so no light is trapped above the bracket. Fig. 12 and 13 illustrate trvo of the many uses of high l'all brackets.

Fig l0 t
10

I

"

tv tN.

T

,6"<-

6',
1

'.1
Ficr. I l

65" to Floor

I

Fig.

spreadinq lisht qene.ously out over the ceiling oreo. Additiono lieht mun be p,ovlded, howcv.r, dt th€

Here, the brocket directs useful

12-Woll brockels co. be us€d to p.ovide senerol

light inio woll cabinets os wel

li9 hting. as

Fis. l3.''--A high wo brackel finished to moJch l1s bd.ksround p,oduces o brioht welcomins lisht in the eniry ho L t o so mokes the en i,e spo.e seem lorser. wo I brdckcts arc excelent for ho I woy li9htif9, b!t i. nony cases nr!n be shi. dcd o, lo!vered ot rh. boitom to hide the llghi source when view.d .nsrhwisc

Low Vl/all Brackels for Local Lighting
The lorv rvall bracket is a "working light" commonly used whcre specific seeing tasks are performed close to a wall. They are used to highlight fireplaces, pictures; to providc functional lighting over desks. sofas. etc. !'or most o.f these lorv-on-thewall uses, the bracket is mountcd no higher than 5 feet 5 inches from the floor. Table 2 gives height location {or low wall brackets and the type lamp that should bc used.

tig. 14-Ihis closedrop low wo I bro.kei odds visuol impocj 1o o ,l *o l pdin'i-s ond pro,ides o L5er!l i9'.' to. sel?in9 trom the b,rrFl I f_* r"p o'tr- bro.*e'i\ (o5ed'o o.hi"'- d,onori. emp'dsi ^ilh a r'ehr dii.r.bu,.on. No." ho^ rhF r"o ..'L(iuJ.l ! I ". lisht "rrla"-"-" nq e"renls, wol bracr"l ord ro _ice o " u'ed 'ide b) side
with no confli(i.

|!

tig. l5-Low woll brockets ore procticol for child'.n's bed,ooms ou o L- -o, lhi ,ll 6-,"- - 't -, " e.o,- h- ohr

rle a,p"v

::l;..:;:;"1;l;:" ".::.1 . T "'".1,j:,:- fl: "i r"il.".r'

.',::

,:;

r""i,"".

TABLE 2- BECOMMENDED MOUNTING HEIGHTS AND LAMPS FOR STFUCTUFAL LIGHTING FOB SPECIFIC TASK AEEAS
Fe.o fincnded De !re War Wh te F troresreoi Lanrrs
K

tclren fiansP

Dorb e Bed Exlra Wde Bed

rn fN 'i)m r ioNr 5l n i.o
52

0ne 30 wa\]* 2mp 0ne 30 \ralt" anrp

0n.,10{tli

p

o'

Tw ns

'/"1

Clioose larD s zes lo har mortrew th enslh oi luri t!re

t\

2'

I

8,,1i"1.

oo

,.li*ir.., i
l/)

q".qqlltu

t_

top(5eeFi

ll ro r

P

ctu'"

C,oup ne

0ne 30 wall' Dr cie,l0 waltl depsrd iC on length ol desk Clioose a rp s ze 1o lra n.r ze w ih lenClh ol J!riil!re

'N0TE 30-watl
iN0TE: Les
iJ

amps are 36 i.hes

top ol

wa h.acliel

lciC
s r!0sed

40 watt lanrDs arc 48 rnches

d

q

F's. l6-Low

of ihe shieldins boord. By plocing the lofrp low in the brocket, the light hos o brood spreod downword which will cover ihe iosk to be illuminoled.
inches obo"e the bottom

woll brockels should nol hove lomps higher thon

2

lor uliidru upward ll*Ilr light 2" v,tllln* 4 0pening for

15" t0 18"

1"-

rq

Fig. l7 A useful ond decordtiv€ vdriotion is this desk isht-book shelf. H€re ihe book shef hos to be wide enough so ihqr the lomp is posirioned diredly over rhe sludent's work (oboul 9 inches bock froh the fronl edge

)

%
I

Gorn ice

Lighting

I
l.

6" Mtit.
ort \ ..--o----\-

Ml]{. \ \

l8-These key point5 !hould be folJowed when insto lins o cornice: 2 inches (preferobly 3 i.ches) beiween the c€nter of rhe fuorescent lomp ond rhe s!lfoce io be lishted.2. Point ihe lnside of the foceboord fot whlie.3. The chonnel should be positioned os close to lhe foceboqrd os possible. The fqceboord should be ol leqsi 6 inches deep
FigThere should be

The lighted cornice is positioned on the ceiling at the iunction between the rvali and ceiling. Al1 of its light is directed downlvard to light the lvall surface belorv. For this reason, the lighting effect produced is a dramatic onc. It emphasizes rvall textures, wall covcrings, and lvill light pictures and other rall hangings. Also. because the wall is ernphasized. the cornice gives an imprtssion of greater ceiling height. Cornices arc, therefore. ideally suited for lorv ceiling rooms such as basetlent recreation rooms. The cornice is about the simplest of all structural lighting elements to build. There are, horvever, a few points to note as shown in Fig. 18. Figs. 19 and 20 illustrate severai possibilities u it h .ornice lighling.

:r
F-

;"'i*'

1i,
'l

:

'

iP'; t
rlFis. 19-The downword lighling from thi5 cornice gives dromatic emphosis to the murol wollpoper. This grozing ongle lishtins is o so e{fective ove.

6'
)

,!

i

none, brick, wood, ond flocked or textured wollpdp€rs. when corn:ces ore viewed lengthwlse, cover ihe boitom openins wiih louveB or diffusins plostic.

Fig.20-Corfices ore preferred io volonces on wolls hoving less tlan l2 inches of spoce between the iop of the windows dnd the.eiling. lt is desiroble io supplement cornice lishtins wiih !pwdrd lighting f,om open'top porroble lomps, fixlures, or o voldnce or woll brocket.

I
fo

onstruction Tips
lnstallation of Structural Lighting

r

Installation
possibte, the valance channel and necessary blocking should be fastened right to the top of the window casing. If the channel has to be fastened above the casing the valance faceboard will have to be wide enough to cover the channel and entire depth of the casing.

If

In order to position the fluorescent lamp the proper distance in front of the drapery or other surface, the channel will often have to be spaced out from the wall. This can be done in three ways by
using: 1. Continuous wood blocking behind channel. 2. Wood blocks, spaced every 18 to 24 inches, including each junction of channel. 3. Metal angle brackets, home-made from Ye inch steel strap, 7z inch wide, approximately 12 inches long. These straps should be bent and drilled so that channel and faceboard may both be secured to them (see Fig. 21). Two holders should be used for each channel. Fig. 22 shows the use of angle iron to mount the faceboard. Valance and cornice faceboards are often mad.e of Yz inch or 3/+ inch clear white pine or plywood. An excellent faceboard material, however, is beveled cedar siding.

For real ease of installation, several manufacturers make packaged valance units.

lig

22

Praperies
Valances should not be less than four feet in length. It is often advisable to extend the valance beyond the window by 6 to 12 inches on each side to allow for daytime stacking of draperies. Two small windows separated by a narrow section of wall may be joined by one valance which visually ties them together and gives the impression of one large window.

Tips For Besl Perlormance

o
",.1

nels with

Fluorescent chansockets

mounted at lhe extreme ends of the channel are requir-

_=1--€--'-3_

ed. Butt the channels so the lampholders are back-toback, as shown in Fig. 23. This close

I

I
Fis.23

:t

l;

t

l: i;
t,

Light colored drapery fabrics are best. Lighted valances and cornices lose much of their effectiveness if dark fabrics are used. Clear sharp colors may be used in the drapery pattern but the background should be reasonably light. Don't use stiff drapery fabrics which billow far out from the wall. If you do, the lamp channel should be positioned farther out from the wa11.
NOTE

lamp spacing should be maintained even if this leaves a dark space of 6 to inches al each end ol a valance or cornice.

9

A

For every sfuuciurol lishting insrollorion, coreful specificoiions shovld be followed for be+ resulrs.
series

Lqrge

of dotd sheets ore ovoiloble from The tdhp Dept.. Generol Electric Co., for !5e

Deluxe warm white fluorescent lamps are recommended for almost all residential lighting applications. It is desirable to use lamps of the same size and wattage in each valance. For uniformity of lamp color it is best to use all lamps from the same carton. Where there is just 10 inches or less from the top of the faceboard to the ceiling the distribution of light on the ceiling can be improved by either beveling off the inside top edge of the faceboard or slanting the faceboard to allow more light to escape. Slanting the faceboard permits the use of a narrower faceboard of only 5-inch width because the angle of tilt helps to shield the fluorescent lamp from view.

known as a soffit. Often these spaces can provide a housing for light sources. Suitable soffits for lighting can be formed in furred-down areas over kitchen sinks and work areas, furred-down areas over bathroom mirrors, undersides of pass-throughs, niches, and beams. There are basically two uses for lighted soffits: 1. To direct light downward onto a horizontat plane. (Fig. 24). 2. To direct light outward to a vertical surface (such as a face in front of a mirror) as shown in Fig. 25. The proper installation of lamps for soffit lighting is shown in Fig. 26.

The underside of any architectural member is

Fis- 2tr-Polished oiumin!m refleciors behind o slishiy elched sloss ponel d;rect Iight io ihe sofo wilh o minimum brighlnes5 to oiher vieweG in the room.

oirecting Lighl Downward
below
When a soffit is used to light a horizontal surface

equipped with polished aluminum reflectors. Reflectors will more than double the useful light output of the soffit if the bottom is closed with louvers or a material that does not diffuse the light to any extent. In living areas, the soffit has a more acceptable appearance if a lightly etched or configurated glass or ptastic is used. To further reduce the brightness as viewed from seated positions in the room, the inside back vertical surface of the soffit can be painted in a matte black finish.

it, the fluorescent

channels should

be

For Mirror Lighting
has the function of scattering light outward to light a person's face as he stands before the mirror. For

The soffit over the bath or dressing room mirror

this reason, the soffit is usually made shallower and a good deal wider lo let more light escape. The botlom is covered wilh r highly diffusing glass or plastic. Reflectors are not needed.
Fis-

Rrctss

-'' --fsoffiis use ot

PAIIITTD fI.AT

wHtTt

-

NOTE

Fluorescent cho.nels shouTd not be directly should eilher be mounted wirh o surroundins oir spoce or on fireproof moieriols.

noonted on combusrible hdreriols.

They

leost two rows of lonps. The.honnels should be locdted os for forword os
possible. Aluminum reflec1ore will greotly increose

26-All

TABLE 3
Locat on

-

SOFFIT CONSTRUCTION DATA
Use

rl De'th w drh
ut0
12 r.
8 in.
tn.

Cavity Dimefsions

Deluxe
t ,n s Larn ps

Parabolic
AIL minu m

N4ater

al lor

Botiom

LFlerrr I
38 t.rnn
Length
mrrT0r
oT

Ref ectors
Ye5 No No

Clos!re
LOUVETS

Kitchen Sath or
Dressing
Room

Uver s rl{ ot work center
Uver large m tror

l2 rr.
i4 to
18 in.
18 to 24 in.

Fiat white
F

at whrte

lwo rows to trl lengtir. Two 30 wett minimLm. Two rows to fi I ength. Two 40 wzlt mirim!m.
Three rows io

White d tfu sing glass or plaslic
Whrte drffusing q ass or p astic
L ghtly etched

Length oi m tror

Flat white

fil

length.

Three 40 w. minimun.

Lrvrng

over piafo, desk,
sofa, or other

0 in.

I t space
Avaiable
12 in. min

lrt

SP3ce

seetrg atea

Available 50 in. min

Flat white exc.pt matte b ack painted back wall surface

Two rows to f ll ength. Two 40.wait m nimurn-

Yes

matera acceptab € L ghtly tigured or
etched glass or
plasiic

EASY TO MAKE

tts.27 A look "insidel' lhe in'rollorion shown in Fis. - or double 28. SinEle lomp chonnels ore mounted in lhe .enter of lhe cdvily. ond rhe end3 boxed ln. Lomp .enters q.e qbout 5 inches obove rhe plo3iic when 2 by I ihch ceil;ns ioisi3 ore uled. lf lhe ioi5r5 ore deeper,

this distonce should be mointoined by blo<l(in9.

Fig. 28 The neor un- qpp€ordnce of .lurtered ihere luminous pdnels mqkes them usoble olmost onywhe.e in the

The comfortable lighting effects and the senof spaciousness created by luminous ceilings make them natural for applications in kitchens, bathrooms, entryways, recreation rooms and even dining areas.

sation

Today, many manufacturers make packaged luminous ceiling assemblies which can be used for residential applications. The design of luminous ceilings varies lvith the room size, room proportion and intended use. Usually these ceilings are only applicable in rooms with high ceilings where the plastic diffusers can be dropped 10-12 inches. For uniform lighting on the diffuser, lamps should be spaced in rows not more than one-and-one-half times their distance to the diffuser. Manufacturers of luminous ceilings can provide design and installation instructions for their particular products.

f

An entire ceiling, horvever, need not be lumi

tis. 29-The .old .ommerciol look of lsminour ceilinss con be eliminored by .oreful selection of diffurins

space is an ideal location for fluorescent lighting

;"":l#i;:lru i:*{:i'l#:ll,'j'";|ji
equipment if the ends are boxed in and a piastic diffuser suspended below. The cavity should be painted flat white, and

J

moteriol ond the u5e of custoh woodwork or trim whi.h hos c aofrenins ef{e.t.

lH T:iffi:x', JlX#,::',f"i
tis. 30 The lighr-weight vinyl plosti. <orugoied u3ed in this dinelte k eosily removed ond moy
be cleoned by dipping in d detergent solulion. Note

il j;:'"T:i,?,i5 0
iiT'ffii:

to create a large luminous panel, or they may be used in single strips or pairs over critical seeing

liili,

llf;,,ll;?j" Ji:L i'':"ffi'J.%

the coiiugoted vinyl

should be ollowed ro oirdry. Do not rub d.y with

J

10

Bosemeni recreolion rooms Fis. 3l - .ei ino! ofren hove rheir laht- \ w ih low tnq recsFd ii the cci ine. H.-, b" I r.ee. the ioists llshri.g !nits ore spoced I i. o po'rc'r to p'o\.'l'30 '"".".."" I for some ploying in ih€ cehter of the

ii
a
I:

,

Hi

'1.

*r
5r

ffiffi U
llli:,
I

\

I
It is difficult to predict horv much light rvill be produced by recessecl ceiling pancls. This is becausc of the ilrcgularities ol the cavity ilimensions found in homes. r'aliations in type of matcrial used to cover thc opening. tenlPeratures at \\hich the lamps operatc. etc. Usually 10 to 15 footcandles will be measurecl under typical units at tablc top height. Placing t\\'o lalrps in a singlc ioist space will not double thc light output. Whcre lighting perfolmance is particlrlar'ly iniportant. use a pol' ished alLtrninnni rcflector over the lamp or lamps lnll usu a lotirer irt lhe b('l1om.

Eil

Chonne

d bc mo!nted on fireProof moteriol or mounled on spocers 1o olow oir circulotion behind the chonnel. Never mount o chdnnel direclly oi low densiiv s
shou

NOTE

ti.t. 32 li is dporront to o..,re omPs 3 1o 5 ln.hes fron botlom dlff!se, or lou'er H shly tr.n.luc.nt .liff!s.6 wili lroP lisht ond be lower ii trri!hji.ts fronr no'rra viewifs Poriti.ns

o
*
::,

,l ^r... """"t .r,.""r.ened neo, eo.h cnd ^irr ! \ i"ooa". rr, p iu.p"end-d :on rh" .- :^9 b! lo -,"""..1""r'r.""f.

Fig. 33-This "flooting" uminous Pone in o win ,l dowless borh.oon con5ists of o corrugoted fiber
d
9

''.'",'**i) [+:lrti1l"lnt,'"'-iffi resceni lomps are !sed.

X.*'
11

Gove Lighling
Coves {which are usualll' mountecl high on the rvall) direct all oI their light upward to the ceiling where it is, in turn, reflected back into the room. Thc cove is knorvn as a soul'ce of "indirect light-

ing." The illumination effect produccci by cove lighting is solt. unifolm and comforlabie. Since

Fig. 35-Although ihis cove is mounted welJ dow^ from rhe ceilins ond dire.tt i . lishl lor oul over r\e ceiling. the room lock5 interest and hishlisht.

there is no light directed dorvnu'ard into the room from a cove. horvever, the lesulting lighting effect is reiatively llat and iileless. For this rcason. cove Iighting shoukl bc supplemented by other iamps and lighting lixtules to give the room intcrest and provide lighting lor seeing tasks.

t

For good cove lighting a ferv basic rules ri.iust be follolved as shonn in l'ig. 37.

PK

1.

Cove lighting should only be used lvhite or near u,hite ccilings.

ivith J
as

2.

Keep the cove as far clown {rorn ceiling

possible for a wicle distribution ol light. Therc should be a minimum of 12 inches from thc top of the shielding board to thc ceiling.

3.
Good cove ighting prov;des excellent gene.ol lighting when other lomps ond fixtures ore used to light the wolls ond supply Fig. 36
hishlishts and shodows.

Place the Iamp at least 4 to 4y2 inches out from thc \\ all.

,+. Paint thc insidc

flat u'hite. Butt

lamp

sockets back to back.

Fis.37

Coves are particularly suited to rooms lvith tr,vo ceiling levels. In these applications they should be placed right at the line wherc a flat, low-ceilinged area brcaks arvay to a higher ceilinged space. 'fhe uprvard light emphasizes this change of level and is very elfective in rooms with slant or cathedral type ceilings.

t
I

l2"
..+

tvlrN

a"Lt*

I

The lighting efficiency of coves is low in comparison with valances and wall brackcts. Because o{ this more lamp lumens

are usually needecl. To attain a gcncral lighting level of from 5 to 10 footcandles in a living spaceJ coves should be designed for 45 to 60 lumens per square foot of floor area.
12

Wall Elemenls
Self-luminous walls and wall panels are an effective way to make rooms appear brighter, cheerier, and even larger. The best lighting results are obtained when a special reflecting cavity can be built 10 to 14 inches deep in the wa1]. This permits mounting fluorescent channels well back from the front diffuser to give the panel an even distribution of light and a comfortable brightness The inside of the cavity should be painted flat white and the opening covered by a good (even rather dense) diffuser. Llmp iows should be spaced no further apart than oneand-one-half times the distance from the lamp to plastic' It is difficult, however, to find a space 10 to 14 inches deep in a residential interior. This means that luminous panils have to be made to fit into the existing 2 by 4 inch or 2 by 6 inch stud wall. This can be done, but some uniformity of lighting will be lost. Patterned plastic aliffusers and/or a grillwork overlay wi1l, however, make this non-uniformity scarcely noticeable. When lamps are mounted in2by 4 inch or 2 by 6 inch stud spaces, i1 is possible for brightness on the diffuser to .u.r ur high as 450 footlamberts (where a maximum-of 50 footlambJrts is recognized as being barely comfortable to of time). These high brightnesses the eye for long periocls -to levels by the following comfortable can be reducei methods: 1. Put lamps on dimmer control. 2. Mask part of the lamp with black electrician's tape. 3' Use a dense, patternetl hiffr."r. 4. Use an overlay of grillwork on.the diffrt.t. Fig. 38, 39, and 40 illustrate several possible architectural uses of luminous wall elements.

Lu m i nous

Bold o .hite.lutol u,e of this rshted Pon"l - t'." \oo,ins heishl or thi. rolLe<rrol .e lng "rip.".."' a lh n fib"'ql" s d f'u"er is u:"d bel'iad on o'erlov ol Fio.
38

woven fiber cone which minimize5 the non uniform lighting effect from ihe rwo roiher widely spoced rows of lomps

fis. 39-This ponel serves ds o l!mlnous room divider seporoiins o section of hollwoy from rhe living room- The 6-inch thick ponel is luminovs on borh sides Fluoresceni
lomps ore mounied ot the ioP ond bottom edses.

flooLto-ceilins, about l2 inches out from the wdll. Tinted fluores.eni lomp! were used, blendins to creote o white lighr yet coning <olored shodows in rhe volleys of the.o(usotions.

40-An otlroctive +ree-stonding luminous ponel is o solu_ tion if there is no convenient woy to b!ild the lumino!s Ponel inio the woll. Here the wooden fromework wos consr.uded
Fig.

GRILLES and DIFFUSERS
A wide variety of decorative plastics, and a large selection of decorative grilles and screens, can be purchased from lumber dealers, builder supply houses, decorator supply shops, exhibit houses and glass and plastic supply oullets.

of

fluorescent lamps placed parallcl

to

the

corrugations.

Things lo Remember \ /hen Selecling Dillusers
Diffusers which have opaque materials laminated

Things to Remember \ /hen Selecting Griltes AII open grilles require a lightweight diffuser
behind them. Almost all grilles and latticework look better with front lighting, particularly rvith grazing tight. Otherwise, when seen in silhouette they rviil Iosc their color and character. Very fine mesh patterns, such as expanded metal and punched metal, tend to lose their identity when viewed from any distance.
some

into them will show in silhouette. This will often
cause them to lose the color they had when viewed unlighted. Often these opaque patterns will benefit by the use of colored light from behind.

Diffusers which have laminated patterns of lighttransmitting material are most effectively lighted with white light which will show up their true colors to best advantage. Large luminous panels should not be made up entirely of very strong-colored or vividly patterned materials. Some of these do add emphasis to a wall, but are best used as accents for a grid or module pattern. Corrugated diffusers can produce interesting color effects when they are lighted with two colors

Grilles with large openings, (at least 1 inch), retain their appearance and character even at distant vierving positions. In medium or large-size grille openings, depth of the grille material is important. Additional depth provides more shielding comfort and a change of effect with every change of viewing position. Shadings of light and shadorv on the sides of the grille also add interest.

I

.."., K*?,._-.r-{
The imagination of the designer is the only limi tation on how many places structural lighting can be used in a home. Each individual home design offers special possibilities for variations on the different structural lighting techniques shown in this booklet. (Fig. 47, 42 and 43 are examples). In addition to these few structural elements. there are many others such as niches, pilasters, lighted mantels, bookcases, reverse coves, edgelighted room dividers and numerous ways of building lighting into or behind furniture.
- wofi fluorescent lomp One 40 this entire disploy niche fron 'ightstop io boitom. The trick. of cou.se, is to use
gloss shelves which tronsmit the light.

wwi..r'

i

Fis. 42

tIGHTED NICHE

)

The tube is conceqled behind frolted slass ot the bottom. The

entire unit is only 6

inchet

I

CANOPY - vi^yl dif{user is !up, / A formed

ris. 4l

FLOATING

t"Ji:'..,?ffi ,l'i T"t"'j: ::r"t: -O;-.", I Tv ond H;-Fi. i"*-f. .,.
very importont here becouse full brishrness on rhe difiuser woJtd
be u.comfolrdble

- elemenr is o This lishrins

Fis. 43

COFFER

fo.

TV viewinE.

coffer ld ..vF h.nr inr6 . rir.lp\ HprF o m;rtu,e of.olored +t,"."*..t lomps blendi into o soft whh€ in the.enter dred.

. I I 7

Wiring lor Structural Lighting
Outlels
Since structural lighting is part of the per-

manent structure of the home, the lighting elements should be permanently wired and switched. It is important that the wiring outlet be carefully located on the wiring plan so that it will be covered by the fluorescent channel in the final installation. All fluorescent lamps perform better when used on grounded wiring systems and in metal wiring channels.

will give quick starting for regular fluorescent lamps. In the 30 and 40-watt sizes quick starting can be obtained with "rapid start"
ballasts.

Side Mounled
locations. When used in valance and wall bracket installations it has the advantage of placing the lamp out farther from the wall ln some cases even eliminating the usual
blocking.
ri!t.
45

ed channel (Fig. 45) is available

A special type of channel called side mount-

in

some

Ghannel
Basic Fixiure Type The basic lighting fixture used in structural lighting is the simple wiring channel
which is merely a narrow metal box containing all the parts necessary for the operation of the lamp. Fig.44 shows the several parts in detail.

Conlinuous Rows In every case where lamps are to be used in continuous rows it is important to select
channels that have their sockets mounted at the extreme ends of the fixture. These may be butted back'to-back to provide a continuous smooth line of light with minimum socket
shadows.

Dimming
Fis. 44

1. Metal channel maintains socket spacing, safety contains electrical parts, aids in lamp starting

There are numerous occasions when the flexibility afforded by dimming is effective in adjusting the lighting to fit the mood. A
number of practical dimmers are available for the control of fluorescent lamps in residential installations. They all will fit into 2-by-4 inch stud walls and are easy to install and operate.

2. Ballast is required to stabilize lamp operation Desirable features are "certified" label, "high power factor" and "A" or "B'J sound rating 3. Starter is required with conventional ballasts and lamps. Specify "certified" starters-Fs 2 for 20-watt lamps, FS'4 for 40-watt lamps 4. Lampholders should

Dimming fluorescent lamps is easy and practical, but there are a few points to remember:
1. As a general rule, Iluorescent dimmers require a three wile cable connection from the dimmer to

be flush with ends

of

channel so they will be back-to-back in continuous rows. White lampholders are recommended.

the lldorescent channels.

5. Fluorescent lamps should be 1y2 inches in diameter (T-12 size). Deluxe Warm White color

2. Special dimming ballasts are required for
channcl and lamp.

each

is recommended.

Cluick Starting
Some channels are available equipped

with

special ballasts that provide quick starting without a separate starter in the circuit. In the 15 and 20-watt sizes "trigger start" ballasts

3. Dimmer systems perform best when their circuits are grounded. 4. Dimming systems will operate the 3o-watt or the 40 watt rapid start lamps, but will not operate them satisfactorily on the same circuit.

It

is advisable to follow the manufacturers' instructions carefully for best results.

GENERAL ELECTRIC LARGE LAIVIP SALES AND SERVICE DISTRICT OFFICES
(

L

0l,1i

r

SALES DISTBICTS Sr ei rid Tli r' r

'tirr',:_ l l'rrr
Lr

i ;r\ " .r l,r "1l,rr r,I I .L ,r r,
,L r'ilr'lr :jtr

SERVICE DlSTBICTS

1

,

iF

l' l,l

C

ITY

/rt I
1,9 i,I..

I 't

ALgAIIY. N.

Y.

!,r

A,'.

_r' iL:t
I I

l!

li,l a Pi::.
BOSTON. MASS.

t rr.!d

ll

I

5

l:r

-i

r11

r!

Li

r,!.

: I

l

ll.rirr ltr.r lr . [i,.r
t;jl rt,r 0i ri !l
i2i i0
i

li I .il

CHAFLOTTE- N. C. CHICAGO.ILL-

clNclt{NATt oHto
CLEVELAN O. OHIO
D

iil

;
l l

Are

ENVER. COLO.

DETROIT MICH
INDIANAPOLIS. INO. N, KANSAS DITY. MO. LOS ANGEL€S. CALI F. MEMPHIS, TENN. MILWAUXEE. WIS. MITINEAPOLIS. MI!{N. NEWABK, N. J. NEW HAVEN. CONN. NEW ONLEANS. LA. I{ EW YO RK, N. Y. PHILADELPHIA. PA. PITTSBUBGH, PA. POSTLAND. OBE. RICHMOND. VA-

l5i0 C!air 5n, r,! Ad d5li E I 111 A!e l5l 15 Fin lrf AJ,
ll:13

t,'

ll

er,l ,,n 5l

iliq [r]rr. riiil !l ti!uI ril'.1]rrBrd.
li1 Br!.ri Sl r!. r lili

I tl
l
ta

i!!f I '.
t1 ri,

Hrl

il5 lrll
P

ar, l'ir lllllr'r'li r.i:l rt li!, !r, I.r j t j I i ;rir I'l !ll.l rL l r lr I li ....il t rt : t,,. i. .';li l i:r l-lr.: 1,1. " ll:r:lt 1:a ] r j,.tii|r l:rlrlt:!, i,llri i!: ,:,r i lil ri ,L-:Ir., i::r'l) 1' r'rr ifll arrl E ;1 A, il : ilinl lri:! il, L.rI r tll,r, rl.j ,1, ,rjl rlr r : al , rir. r.i lla I A. 1l r rr (l ll: ri[: ]I lfrl :l: -.i:i lrlr lrr r rA/ , I il :'r, ir'.ll ,li lA: r l!!ri.r'i llrL ll:l'.li r ,rl:i ll , :r rill - r: I il, !l! r, :lrii, ,.r r LLl :!il -1r 'i B Ll r Fl , rr/:r lial li:i 3,,r. il I I !' r lr, :., ll !',,,. ,.r ll ,,1 rl . 'lr' ,: I I illrlli.r rtl ri i, ,' :. ar' 'It:ii,lr: l,Y r:li lr. Br, a:,r,l 1r.., il rrlr lli l: ,:iP, 1l:1, i:iLi I Ll Li : i , li i r! L r. L ,l ll /r lrr ir r:ii Li -: M .,:i]t't r! t: ,i: LI' r.: illl tLi r |r aJ ir..irl a:ili e !r'r lr i '1r l rl ! r lrr l: rllr Lll ,r lrr,rrrir,.r.l tr.tr, ri r,,.1r rr,f q.r\ P il !l lr r :li ll l
r

993 9!Llr Ara hl .).rl rl Er r!$Lr.,r

.i P is i Fr :33 l! Crs:ril :!l! ll '! i\! r 5l l!01 L irl fl].ri Sj lli llr'h A,r,

! Br!

5:5

SEATII E. WASH.
TAMPA. FLA.

i89.lir

idd l ii lr l ! !i.r

ilI

ti !t r|lridr ri .r. r l.i C,r!rl,rrrlr,r:rrrr,.l rq.'rr

.r:.:, ,:,! a E ,iiiir r.r aer!ri l.:1,_llrrt.,

', r '!.r'rl

,
Lo

L.

rpLrr\

L

General Offlces: N..:- t-'.rrk, (l eve.rr'.1 I2 Ol

IP

iO7