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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana

Developing Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in the Building Sector, Botswana Project Funded by Danida

Department of Energy Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources

September 2007

ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA
September 2007

Developing Energy Efficiency & Energy Conservation in the Building Sector, Botswana Funded By Danida

Department of Energy Ministry of Minerals, Energy and Water Resources

Kumar (Department of Energy) Mr. R.Author: Andreas Groth Acknowledgments: Jacob Knight of Arup Botswana wrote most of Section 8.: 104 Botswana.MFS. F. A. Energy and Water Resources.F. Kgaimena (Department of Energy) Mr.15). E. 1. Sajja (Department of Local Government and Development) Mr.B. N. A. He guided the preparation of the Guidelines throughout and reviewed the document. Ntlhaile (Botswana Bureau of Standards) Mr. Sebinyane (Department of Housing) Dr. J.T. J. The following were members of this Task Force: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Mr.Ofetotse (Botswana Housing Corporation) Mr. Vauvert (Department of Energy) Mr. T. Government of Botswana all gave their full support and encouragement in the preparation of this document. A Task Force representing interested stakeholders reviewed the various drafts of the Guidelines as it developed and helped to guide the process. Masuku (Gaborone City Council) The project team for the project: Developing Energy Efficiency & Energy Conservation in the Building Sector. Mechanical Systems. B. M. Jesper Vauvert of Danish Energy Management A/S was the team leader for the project. McCrory (Architects Association of Botswana) Mr. . Morewagae (Association of Consulting Engineers. Brown (Department of Building and Engineering Services) Mr. Botswana. A. H. and the staff of the Department of Energy. H. Tumisang (Botswana Technology Centre) Mr. G. Tafila (Association of Citizen Development Consultants) Mr. Mazhani (Botswana Institute of Development Professions) Mr. Groth (Department of Energy) Mr. Ministry of Minerals. Botswana) Mr. Rankhuna (Department of Town and Regional Planning) Mr. and made helpful comments on the other sections. Danida funded the work (contract no.

P. email: ead@gov.bw.O. Motheo (Pty) Ltd. Botswana Tel: +267 3914221. 2007 Printed in Gaborone. Fax: +267 3914201. Tel: +267 3923462.Layout: The Guidelines has been formatted in landscape orientation in order to make it easy to read on screen as a pdf file. Gaborone. Ltd.com Published by Department of Energy © Department of Energy.. Danish Energy Management A/S. Energy and Water Resources. Comments and recommendations: Comments and recommendations for revisions should be sent to: Ministry of Minerals. Gaborone.energyaffairs. Botswana . website:www. All rights reserved. and Motheo Pty. In print format the Guidelines is intended to be printed on both sides and bound on the left side of the odd pages.bw or the author: Andreas Groth. Fax: +267 3923632. email: wolf@motheo. Botswana. The font size and scale for images have been chosen to allow it to be read at a scale that shows one page at a time. Private Bag 00378. Department of Energy. Box 2224.

Additional properties of materials and elements. 13 Comments: Original document.REVISION TABLE Revison No. Amendments based on comments by Jacob Knight. 0 1 Date issued: July 2007 September 2007 Sections Revised: All 1. 3. 3 as presented at a Workshop in Gaborone. 4. 2. 8. 7. 9. based on revisions to Draft No. Botswana on 7 March 2007. 10. .

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SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

7. 2. Introduction. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Design and construction process. Indoor Environment. 5. Climate.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. 12. 6. 10.artificial and day lighting. Simulation. 8. Design Brief. 13. Planning. Mechanical Systems. 4. 11. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Lighting . Appendices. Building envelope. 3. 9. .

2. Structure of the Guidelines 1.CONTENTS 1.2.4. 1. 1. 1.2.3. 1.2.1.3.2. The Design Brief. Introduction Page 3 . Who is the Guidelines intended for? Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1.3. INTRODUCTION 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 8 1. Classes of building. Background 1.2. 1. Overview 1.1. Codes and Regulations. Overall aim.3. Technical Sections.1.

Energy efficiency needs to be considered at every stage of the lifecycle of a building. 1. design. During NDP 9. INTRODUCTION Background The project ‘Developing Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in the Building Sector. The Guidelines is intended to be a resource that will help in achieving the overall aim to improve energy efficiency and energy conservation in the building sector.1. construction and operation are integrated with each other in a coordinated manner to take full advantage of the opportunities that such synergies offer. 1. and ultimately decommissioning and demolition. • Developing and implementing a national energy management plan. offers a chance to defer new investment and helps reduce energy related pollution. commissioning. This was done through a process of consultation with interested parties through a Task Force that has been established for this purpose. procurement. The Guidelines can assist in this by providing relevant information and guidance on key issues related to the various stages in the life of a building from inception. construction. The Guidelines and any subsequent revisions will be available as ‘pdf’ files on the website of the Department of Energy and the project website at http://www. 1. To achieve this. Overview Overall aim.eecob. Government will continue to support and encourage improved energy efficiency and conservation in all sectors of the economy.2. operation. Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1.com/.” One activity of the project was to develop guidelines for the design of energy efficient buildings. Energy and Water Resources in 2005 to address the Government policy as stated in NDP 9: “… Improving energy efficiency and conservation is cost effective.1.2. Botswana’ was established in the Ministry of Minerals.1. Planned measures to achieve the policy objectives are: • Carrying out information and educational campaigns. energy efficiency should be considered from the beginning of the lifecycle of a building. An optimum level of energy efficiency can be achieved when all aspects of the building design. This is typically the stage when the initial Design Brief is prepared For this reason the Design Brief has been chosen as the core document around which these Guidelines are structured. Introduction . It is expected that this document will need to be regularly revised over the coming years to keep it up to date with developments in the knowledge base and the regulatory environment of the building sector. • Conducting energy audits of energy intensive industries and Government institutions • Promoting energy efficient design and operation of buildings.

o Public facilities. and gives guidance for the preparation of each section of this suggesting how it can assist to enhance energy efficiency. the specific spaces that it will provide.g. Technical Sections. When the need for a building has been established. Design Brief. 1. The core document is Section 2. The more detailed and technical content relating to specific aspects of building design are included in Technical Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1. 1. and many other issues relating to the project. including the overall objectives that the building is intended to meet. e. The first edition of the Guidelines is specifically directed at the following broad classes of building: o Office buildings.3. This sets out a suggested format for the Design Brief. how the building will respond to its environment. At present the Codes and Regulations relating to buildings in Botswana make little or no reference to energy efficiency. Structure of the Guidelines The Design Brief. 1. Classes of building. These Guidelines have been structured around the Design Brief.This will hopefully facilitate timely incorporation and consideration of those aspects early in the design process. o Schools. o Residential houses.1. so that it can be useful to a wide variety of people. The client and the design team can use the Design Brief as a tool for monitoring the development of the project. It is the intention that the information and recommendations contained in the Guidelines will be helpful in the development of an Energy Efficiency Code for buildings if and when this happens. the programme. to ensure that the original objectives and requirements are being achieved. building developers may wish to use the Guidelines as a tool to achieve energy efficiency in new buildings. Requirements and opportunities for energy efficiency differ in certain ways for different types of buildings. such as Police Stations. This should define all the requirements of the building.2. A well-prepared Design Brief should guide the project throughout the design and construction process. 1. their characteristics and relationships to each other.3. In the absence of a specific Botswana code for energy efficiency in buildings. 1. it is good practice to prepare a Design Brief for the building.2. hospitals and clinics.3.2.2. constraints imposed by the site. The core document has deliberately been kept short and simple. Codes and Regulations. the budget. This may be done by encouraging consultants to work in accordance with the recommendations of the Guidelines throughout the design and construction process. o Health facilities. Introduction Page 5 .3.

where relevant information may be found. and other relevant information. etc. books. Introduction .Sections that are referred to in the relevant parts of Section 2. Codes of Practice. websites. Appendices provides data on the thermal properties of materials and construction details. The Technical Sections themselves also refer to other reference material including Standards. Design Brief. papers. Section 13. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1. 5. Introduction Page 7 . 9. 8. Lighting . 4. Appendices. Simulation. Planning. Climate. Building envelope. Operation and Maintenance & Building Management Systems. 6. 10. 7. Design and construction process. Mechanical Systems. Indoor Environment. 13. 11.Technical Sections: 3. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. 12.artificial and daylighting.

o Structural Engineers. o Owners.1. Introduction . o Landscape architects. This includes the ‘client’ and the consultant team responsible for the design.4. o Government employees with responsibility for property development. However it is specifically intended to be used by those involved in preparing and implementing the Design Brief. o Town Planners. design and operation of buildings. o Building owners. People responsible for operation and maintenance of buildings. o Mechanical Engineers. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1. o Company employees with responsibility for property development. o Property Managers. o Quantity Surveyors. o Architects. Planners and design consultants. o Electrical Engineers. o Developers. o Civil Engineers. Who is the Guidelines intended for? It is hoped that the Guidelines will be of interest to all people involved in the process of procurement. This includes the following groups of people: Owners and developers. construction and commissioning of the building. o Facility Managers.

SECTION 2 DESIGN BRIEF ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 0 September 2007 .

Planning. Climate. Design and construction process. 8. Simulation. Indoor Environment. 5. 3. 11. 10. Mechanical Systems. 13. 2. 4. 9. Building envelope. . 12. Design Brief. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Lighting . Introduction. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems.artificial and day lighting. 7.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. Appendices. 6.

2. Integrated design approach. Opportunities and Constraints. 2. Performance Targets.2.1. 2.5.4.2. Procurement Strategy. Energy performance targets. Time.3. Climate.6. DESIGN BRIEF.6.4.2.6. 2. 2. 2.3.2. 2.5. 2.1.2. Indoor environment specifications. 2.2.1.1. 2. Lighting and electrical design. 2.6. Design Brief Page 3 . 2.3. 2.1.3. Siting.3. Aesthetic considerations. Environmental Rating Schemes 2. 2.6.6. Budget. Design Approach. Lighting requirements. 2. 5 6 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 15 16 19 19 2. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. HVAC design. 2. Schedule of accommodation.3. 2. 2. Financial performance targets.4.6.4. 2. Project Requirements. 2.2.6.4. Envelope and structural design.2.CONTENTS 2.3. Project Objectives. 2. Planning and landscape.4.3.

Operation and maintenance.8.8.8.2. 2. Web resources 20 21 21 21 Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. Design Brief . Books and reports.2.7. Resource Material 2. 2.1.

2. DESIGN BRIEF. A well-prepared Design Brief can be used throughout the project as a reference to ensure that the original objectives are achieved. detailed design brief is a valuable component of the contract between a client and the consultants. It should be revised as necessary to reflect any changes that are agreed with the client. A well-prepared. Typically the amount of thought and effort that is applied to preparing the Design Brief varies enormously from one project to another. A typical structure for a Design Brief is shown in the table below. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . the more the pressure on them to reduce costs.Section 2. and can also be a focus for ensuring that issues are raised and resolved before they become problems. The more competitive the procurement process for consultants is. and hence the need to verify performance against an agreed scope of work. some key elements of a design brief are considered with an emphasis on energy efficiency considerations. accurate and comprehensive Design Brief can make an important difference to the quality of the final building. constraints. The Design Brief for a building project is essentially a Terms of Reference for the project consultants. A well-prepared. as does the amount of attention that is later paid to the document during the implementation of the project. setting out the client’s objectives. In the following sections. Design Brief Page 5 . requirements. targets and the design approach to be implemented in addressing these.

• Financial • Energy Design and Construction Approach. • Schedule of accommodation. Design Brief . a desire to promote the local economy. It can also include indirect or secondary objectives that relate to the client’s overall philosophy. • Siting. • Integrated design approach • Planning and landscape.STRUCTURE Project Objectives. • Aesthetic considerations. the need for additional office space. • Indoor Environment requirements.DESIGN BRIEF . • Envelope and structural design. • Financial. • Lighting and electrical design. • Procurement strategy. and what is important to the client. This will include the ‘direct’ objectives that have motivated the client to initiate the project. • Time. A description of the background to the project will be followed by general statements of project objectives to indicate what is required from the project. or mission statement. Project Objectives. • HVAC design.1.g. • Operation and maintenance considerations. or a new art department for a school. such as: The development shall be designed to achieve an appropriate level of energy efficiency. 2. e. Performance Targets. These could include an emphasis on environmental sustainability. or the wish to communicate a particular corporate identity. Project Requirements. taking into account life cycle costs and having due consideration for the likely increase in energy costs relative to other costs over the design life of the building. a building that is needed to implement a business plan. A general statement could be included here relating to energy efficiency. Opportunities and Constraints. • Climate. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2.

Specifications for comfort are considered in more detail in Section 4. They should include consideration of the types of activity for which the building is intended. An unduly restrictive specification may result in higher capital and recurrent cost as well as increased energy consumption. It is also helpful define as far as possible the way in which different spaces should relate to each other. etc. The actual structure and content will vary depending on the type of development that is required. Comfort conditions are affected by the overall approach to air conditioning. so that the decision on air conditioning approach may be delayed. Indoor environment specifications. 2. Design Brief .Section 2. how large they need to be.2. Project Requirements. and any particular requirements related to the use of each space. waste management. The schedule of accommodation will indicate the main types of space that are required. With regard to energy efficiency. 0.Similar statements may be included for other environmental considerations. TYPICAL INDOOR ENVIRONMENT SPECIFICATIONS Fresh air to achieve required air quality: o Air volume 8 – 12 litres/second/person o Air changes Min.2. This section will contain the specifications for the building and other developments. Indoor Environment. Schedule of accommodation. The specification may also indicate the period of time for which the specifications could be exceeded.5ACH Temperature: Air conditioned buildings o Summer 23-27°C o Winter 20°C min Naturally ventilated / evaporatively cooled buildings o Summer 22-29 °C o Winter 19-26 °C Relative Humidity: o Maximum 80% 2. The primary requirement is likely to relate to the comfort of the building’s occupants. If the indoor temperature exceeded the limit for say one week of the Page 7 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . such as water management. 2. it is important that the specifications are appropriate to the actual needs of the building. Initially both specifications could be included.1. Different specifications may apply to buildings that are mechanically air conditioned than to those that are naturally ventilated.2.2.

Again. Lighting requirements. TYPICAL INDOOR LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS Public spaces – no visual tasks Background lighting.000 lux Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. as well as references to various standards and codes that provide more detailed information. Lighting levels required in different areas or rooms should relate to the intended use of these spaces. with savings in energy consumption as well as capital and recurrent cost Requirements for air quality should also be considered. office work Task lighting. this may not cause great problems.2. 2. detailed work Task lighting. Lighting requirements should be specified in the Design Brief. but could result in a substantially smaller capacity HVAC system. as well as some indications of the approach to be taken in the design of lighting. offices Task lighting.year. very fine work 50 lux 150 lux 300 lux 750 lux 3. unnecessarily demanding specifications will lead to increased cost and energy consumption. Lighting – artificial and daylighting gives indications of typical specifications for light level for different activities. Design Brief . Section 9.3. as these will affect the need for ventilation.

2. Aesthetic considerations. initial cost and life cycle cost. It is important to set clear objectives regarding how the buildings should look. If it is regarded as an important objective for the building that it makes a particular architectural statement. One of the greatest challenges in improving energy efficiency in public and commercial buildings is to develop an architecture that is both aesthetically satisfying. and meets the technical requirements determined by the local climate and available material options. Design Brief Page 9 . and to understand the implications on energy performance. energy and other implications should be clearly stated and agreed to.2. then the cost.Section 2. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines .4.

0 20.1. hills.3. by month. It is therefore necessary to define the climate for a typical year for use in building design. by month.3.0 2.0 90. If the client already has a site for the project. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. Design Brief . RH DATA MONTHLY GABORONE 2000-2002 100.1 DB Temperature in Gaborone. Siting. DEG C 25.0 20. shading features such as trees. Energy considerations will include the orientation of the site in relation to the sunpath and typical wind directions. Opportunities and Constraints.0 40. It is therefore important that the design team has a clear understanding of the local climate with its daily and seasonal variations. 2.0 MIN MAX AVG MAXDIFF 10.0 60.2 Relative Humidity in Gaborone. and there are also variations in climate from one year to the next.0 30.0 5. etc.0 0.0 50. RH % 80.3. other buildings.TEMP DATA MONTHLY GABORONE 2000-2002 35. 2.0 30. The energy performance of a building is largely determined by how well the design is adapted to the local climate. Planning.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MONTH Fig. then an assessment should be made of opportunities and constraints of the site that are relevant to the project. and other factors affecting the local climate such as vegetation. These are discussed in more detail in Section 6. During the course of a year the climate changes with the seasons.0 70.2. ponds / rivers.0 15. Climate.0 0.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MONTH MIN MAX AVG Fig.0 2.0 10. wind breaks. 2.

and may require more energy than summer cooling.Section 2. 2.Project Cost and Energy Efficiency in Section 5.4. Climate. The southern zone includes all the remainder of the country. Any particular features of the local climate should be noted. such as dominant wind direction. Section 12. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . Detailed analysis of different approaches with regard to energy efficiency takes time to carry out. depending on the building design and the amount of heat generated by activities in the building. An assessment of the variation in climate for different locations in Botswana suggests that for purposes of building design at least two climatic zones should be considered. etc. Design Brief Page 11 . The chapter on Possible trade-offs between initial cost and life-cycle costs may affect the way the project is financed. For each of these locations. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis gives a background to the methods that can be used to analyse various options and determine the most cost effective solution based on assumptions regarding future energy costs. The northern zone includes Chobe District and Ngamiland District. The costs. both in consultant fees and project timing need to be considered and evaluated in relation to the opportunity to achieve a more cost effective and better quality project.3. In the southern zone heating in the winter is generally required.3. and Gaborone as a typical location in the southern zone. If access to capital finance is restricted this may reduce the scope for investment choices that will reduce life cycle cost. Further details are included in Section 3. Budget. Maun has been taken as a typical location in the northern zone. This may then be subdivided into pre-contract and post-contract programmes. The client’s particular requirements regarding the project programme should be defined. Design and Construction Process is relevant here. maintenance interventions and other relevant parameters It may be cost effective to invest in additional work and cost in the design stage in order to optimise the energy performance of the building. Time. 2. Opportunities and constraints regarding the financing of the project should be considered at this stage. The anticipated costs and benefits should be carefully considered. shading effect of any tall trees.3. the most relevant climate parameters have been determined for each hour of a typical year. hills or buildings. Generally the winters in the northern zone are sufficiently mild that there is little or no requirement for heating in buildings. to determine the amount of time available for the design process.

and guide the Quantity Surveyor in making recommendations regarding the cost of different components. with or without financial incentives (see Section 5. conditions of supply and demand.4. In many countries codes and standards for energy performance of buildings have been introduced.4. The financial performance targets should be broken down into capital costs. This will also inform decisions made during the design phase of the project. both through audits of existing buildings and simulations of typical ‘generic’ building types. The cost of electricity is subject to change based on the changing Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. An important element in the financial performance of a building is energy cost. either in the form of rental income. In many cases an important objective in making this investment is to obtain a financial return. as well as estimates of the price of different energy supplies.4. Design and Construction Process ) Information regarding the actual energy performance of different types of building in Botswana is becoming available through the work of the EECOB project in the Department of Energy. The following figures for specific energy consumption (energy consumption per unit area) may be used as targets in the interim until actual energy performance standards become available. as well as the policies of the authorities that set the price. long-term investment by the owner. The major energy source for the types of building under consideration in these Guidelines is electricity. Design Brief . 2. recurrent costs and recurrent income. Energy performance targets. Performance Targets. They can be used as specifications that the design team is expected to achieve. A building represents a substantial.2.1.2. 2. or saving of rental expense that would otherwise be incurred in the case of owneroccupied buildings. This requires estimates of the energy consumption for different purposes. These figures may if appropriate be developed into a lifecycle performance model to show the long term return on investment and predicted cash flows for the project. Financial performance targets. It is therefore helpful to establish financial performance targets for the building against which actual performance can later be assessed. In some cases these are voluntary and give guidance to investors regarding what can be achieved.

They can therefore be adapted to any country.5 Table 2.8 44.5 14.5. Specific energy consumption targets by building type.1.yr] Lighting HVAC Office Equipment 34. although there are initial costs involved in establishing suitable local benchmarks. commissioning. site management and procedural issues such as controlling noise. environmental ratings are being adopted by private clients and governments as a way of demonstrating that they are environmentally responsible. air conditioned) Total 150 40 89 Specific annual energy consumption [kWhr/m2. o energy use: operational energy and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) issues such as the predicted energy use of air conditioning systems. A client may make it a part of their brief that their building should achieve a BREEAM "excellent" rating. 2. Environmental Rating Schemes In many countries.5 18.4 23.Section 2. The BREEAM rating assesses the following: o management: overall management policy. in 2003.8 21.1 0 Other 10.5 63 43. particularly if there are no regulatory requirements as in Botswana. Well known rating systems include BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). and that all new build projects must achieve a BREEAM "excellent" and refurbishment projects a "very good" rating. For example.8 3.6 2. Design Brief Page 13 . the UK government made it a condition that all government departments when undertaking new or refurbishment projects carry out an environmental assessment. o health and well-being: indoor and external issues affecting health and well-being such as provision of Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . dust and waste materials on the construction site. or a company may make it part of its sustainability policy that any new buildings which it procures will be constructed to achieve a BREEAM "very good" rating.Building type Office School Residential (high cost. These ratings consider a wide range of factors and compare them against a local benchmark of "typical" construction practice.

2. and the total number of credits obtained determines the final score achieved (from Pass to Excellent). There are a number of different procurement strategies that can be used for the appointment of the professional team and the contractors for a building project. Often they work for different firms located in different places. pollution: air and water pollution issues. The most appropriate approach for a particular project should be determined based on the priorities and resources of the owner. Since the same person is making all the design decisions. such as availability of public transport links to the building and whether occupants are encouraged to use alternative forms of transport to private cars. Larger. Design Brief . Integrated design approach. with limited communication. often the architect or project manager. and as a result the added Credits are available under each of these headings. transport: transport-related CO2 and locationrelated factors. They will be coordinated by a team leader. Design and Construction Process.6.6. more complex buildings require a team of specialised designers. each working on different aspects of the overall design.1. ecology: ecological value conservation and enhancement of the site. including life-cycle impacts. artificial lighting and good air quality. Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. 2. water: consumption and water efficiency. which are discussed in more detail in Section 5. Design Approach. including landscaping etc. such as use of refrigerants.6. The designer takes into consideration decisions that relate to one aspect of the building when making decisions on other aspects. 2. Typically energy efficiency has not been a key consideration in building design. she or he can easily consider the implications of a decision about say the location of windows on the planning of the rooms and the switching of lights. materials: environmental implication of building materials. or whether it is built on virgin ground. sensible way.o o o o o o adequate daylight. These have implications for the energy performance of the building. A simple building such as a low cost residential house can be fully designed by a competent. Procurement Strategy. pollution from coal fires etc. who is responsible for ensuring that the different elements of the building work in relation to each other.2. experienced designer such that all aspects of the building work well together in a coordinated. land use: greenfield and brownfield sites. whether the project is a refurbishment or built on a site already developed.

It is helpful therefore to have a systematic approach to the coordination of these approaches.Section 2. and that the consultants amend these as the design develops. Design Brief 2. made as early in the design of the building as possible. Planning and landscape. the design team can be encouraged to take advantage of opportunities to achieve improved energy performance. By deliberately adopting an integrated approach to energy efficient design. whether the building will require Page 15 . Such changes should be Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . since the time and work required in making changes increases rapidly as the design becomes more detailed. This is discussed in more detail in Section 5. The integration of the different design aspects almost always requires that changes in approach be made in each aspect to accommodate the others.g.6. The planning of the building on the site provides many opportunities for improving energy performance.3. The overall approach to energy performance should be considered. e.requirement of ensuring that the different design aspects work together to achieve optimum energy efficiency has tended to be overlooked. and the Design Brief is a good opportunity for providing this. Design and Construction Process. It is suggested that some initial indications are included in the Design Brief at the project inception stage.

since artificial lighting also generates heat.mechanical systems to control the indoor climate. It has been found that the walls perform an important role in removing heat from a building. using trees for shade and wind breaks. The building envelope consists of all the different elements that make up the fabric of the building. 2. which gives an indication of the amount of heat that will flow between the building and the environment. Energy codes and standards for buildings typically specify the performance requirements for the building envelope in terms of an ‘overall thermal transfer coefficient’ (OTTC). In practice a combination of these may often be appropriate.2. Envelope and structural design. suggesting that a high surface area to volume ratio is useful. etc. and indirectly helping to keep the building cool as well. such as the floor. but some form of mechanical cooling may be required to deal with summer conditions. Plants can be used very effectively to amend the local climate on site. walls. Most of the design decisions relating to the building envelope are the responsibility of the architect and structural engineer. e. climbing plants on frames to provide shade and evaporative cooling. The Energy Efficiency Standards are given in Table 2. In office buildings comfort conditions can be achieved with passive methods for much of the year.4. Planning and landscaping are discussed further in Section 6. windows and roof. The overall shape of the building is important to achieving energy efficiency.6. They have a large impact on the thermal performance of the building. reducing the energy needed for lighting. Design Brief . Planning. Typical values for the total thermal resistance of the walls and roof proposed for the South African Standard SANS 283 and 204. Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. This is the area that offers most opportunities for improved building performance through an integrated design approach. This also allows for maximum use of daylight. For buildings such as residential houses and classrooms it should be possible to achieve the required comfort levels with little or no mechanical equipment. Different solutions may be needed for different types of building.g. In some cases the standard defines the requirements for the thermal properties of different building elements. ground cover to reduce reflected heat. or whether passive heating and cooling approaches will be used. and it is therefore essential that the performance of the envelope is coordinated with the design of the HVAC system.

reducing the energy consumption for artificial lighting.4 Min. Simulation. Assuming that the roof is insulated to the level recommended in Table 2. Some of the key results are summarised below. Frequently energy codes offer an alternative method of demonstrating compliance based on a computer simulation of the proposed building using approved methods to verify whether it achieves the required minimum standard of performance.2. Full tables of results are included in the EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone. Simulations of three building types. 100mm insulation and 6mm ceiling.6.2. Glazing however also provides the opportunity to admit natural daylight into the building.Section 2. Classroom.4. Galvanised roof sheets. In each case references to changes in energy cost refer to total heating and cooling energy.37 Typical construction to achieve this value: Sand-cement brick cavity wall with 25mm insulation in cavity plastered both sides. Windows and other glazing elements are frequently responsible for more heat gain and loss than any other building element. Orientation: Orientation in the N-S direction resulted in a 6% increase in energy consumption over an E-W orientation for the classroom type of building.Building Element Wall Roof and ceiling Total ‘R’ value [m2. Design Brief . 0. not total building energy.71 Max 0. Summary of simulation results.K/W] Min. Thermal properties of building envelope elements (draft SANS 204) Source: TIASA. 2. 1. Details regarding computer simulation of building energy performance are provided in Section 11.8% and for the residential house it was 1. For the office it was only 0. It is therefore important to achieve an optimum balance whereby the opportunity for effective daylight is achieved with minimal unwanted solar heat gain. Botswana’.K] Max. This suggests that orientation is less significant than expected. However local effects within the building and impact on quality of daylight are also important considerations that are strongly related to orientation. Residential and Office have been carried out for the Gaborone climate to quantify the effect on energy consumption of various alternative envelope and operational parameters. Table 2. the greatest source of solar heat gain in most buildings will be glazing.1. It is therefore recommended that an Page 17 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . 2.8%.7 Total ‘U’ value [W/m2.

particularly where daylight is an important consideration as in offices and classrooms. Floor. Windows. 115mm walls are worse. with ceiling insulation the white metal roof is comparable in performance to a concrete tiled roof also with insulation. and insulated cavity walls or mass walls are effective for residential houses that are occupied more during the night.E-W orientation be used whenever possible. However it reduced energy consumption by 27% in the residential building. with energy cost increased by 10% for the classroom and 7% for the office. A 500mm wide mass wall with insulation on the inside gave similar results. so the small extra cost of providing insulation in the cavity is well rewarded. This energy saving was due to reduced heating cost. Heat flow through the windows from direct and indirect solar radiation is in many cases the largest source of heat gain to the building. In the three storey office building. Solid 220mm walls are best for classrooms and offices that are primarily occupied during the day. The simulation showed that the walls provide some cooling during the day when they absorb radiant heat from the ceiling. a white metal roof reduced energy consumption by 5% compared to a green coloured metal roof. as are wider walls. The simulation confirmed that different solutions are appropriate for different types of building. A width of 220mm seems to be about optimum. providing floor insulation resulted in a 23% increase in annual energy cost. but this is marginal compared to the benefit in summer. and had no effect in the office building (green metal roof). 2. The easiest way to reduce this is to reduce the size of windows to the minimum required to Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. The ground floor is also an important cooling element in all buildings in summer. An insulated cavity wall in place of a standard 220mm solid wall increased energy consumption by 8% for the classroom and by 5% for the office. The insulated cavity wall was almost three times as effective as an uninsulated cavity wall. The addition of 100mm insulation on the ceiling reduced energy consumption by 43% in the classroom (galvanised roof). and also in winter for office buildings that require cooling all year. Roof: In the classroom building a white roof reduced energy by 45% compared to a galvanised roof with no ceiling insulation in both cases. In the residential building. In the residential house the energy saving increased to 30% compared with the insulated cavity wall. Wall.7% in the residential house (tiled roof). Design Brief . In residential buildings there is some unwanted heat loss to the ground floor in winter. For the classroom.

This results in energy savings and also allows for more flexibility should the use of spaces change in future. and different control systems. It was found that a glazing ratio of 20% (window to wall area) provided more than enough daylight in the classroom. Further suggestions for appropriate design approaches for different building envelope elements are described in Section 7.6. resulting in a 28% energy saving. HVAC design. 2. If an HVAC system is required. The design of artificial lighting should aim to provide an adequate level of background illumination for general purposes. the local climatic conditions and the design of the building envelope.Section 2. 2. This should be considered as an option for office buildings. as it may require increased duct sizes. This depends on how stringent the indoor environment requirements are. Studies have shown that people perform better under daylight than artificial light. Ventilation. light tubes and skylights. Optimal use of daylight can result in reduced energy consumption. It appears that the substantial savings that can be achieved would justify this extra expense. Building Envelope. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . The mechanical systems or HVAC (heating. The first decision that is required is therefore whether such systems are required or not. Lighting and electrical design. and also has other benefits. This is discussed in more detail in Section 9. the internal loads from occupants and equipment. ventilation and air conditioning) are designed to amend the indoor climate of a building to achieve the requirements of the particular application in buildings for which this cannot be achieved using natural ventilation alone. with higher levels of task lighting in the specific areas where more light is needed.6. and have been found to improve performance and productivity.6.5. The use of ventilation to control indoor temperature was found to be highly effective in the office building. Control of lighting should be designed to ensure that lights are only on when and where they are needed.provide daylight and views. Views of the world outside the building are also important for the well-being of the occupants. Lighting – artificial and daylighting. larger fans. There are a number of opportunities to improve the effectiveness of daylight without excess heat gain. the design approach should be coordinated with the envelope design to ensure that the building requirements are achieved with an optimal energy performance. and would need to be included in the HVAC design approach. Design Brief Page 19 . including use of light shelves. It was less effective in the residential house (11% saving) and in the classroom (2% saving).

so that this can guide the decisions taken in the design process.7. In many situations it may be possible to achieve the required comfort conditions using evaporative coolers in place of air conditioning systems. particularly in buildings with high heat gains from occupants. the human resource requirements for the operation and maintenance of the building should be considered. This should be developed as an ongoing process during the design. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems that also includes a suggested format for an O&M Manual. The simulation of the office building indicated that 39% of total energy use could be saved through such behaviour change. with far lower recurrent cost and energy consumption. Possibly the greatest opportunity for reducing energy consumption in buildings. computer simulation be used to determine the system capacity that is required. Mechanical Systems.It has been found that HVAC systems designed using hourly computer simulation are more accurately matched to the needs of a particular building in relation to the local climate than those designed using steady state methods. Use of ventilation to control indoor temperatures offers substantial energy savings. Operation and Maintenance considerations are discussed in more detail in Section 10. The decisions that are made during the design phase of a building have implications for how it will be operated and maintained. Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 2. to ensure that the O&M implications are given consideration The draft O&M manual will then be revised and finalised during and following the commissioning of the building. It is recommended that for all projects that will have a centralised HVAC system installed. equipment and lighting. The Design Brief should specify the requirement for the design team to prepare a draft Operations and Maintenance Manual as one of their tasks. 2. The overall approach to operation and maintenance should be specified in the Design Brief. In particular. and certainly the cheapest and quickest to implement is to encourage occupants to turn off lights and other equipment when these are not needed. Further information is included in Section 8. Operation and maintenance. Design Brief . It is recommended that centralised HVAC systems be designed to use ventilation for this purpose as well as providing adequate indoor air quality.

January 2007. Botswana’. 2. TIASA. Report on Baseline Energy Surveys’. EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone. A. Government of Botswana. Bauer.8.2. C. Books and reports. Design Brief Page 21 .8. July 2005.breeam. EECOB Report: ‘Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in the Building Sector.Section 2. Thermal Insulation Association of Southern Africa.usgbc. http://www.1. Government of Botswana. The Thermal Insulation Guide for Energy Efficiency in Buildings.org LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. and Groth. Department of Energy. January 2006.8. Web resources BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method http://www.org/leed Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . Resource Material 2.2. Botswana. Department of Energy.

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0 80.0 10.0 0.0 60.0 10.0 CLIMATE HOURLY AVERAGE RH GABORONE 2000-2002 100.SECTION 3 HOURLY AVERAGE TEMPS GABORONE 2000-2002 35.0 20.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 25.0 30.0 30.0 00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 TIME TIME ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .0 DEG C 15.0 20.0 00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 0.0 40.0 RH % 50.0 70.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 5.0 90.

8. 13. Indoor Environment. Building envelope. Design and construction process.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. Introduction. 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Planning. 2. Lighting . Appendices. 7. Simulation. 5. 6. 10. Design Brief. 4. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Climate. 11.artificial and day lighting. 3. 9. Mechanical Systems. .

3.1. Humidity 3.1.1.3. Temperature 3. CLIMATE 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 8 9 10 10 10 12 13 13 14 15 3. 3.4. Design Day Conditions 3. 3. Elements of Climate 3.3. Meteorological data 3.3.1.6.3. Classification.3. Climate patterns. 3.3. Elements of Climate 3.7. 3.1. Climate and simulation.3. 3. Radiation 3.2. Elements of climate. Rainfall Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3.2. Climatic zones. Cycles of climate and global warming.1.3.CONTENTS 3.1.3.2. 3.2.1. Climate of Botswana.5.2.2. Overview 3.1.5. Wind 3.4. Climate Page 3 . Climate of Botswana 3. 3.3.

6. Resource Material 3.3.6. Climate .4. Books and papers 3.1. 3.5.2. 3. Climate Patterns. Climatic Zones.6. Web resources 15 18 19 19 20 Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3.

The ways in which data are collected and made available are also considered.5.1. Climatic zones.1. In addition to the geographical variations in climate. Elements of climate.2. it is important to consider the different patterns that occur. Climate patterns.1. Climate of Botswana. Building energy performance may be predicted using software that simulates the interaction of the building with the climate. which may never be experienced. CLIMATE Overview This Section addresses the subject of climate and its impact on building energy performance in Botswana. which have been taken as typical of the Northern and Southern climate zones. The variation in climate with location is considered. and various cycles in the climate are identified. The topics that will be covered are briefly outlined below. Climate Page 5 .1.4. This data is available in a format that may be used for computer simulation of building energy performance. 3. and differentiate these from the average characteristics. 3. 3.3. 3. with particular reference to the implications for building energy performance.1. 3. The classification of the climate is considered. Climate and simulation. In considering the impact of climate on building energy performance.1.1. It is recommended that the country be divided into two climatic zones for the purposes of these Guidelines. there are also patterns of climate within one locality.3. The section begins with an overview of the climate of Botswana in a global context. 3. Typical meteorological year data has been prepared for Gaborone and Maun. This section includes a general discussion of the principal elements of climate and how they relate to building energy performance. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3.

and crosses the Gaborone . Winters are warm in the day and cool at night. The country is approximately equidistant from the Atlantic Ocean coast. it is also very variable. and from one year to the next. hot’. Not only is the average rainfall in Botswana low. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3. and the Indian Ocean coast about 960km to the east (measured to the middle of the country). 1. In the Köppen Climate Classification System. with minimum temperatures lower in the south. the highest average maximum temperature often occurs in October. after which temperatures drop due to increased cloud cover and evaporative cooling from the moisture in the soil. at an average elevation of approximately 1000m above sea level. before the rain begins. Approximately two thirds of the area of the country is within the tropics. The country is relatively flat. both within a particular year. and increasing as one moves further north.3.2. The rain that does occur is a result of localised regions of low pressure that draw in moist air from the coast. and is located in the centre of the southern African plateau. sunny days.2. Climate . the climate of most of Botswana falls in the classification ‘BSh: semiarid steppe. which is classified. particularly in the southwest of the country. and from east to west. 3.Ghanzi road just north of Kang. with little cloud cover or rain. In years of drought.Francistown road just north of Dibete. The exception is the extreme north of the country. as ‘Aw: tropical wet-dry (low sun dry) – savanna’. Summer maximum daytime temperatures are closely related to rainfall.1.000km to the west. rising rapidly in times of drought. runs through the middle of Khutse game reserve. and in regions that receive less rain the maximum temperatures continue to rise until January or February. Climate of Botswana Classification. intermittent and unreliable rainfall. Botswana is completely landlocked. In years of reasonable rainfall. The distance from the ocean together with the relatively high altitude result in low. The Tropic of Capricorn crosses the Jwaneng . There is a trend for average rainfall to reduce and variability to increase from north to south. Rainfall generally occurs in the time between October and April. As a result moist air from the oceans seldom reaches Botswana without having first shed its moisture on the escarpments between. The summers are warm to hot in the day and cool at night. which coincides with the summer months. Generally Botswana experiences a very high proportion of clear.

1 Koppen climate classification.Fig. 3. Climate Page 7 . Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3.

2. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3. Climate . both in economic and environmental terms. together with increased energy cost. Although the Kalahari has generally been a semi-arid area for millions of years. particularly the enormous increase in energy consumption from fossil fuels and resulting emissions of carbon dioxide. and another even longer cycle of several thousands of years. The actual rate of change of climate may not be accurately predictable. is that this could result in an increase in average temperatures over southern Africa of between 25°C over the coming century. but there seems to be little doubt that increases in temperature will be experienced throughout this century. A number of different climatic cycles have been observed.3. Over the past century the natural long-term climatic cycles of the earth have been subject to increasing influences from human activity. but reflects thermal radiant heat back to the earth. The following excerpt from an article by Mike Davis in The Science News suggests that this may be a highly optimistic view. as does the glass in a greenhouse. which allows solar radiant heat to pass through. The consensus view of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This has resulted in increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. including a short-term cycle of about 6-10 years during which a few years of good rain are followed by years of below average rain or drought. These act as a radiation filter surrounding the earth.2. Cycles of climate and global warming. This takes place within the framework of a longer cycle spanning several centuries. This makes it even more urgent that buildings are designed and built to achieve human comfort with minimal energy consumption. during that time there have been periods of sufficient rainfall to maintain large inland seas and perennial rivers that now remain as fossil river valleys. the world authority on global warming.

Abrupt switching mechanisms in the climate system. But all the major components of global climate . Perhaps the most famous example is sea-ice albedo: the white. 2005 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3. 12. amplifiers. we know that global temperature and ocean circulation can change abruptly .are actually nonlinear: at certain thresholds they switch from one state of organization to another. chaos .contemporary geophysics assumes that earth history is inherently revolutionary. Until the early 1990s. Climate models. alternatively. however.especially those who study topics like ice sheet stability and North Atlantic circulation . with catastrophic consequences for species too finelytuned to the old norms. releasing an immense volume of meltwater from the shrinking Laurentian ice-sheet into the Atlantic Ocean via the instantly-created St. The freshening of the North Atlantic suppressed the northward conveyance of warm water by the Gulf Current and plunged Europe back into a thousand-year ice age. switches. Thresholds. it was generally believed that these major climate transitions took centuries if not millennia to accomplish.air. when an ice dam collapsed. Now. The paradigmatic example is the so-called 'Younger Dryas' event. Lawrence River. This is why many prominent researchers . thus providing positive feedback to cooling trends.800 years ago.in a decade or even less. water. ice and vegetation . by Mike Davis. like econometric models. frozen Arctic Ocean reflects heat back into space. shrinking sea-ice increases heat absorption and accelerates its own melting and planetary warming. like relatively small changes in ocean salinity. the world authority on global warming.have always had qualms with the consensus projections of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). are augmented by causal loops that act as amplifiers. are easiest to build and understand when they are simple linear extrapolations of well-quantified past behavior: when causes maintain a consistent proportionality to their effects.The Science News Scientific discussions of environmental change and global warming have long been haunted by the specter of nonlinearity. October 05. thanks to the decoding of subtle signatures in ice cores and sea-bottom sediments. Climate Page 9 .

Elements of Climate Meteorological data In Botswana the responsibility for the collection. The DMS maintains synoptic weather stations at the following locations around Botswana: o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Francistown Ghanzi Jwaneng Kasane Letlhakane Mahalapye Maun Pandamatenga Selebi-Phikwe Sir Seretse Khama Airport Shakawe Sua Pan Tshabong Tshane o o o o Sunshine hours Evaporation Air pressure Soil Temperature In addition.3.30am. Temperature Air temperature (Dry Bulb temperature) is the characteristic of climate that most directly affects comfort.1. 3. Dry bulb temperatures in Gaborone vary throughout the year. 35. including the following: o Dry Bulb Temperature o Humidity o Wind Speed o Wind Direction o Rainfall 30.0 10. Wildlife and Tourism.3.3. The maximum daily temperature in summer typically occurs at about 3.0 25. Climate 15. and therefore the most significant variable to be specified when defining indoor climate requirements.0 20.3. 3. and an average daily minimum temperature of 4°C in July. between an average daily maximum temperature of 32°C in October.0 DEG C Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3.0 A wide range of variables are measured. rainfall and temperature are measured at a large number of other locations by volunteers who regularly submit their data to DMS. [Bauer Consult].00pm.2. storage and dissemination of meteorological data rests with the Department of Meteorological Services (DMS) in the Ministry of Environment. processing. and the minimum daily temperature in winter typically occurs at 7.0 . Heating and cooling equipment is generally controlled by thermostats that are set to a particular target temperature or temperature range. DB temperature is the main determinant of human comfort. Assuming that there are no significant sources of radiant heat transfers. It determines the rate of heat transfer by conduction and convection.

0 100.4 Relative Humidity in Gaborone.0 40.5 Relative Humidity in Gaborone.0 DEG C MIN MAX AVG MAXDIFF 15. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3. by hour.0 0.0 00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 5.0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 22 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 :0 0 19 :0 0 14 20 15 11 16 17 12 00 08 09 01 02 03 04 05 06 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 07 10 MONTH TIM E Fig.0 AVG 30.0 10. 3.0 20. Page 11 13 18 21 23 :0 0 0.0 25.0 MIN MAX 40.0 25.0 0.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC DEG C 5.0 30.0 10.0 50.0 60.0 10.0 .0 80.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC RH % 20.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MONTH TIME Fig.0 60.0 0.0 15.0 35.2 Temperatures in Gaborone. 3. 3. Climate Fig.0 90.0 30.HOURLY AVERAGE TEMPS GABORONE 2000-2002 TEMP DATA MONTHLY GABORONE 2000-2002 35.0 30.0 70.0 Fig.0 20.0 20.0 50. RH DATA MONTHLY GABORONE 2000-2002 100.0 70. HOURLY AVERAGE RH GABORONE 2000-2002 90. 3. by hour.0 80.3 Temperatures in Gaborone. by month.0 10. by month.

4% chance of exceedance (derived using IES software) CIBSE A guide (5th Ed) design temperature Maun (October) CIBSE A guide (5th Ed) design temperatures Maun (Jan) CIBSE A guide (5th Ed) design temperatures Ghanzi (Nov) CIBSE A guide (5th Ed) design temperatures Ghanzi (Jan) Standard design conditions in common usage (Gaborone) More extreme design conditions (Gaborone) Based on the Typical Meterological Year (TMY) for Gaborone and Maun generated by Meteonorm: Heating Dry Bulb temperature (99% chance of no lower temperature.4 61% 45% 3.1 above.5 34. Maun) Cooling Dry Bulb temperature (1% chance of higher temperature. Maun. for an energy efficient building it is desirable to use lower design temperatures and allow the building to overheat occasionally. Typical design temperatures for both cooling and heating design are provided in Table 3. Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3.9 22 25 23 24 25 27 relative humidity 20% 24% 39% 29% 36% 36% 38% 25. One of the reasons that more extreme design conditions are used is to give a design margin and effectively to give the client future flexibility for increased heat loads or for variations/defects in the construction of the building post design stage. Climate . and Ghanzi dry bulb °C 37. Design Day Conditions Although it is recommended that buildings are simulated using real weather data (see section @@) some buildings may continue to be designed using “design day” methods.1 Design Day Conditions for Gaborone.ASHRAE design temperature Gaborone Airport (Jan) based on 0. The choice of design day temperatures is something that the client must sign off.3 39.3. since it involves a choice about how often the building is likely to overheat.1 wet bulb °C 19. Gaborone) Table 3.6 22. Gaborone) Heating Dry Bulb temperature (99% chance of no lower temperature. However.7 39 37 38 37 38 40 2.1 6. Gaborone) Cooling Dry Bulb temperature (1% chance of higher temperature. versus the risk of oversizing plant. Generally. this should be avoided as it is likely to result in over sizing of plant.3.

to 22. both at a macro. diffuse and reflected radiation.3. It is also affected by other characteristics of the surfaces.4. During the day radiant heat transfer between a building and its surroundings is primarily in the form of solar heat gain.2 MJ/m2. It is generally measured as relative humidity. Likewise.3. as well as the translucence of the intervening space. [Bauer Consult]. while minimum RH typically occurs at 5. Climate Page 13 .5.day in June. o It determines the effectiveness of evaporative cooling. including colour and texture. Total solar radiation received on a horizontal surface has been recorded at Sebele since 1977. Radiation Radiation is a critically important characteristic of climate. It is therefore a minor component of total heat flow between surfaces where the temperature difference is small.day in December. outdoor level and in relation to indoor climate.) 3.00pm. It is higher in the summer months when rain occurs than in the dry months of winter. Heat transfer by radiation is proportional to the difference in temperature of the surfaces raised to the fourth power. For Gaborone the highest hourly average RH is 90% and occursin June. seen through a window. to 26. Relative humidity (RH) is an important characteristic of climate with regard to building design for the following reasons: o It is a determinant of the comfort zone temperatures.3.00am. [Bhalotra] The indoor radiant environment is often underestimated as a factor in determining comfort. which indicates the percentage saturation of the air. (See Section 4.day in Sebele. [Bhalotra] The monthly average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface for Gaborone varies from 14. Maximum RH typically occurs at 7. if there is a hot surface in view (such as the sun. Indoor Environment.0 MJ/m2. and includes direct.day in Tsabong. The annual average daily total radiation on a horizontal surface varies between 19. A space may feel uncomfortably hot even when the air temperature is several degrees below the minimum comfort level. Humidity Humidity is a measure of the moisture content of the air. During the night. radiant heat loss to the night sky occurs from any surface in view of the sky. Generally RH varies inversely with temperature through the day. temperature difference increases. The lowest hourly average RH is 28% and occurs in September. and rapidly becomes the major component of heat flow when Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3.6 MJ/m2. For other locations it has been calculated from recorded measurements of bright sunshine duration using the Angstrom formula.6 MJ/m2. or even a warm wall). a space with an air temperature higher than the maximum comfort level may feel cold if there is a view to a cold body such as the night sky.

6.g. Wind direction for most of Botswana is predominantly from the East. e. o Heat gain through infiltration.3. Wind driven infiltration is a problem in the following ways: o Heat loss through infiltration. which is of benefit in the following ways: o Natural ventilation to improve air quality.3. o Natural ventilation to provide cooling air movement. Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3. It would be important to analyse wind data to determine whether there is a difference between the dominant wind direction for light winds and for strong winds. o Entry of dust or other contaminants due to infiltration. Climate . with a significant component from the south to southwest in the extreme southwest of the country. There are extensive periods of calm. o Excessive air speeds due to infiltration in high winds. 37. o Wind driven evaporative cooling.7% for Gaborone. Wind Wind is significant in energy efficient building design as a driving force for ventilation.

Opportunities for using greywater should be considered in any building project. Rainfall Rainfall has limited direct effect on building energy performance. Rainfall during the months of December and January helps to reduce temperatures through evaporation and reduced sunshine hours.100 km from north to south. 0’ E. 30’E. 59’ at Bokspits in the south. Rainfall must be taken into consideration in designing the landscape around a building. the hottest month of the year is frequently October. with temperatures in December and January exceeding those of October. The website at www.50’ at Kasane in the north. while the confluence of the Limpopo and Shashe rivers in the east is located at longitude 29°. Fig. Fig. 3. in a year of good rainfall.3. Climatic Zones.4. The variations in climate across the country are such that they need to be taken into consideration in building design for comfort and energy efficiency. Plants that require much irrigation should be avoided. The western border with Namibia runs along longitude 20. Climate Page 15 . The country spans approximately 1. to latitude 26.oasisdesign.3. which in such years is generally still dry with little cloud cover. the reverse is the case. but is important since it is closely linked to other climate variables. 3.7 shows the monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for various locations around Botswana. since water is a scarce resource in Botswana.6 Map of Botswana (source: US – CIA) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3.3.7. For example. Botswana extends from latitude 17°.net has useful information on practical greywater design solutions. and 965km from west to east. In years of drought.

40.0 15. Climate .0 Gab Min Ghanzi Max Ghanzi Min Kasane Max Kasane Min M'h'pye Max M'h'pye Min Maun Max Maun Min Shakawe Max Shakawe Min 25.0 10.0 35. 3.7 Temperatures in different locations.0 20.0 F'town Max F'town Min Gab Max 30.0 Tsabong Max Tsabong Min Tshane Max 5.0 JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN Fig. (1961-1990) Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3.0 Tshane Min 0.

0 JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN F'town 1400 Gab 0800 Gab 1400 Ghanzi 0800 Ghanzi 1400 Kasane 0800 Kasane 1400 M'h'pye 0800 M'h'pye 1400 Maun 0800 Maun 1400 Shakawe 0800 Shakawe 1400 Tsabong 0800 Tsabong 1400 Tshane 0800 Tshane 1400 Fig. Climate Page 17 . 3.0 10.0 70. (1961-1990) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3.0 40.0 0.0 20.0 F'town 0800 80.0 50.8 Relative Humidity in different locations.90.0 30.0 60.

whereas this is required in the south. If the average hourly temperature were to be taken for design purposes. or Seetebosigo (don’t visit at night). with the mean maximum temperature for January of 35. In the summer there is perhaps even more variety in climatic patterns. some years wet. when the sun warms the still air. cold southerly winds. In addition to the geographical variations in climate. Climate .5°C compared to 3°C in Kasane. with some years being generally dry years of drought. During the winter there tend to be a succession of cold fronts that move across southern Africa from the south to the north. ranging from a few days to about two weeks with low temperatures. and particularly southwest. these are the times when frost is experienced. The highest monthly mean temperature in Kasane was 41. and differentiate these from the average characteristics. with average minimum temperatures in July of 1°C for Tsabong. It is recommended that for building energy purposes the Ngamiland District and Chobe District which include Maun. 3. it is important to consider the different patterns that occur. with ‘good’ rains. and the remainder of the country be regarded as the Southern Climate Zone. These are experienced in Botswana as a period of time. compared to the mean maximum temperature for October in Kasane of 33. compared to 11°C in Kasane. the actual conditions would never be reflected. and clear skies. In between these cold fronts.5. the winter weather may be relatively warm during the day. During years of good Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3. with the coldest monthly mean temperature in Tsabong being –9. Climate Patterns. Maximum summer temperatures show less variation. In considering the impact of climate on building energy performance.There is considerable variation in temperature in different areas of Botswana.5°C compared to 42. In the north of the country there is little or no need for winter heating.1°C in Tsabong. there are also patterns of climate within one locality. and cool at night with the minimum temperature experienced at dawn when the earth has had a full 9-10 hours of radiation to the clear night sky. In low lying areas between hills. Generally winter minimum temperatures are higher the further north you go. Shakawe and Kasane should be regarded as the Northern Climate Zone. The difference may be as much as 8°C in minimum temperature within a week. and many years falling somewhere in between.9°C. Extreme minimum temperatures vary much more.1°C in Tsabong. which may never actually be experienced. Typically these cold spells occur in the month of June.

Again. Department of Meterorological Services. Reprinted as CSIR Report Number: BOU/R9704. et. Resource Material 3. 3.1. 1970.R.6. and throughout the night. the average data for a month that includes both types of weather pattern would provide a weather picture that may never actually occur in reality. Bhalotra. Sunshine and Solar Radiation & Evaporation.P. when thunderclouds roll in from the southwest. there may be a period of dry weather with not a cloud to be seen for days or even weeks at a time. 1985. When this has exhausted its load of moisture onto the earth. Passive Solar Design Workbook. Surface Winds & Atmospheric Pressure. 4. provided by Department of Meteorological Services. “Climatic and other Design Data for Evaluating Heating and Cooling Requirements of Buildings” CSIR Research Report 300. van Deventer. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council.B. breaking into a violent thunderstorm in the late afternoon. Department of Meterorological Services. Gaborone climatic data based on hourly data for years 2000-2002. June 1997. Botswana Notes and Records Volume 2 pp. Bhalotra. a daily cycle may occur for several weeks at a time. L. R. Following a cycle of such daily storms. Books and papers Anderson. 2004. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines – Section 3. 1987. the clouds simply disappear.R. Rainfall maps of Botswana. 3. 2.P. Climate of Botswana Part II: Elements of Climate. Y. The Botswana Society. Botswana.rain. Hamilton. Temperatures & Humidity of the Air. al. Climate Page 19 . BRET.N. 75-78. with clear skies until mid afternoon. Bauer Consult. 1984. Y. E. Green Building Guidelines: Meeting the Demand for Low-energy Resource-Efficient Homes. ‘Climatic Factors in Botswana’. 1971.6. leaving a clear sky at or just after sunset. 1. Rainfall..

org/ Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 3. http://www.energydesignresources.org/ CIBSE Chartered Institute for Building Services Engineers http://cibse.weathersa. 1990.gov/buildings/ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change http://www.za/ SQUARE ONE environmental design. Cooling. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects.co.6.org/ Department of Meteorological Services. USA. http://www.gov/ WBDG . Energy Design Resources http://www. sustainability. Web resources ASHRAE American Society of Heating.net/ SBIC. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council.eere. N. software.wbdg.bw/ EDR. Climate .com/ EERE Building Technologies Program Home Page http://www.oasisdesign.Lechner. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Home Page http://www.Whole Building Design Guide http://www.eere. 3. John Wiley & Sons.ashrae.weather.squ1.ipcc. http://www.info.html U.sbicouncil.S. Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers. Botswana Government.2.com/site.ch/ Oasis Design http://www.org/ South African Weather Service http://www.energy. architecture.energy. http://www. Heating.

SECTION 4 35.0 INDOOR ENVIRONMENT COMFORT TEMPERATURE GABORONE 2000-2002 (based on Tc=13.0 25.0 0.0 20.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MONTH ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .0 DEG C 15.54To) 30.5+0.0 MIN MAX AVG COMFORT 10.0 5.

2. Building envelope. 9. Appendices. 3. 8. Lighting . Climate. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Design and construction process.artificial and day lighting. 12. 6. Mechanical Systems. Planning. Introduction. Design Brief. 5. 10. 7. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. . Indoor Environment. Simulation. 11. 4. 13.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1.

5.5.5. Overview 4.5.4.6.4.the psychometric chart.5. Factors affecting human comfort. 4.2. 4.1.3. Temperature and humidity.2. Introduction Page 3 . 4. Air quality. INDOOR ENVIRONMENT 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 4. Mechanisms of heat exchange.4.2.3.1. 4.4. 4. Elements of Indoor Environment. Human comfort.2. Activity. 4. 4. Mean radiant temperature. 4.5. 4. 4. Non-climatic aspects of the indoor environment. Clothing. The aesthetic environment.CONTENTS 4.3. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1. Evaporation. Ionising radiation 4. 4.5. 4.3.1. 4. Conduction.1. Radiation.4.3.6.3. Lighting levels and daylighting.3.6.5. Static electricity 4. 4.3. Air velocity.2.4. 4. Convection. 4.4.6. 4. Climatic aspects of the indoor environment.4. The comfort zone .1. 4.

Indoor Environment .4.4. Websites.1.8. Codes and Standards.7. 4. Specification of the indoor thermal environment. 4. Adaptive comfort applied to Botswana climate.8.3.7.8.7. Adaptive comfort in conditioned buildings.2. 4.3.8.1.7.7.2. Books and papers 4. 4. 4. 4. 14 15 17 19 19 21 21 21 21 Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Resource material 4. Adaptive comfort. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004.

4.
4.1.

INDOOR ENVIRONMENT
Overview
This Section addresses the subject of indoor environment and its impact on building energy performance in Botswana. The topics that will be covered are briefly outlined below. A building may be defined as: A structure that provides spaces having an environment that is amended from that of its surroundings to suit particular purposes. The definition of the indoor environment that will be suitable for a particular purpose is therefore very important, as this is a key component of the specification for the building. Indoor environment has a strong relation to energy performance in most buildings, since a large proportion of the building’s energy consumption is used to amend the indoor environment particularly the climate and lighting. The paper will consider the elements that make up the indoor environment, which include both climatic and nonclimatic aspects. Human comfort is often the main requirement of the indoor environment. The processes that the body uses to achieve

climatic comfort will be discussed, as well as the factors that affect this. Standards are available that attempt to define indoor conditions that will be experienced as ‘comfortable’. These are briefly considered, as well as some recent developments in our understanding of how to define standards for comfort, particularly with regard to improving energy efficiency in buildings.

4.2.

Elements of Indoor Environment.
The concept ‘indoor environment’ includes all aspects of the relationship between the occupants and contents of a building and their surroundings within the building. This may be considered in terms of climatic and non-climatic aspects, which are defined by the following principle parameters: Climatic: o Dry Bulb temperature. o Relative Humidity. o Mean radiant temperature. o Air velocity. Other parameters: o Air quality. o Aesthetic environment including Spatial geometry Colour. Views. o Lighting levels and daylighting.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment

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o o o o o

Acoustic environment. Vibration. Static electricity Ionizing radiation Occupancy density

4.3.2.

Mean radiant temperature. The radiant environment may be as important a criterion for comfort as temperature and humidity. The extent of radiant heat transfer between the body and the environment is mainly dependant on the following: Geometric arrangement of the radiating surfaces. Surface characteristics of opaque surfaces (wall, ceiling, floor): o Surface colour and texture (emissivity). o Surface temperature. Characteristics of translucent surfaces (window): o Transmissivity o Temperature / surface characteristics of bodies beyond the translucent surface (e.g. sun or night sky) Human body: o Surface area exposed o Colour / texture of clothing. Radiant heat transfer will be particularly significant in spaces in which people are exposed to large surfaces that are at a temperature that is different from the ambient temperature. This may be the case in buildings with large areas of glazing. If these are orientated to admit direct sun, this can be a source of heat gain. Thermal mass walls, floors and ceilings may be used for radiant cooling if the surface temperature is lower than ambient. However it is generally recommended (e.g. by the Danish Building Institute) not to have a ΔT > 5-10° C to avoid

These are discussed in more detail in the following sections, with emphasis on parameters relating to energy consumption.

4.3.
4.3.1.

Climatic aspects of the indoor environment.
Temperature and humidity. Temperature and humidity are the most important aspects of the indoor climate. They largely determine human comfort; due to the impact they have on several of the body’s heat transfer mechanisms (see below). Storage of sensitive materials such as books, paper, food, medicines etc. and specifications for machines and equipment may dictate particular requirements for temperature and relative humidity other than for human comfort. Relative humidity needs to be controlled both for comfort, but also to prevent algae, moulds, fungi etc from forming. Condensation at cold surfaces can also cause problems if humidity is too high. Part of the ventilation requirement comes from the fact that humans emit humidity into the air.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment

compromising human comfort in locations with stationary workplaces. The radiant environment at any particular location is defined by the Mean Radiant Temperature, which is defined as: “the uniform surface temperature of a black enclosure with which an individual exchanges the same heat by radiation as the actual environment considered”. The weighted average of the Mean Radiant Temperature and the Dry Bulb temperature is termed the ‘Operative Temperature’ and is the temperature that is generally used in standards for human comfort (e.g. the ASHRAE Standard 55-2004). Buildings with heavyweight ceilings and floors tend to have a lower Mean Radiant Temperature than those with lightweight partitioning elements due to the thermal capacity of these elements. As a result they have a lower Operative Temperature in the summer, even when the air temperature is the same resulting in a more comfortable indoor environment. 4.3.3. Air velocity. Air movement affects both convection and evaporation, which are important methods of heat loss from the body. The comfort temperature is highly dependant on air velocity, particularly if light clothing is worn. Control of air movement with fans is an important opportunity to give individuals control over their climatic environment. Using air movement to control comfort is a delicate balance since too high an air velocity (or too large a temperature

difference) will generally cause discomfort due to draught (typically at air velocities > 0.2 m/s – especially if the air temperature is significantly different from the comfort temperature (most people will have experienced discomfort from e.g. sitting in the cold air stream of an air conditioner, or the relief a fan can provide in an otherwise stifling heat).

4.4.
4.4.1.

Non-climatic aspects of the indoor environment.
Air quality. Air quality is an important aspect of the indoor environment that is often neglected in naturally ventilated buildings. It may also conflict with other strategies for energy efficiency. Reduction of infiltration is an important strategy to reduce energy consumption. This however has the effect of reducing natural ventilation, which allows the build up of indoor air contaminants. Indoor air quality is determined by many factors, including: o Equipment and appliances used in the building. o Occupant activity (e.g. smoking). o Building materials. o Outdoor air quality. Typical contaminants that affect air quality include gasses, particularly Carbon Dioxide, vapours and odours, fungi, moulds, dust particles that may be biological or mineral in origin.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment

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Indoor air quality may be controlled by adopting standards for ventilation such as ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 or the proposed CEN standard “Ventilation for Buildings. Design Criteria for the indoor environment.” CEN/CR 1752: 199812; CEN; Bruxelles 1998. The ASHRAE standard is currently under revision, and sets requirements for outdoor air ventilation for different purposes (typically 2.5l/s per person for office spaces). Danish guidelines recommend at least 7 l/s per person in offices (4 l/s per person is the minimum), where smoking is not permitted. If smoking is permitted 10 l/s pr person is the minimum and 20 l/s pr. person is recommended. Danish Building regulations require a minimum 0.5 ACH (air changes per hour). Alternatively performance criteria may be adopted, specifying target concentrations of contaminants. An example of such criteria is the National Ambient Air Quality Standards that are defined by the EPA as a requirement of the Clean Air Act (USA). Such standards are difficult to implement, due to the problem of measuring a large number of different potential contaminants. 4.4.2. The aesthetic environment. The aesthetic environment is an important aspect of the indoor environment. The geometry of the spaces in the building affects how people respond to the rooms. High ceilings create a feeling

of spaciousness, but can also be intimidating, whereas low ceilings can make a room feel more intimate. Spatial geometry also affects the air temperature and air movement in a room. High ceilings can allow stratification of air, so that the warmer air rises above the inhabited zone, which will be cooler. Colour is a very important aspect of the indoor environment. People respond to colours with their emotions and feelings, and colour can be used to change the perception of space, e.g. a dark colour on the ceiling makes it appear lower. Colours also impact on illumination contrasts which if too high may cause discomfort. Colour is an integral aspect of lighting design; light colours reflect light, and can reduce the number and power of light sources required to achieve a particular lighting level. White ceilings combined with light shelves can allow daylight to penetrate deeper into a building. Views from windows change the way people respond to indoor environments. The opportunity to see outdoors can make people feel less enclosed, which can affect their work performance positively. Views to green areas, vegetation and water are generally considered to positively affect the perceived comfort of indoor environments. Excessive distraction can also reduce performance, especially in classrooms, where views may need to be limited to avoid this.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment

If it falls below 30°C or rises above 41°C. It is not especially relevant in relation to energy efficiency. Human comfort is related to the individual’s perception of the quality of the environment in which he or she is situated. the normal temperature being 37°C). the aim being to provide an indoor climate that is experienced as adequately comfortable by a large majority of people. In practice it is generally difficult to get acceptance ratings much over 80-90%. including productivity.4. and also on the energy performance of the building. Indoor Environment Page 9 . This is the ‘predicted mean vote’.4. and is a particular problem in environments in which sensitive electronic equipment is used. Artificial and Daylighting.4. and indicates the percentage of people who are predicted to feel comfortable in any given set of conditions. Lighting. etc. absenteeism.4. Recent research has focussed on the impact of the quality of lighting as well as the quantity. death is imminent.5. Specifications of lighting levels required for different tasks have been defined in various standards. Many studies have been conducted on the impact of lighting levels on behaviour.3. People experience the environment differently. It is more serious where insulating floor finishes are used. This is a very localised phenomenon that appears not to have been sufficiently researched in Botswana to determine the extent to which it may be a problem. The physiology of human beings as warm-blooded mammals requires the internal body temperature to be maintained within very close limits (between 36°C and 38°C. The light characteristics of the indoor environment have a major impact on almost all activities that take place there. Ionising radiation Increasing concern is being focussed on sources of ionising radiation. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. A common unit for the measurement of human comfort is the PMV. 4. codes and guidelines.4. The details of what these characteristics should be. For many years the importance of factors such as colour response of different light sources have been studied. Considering that humans live in environments where the external 4. Lighting levels and daylighting. These have demonstrated a strong correlation between behaviour and lighting levels including for example. as for example from leakage of the gas Radon from the ground. Static electricity Static electricity tends to be an important criterion for comfort in environments with low air humidity. which are therefore generally used as normal design values.5. Human comfort. Designing for human comfort is therefore always a compromise. 4. manufactured or repaired. and how they may be achieved in an energy efficient manner are discussed in detail in Section 9. frequently the case in Botswana. so that one person may feel uncomfortably hot and another too cold in the same place. retail sales. significant increases in retail sales with higher light levels.

Mechanisms of heat exchange. Radiation and conduction can result in either heat gain or heat loss depending on the temperature of body relative to its surroundings. There are essentially four basic mechanisms by which the body exchanges heat with its environment. 4. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment . This in turn is dependant on both the capacity of the air to absorb moisture. 4. Evaporation and convection are mechanisms of heat loss for the body. o Evaporation. The body has a number of mechanisms that it uses to achieve this. and the rate of movement of the air. The capacity of the air to absorb moisture is dependant on its relative humidity. The rate of heat transfer by evaporation is determined by the rate at which moisture can be removed by the air. Evaporation takes place during respiration.5. absorbing the latent heat of evaporation from the surfaces of these organs. In order to maintain a balanced temperature. movement.2. Evaporation also takes place at the skin as a result of perspiration.5. o Convection. which is a function of temperature and absolute moisture content. including eating. the body must therefore find ways to lose heat at the same rate at which it is being produced by these processes. etc. whereby fluid from the body enters the air that we breath in the lungs and the respiratory duct and is evaporated.1. Evaporation. o Radiation. Heat is released into the body by all metabolical processes. this is quite a demanding requirement.temperature varies between -40°C to over 50°C. respiration. o Conduction.

4. 4.1 Heat exchange between the human body and its surroundings. The rate of heat transfer by radiation is determined by the relative areas of the two surfaces.5. such as air. their surface temperatures and their emmittance / absorbtance properties at the respective wavelengths relating to these temperatures.5. Radiation.5.5. The rate of heat transfer by conduction is determined by the conductivity of the two surfaces. Conduction. their heat capacity and the difference in temperatures.4. Heat transfer by conduction occurs where the skin is in direct contact with another surface. Radiant heat transfer takes place between any two bodies that are in sight of each other and at different temperatures.4. Convective heat transfer occurs where the skin is in contact with a fluid at a different temperature.3. the exposed surface area). The rate of heat transfer by convection is determined by the difference in temperature. as well as the geometry of the surface-flow interface (e.g. and the flow rate of the fluid (air speed). and there is a difference in temperature between the surfaces. Fig 4. Indoor Environment Page 11 . Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. such as the floor. Convection.

Typical clo-values. A measure of the thermal resistance of clothing has been developed. Source: www. light dress + blouse Business suit. the range of indoor climate that is experienced as comfortable can be considerably extended. Factors affecting human comfort. such as cotton and wool allow moisture to pass through. Typical clo values are as given in Table 4. or to higher temperatures with clothing that allows free flow of air to a larger area of the body. and therefore do not inhibit evaporative heat loss as much as non-porous materials. Clothing can also reduce radiant heat transfer. Shoes reduce heat loss/gain from the floor).6. 1. 4. Clothing can prevent air movement at the skin. Some materials.uk/Courseware/Class-16293/6Comfort. swimwear Light trousers + shirt.5 1. which is typical of a business suit. wearing gloves and protective clothing when hot or very cold surfaces/objects are handled.pdf Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment . The effect of clothing on evaporative heat transfer is dependant on the type of material.ac.0 Example Naked.1 Clo – value 0 0.g.155m2K/W. both to lower temperatures. called the ‘clo-value’. which almost eliminates convective and evaporative heat transfer from the skin. dress + jumper Heavy suit. By selecting appropriate clothing for a particular climate and activity. This can provide insulation to reduce mainly convective and radiant heat transfer (but also conductive – e. if insulating clothing is worn.esru. Recently the Japanese government has introduced a policy called ‘Cool Biz’ to discourage the wearing of jackets and ties in the summer. gloves and hat Table 4.4. Clothing.strath.0 2.1. This is a measure of the ratio of thermal resistance of clothing to a standard value of 0. All the four mechanisms of heat transfer are greatly influenced by clothing. as a way to reduce energy consumption in office buildings. overcoat. as the thermal resistance of the clothing will reduce the flow of heat from the body.6. Cultural aspects can have an important influence on what is acceptable attire for particular activities.

). This is illustrated in Fig.the psychometric chart. As stated earlier. 4.4. Typical rates of heat output are presented in Table 4. The rate of heat production varies greatly depending on the activity that one is engaged in. Human comfort in the indoor environment is related to the interaction of a large number of variables in addition to temperature.6. Indoor Environment Page 13 .2 Psychometric chart (source: The Psych Tool. the body is continuously producing heat as a result of metabolic processes. The comfort zone . These can be illustrated by means of a psychometric chart.2. Table 4. Heat output for different activities.2.3. Activity Sleeping Seated Light work Medium work Heavy work Heat output (male): Watts 70 115 150 265 440 Heat output (female): Watts 60 98 128 225 374 Fig 4.6. 4. Square One Research Ltd. The combination of these parameters that is experienced as comfortable can be shown for different levels of clothing and air speed.2.2. which shows the interaction of temperature and humidity. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Activity.

empirical formulae have been prepared that predict the degree of comfort that will be reported by a certain proportion of occupants under particular conditions. o there is no significant difference due to body build. The preceding discussion on the impact of climate on performance shows how comfort is influenced by factors such as activity and clothing. Specification of the indoor thermal environment.7. particularly in relation to energy performance. o there is no significant difference due to sex. As a result it is impossible to satisfy all the occupants of an indoor space. Based on these studies. o there is no significant difference due to ethnic origin. -3 (cold) to +3 (hot). The specification of the indoor climate is an important component of an effective design brief for any building. This is known as the PMV scale (Predicted Mean Vote). Other factors also influence comfort. These included surveys of large numbers of people who were asked to indicate their level of comfort on a scale from say.4. Many studies have been conducted to determine the conditions for human comfort. There is also considerable variation between individuals in their perception of comfort. because older people have lower metabolic rate counteracted by lower perspiration rates). Tests were carried out on large groups of individuals by Fanger in Denmark and by others in many other countries. Fanger concluded that: o there is no significant difference in comfort perceptions due to geographical location or season (including tropical regions). Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. o there is no significant difference due to age (e. Indoor Environment .g. including expectations based on recent weather.

It may also be that the boundary is lower than necessary in terms of people’s perception of comfort.Thermal Environmental Conditions.Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (ANSI Approved).4. This translates approximately to a relative humidity of 75% at a dry bulb temperature of 21°C and 53% at 27°C.7. This standard specifies the combinations of indoor space environment and personal factors that will produce thermal environmental conditions acceptable to 80% or more of the occupants within a space. The most commonly accepted standard specifying the thermal indoor environment for comfort is the ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 . ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. There is some doubt as to whether this requirement is fully justified. The specification to be adopted for maximum humidity has a big impact in determining the conditions under which evaporative cooling is effective. The ASHRAE standard has an upper limit for humidity ratio of 0.1. Indoor Environment Page 15 . Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. In Botswana RH is often above the minimum level. humidity. The characteristic that is defined is humidity ratio. and air speed. An unnecessarily low ceiling for humidity would therefore restrict the use of evaporative cooling in situations where it may in fact be effective.012. thermal radiation. The environmental factors addressed are temperature. the personal factors are those of activity and clothing. This is similar to the CIBSE Standard 55-1992 . whereas it may be more appropriate to define relative humidity. particularly in the mornings in summer.

Fig 4. Indoor Environment .3 Simplified graphs indicating winter and summer comfort zones based on ASHREA 55-2004 (Source: Energy Plus Reference Manual) Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4.

1°C. The specification for air-conditioned buildings also requires that the variation in temperature during any 15min period is no more that 1. The acceptable temperature range for air-conditioned buildings in the same situation is between 25-28°C for light clothing (0. The standard acknowledges the concept of adaptive comfort. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. or ventilation. It has been found that people experience thermal comfort quite differently in buildings that are naturally ventilated without mechanical cooling than in buildings that are mechanically cooled. This typically determines the cycling band for the control system. and freedom to adapt their clothing to achieve comfort. Indoor Environment Page 17 .7.0clo).2. The standard specifies a far more relaxed set of comfort conditions for such buildings.5clo) or 19-25°C with more formal clothing (1.4. The comfort zone is then related to mean outdoor air temperature. Adaptive comfort. since it is assumed that people will respond to any variations within the comfort zone by making adjustments to their clothing. No such requirement is made for the adaptive comfort specification. with the requirement that people should have the opportunity to open and close windows. and for typical January conditions in Gaborone (To=25°C) would be between 22-29°C.

4.4 Adaptive comfort temperatures (Source: ASHRAE Standard 55-2004) Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Indoor Environment .Fig.

M.g. and the knowledge and tools to achieve it are available.F. 4.7. although other aspects of indoor environment may still require this. Even buildings with more substantial internal loads could be comfortable with minimal energy use if this is acknowledged as an important design criterion. e. thermal comfort should be achievable with no mechanical equipment.54To Where Tc = Thermal comfort temperature To = Monthly mean outdoor temperature When this is applied to the temperature data for Gaborone. J.4.A.4. in their paper “Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildings. mechanical ventilation to achieve air quality standards. The relationship between indoor comfort temperature and outdoor mean temperature has been consistently found to be close to: Tc = 13.7. Encouraging the use of thermally appropriate clothing would further relax the demands on the mechanical equipment.3. Indoor Environment Page 19 .5 + 0.” [3] suggests that the monthly mean temperature may not be the most appropriate for determining the comfort zone in an adaptive comfort model. This indicates that at all times of the year the comfort temperature is above the mean monthly temperature. and Humphreys. A simple example of such an approach would be the use of individually controlled fans and radiant heaters to allow individuals more control of their immediate surroundings. the thermal comfort temperature is as shown in Fig. resulting in substantial energy savings. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. It appears that there is considerable scope for energy savings if the concepts of adaptive comfort could also be applied to conditioned buildings. This suggests that for buildings for which the envelope loads dominate. Adaptive comfort applied to Botswana climate. This would require an approach that allowed some user adaptation within the overall framework of a controlled mechanically conditioned building. which could also be used control temperature in conditioned buildings. and suggest that a method that accounts for the temperature variation of the previous few days would provide a more accurate model. An algorithm for determining this is proposed.5. Research summarised by Nicol. Adaptive comfort in conditioned buildings.4.

54To) 35.0 0.5+0. 4. Indoor Environment .0 30.0 5.0 25.5 Comfort temperature for Gaborone.0 MIN MAX AVG COMFORT 10. Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC MONTH Fig.0 DEG C 15.COMFORT TEMPERATURE GABORONE 2000-2002 (based on Tc=13.0 20.

Koch-Nielsen. Presented at the American Solar Energy Society Conference Madison. 2004. London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. P. Heating.). B. University of Strathclyde. Passive Solar Design Workbook.. Design Criteria for the indoor environment. al. Unit 6 Thermal Comfort. “Adaptive thermal comfort and sustainable thermal standards for buildings. Oxford Brookes University. Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers. H. “Input Output Reference .ashrae. J.2-2004 – Ventilation and Acceptable Indoor Air Quality in Low-Rise Residential Buildings (ANSI Approved) CEN Standard: “Ventilation for Buildings. School of Architecture.” Course material for Energy Systems Research Unit. http://www. ASHRAE American Society of Heating.The Encyclopedic Reference to EnergyPlus Input and Output” December 2005. CEN/CR 1752: 1998-12.” Oxford Centre for Sustainable Development. Resource material Conference Paper. Nicol. Plympton. D. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy ASHRAE Standard 62.1. “Daylighting in Schools: Improving Student Performance and Health at a Price Schools Can Afford. New Metric Handbook – Planning and Design Data. L. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects. USA. “Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics.F. Books and papers Energy Plus. et. Websites.4.B. Wisconsin June 16.org/ 4. (Ed. P. (ESRU).3. and Adler. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council.8. Indoor Environment Page 21 . Course 16293: “Environmental Engineering Science 1. Codes and Standards. John Wiley & Sons. 4. N. ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. et. 1979.2.” Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. Lechner.8. and Humphreys. Cooling. Hamilton. University of Strathclyde.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann Ltd.8. CEN.A. Bruxelles 1998 4.A design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates. 2000 Tutt. Botswana.D. 2002 Stay Cool . (ed) 1996. Green Building Guidelines: Meeting the Demand for Low-energy Resource-Efficient Homes. M.8. al. BRET. Hunn.org/ CIBSE Chartered Institute for Building Services Engineers http://cibse. 1990. 1984.

com/site. sustainability. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council. http://www.gov/buildings/ EDR. http://www.energy.org/ Page 22 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 4. software.squ1.EERE Building Technologies Program Home Page http://www.sbicouncil. Indoor Environment .org/ SQUARE ONE environmental design.html WBDG .com/ SBIC.Whole Building Design Guide http://www.energydesignresources.eere. Energy Design Resources http://www. architecture.wbdg.

SECTION 5 DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PROCESS ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

4. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Climate.artificial and day lighting. 12.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. 6. 11. 13. Introduction. 5. Indoor Environment. Planning. Design Brief. 3. Lighting . 9. Building envelope. Design and construction process. Simulation. Appendices. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. 8. 10. Mechanical Systems. 2. . 7.

Incentives.4. 5. Construction and Commissioning.2. Procurement systems 5. Fee incentives for energy efficiency. Competitive tendering.3. 5.1. Design and Construction Process Page 3 .3.1. Project cost and energy efficiency 5.2.3.3. DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PROCESS DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PROCESS 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 7 7 8 8 9 9 12 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 5.1. Construction.1. Commissioning.4.2. Conventional appointment of consultants. Integrated Design Methods.4.5. Overview 5.1. Project Cost and Energy Efficiency 5. 5. Integrated design coordinator.4. Resource Material Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5.3. Structured methodology.4. 5.6. 5. 5. Public. Private Partnership.2.5. 5. 5.CONTENTS 5. 5. 5.4. 5.5. Turnkey development. 5.4. 5.3.1.4. Procurement Systems. 5. Integrated Design Methods. 5.1.3.3.4. Timing of design decisions.1.3. 5.

2. 5. Design and Construction Process .1. Books and Papers Web resources 17 17 Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5.5.6.6.

1. A number of different approaches to procurement of design services are now implemented. turnkey development and Public / Private Partnership.Section 5. Design and Construction Process Page 5 . 5. operation and demolition of a building. The following topics are covered in this section: o Project cost and energy efficiency. It can lead to dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. 5.5.1. o Construction and Commissioning. This has been driven by the increasing cost of conventional sources of energy. including competitive tendering. o Procurement systems and their implications for energy performance.3. construction. life-cycle cost and energy efficiency. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines .2. The implications of these approaches with regard to improving energy efficiency are considered. Project Cost and Energy Efficiency Over the past two or three decades there has been an increasing concern for energy efficiency generally. Project cost and energy efficiency The relationship that exists between project cost (capital and recurrent) and energy efficiency is described. The effort that has gone into achieving an energy efficient building design can easily be compromised in the construction process if adequate supervision and coordination is not provided to ensure that the critical aspects of the building meet the design requirements. 5. This is essentially a holistic approach to the design.2. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency have been achieved through the development and implementation of what is known as ‘integrated design’. 5.1. DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Overview This section addresses the subject of the design and construction process and its impact on building energy performance in Botswana. Integrated Design Methods. 5. including in the building sector.1.1. Procurement systems The process and methodology by which the design. as well as the relationship between initial cost. construction. as reserves of fossil fuel are becoming more scarce. and overall environmental performance. as well as the impact of our rapidly increasing energy consumption on the local and global environment in the form of pollution and climate change. Construction and Commissioning. 5. o Integrated design methods.1. operation and demolition of buildings is implemented has gone through dramatic changes over past 30 years in many countries of the world.4. The systematic application of commissioning to both new and existing buildings has been found to be a highly cost effective means to ensure that the building and all its systems are functioning as intended.

LifeCycle Cost Analysis. and many interventions may require a trade-off between increased construction cost resulting in reduced life-cycle cost. maintenance and ultimately demolition may be as important or even more so over the total life of the building. Others may reduce life-cycle costs and have no influence on construction cost. There are many choices of material. and in many cases this is still the only cost that is taken into consideration in the design stages of a building project. equipment or finishes that influence ‘lifecycle’ cost in different ways. as well as references to more detailed information. Life cycle cost is defined more fully in Section 12. and that future costs of operation. The project manager is asked to prepare project budgets. Previously the main concern was with the initial construction cost of a building. This also gives a brief introduction to various methods of calculating LCC. Design and Construction Process . There is a growing awareness that the initial construction cost is only one aspect of the overall building cost. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5. and decisions are based largely on an assessment of whether the client can afford particular features or finishes in the building. design. Some choices may lead to reduced life-cycle cost and save on the construction cost as well.This has resulted in a change in the way in which building costs are viewed and assessed.

o Public.3. The project manager then engages an architect to lead the design phase of the project. The consultant therefore does not have a financial incentive to reduce contract cost.3. who then also takes on the functions of project manager. Private Partnership (PPP). 5. These are discussed in the following sections with particular reference to energy efficiency and energy conservation. the first requirement is usually for some professional advice to assist with preparing the design brief and getting started on the process of design and construction. o Turnkey development. He or she does have an incentive to reduce the work required of them in completing the project. Choices that reduce construction cost will result in reduced fees.1. In this case the choice of consultant is based on their reputation for capability. Fees may be negotiated. In many cases the client may employ an architect directly. In practice it is perhaps rather naïve to assume that all consultants have the integrity to totally disregard the financial implications to themselves of decisions that are made in the design and project management process. and seek to achieve this as a matter of course. Procurement Systems. Some may also see it as a fundamental objective in their work. including: o Competitive tendering for consultancy services. Recently however a number of other procurement options have been tried. These different procurement methods have considerable implications on the financial and other motivations that influence the work of the consultants.Section 5. This is to some extent reinforced by the codes of conduct that Professional Institutions require their members to adhere to. Such a consultant has no particular motivation to reduce life-cycle cost. and those that increase construction cost will lead to increased fees. The initial stages of a project may be paid on an hourly or lump sum basis. but the major portion of fees is generally calculated as a percentage of the contract sum related to that consultant’s scope of work. The conventional approach to this has often been to employ a project manager who becomes the client’s agent and manages the project. Until recently this was also the most common approach taken by the Botswana Government. Design and Construction Process Page 7 . The arrangement is based on an assumption of professional integrity.5. and Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . capacity to carry out the work for a reasonable fee. professional integrity. When a client needs a construction project to be implemented. except in so far as this is included as a concern in the design brief. which should ensure that these financial motivations do not affect the consultant’s work in any way. Conventional appointment of consultants. but are usually based on agreed standard rates that are set by professional institutes.

For larger projects this will often require the client to hire an independent consultant to supervise the project and provide expert advice throughout. Typically the ‘two envelope’ system is used.2. The challenge in this system is to ensure that the client’s requirements in terms of function. Competitive tendering. The consultant’s terms of reference (or design brief) therefore becomes an even more important document and it is essential that environmental considerations and energy performance requirements in particular are clearly defined. The division of the payment between contractor and consultant is decided between them and does not concern the client. Design and Construction Process . The commissioning procedure (see below) can also help to verify performance against targets. If the tender is based on a lump sum fee. This is a benefit to the client in that it reduces the portion of project budgets that is spent on fees. If the tender is based on percentage rates. It also means that consultants are required to carry out the same amount of work for a lower fee. and tender for a project as a joint venture. The design consultants now become part of the same team as the contractor. Generally competitive tendering has resulted in greatly reduced fees compared to the use of standard fee scales. 5. They are therefore under considerable pressure to minimise their costs in terms of hours spent and the cost of their professional staff (which is generally related to the level of qualification and experience). nor a fee penalty if it is reduced. There is also now more of a need to verify that the consultant is actually addressing the requirements of the ToR. performance and quality are achieved. The technical proposals are first evaluated against a set of criteria.5.3. On large projects it may be advisable to hire an independent consultant to confirm this.3. whereby the technical and financial proposals are submitted in separate envelopes. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5. then there will be neither a fee incentive to increase the construction cost. Turnkey development. but at that stage it may be too late to correct fundamental design issues. and the best value tender is selected. A ‘terms of reference’ (ToR) is prepared and advertised. This may make them reluctant to spend additional time investigating the life-cycle cost implications of different strategies to reduce operating costs generally and energy consumption in particular. Recently the Botswana Government changed the standard method of procurement for consultants to a competitive tendering process. then the financial motivation regarding changes in construction cost versus life-cycle cost will be similar to those for the directly appointed consultant. The financial proposals of those tenders that score higher than a certain minimum on the technical evaluation are then opened. Consultants prepare tenders that are submitted through the Public Procurement and Asset Disposal Board.3. consultant and contractor. The turnkey procurement method is a radical departure from the traditional relationship between client.

This could result in decisions that result in increased life-cycle costs to achieve reduced construction cost. and a means to verify compliance with the brief. If performance falls Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines .3. such that the contractor’s team (the concessionaire) not only designs and builds the project. building staff. but also arranges finance. and life cycle costing.3. As with the competitive tender procedure. finance. energy efficiency. to provide a direct financial incentive to consultants to achieve energy efficiency and other objectives. 5. private partnership is a relatively new concept in procurement that is rapidly gaining popularity for medium to large-scale public infrastructure projects. The concessionaire therefore has no direct incentive to design and operate the building in such a way as to minimise energy or water use. since the client covers the cost of these. The PPP process includes a procedure to verify that the completed project meets the targets and requirements of the RFP.4. in order to maximise their profit. during which the performance of the building is monitored. Fee incentives for energy efficiency. In this case a certain portion of the fees is retained by the client until the initial commissioning process has been completed. 5.With this system the interests of the contractor and the design consultants are aligned. and they have a financial motivation to reduce costs once a contract has been signed. Design and Construction Process Page 9 .5. and manages the project for its entire life (or at least a substantial portion thereof). In some countries including the USA a system of fee incentives and penalties has been introduced for certain projects. Public. At this stage however it is of course too late to rectify any fundamental design faults. since the turnkey developer has no further involvement in the project once the contract is completed. including public buildings. Private Partnership. with an agreed mark-up for profit. and stringent penalties are charged for any failures to comply. This is implemented by the concessionaire under the supervision of a client’s representative. If it is found that the building achieves or exceeds the performance targets. The client in this case pays for the project through ‘unitary’ payments that include for maintenance. it becomes more important to have a watertight design brief. rental. The extent to which each proposal addresses these will then be considered in the evaluation of the proposals. the consultants are rewarded with a bonus. Utility costs such as electricity and water are treated as ‘through costs’ that are paid by the concessionaire and then charged to the client. Essentially it takes the turnkey concept further. The Request for Proposals (RFP) may however include requirements relating to environmental considerations. etc. and will be one of many criteria used for selecting the successful proposal. These are calculated as annual payments but are usually paid in monthly instalments rather like a lease charge.Section 5. Public.

An example of a performance based design contract is provided on the following page. the consultants are penalised. In some cases there may even be ongoing rewards for achieving operation and maintenance cost targets.short of the targets. Design and Construction Process . Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . Design and Construction Process Page 11 .Section 5.

comprised of all the different systems interacting with each other to achieve the optimum performance in every respect. Design and Construction Process . Traditionally there has been a tendency to separate out different systems of a building. A number of tools have been developed that can help to achieve a successful integrated design process. Mechanical and Electrical design concept. Integrated Design Methods. Architectural design concept. A structural engineer takes the concept. with each consultant solving the problems that relate to their expertise in relative isolation. Of course from time to time they come together to look at the implications of each other’s work on the building as a whole.5. INTEGRATED BUILDING DESIGN The complete building design concept integrates the different system design concepts. beauty. and works out the structural system that can support it.4. quality. etc. ensures that it is structurally feasible. including the aesthetic and spatial layouts for the building. Thermal design concept. A mechanical and electrical engineers then design the HVAC. views the building and its surroundings as a whole. The integrated design approach. Usually the design process begins with the architect who develops an overall design concept. some of which are briefly described below. If one is included in the team. There are substantial opportunities for improving the environmental performance of buildings through what has become known as ‘integrated building design’ (sometimes also known as ‘integrated energy design’). trying to fit these into the building as efficiently as possible. The concept requires a re-thinking of the approach to building design from the one that is traditionally used. Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5. and to coordinate the ‘points of contact’. comfort. then the landscape architect will be required to create a suitable surrounding for the building. o o o o o Landscape / environmental design concept. lighting and other services systems. There is a deliberate process of looking for opportunities that can arise from these interactions to achieve improved energy efficiency. in contrast. Structural design concept.

5. so that they are included in decisions where appropriate.2. Details regarding CAD draughting protocols such as layer names and colours.5. Structured methodology.1. The end users and building operators are trained in the operation and maintenance of the building.4. Integrated design coordinator. From the beginning of the project. but are not overloaded with unnecessary information. a specialised energy consultant is appointed by the client to act as integrated design coordinator. drawing file names. The work of the design consultants is coordinated towards achieving the agreed objectives. to ensure that each has the information that they need at each stage. revision numbering. Key requirements for integrated building design to be successful: o The client is convinced of the benefits of this approach and is willing to invest time and money to achieve these. The integrated design approach requires a greater amount of interaction between the consultants. it is essential that the interaction is facilitated by effective structures for the technical communication.Section 5. pensize tables. have the information that they need. etc.4. and coordinates the process of selecting the most appropriate combination of design decisions. and a more creative and less formal relationship in the stages where the different design concepts are integrated. However. This person is responsible for ensuring that the different members of the design team take into consideration the opportunities that arise in the work of other members. can make an important difference to the effectiveness of communication between consultants. contractor and users must also be effectively managed. The construction process is monitored and managed effectively. Communication with the client. o o o o Energy efficiency is included as an important objective in the design brief. and facilitates the creative interaction between them. He or she is responsible for assessing the life cycle cost implications of different alternative approaches that may be suggested by the team. with the integrated design consultant acting as the link between other consultants. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines . Communication channels and media should be agreed on at the beginning. Design and Construction Process Page 13 . because much of the design work is carried out concurrently.

and a higher quality environment generally. conventionally designed buildings. Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5. The improvement in these areas can be quite dramatic.5. This can be done in two distinct ways. The alternative is to link the fee to the performance of the building. and cannot be achieved without some cost. Much of the potential benefit is only enjoyed by the building owner and / or users during the building’s life time. in the form of reduced energy and other operating costs.3. Incentives. the integrated design process is not easy. One option is to simply pay increased fees up front for the increased service. with up to 60-70% reduction in energy cost being achieved in certain projects compared to similar. better comfort. There is therefore a need to develop an incentive package to compensate the design team for the additional work that is required. so that the consultants receive a bonus and / or pay a penalty based on the actual performance of the completed building. Design and Construction Process . As can be expected.4. It will not therefore be generally adopted by choice by consultants unless there is a clear incentive to do so.

Section 5. to avoid the need to discard large amounts of detail design work later when a more effective solution is suddenly identified. 5.5. it will be more expensive since it requires numerous changes to other aspects of the design that have proceeded on the assumption of the original decision – effectively turning back the clock and starting over in many aspects of the design. Options become more and more limited. The cost of making changes increases exponentially with time as the design becomes more detailed. Timing of design decisions. (Source: ENSAR Group) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines .1. and aspects of the design get “locked in”.4. Design and Construction Process Page 15 . 5.1 Cost / benefit of design change with regard to energy savings. whereas the opportunity to achieve energy savings declines. The timing of design decisions is critical to the success of integrated design. This is illustrated in the graph in Fig. Fig. It is therefore worth taking the time to carefully consider the options relating to all the design concepts and how they interact with each other early on in the process. This implies that if a change has to be made that does not fit in with decisions already taken.4.

This requires appropriate training for the people involved whether this is the resident engineer. Details that are of particular relevance to energy performance include: o o o o o Proper installation of damp proofing membranes. The work on site needs to be regularly inspected and checked to ensure that details that are particularly relevant to energy performance are properly constructed.5. clerk of works. etc. Duct insulation. Installation of insulation according to specifications. Design and Construction Process . For existing buildings it can be an effective way to identify systems that are not functioning optimally.4. and to rehabilitate a building to a state where it is functioning optimally resulting in reduced operating and energy costs.5. or others. contractor’s quality control systems. supervision by the consultants. “Commissioning is a systematic process of ensuring that all building systems perform interactively according to the contract documents. Seals in ductwork and fittings to avoid leaks. particularly as a means to reduce operating costs in general and energy costs in particular. 5. In practice the quality of work varies greatly from one site to another. Design of an energy efficient building is only the first stage. in cavity walls. The benefits will only be realised if the construction of the building is carried out in accordance with the design. so that he / she is aware of the purpose for particular specifications and details. Avoidance of thermal bridges. including the quality of the design drawings and specifications. and is influenced by many factors. Construction. The contractor should understand the concepts behind the design.g. skills of the artisans. comprehensive commissioning procedure for new buildings can greatly reduce the number of problems that are experienced with building systems in the initial period of occupation. Commissioning. architect. It has been found that a carefully managed. Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 5. and also improve energy performance. the design intent and the owner’s operational needs.5.” (The Building Commissioning Guidelines. EDR) The importance of the commissioning process for a building has recently been recognised. e.

com/resource/33/ Energy Design Resources. DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) http://www.com/resource/37/ 5.gov/buildings/ SBIC.eere. http://www.energydesignresources.Whole Building Design Guide http://www.org U.6.energy. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council.sbicouncil.1. Design Brief.2.energydesignresources. Resource Material 5. http://www. “The Building Commissioning Guidelines”. Energy Design Resources http://www.energydesignresources.org/ Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines .wbdg.gov/ WBDG . Performance Based Compensation.6.Section 5.S. Web resources EDR.5.energy.eere. http://www. Design and Construction Process Page 17 . Books and Papers Energy Design Resources.6.com/ EERE Building Technologies Program Home Page http://www.

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SECTION 6 PLANNING ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Climate. Simulation. 6. 13. 12. 8. Appendices. Design Brief. Indoor Environment. . 2. Mechanical Systems. Design and construction process. Planning. 7. Introduction. 5. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Building envelope. 4. 10. 11. 3. Lighting .ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1.artificial and day lighting. 9.

6. 6. Orientation.CONTENTS 6.2.5.5. 6.3.4. Books and Papers 6. 6. PLANNING 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 6.1. Resource Material 6. Trees and shrubs.5.2. Site Planning 6. Climbers.4. Ground surfaces. 6. Surfaces and vegetation.2. Web resources Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 6 Planning Page 3 .4.1.4. 6.1. Location.3.

3. The east and west elevations of a building present most problems related to heating from the sun. it becomes more important that the plots are optimally orientated to allow for the houses on the plot to be aligned with the long axis running east-west.1. planning requirements for site boundary set-backs. and the planning of the immediate surroundings. the general shape and orientation. As plots sizes are reduced to increase plot density. Site Planning Issues relating to climate and energy efficiency need to be considered from the earliest stages of site planning. 6. . PLANNING The building in relation to its environment / modifying the local climate. Orientation. Location. For this reason buildings should generally present their smaller elevations to the east and west. with a high ratio of length to breadth. since the sun hits these directly in the early morning and late afternoon throughout the year.1 The sunpath in Gaborone in summer and winter. such as other buildings or established trees. Fig 6.2. The opportunity to save energy by correct orientation is increased if buildings are rectangular. Included in this section are the location of the building. The location of buildings on a site is largely determined by considerations such as access. views and other constraints.6. Some of the important considerations are as follows: o Location o Orientation o Surfaces and vegetation 6. 6. and the spaces around buildings reduce. Energy considerations that should be considered include making use of shading from features on or around the plot.

2. Plants are perhaps the most effective. Ground surfaces. 6. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 6 Planning Page 5 .1. The shape and characteristics of the fully grown plant should be considered in selecting species for a particular location.4. Plants may also be used to good effect for shading and windbreaks. and are therefore suitable for locations with restricted water availability.4. Surfaces and vegetation. There are several species of ground cover plants that can survive long periods with very little water. Using surfaces that absorb solar radiation can help to keep buildings cool in summer.4. Suitable species include members of the following families: Crassula Mesembryanthemaceae Fig 6. The surfaces around a building influence the amount of reflected direct and indirect radiant heat that falls on the walls. In some cases it may be helpful to use deciduous trees that provide shade in summer but lose their leaves in winter allowing the sun to provide some warmth when it is needed. in that they are good at absorbing solar heat. Trees and shrubs. and also cool the air through evapo-transpiration. 6.6.2 Trees as shade for buildings.

grapefruit) o Guava o Peach o Mulberry Exotic shade trees: o Brazilian Pepper tree o Weeping willow o Jacaranda o Neem o Flamboyant Indigenous trees: o Morula o Terminalia (Mogonono) o Combretum o Acacia (various species) 6. Suitable species of climbers include the following: o Grapes o Jasmine o Morning Glory o Virginia creeper o Honeysuckle o Bougainvillea Fig 6. Climbing plants can be trained over vertical and horizontal structures to provide both shade and windbreaks.4. orange.3 Climbers as shade for buildings. . Climbers.Trees that grow well in Botswana include: Fruit trees: o Paw paw o Banana o Avacodo o Citrus (Lemon.3.

za Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 6 Planning Page 7 . Ward. The Energy Book for urban development in South Africa.5. Passive Solar Design Workbook. and Adler. H. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects. (Ed.A Design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates.za) 6.5. 1984. New Metric Handbook – Planning and Design Data. N. Sustainable Energy Africa.6. 2002 Stay Cool .5. Web resources Sustainable Energy Africa. Resource Material 6.sustainable. Heating. (www. Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann Ltd. L. Koch-Nielsen.org. USA. http://www. 1990.1. London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. 1979.2.sustainable. Lechner. P.). 2002. al. et.B. D.org. Tutt. Botswana. Sarah.. Cooling. BRET. John Wiley & Sons. Books and Papers Hamilton.

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SECTION 7 BUILDING ENVELOPE ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

11. Mechanical Systems.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. 10. 9. Simulation. . Introduction. Design Brief. 4. 2. Planning. Indoor Environment. Building envelope. 6. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis.artificial and day lighting. 7. Design and construction process. 13. Climate. 12. 8. Appendices. Lighting . 5. 3.

2. 7.CONTENTS 7.1.6.6.4. Ventilation.3.4. Material properties.4.3. Ground Floor. Definition.4. Overview 7. 7.1. Books and reports. 7.4.2. 7. 7.2.1. Thermal properties of building materials 7.2.2. 7. 7.3.2.4.5. Building Envelope Page 3 . Codes and Standards.6. Walls. Building envelope energy performance in the climate of Gaborone.2. 7. 7. Building envelope and energy performance. 7. Allowing solar heat gain in winter. Codes and Standards 7. Characteristics of envelope elements 7. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.1.1.6.1. 7. 7.2.3. Roof.1. 7. 7. Web sites.3.5.4.1. Fenestration.3. 7. Quantifying the effect of orientation. Construction properties 7. Orientation.3.1. Reducing solar heat gain in summer. Resource Material 7. BUILDING ENVELOPE 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 8 10 10 10 12 12 12 13 16 18 21 22 23 23 23 23 7.3.

Building Envelope .Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.

windows. Allowing desirable heat transfer. Building envelope and energy performance. 7. and wind. reducing the energy required by mechanical systems. Building Envelope Page 5 . It serves to protect the indoor spaces from undesirable impacts such as excessive cold. which are described in more detail in the Section 6. BUILDING ENVELOPE Overview Definition. Allowing daylight penetration. walls. When successful. Allowing desirable ventilation. warmth from the sun on a cold day.2. 7.7. Preventing undesirable ventilation. the floor. etc. daylight. Essentially there are two different approaches to envelope design in relation to building energy performance. Careful use of both insulating and conductive materials as appropriate for different elements of the building prevent or encourage heat transfer when it is useful. The building envelope is defined in this context as those elements of the building that form the boundary between the indoor environment of a building and the external environment in which it is located for example. Providing heat storage (delayed heat transfer). Planning. and controlled ventilation allows air movement through the building to provide fresh air and help to keep the temperature in the comfort zone. Preventing undesirable light penetration (glare). Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. The building envelope directly influences the energy performance of a building in the following ways: o o o o o o o Resisting undesirable heat transfer. while reducing as far as possible the undesirable interactions. radiation. Such buildings rely entirely on air conditioning systems to provide heating or cooling to maintain comfort conditions. Insulation is used extensively in all the envelope elements to reduce heat transfer as far as possible. this approach can allow the external environment to address some or all of the internal loads. Another approach to building energy design is referred to as “passive” design. In climates such as that of Botswana. The building envelope is in a sense a filter between the internal and external environments. This seeks to encourage beneficial interactions between the building and the outside environment. this approach tends to make use of thermal mass to reduce the extremes of day and night temperature.1.1. etc.1. roof. This is often referred to as an ‘active’ approach to building energy design. heat.1. where the average daily temperature is generally close to indoor comfort conditions. These are discussed in more detail in the following sections. while allowing desirable impacts to pass through such as cool breezes on a hot day. 7. One approach seeks to isolate the interior of the building as much as possible from the external environment.

In winter heat from the sun can be stored in the walls and released into the building at night when heating is needed. or indoor temperature. using computer simulations of three ‘generic’ building types to determine the effect on comfort conditions and energy consumption of changing various building envelope or operational parameters. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. and certainly not as simple as providing maximum insulation all round. When it fails. lights and equipment. but there are significant opportunities to reduce the energy consumption with careful design. In the design of energy efficient buildings dominated by internal heat gains particular attention should be given to matching the mechanical systems to the internal loads. can be designed using passive principles to achieve comfort conditions for most of the year with little or no mechanical heating or cooling. Much information is available on how to design energy efficient buildings in climates similar to that of Botswana. Generally buildings such as residential houses with relatively low levels of internal heat gain from occupants.3. The results are summarised in the more detailed discussion below. this approach can lead to high energy consumption if mechanical systems are required to pump heat into or out of thermal mass elements that conflict with the desired internal temperature. and through the floor at all times of day. For buildings with little internal heat gain from occupants and equipment.Cooling of the building takes place when heavy elements such as walls absorb heat from the building during the day and release it to outside at night. as may be the case in climates that are generally either too cold or too hot. Buildings with high levels of internal heat gain such as office blocks will generally require mechanical systems to maintain comfort conditions. Building Envelope . Ventilation of the building when the outdoor air is cool can also help to cool the building. there is opportunity for buildings to loose heat to the environment through the walls and roof at night. it was found that the energy needed for heating in winter is similar to or even greater than the energy needed for cooling in summer. and indicate that the local climate is such that some of the ‘conventional wisdom’ relating to energy efficient building design needs to be re-considered. The result is that the optimal interaction between building and environment is quite complex. In most cases there are however no figures to show the actual impact of such recommendations on building energy consumption. 7. and to ensure that control systems are designed and operated to avoid conflict between the mechanical systems and the thermal mass elements of the envelope and internal structure. Even in summer. Building envelope energy performance in the climate of Gaborone.1. Recently an exercise was carried out to quantify the impact of different strategies for improving building performance.

timber. Thermal conductivity.3. Opaque materials are those that do not allow transmission of light or thermal radiation. The second are described under ‘construction properties’. They include materials such as glass and plastics used in windows. In addition to the properties of opaque materials. Specific Heat Capacity measures the ability of a material to store heat energy.2.1. 7.K/W].4. It is the inverse of thermal conductivity. and is measured in units of [m. it is important to know the transmissivity of translucent materials.2. Thermal properties of building materials Thermal properties of building materials include those that are related to a particular material irrespective of its dimensions and location. Thermal conductivity is a measure of the ability of a material to transfer heat by conduction. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. Building materials can conveniently be considered in two categories.2.1. metals and fibre insulation. concrete. The first group are described below under ‘material properties’. and properties that relate to the material or groups of materials in a particular configuration as it is used in a building. Thermal resistivity is a measure of the ability of a material to resist heat transfer by conduction. • Specific heat capacity. 7. • Density. The properties of opaque building materials that are most relevant to the thermal performance include the following: • Thermal conductivity. The thermal properties of a number of common building materials are given in Appendix 1.2. Translucent materials are those that allow the transmission of light or thermal radiation. It is measured in units of [W/m. Density measures the mass of a unit volume of material. Thermal resistivity. Specific Heat Capacity. It is measured in units of [kJ/kg.1. Material properties.1. It is measured in units of [kg/m3].2.K] 7. They include typical wall materials such as bricks. opaque and translucent.2.K]. 7. • Thermal resistivity.7. curtain walling and skylights. Density.1. 7.1. Building Envelope Page 7 .2. It is useful to allow the calculation of heat capacity by volume.

Building Envelope . 7. Outside Solar Radiation I nside Conduction through a w all A b s o r b e d s o la r r a d ia tio n Construction properties A material or group of materials forming a construction element of a building has properties that are determined partly by the thermal properties of the materials themselves.1 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer through the Building Envelope. The thermal properties of a number of common building construction elements are given in Appendix 1. 7.2. The properties of construction elements that are most relevant to thermal performance are as follows: o Overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value). o Overall thermal resistance (R-value).2. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. since the surface heat transfer coefficients for both convective and radiant heat transfer are dependant on the surface temperatures. o Relectivity o Transmissivity. It is measured in units of [W/m2.K]. Convection Transm itted Solar Radiation Long w ave radiation Long w ave radiation Fig.7.2. It combines the heat transfer coefficients for convective and radiative heat transfer from both surfaces with the conductive heat transfer to provide a single overall heat transfer coefficient for the surface. The overall heat transfer coefficient is an approximate measure that simplifies the calculation of heat transfer through walls.2. floors and roofs. It is somewhat approximate. Overall heat transfer coefficient (‘U’ value). o Heat capacity.1. and partly by the surface characteristics and geometry of the construction. o Emissivity (= absorptivity).

It is a ratio between 0 and 1. This is defined as the product CR (heat capacity multiplied by overall thermal resistance).2.2. and is a measure of the resistance to heat transfer of a building element such as a wall.3. Transmissivity.7. Reflectivity. It is equal to absorptivity.2.2. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.K/W]. Emissivity. 7.2. 7.2. Transmissivity is a measure of the ability of a material to transmit radiant energy through it. It has units of seconds. It is found by adding the individual thermal resistances of each layer of the element.6. 7. It is a ratio between 0 and 1. It is a dimensionless ratio between 0 and 1. Specific Heat Capacity measures the ability of a material to store heat energy.2.5.2. floor or roof. Heat Capacity.2. It is measured in units of [kJ/m3]. Combined Heat Capacity and Resistance. It is measured in units of [m2. 7. It only applies to translucent materials such as glass. Overall thermal resistance is the inverse of overall heat transfer coefficient. Reflectivity is a measure of the ability of a surface to reflect radiant energy. It is suggested by Hamilton et. It has been suggested that the combined effect of heat capacity and resistance may be an important criterion for the effectiveness of wall materials.7. including the surface resistances of the inner and outer surfaces.2. al that a figure of CR=93 [x103sec] may be optimum for the climate in Botswana. Emissivity is a measure of the ability of a surface to emit radiant heat energy. 7. Heat capacity is a measure of the ability of a building element to retain heat.2. relative to that of a black surface at the same temperature.2. which is a measure of the ability of a surface to absorb radiant heat energy. Overall thermal resistance (‘R’ value).2. Building Envelope Page 9 .4.

The main aim is to minimise solar gain on vertical surfaces in summer. The north wall may be designed to receive sunshine in winter. and the area of these walls should be reduced as far as possible. Buildings with high internal heat gains such as offices have very little need for heating even in winter. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. 7.west.2 Sunpath in Gaborone in summer and winter. Fig. 7.7. In buildings that require heating in winter. that expose the wall to the low winter sun. and in this case solar heat gain should be avoided at all times. Orientation. but shade it from the sun in the spring and autumn when heating is not needed. but not in the summer.3. The optimum orientation is therefore with the longer axis of the building running east .3 Using the roof overhang to shade the north wall in summer.3. and the pattern by which this changes through the year.3. Allowing solar heat gain in winter. Reducing solar heat gain in summer. The main factor that determines the optimal orientation for a building is the daily path of the sun through the sky. The east and west walls are exposed to the sun in the mornings and afternoons respectively. 7.1. 7. a further consideration is to achieve solar heat gain in the winter. Fig. by arranging shading devices (which may include the roof overhang).2. Building Envelope .

Indicator Orientation Summer (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.7 15. Botswana’) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.yr] % increase over E-W Winter (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.5 17 -4. Building Envelope Page 11 .2 -1.6 1.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.1% 3.1 5.6 6.6 14.8 30.2 2.yr] Total [kWh/m2.yr] % increase over E-W Classroom E-W (base) N-S 0 47.6 1.5 14.5 0.3 0 52.0% Table 7.4 1.3 47.6% 1 53 54 1 49 50 -7.9 34.7 32.5 13.yr] Total [kWh/m2.2 15.9 6.yr] Total [kWh/m2.8 32.8 3.yr] % increase over E-W Annual (12 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.5% 12.8 8.2 10.1% 6.4% Residential E-W (base) N-S 0.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.4 15.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.9% Office E-W (base) N-S 0 99 99 0 104 104 5.2 15 15.2 52.0% 1 76 77 1 76 77 0.3 15.1 Effect of orientation on energy consumption for three types of building in Gaborone (EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone.2 17.3 13.7 14.4% 1.4 8.

This requires the coordinated input of different specialists to ensure that all the disciplines involved in the building are considered. Lighting).4% cancelled a summer additional cost of 5.1.1. Total energy consumption is however not the only important criterion. 7.7. Windows that admit direct sunshine result in internal areas that are too hot and subject to glare (see Section 9.9%. The average monthly temperature in Gaborone ranges between 25°C in January and 12°C in July. It was less for the residential building (2% increase in annual energy consumption for heating and cooling). By considering the optimal characteristics of each element of the building envelope. winter and the full year is summarised in table 7. Characteristics of envelope elements The design team must find the combination of characteristics for each building element that best achieves the requirements of the design brief. The overall effect on energy performance is significant for the classroom building (6.4. and the south elevation is not a problem in this regard. Fig. An E-W orientation allows for the larger elevations of a building to face north and south. in terms of the opportunities and threats that these offer the building. The effect of changing orientation from E-W to N-S was simulated for three building types. the most appropriate combination of elements can be achieved.4 Envelope heat flows. a winter saving of 8. Quantifying the effect of orientation.3. The north elevation can be more easily protected from the sun than the east and west elevations. The ground temperature at a depth of 500mm below natural ground level is approximately equal to the average monthly temperature. Buildings generally benefit from ground floors that are in good thermal contact with the ground. The effect on energy performance in summer. Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. Building Envelope . This requires consideration of the particular conditions that each element is exposed to. Ground Floor.3. by losing heat to the ground.4. It had no effect at all for the office building.1% increase in annual energy consumption for heating and cooling). 7. 7.

Fig 7. such as white painted galvanised steel.4. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. compared with no insulation. Roof details. typically sheet metal or concrete tiles. Roof. During the night the roof radiates to the night sky. and also loses heat by convection to the cool night air. Generally the roof should be light coloured to reflect solar radiation. and insulation laid over the ceiling can help to reduce the transfer of heat from the roof space into the occupied rooms below. Throughout the day the roof is exposed to direct solar radiation.1. with a ceiling fixed under or over the structure depending on whether this is designed to be seen as part of the indoor spaces. and well insulated to prevent heat gain in the summer and heat loss in the winter.The simulation for a classroom building indicated an increase in annual heating and cooling energy of 22. If the ceiling is suspended under the structure. This reduces the amount of heat that passes into the roof space in the first place. there is typically a roof void that may or may not be ventilated to the outside of the building. A similar advantage may be achieved by using a reflective underlay (such as Sisalation) under concrete tiles. which is potentially the most significant source of heat gain.2. the roof is most exposed to climatic sources of heat gain and heat loss. 7. Ventilation of the roof space can help to reduce the temperature further. The most cost effective improvement that can be made to a building with a galvanised roof is to paint it white. For most of the year this is achieved by reducing heat transfer as much as possible. Of all the building elements. Lightweight roofs generally consist of an outer weatherproof layer. This is supported on either steel or timber trusses. 7. Building Envelope Page 13 . Lightweight roofs. The most effective strategy is to use a reflective surface for the roof finish.5.4.2.9% when 50mm of insulation was provided between the floor and the ground. The most important strategy is to manage the transfer of heat through the roof structure.

reducing fluctuations. and maximise the effectiveness of the slab as a heat capacitor for the building. An insulated concrete roof resulted in an energy saving of 52. Insulation may be added below the slab. This depends on many other factors. As with all thermal mass elements.7. For the classroom building the saving by providing 100mm insulation was 43. and similarly in the office building annual energy cost was increase by 5%. In a building with no air-conditioning system this may be beneficial in reducing temperature fluctuations. since the heat transfer through the insulating element will be further reduced by the smaller temperature difference across this element. The positioning and capacity of this insulation is important. compared with the galvanised steel roof with no ceiling insulation.2. Simulation of roof interventions. Insulation may be added above the slab. there is the danger that this may be in conflict with the mechanical heating and cooling system leading to excessive energy consumption.6%.7%. The three storey commercial building showed an annual energy saving of 4.6% increase in energy cost.4. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.3. This may be a good solution for buildings that are airconditioned. having significant thermal mass and a degree of insulation within one element. Additional insulation is needed to avoid excessive heat gain to the building in summer and heat loss in winter.9% in the classroom building. and moderating the indoor temperature to a reasonably comfortable average of outdoor maximum and minimum temperatures. including internal loads and the performance of other building elements. In the residential building the concrete roof resulted in a 3.2. Building Envelope .8% with a white roof compared to a galvanised roof. However this was fitted with a concrete tile roof finish with Sisalation underlay which is reasonably efficient to begin with. 7. Providing insulation below the slab will moderate the effect of the thermal mass.2. In the classroom building. and again there are a number of options.4. Depending on the relative impact of Page 14 daytime radiant heat gain and night time radiant cooling. Heavyweight roofs. the underside of the slab may be close to the indoor comfort temperature for much of the time. the equivalent saving was 46%. This will reduce heat exchange between the slab and the outdoor environment. Heavy roofs are generally constructed as concrete slabs. The simulation for a double storey residential house showed that increasing the ceiling insulation from 50mm to 150mm lead to an energy saving of 2.

3 -1.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.2 15.3 24.7% 6.5 14.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.5 -6.9% 1.yr] % increase over base 0.5% 1 53 54 1 50 51 -5.6% 3.6 2.yr] Total [kWh/m2.7% 1 76 77 1 72 73 -5.7% 1.7 -45. Botswana’) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.6 9.yr] % increase over base Annual (12 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.1 1.8 15 0.1% 0 97 97 -2.5 14.7 5.yr] Total [kWh/m2.1 24.2 Effect of roof colour and insulation on energy consumption of three building types in Gaborone (EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone.8 17.4 8.2 7.5% +100mm Insul'n Green metal (base) 0 99 99 Office White metal +100mm Insul'n Summer (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.6% 1 54 55 1.3 14.2% 1 76 77 0.8 30.8 5.4 14.1 1.2 8.3 0.7 -45.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.7 13.yr] % increase over base Winter (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.3 47.Indicator Roof Classroom Residential Galv White 100mm Conc. Building Envelope Page 15 .4 11.5% 12.6 1.0% 3.9% 0.6 16.4% 0 27 27 -42.8 -3.3% 0 94 94 -5.4 -48.1 6.0% Table 7.5 -2.6 14.8 32.1 14.7 14.6% 6.3 13.6 2. tiles White uninsulat'd metal insulation (base) metal (base) 0 47.8 18.yr] Total [kWh/m2.1% 12.1 -37.9 14.9 7.2 17.3 15 15.5 0.4 -43.3 15.

If these are deciduous. 7. In midwinter the sun rises in the northeast and sets in the northwest. 7. very little need for heating should have the north walls protected from the sun if possible. In designing the walls consideration should be given to the different conditions that they will be exposed at each time of day and season depending on their orientation. Walls that face the east and west should generally be as well insulated as possible.6. These elevations can benefit from shading from trees. In some cases there are conflicting opportunities or constraints at different times of year. to prevent summer heat gain from the low morning and evening sun. with the sun at an average midday altitude of 42° in June. shrubs or climbing plants.4. North Elevation.2. (See Section 6. e.g.3. During this time.3. The north elevation receives sunshine during the winter months.1. evergreen trees or climbers would be more appropriate. At these times of year the midday sun reaches an altitude of about 55°.4. It appears that different solutions are appropriate for different types of building. It now rises and sets about 15° north of the east – west axis so that it sees little of the north wall in the early morning and late afternoon.4. Shading of windows on this elevation should therefore be designed to protect the windows when the sun is above an altitude of about 60°. East and West Elevations. Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. the north elevation is therefore exposed to quite large amounts of direct solar radiation that can provide some useful heat gain in this cold period for buildings such as residential houses that require heating. a west facing wall may benefit from the heat of the sun in winter. the building can benefit from morning and afternoon heat gain in the winter months while being protected in the summer. Planning).7. Walls. For buildings with large internal loads that require cooling in winter. Building Envelope . Sunpath in Gaborone in summer and winter. The heating season typically begins in April and ends in August. Buildings such as offices or classrooms that have Fig 7.3. but suffer in the summer.

6 16 18.8 32.5% 6. cavity base 0 47.5% ins.9% 0 102 102 3.1 15.3 33. Botswana’) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.5 10.5% 3.5 0.0% ins.4 8.yr] Total [kWh/m2.yr] % increase over 220mm Winter (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.Indicator Wall insulation Summer (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.5 14.6 4.5 52.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.9 -26.2 15.7 -60.yr] % increase over 220mm Classroom 220mm ins.7 14.2 17.6% 12.0% 3.8% 1.5 10.5 16.8 30.7 1.5 -54.5% Table 7. Building Envelope Page 17 .3 Effect of wall insulation on energy consumption for three building types in Gaborone (EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone.8 5. cavity base 0.8 9. mass Residential 220mm ins.3 47. cavity base 0 99 99 0 101 101 2.8% 2 8.3 0 51.1 15.0% 0.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.8 6.1% 1 53 54 0 60 60 11.yr] Total [kWh/m2.1 15.8 1.9% ins.3 15.5% 2.5 11.3 18.3 4. mass Office 220mm ins.6 1.1 15.5 -29.2% 0 82 82 6.2 -1.3 34.yr] % increase over 220mm Annual (12 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.8 51.8 2.2 8.yr] Total [kWh/m2.9 5.2 -1.1% 0 62 62 14.6 14.4 8.0% 1.6 1.4 35.5% 1 76 77 0 81 81 5.9 2. mass 0 52.9 35.7 9.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.

The subject of daylighting is covered in more detail in Section 8. namely: o Daylighting. When the building requires cooling.4.. or insulated mass walls in place of standard 220mm walls. By midday the sun is almost directly overhead. This is an element that may justify some cost analysis. The simulation showed that for the residential building type substantial energy savings can be achieved by using insulated cavity walls. As a result.4. 7. where cooling energy greatly exceeds heating energy. 7. Building Envelope .4.1. This is the best elevation on which to locate windows for daylighting. o Conductive and convective heat gain and heat loss. Increased mass walls with insulation are marginally better than insulated cavity walls. The south wall may therefore be a good opportunity to introduce thermal mass to increase the thermal capacitance of the building. o Ventilation. and selective coatings. o Radiant heat gain. The primary objective in designing the fenestration for a building should be to maximise the benefits. since these receive little or no direct sunlight.3. Improved insulation can be achieved using various configurations of multiple glazing. Daylighting. the walls actually help by absorbing heat from the inside during the day and transferring it to the outside at night.3.3) 7. the cost of which is generally more the greater the effectiveness of the product. The south elevation receives only a glancing blow from the sun in the early morning and late afternoon in mid summer.4. (See Table 7. The objective of window design with respect to lighting should be to provide as much of the indoor lighting requirement with daylighting as is possible without compromising other energy efficiency considerations. o Views. Fenestration. so that in some cases the same quantity of daylight may be achieved with smaller clear windows as Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. insulated walls resulted in increased energy consumption for both the classroom and office building types. as there is a clear relation between cost and thermal effectiveness.4. Simulation of wall interventions. In particular this will require consideration of the heat transfer properties of the glazing.3. The benefit was almost entirely in reduced heating energy in winter. Lighting. Selective coatings may also reduce the light penetration.7.4. South Elevation. but the improvement was marginal. while minimising the negative qualities: o Glare.4.

double glazing.4. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.3. The shading coefficient is the ratio of Total Solar Energy Transmission of a glass compared to the Total Solar Energy Transmission for ordinary 3mm glass. large amounts of glazing will result in high indoor temperatures and uncomfortable buildings. with annual energy savings as follows: o Residential -0. with an annual savings as follows: o Residential 3. Views of the outdoor environment have an important impact on the quality of the indoor environment for a variety of occupations. Double glazing was found to have very little effect on energy consumption. In buildings that are not airconditioned. Typical properties of different types of glass available in Southern Africa are given in Appendix x.3% o Office 0.with larger coated windows.8% o Office 6. (See Table 7. including shading of north facing windows.4.0% Increasing the glazing area from 20% to 40% of external wall area resulted in substantial increases in energy consumption for all building types.0% North window shading has some benefit for classrooms and office buildings.2. and using specialised glass. with lower cost and overall heat loss. Views. This was somewhat mitigated by using ‘Coolvue’ glass with a selective coating.) It is recommended that glazing areas are generally kept to no more than about 30% of external wall area. Simulation of window interventions. increasing the glazing ratio. but not for the residential building.4. 7.6% o Classroom 0. 7.3% (increase in energy) o Classroom 4. and can significantly improve people’s productivity.4. Higher glazing levels in air conditioned buildings will lead to excessive consumption of energy unless sophisticated design measures such as ventilated double facades or solar control glass with external shading are employed.4. but overall energy consumption was still between 10% and 30% higher than in the base case. Various interventions were simulated on the three types of buildings. The ratio of Total Visible Light Transmission compared to Total Solar Energy Transmission has been included to give a comparison of which glass is most effective at transmitting maximum light with minimum energy. Building Envelope Page 19 .

1% 40% Coolvue 0 102 102 3.7 40.4 5.9 23.2 6.yr] 32.yr] % increase over base Classroom 20% clear 40% clear (base) 0 47.2 24.0% Annual (12 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.9 20.5 8.6 18.7 18.yr] % increase over base Winter (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.3 21.1 17.3% 1 53 54 1 66 67 24.4 5.2% 0.7 14.9 1.4% 11.5 22.yr] 30.8 35.9 35.4 Effect of glazing interventions on energy consumption for three building types in Gaborone (EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone.yr] Total [kWh/m2.yr] Total [kWh/m2.6 37.7% Residential 40% 10% clear 40% clear Coolvue (base) 0 52.2 15.3 53.3% 0 99 99 0 106 106 7.8 1.Indicator Window glazing Summer (6 months) Heating energy [kWh/m2.3 47.8 76 86 Total [kWh/m2.3 10.0% 14.6 15. Botswana’) 1 81 82 6.4 21.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.3 0 53.0% 3.3 12.6 11.6 1.2 30.8 6.7 11.8 3.yr] 1.2 17.6 52.0% 12.7 77 87 % increase over base 16.3 19.5 1.3 14.yr] Cooling energy [kWh/m2.3 15.5 0.5% Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.1% 1 60 61 13.9 1 1 Cooling energy [kWh/m2.3 21.4% 21.8% 13.5 4 14.6 14. Building Envelope .9 18.7% 3.0% Office 40% 20% clear 40% clear Coolvue (base) 0.5 12.8 37.5% 18.6 3.0% Table 7.

widely argued to be distracting for students and workers alike -.seem to have a positive effect on performance. Healthy buildings pay for themselves Daylight. A 2003 energy commission study of the Fresno School District found that complex window views -. Where this is not the case. Indoor Environment).5. improvement of air quality.8% Page 21 7. July 23. Ventilation may be achieved by openings in the walls or roof that are controlled by the occupants. Better views have also been associated with better health conditions. a study of the effects of views at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District's customer service call center found that better views were consistently associated with better performance.supported better learning results.5. Simulation of ventilation interventions. Similarly. The annual energy savings for the three types of building were as follows: o Residential 27.1% o Office 27. The issue of security also needs to be considered if windows are to be left open at night to take advantage of cool night air. In one study. or by mechanical means using fans and ducting. Carol Lloyd Sunday. This of course assumes that the outdoor air is of an adequate quality to achieve this. computer programmers with views spent 15 percent more time on their primary task.4.Even stimulating views -. by removing polluted air and replacing this with better quality outdoor air.1. Ventilation in buildings serves two main purposes. Simulations were carried out to quantify the effect of using ventilation to modify indoor temperature when the outdoor air temperature is beneficial. 2006 San Francisco Chronicle Ventilation is the primary means of improving air quality. Workers enjoying the best possible views processed calls 7 to 12 percent faster than those with no views.4. such as doors and windows. Ventilation. filtration may be required to achieve an acceptable level of indoor air quality (see Section 4. 7.with greenery or people and distant landscapes -. while those without views spent 15 percent more time chatting on the phone or to one another. Ventilation can also be used as a means of improving indoor climate under favourable conditions.0% o Classroom 5. and improvement of indoor climate. views are more than mere amenities. Design of ventilation systems must take into consideration the potential problem of drafts which can cause localised discomfort as well as creating problems such as paper blowing around. Building Envelope . Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.

This specifies maximum permissible U-values and minimum R-values for various envelope components. Some practical problems do need to be addressed in order to achieve this level of ventilation in a controlled manner. An example of such a code is the ASHRAE Standard 90.5. Codes and Standards Codes have been adopted in a number of countries that define minimum energy performance standards for different classes of buildings. Climate is defined in terms of heating and cooling degree days. Appendix 3 gives details of some of the requirements of this standard for Pretoria. together with the relevant climatic data. Page 22 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.For the office building type. without causing problems with draft. Building Envelope . ventilation has the greatest potential to reduce energy cost of all the interventions to the building envelope that were simulated. 7. based on the climate in which the building is situated. These typically include specific requirements for building envelope elements.1 2001: Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings.

“Engineering Thermodynamics Work and Heat Transfer” Longman. USA. Oxford: ButterworthHeinemann Ltd. Botswana.A design Guide for the Built Environment in Hot Climates. G.6. Hamilton. Y. 7.edu/toolkit/temperature/index0.). Lechner. Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings.2. Government of Botswana. Mayhew. Department of Standards. January 25. Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings. P. October 2000.okstate.C. Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for NonResidential Buildings. Web sites. al. Heating.B. Energy Code for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings.ashrae. H. Malaysian Standard MS1525: 2001. Passive Solar Design Workbook. D. 1984. (ed) 1996. ASHRAE Standard 90. BRET.. Cooling. Department of Energy.html PG Glass http://www. Final Rule.7. January 2007. et. US Government. New Metric Handbook – Planning and Design Data. Rogers. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects. http://www.R. (Ed. John Wiley & Sons. 1979. Energy Code for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings. B. 1990. 2000 7. and Adler. Tutt. Codes and Standards.D.3. Soil Temperature Variations With Time and Depth http://soilphysics. L. Books and reports. EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone. Guam Energy Code. Building Envelope Page 23 .org/ Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7. London: James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd. Malaysia. Hunn. US Government. N.6.6. 1967. Department of Energy.smartglass. “Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics. 2002 Stay Cool .za ASHRAE American Society of Heating.6.1. Department of Energy. ASHRAE Standard 90. Botswana’.. Koch-Nielsen.1-2001. October 2000. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers.1-2001.co. Final Rule. American Samoa and Guam Energy Code Development Project. Resource Material 7.F.

eere. Energy Design Resources http://www.gov/buildings/ SBIC. sustainability.org EDR.sbicouncil.energy.com/ EERE Building Technologies Program Home Page http://www.CIBSE Chartered Institute for Building Services Engineers http://cibse. software. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council.org/ Page 24 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 7.org/wiki/Concepts WBDG .org SQUARE ONE environmental design. Building Envelope .wbdg.energydesignresources. architecture. http://www.Whole Building Design Guide http://www. http://squ1.

SECTION 8 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. . Building envelope. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Climate. 2. 12. Mechanical Systems. 7. 4. Design and construction process. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. 8. Simulation. 3. 9. 5. Appendices. Indoor Environment. 11. Design Brief. Planning. 10. 13. 6. Introduction.artificial and day lighting. Lighting .

5.2.4. Variable Air Volume Ventilation systems 8. Air Conditioning / Centralised Systems 8.5.CONTENTS 8.1.1. 8.3. Heating.4. Design Brief.3.2.4. 8. Semi-passive buildings 8.4. ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) 8.3. Overview 8.1.5. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (HVAC) 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 14 14 8. HVAC system design. Fabric heat gains 8.2.5.2.2. Evaporative Cooling 8.3.3. Fan Coil Units Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 3 . Chilled Beams/Chilled Slabs 8.4.4. Internal heat gains 8. Ventilation & Cooling Systems 8.3.3. Selecting the type of system.5. Building heating & cooling loads 8.3.2.5. 8. Mixed-mode Buildings 8. Sizing the system. 8. Passive Cooling 8.2.4.5.2.6.5. Naturally Ventilated Buildings 8. Local Comfort Cooling 8. Zoning.5. Comfort Cooling / Unitary Systems 8. Constant Volume Ventilation systems 8.4.1.4.3.1. 8.

Cooling 8. Refrigeration and Cooling Equipment 8. Absorption Chillers 8.8. Performance Standards .1.5.6.7. Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems .7. Cooling Towers/Water Cooled Chillers 8. Desiccant Cooling Groundwater cooling / Ground source heat pumps 15 15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 8.2. Thermal Storage 8. Controls 8.2.12.12. Heating Equipment 8.Ventilation 8.2.3.7.1.3.7. Performance Standards .4. Commissioning & Handover 8.1.12.6. Websites. Codes and Standards.7.7.8.12. 8.11.8. 8. Maintenance & Replacement 8. Fans and AHUs 8.10.5.6. Ventilation Equipment 8.7. Books and papers 8.9. Air Cooled Chillers 8. Resource material 8.5.

3 providing background information on thermal loads and design of HVAC systems.7 and 8. 8.8 include detailed advice on ventilation.2.4 discusses HVAC system selection. 8. e) amount of passive cooling available (from thermal mass etc) Fabric heat gains There are three main sources of heat gain through the building envelope a) Solar gain through windows – solar radiation passing through windows will cause very high heat gains if windows are too large and without external shading. Building heating & cooling loads In Botswana in most large buildings such as offices there is very little requirement for heating even in the winter period.5 outlines a range of different HVAC systems available. It is not the intention to present comprehensive design guidelines. The section is structured with chapters 8. Indoor Environment. b) the amount of fresh air ventilation delivered to the occupants – see design criteria in Section 4. The amount of heat 8. it should be possible to limit gains to around 25W/m² (floor area) or less. walls.1. Gain can be reduced using solar coated glazing (see Section 7. and Chapter 8. which include both external loads relating to the influence of the external climate through the building envelope as well as internal loads generated by the users of the building. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 5 . cooling and heating systems respectively. their lighting. It begins by discussing the loads. and other equipment. heat is conducted through the building fabric. equipment such as computers. lighting etc. walls and roof – when it is warmer outside than inside. b) Conduction gain through windows.the amount of heat entering the building from outside (through windows. solar gains may easily be over 100W/m². roof and by uncontrolled air infiltration) d) internal heat gains – the amount of heat generated inside the building by the occupants.6.8.10 address controls.2 and 8.9 and 8. Indoor Environment. The following chapters 8. Chapters 8. In a poorly designed building with extensive glazing. c) fabric heat gains . commissioning and maintenance of systems.1. MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (HVAC) Overview This section addresses the subject of mechanical systems in buildings and the heating and cooling loads that they are designed for. 8. Chapter 8. In a well designed building. The cooling load of a building in summer will depend on: a) the desired internal temperature (cooling a building to 20°C will use a lot more energy than cooling a building to 24°C) – see design criteria in Section 4. but rather to highlight opportunities for increased energy efficiency related to the classes of building covered by these Guidelines.2. Building Envelope).

2. Passive Cooling Heavyweight buildings with exposed high density finishes such as concrete ceilings or tiled floors absorb heat during the day and radiate it out during the night.conducted depends on the insulation properties of the construction.3. c) Office equipment – computers. 8. photocopiers etc all give off heat. c) Uncontrolled air infiltration – warm outside air entering the building through gaps in the envelope. but typically include a) Occupants – people generate heat from their bodies See Section 4. Any building with cooling should always be constructed so as to be as airtight as possible (allowing the amount of fresh air to be controlled). Internal heat gains Sources of internal heat gains will depend on the use of the building. Modern LCD flat screens give off much less heat than CRT monitors and should therefore be encouraged. With poor construction techniques. Indoor Environment for further details. d) Catering equipment. With good airtight construction. open windows. but can be equivalent to 15-20 W/m² in a well designed building. The greater the occupant density (ie people/m²) the greater this heat gain will be.2. Note that the amount of heat given off by a piece of equipment is usually much less than the rated power requirement (which is the peak power requirement). infiltration can lead to gains of well over 50 W/m². Typical values for an office would be 1015 W/m². Typical values for an occupant density of 1 person/12m² would be 8W/m² b) Lighting – fluorescent lighting generates much less heat than intumescent lighting and will therefore reduce cooling loads.2. With roof insulation and a ventilated cavity it should be possible to reduce conduction gains to around 5 W/m² or less. Insulation is particularly important in the roof. it should be possible to limit these to 5 W/m². cracks. open doors etc will heat up the internal spaces. 8. To analyse the extent of cooling achieved normally requires a computer simulation. 50W/m² or more for a scheme with extensive dichroic and other decorative lights. This has the effect of stabilising internal temperatures and means that less active cooling is required to maintain comfortable conditions. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . Typical values are 12W/m² for an efficient fluorescent scheme. e) HVAC equipment – equipment such as fan coil units located inside the building give off some heat.

perimeter zones experience the combination of internal loads and envelope loads. Clearly in a financial data centre or food processing factory. o Maintenance and repair capabilities. The cooling system is then designed to meet the highest heat gain. Selecting the type of system. 8. This will require a move away from current designs which are directed more towards ensuring that there is always excess capacity. Zoning.8. Many factors need to be considered. Sizing the system. the implications of failure of the systems and overheating are likely to be much more severe than in say a college.3. This will include: . . Large buildings are often divided into an internal zone.2. o Resilience in the event of breakdowns. including the following: o Energy efficiency. HVAC system design. Design Day Calculations – here a design day is chosen (typically the hottest day in a “typical” year).required internal temperatures and whether occasional periods outside these conditions are acceptable. It is vital that a clear brief is agreed between the designers and client. The internal zone will tend to be dominated by internal loads. 8. while the Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 7 .3. and the design will have to reflect this. Accurate sizing of the HVAC system can lead to substantial savings both in initial capital cost and operating cost.4. which offers the opportunity to transfer heat from one zone to another in the same building.equipment to be used in the space.3. and a number of perimeter zones for each floor. . Some advice on selection of systems is given in the following section. and the various heat gains into the space calculated at each hour of the day.3. There are substantial opportunities for reducing energy consumption in buildings in Botswana by optimising HVAC system design for energy efficiency. Design Brief. Climate).hours of occupation. but are widespread not least since occupants 8. The designer must then agree the appropriate external design conditions (either a design summer day or preferably a weather file to be used for thermal simulation) (see Section 3. Generally the zoning should match the thermal performance of different parts of the building. . Effective zoning of the building for HVAC design is critical to achieving energy efficiency. with the impact of solar radiation on the different elevations of the building.3. Such methods tend to lead to oversizing of equipment.3. These may vary through the day. At certain times of year it may be that one zone requires heating while another requires cooling. 8.1.occupant numbers or density (m²/person).

Note that this is approximate only. To achieve good energy efficiency.4.will rarely complain if a system is oversized but will complain if the building overheats. The usual way to represent this is in terms of the system’s ability to provide cooling in Watts/m². This type of modelling allows the passive cooling effects of the building to be taken into account. Refer Section 11. Either one design day is taken (which is repeated several times to establish constant results) or else a whole summer period of typical weather data is used. Computer simulations – here the building is modelled typically every 10-60 minutes and heat flows in and out of the building analysed. the selection of the type of mechanical systems in a building has to be decided at the very early concept stages of the design (See Section 2.90% higher capacity systems using static methods than was required when dynamic simulation was used to size the system. Design and Construction Process). building structure and indeed the use of the building is controlled within strict limits. and allows much more accurate sizing. Design Brief and Section 5. passive or semi-passive buildings. Computer simulation is essential to predict the performance of low energy. “Low Energy” cooling systems typically have limited capacity for cooling. Simulation 8. It is essential that these limitations are understood by the client and the rest of the design team. A study in Ireland found that a large commercial building in Dublin had been designed with between 28% . ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC) The mechanical systems in a building provide ventilation. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . cooling and heating to maintain comfortable conditions. Heating. and will therefore only be successful if the building envelope.

g. many of which remain reasonably comfortable throughout the year. Windows must be openable and controllable such that they can be opened a small amount without causing large drafts. naturally ventilated buildings rely on passive cooling from the use of thermal mass.1 Selection of cooling systems (Source: ARUP) 8. Typically this involves exposed concrete ceilings Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems 8. Fig.4. and internal heat gains from lighting and equipment must also be kept very low.4. at the expense of increased energy use. reducing the risk of temperatures being too cold early in the morning. To remain comfortable in summer. For a naturally ventilated building to be successful in Botswana. Termodek system). Such buildings use much less energy than air conditioned buildings. Semi-passive buildings It is possible to use fans to assist the ventilation process and increase the amount of cooling available from the structure. and the design of such buildings is therefore to be encouraged. 8. For this to work the building must be ventilated at night so that heat absorbed during the day is released. Ceiling fans can be used to provide air movement on hot days which improves comfort conditions. Concrete ceilings must have insulation above them so that they are not heated up by the sun. and it is also easier to control the volumes of fresh air being delivered during the day. For Page 9 . Typical systems include blowing air through the centre of extruded concrete beams (e.1. offices. basement thermal labyrinths or using chambers filled with rocks as a thermal store. schools. By using a fan it is easier to guarantee night time ventilation. windows should be designed to avoid all direct sunlight into the building during summer months.2. Naturally Ventilated Buildings There are many examples of naturally ventilated buildings in Botswana such as houses.and/or heavyweight floor finishes. etc.

such as multi-storey office buildings which have been designed with large areas of glazing (gains of 75W/m² and over). but are designed such that this can be switched off and the building operated as a naturally ventilated building when outside conditions allow.3. Air Conditioning / Centralised Systems Generally centralised air conditioning systems are likely to be suitable for buildings that require conditioning throughout most of the building. Mixed-mode Buildings Here buildings are provided with cooling systems. However. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . 8.5.4. thus saving considerable amounts of money. to be successful. there is a risk that the cooling systems will be used all year round. Comfort Cooling / Unitary Systems It may be that only certain of the rooms within a building require cooling (for example computer rooms. and have relatively high internal loads. it is essential that they are made airtight.4. Unless the system is simple to operate and the occupants understand it. 8. Different types of centralised systems are described in the following section. buildings have to be carefully designed with all of the features of a naturally ventilated building outlined above.4.4. Unitary systems (such as dx split units) may be suitable where only a few rooms need to be conditioned. In Botswana there is a large part of the year when buildings could be operated like this.these buildings to be successful. meeting rooms etc). 8.

This is because it is likely that building occupants will inhale the water droplets.2 Downflow evaporative cooling unit a) Local Downflow units These units are typically roof mounted. and humidify the air either using wetted pads or spraying a fine mist of water into the air. 8.5. This makes the air cooler.1. including: o Capital cost o Running and replacement costs o Energy use o Comfort level requirements o Maintenance requirements o Adaptability and flexibility o Space requirements (for plant rooms and risers) The following gives some guidance on what systems could be considered. and are widely used in retail spaces in Botswana. clinic waiting areas. Ventilation & Cooling Systems The choice of ventilation & cooling system will depend on many factors. it is essential that the units are maintained and cleaned properly. for example classrooms.5. The cool. Fig 8. e. Air is drawn downwards by a fan over pads which are continually wetted with water. Various types of evaporative cooling can be used: Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 11 . Evaporative Cooling The principle behind evaporative cooling is that when water evaporates. b) Evaporative Coolers incorporated within AHUs i) Direct The units are designed to fit within air handling units (typically after the supply fan). Evaporative cooling systems may be suitable for rooms with lower heat gains and/or where internal design conditions are less stringent. and have a split units in the consulting rooms. Typically water treatment is required to ensure that the sprays do not clog and that health risks are minimised.g.8. shops and residential houses. in a clinic it may be appropriate to use evaporative cooling for general waiting areas and corridors. They may in some cases be combined with a few unitary systems. it takes heat from the surrounding air. As with downflow units. but also more humid. moist air is then supplied to the space.

Fig.ii) Indirect In these units the humidification occurs on the extract air. Local Comfort Cooling Fig. The units are linked with refrigerant pipework. 8. to cool the air without humidification. leak detection may be required in such spaces. c) Other ways of taking advantage of evaporative cooling include fountains.4 VRV outdoor unit and indoor concealed unit a) Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRF/VRV) These systems comprise several indoor units (cassettes or concealed ducted units) connected to a large condenser unit(s) typically mounted on the roof. the water is first circulated in a dry coil in front of the incoming air. water features etc. In one. The advantage of this arrangement is that the supply air is cooled but not humidified. these are usually less controllable and effective than purpose designed equipment. 8. Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . The slightly warmer water is then trickled over a core and evaporated into the incoming air.5. iii) Two stage A number of variations of basic evaporative coolers exist. However. A thermal wheel in the AHU then transfers some cooling from the cooled extract air to the supply air. Disadvantages are the increased complexity and decreased efficiency. Care should be taken when routing refrigerant pipework through spaces where people may be sleeping. and depending on the volume of refrigerant.2.3 Two stage evaporative cooler AHU Refrigerants with a zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential should be used and R22 should be avoided. 8.

so that all areas in that zone have similar cooling/heating loads and hours of operation. Opening doors and windows to provide fresh air will waste significant energy.5. with only a % of fresh air (typically 10 litres/sec/person) introduced. Fig. A typical standard to aim for is a specific fan performance of 3 W/l/s. One way of achieving very low pressure drops is to use a raised floor to supply the air. Again.3. 8. and this provides “free cooling” reducing the number of hours that chillers are required to run. refrigerants with a zero ozone depletion potential and low global warming potential should be used and R22 should be avoided.5Split system outdoor unit and indoor cassette unit b) Direct Expansion (DX) split units (heat pumps) These systems should be used with a separate system supplying fresh air (typically into the back of the unit). This minimises the energy used cooling the fresh air. Although relatively easy to install and maintain. when outside temperatures are below say 20°C. The AHU is equipped with filters and a cooling coil (either using chilled water or refrigerant) and serves a single zone of the building. these units have significantly higher energy use than other options for cooling. the AHU can use 100% of outside air. This means the AHU air volumes will typically be in the order of 50100 litres/sec/person. Reducing the pressure drop through ducts and grilles will greatly reduce the energy used by the fan. However. the majority of air in the AHU is recirculated. a central air handling unit provides all the air required for cooling as well as for fresh air. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 13 . Constant Volume Ventilation systems In these systems.8. Air is blown from the AHU in to the raised floor (typically at least 300mm high) and allowed out via diffusers in the floor. When the air temperature outside is hot.

The surface then provides cooling both by convection and radiation. but are able to vary the volume of air supplied to each room. They provide very accurate local control of temperature.5. Fresh air is typically supplied by an AHU.5. They do not use fans to distribute cooling. and chilled/cool water circulated through the slab. and so are potentially more efficient than fan coil solutions. The advantage of such a system is that it can cope with some rooms with higher heat gains than others. but are not very energy efficient due to the energy required to run the fan.6 Chilled ceiling installation and active chilled beam Chilled beams consist of metal plates attached to the ceiling through which chilled water is passed. and the air-conditioning can be turned off in a room if it is not in use. Such a system might be appropriate for a building which is naturally ventilated to improve comfort at peak summer conditions. They are typically mounted either on the perimeter (under windows) or in a false ceiling.4. Chilled Beams/Chilled Slabs These systems are used in conjunction with an AHU which supplies the minimum fresh air requirement. control of the system is not straightforward.6. Chilled slabs are case with plastic pipework in situ.5. chilled beams are combined with the air supply system to increase the cooling available. pump the chilled water etc. unless the supply air is carefully controlled and dehumidified.5. However. 8. Care must be taken to avoid condensation forming on the plates. which limits how cold the surfaces can be made. Fig 8. Fan Coil Units Fan coil units are local fans with a filter and cooling coil which recirculate and cool/heat air locally.8. This requires more complex controls and automated dampers (VAV boxes) on each zone. Active Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . 8. Variable Air Volume Ventilation systems These systems are similar to constant volume system.

The extract air is heated before it passes through the desiccant wheel in order to recharge (dry out) the desiccant. Ground source heat pumps operate by pumping water through a loop of pipe which is buried in a borehole or similar. Depending on the resulting humidity. 8. Groundwater cooling / Ground source heat pumps The ground and groundwater remain at a relatively cool temperature throughout the year.5.7. Fig 8.5. The supply air is sprayed with water (cooling it and making it more humid) and then passes through the desiccant wheel which reduces its humidity. Because the ground stays at a constant temperature all year round. If groundwater is available it can be used as a cooling medium (and the warmed water then used for other purposes). it can be used for cooling in summer and heating in winter.7 Ceiling concealed fan coil unit and typical perimeter fan coil Recent improvements in fan coils include the use of EC (Electronically commutated) motors which use significantly less energy than conventional AC motors. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 15 . These systems are becoming more common in Europe but are relatively complex and have a high initial capital cost for the installation of boreholes etc.8.8. Desiccant Cooling A variation on evaporative cooling is desiccant cooling. it may be possible to lower the air temperature further by spraying with water again. A thermal wheel in an AHU is coated with desiccant (a material which absorbs moisture).

1. consideration is needed of: o Evaporative cooling where appropriate. o High efficiency motors for fans. o metering of electrical consumption of major plant 8.8 Guide to system selection (BSRIA AG15/2002 Illustrated Guide to Building Services) Fig. Fans and AHUs Fig 8.8.6. o Optimised AHU and duct sizes and design of fittings to reduce friction losses. o Variable speed motors for fans.6. and are of particular benefit in smaller fans (eg Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . 8. o Variable air volume systems. o Insulation to air supply ducts. o Optimised zoning and controls o Design details and construction supervision to avoid leaks and flow restrictions.9 Typical AHU EC and DC motors use less energy than standard AC motors. Ventilation Equipment For an energy efficient ventilation system.

8.5 .10 Cooling Tower diagram Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 17 .5m/s and large ducts used (velocity in ducts typically < 8m/s) to minimise fan power. Variable speed pumping systems Variable refrigerant volume systems. Thermal storage if appropriate. Generously sized AHU (air handling units) will use less energy due to lower air velocities.2. • the pressure drop through the entire ventilation system. Performance Standards .extract fans.Ventilation The Specific Fan Power takes account of • the efficiency of the fan and • the efficiency of the motor driving the fan.3 W/l/s specific fan power (that is 3 Watts of electrical power supplied to the fan motor to move each litre/second of air through the building). Filters should also be regularly cleaned and replaced since the pressure drop increases as the filters become blocked. It is calculated by taking the motor input power (in Watts) and dividing by the fan flow rate (in litres/sec) A typical target is to achieve 2. consideration is needed of: o o o o o o o o Efficient equipment.7. fan coil units etc). Refrigeration and Cooling Equipment For an energy efficient cooling system. High efficiency motors for fans and pumps.7.6. Insulation of pipes. Cooling Towers/Water Cooled Chillers Fig 8.1. Optimised zoning and controls metering of electrical consumption of chillers and pumps 8. 8. Typically a cooling coil should be selected at air velocity < 2.

Regular maintenance and water treatment is essential to minimise the risk of legionella infections. The cooling towers are then linked to water cooled chillers which provide chilled water at 6°C or as required. 8. Thermal Storage Ice or phase change materials (PCM) can be used to store coolth and reduce the size of installed equipment. cooling towers offer much more efficient cooling than standard air-cooled chillers. which potentially makes them viable for use with evacuated tube solar heaters. Air Cooled Chillers The most common form of chillers are air cooled. There are examples of solar powered absorption chillers in use.For large buildings. Typical COP is 0. though they are not common. Heat is required to regenerate the absorber.7. but there are as yet few examples of such installations. Typical COP is 6-8. Absorption Chillers Most absorption chillers use a material lithium bromide which produces a cooling effect when water is absorbed into it. Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . They also allow the chillers to be run more efficiently at night. Refrigerant R22 should not be used since this is an HCFC which damages the ozone layer. so the chillers are usually only a good solution if a low cost source of heat is available. Typical COPs are in the range 3-5. warm water is sprayed from the top of the tower typically over a metal honeycomb.7. Alternatives such as R134a and R410a are now commonly used which. while less damaging to the ozone layer than R22. the water quality must be very carefully controlled to minimise the risk of legionella and other bacteria. Typically cooling tower might cool water from 35°C to 20°C.4. due to the high temperatures required to operate the absorption chillers efficiently. The cool water is collected in a pond at the bottom of the unit. still have a significant global warming potential if released into the atmosphere. they have limited effect on the overall energy use of a building. the machines can be unreliable and unable to cope with varying chilled water demands. However. Designing a system to operate at higher chilled water temperatures (such as 8°C flow 14°C return) significantly reduces energy use since the chillers operate with a higher COP.3. However. due to losses from the storage vessel. In a cooling tower. Typically absorption chillers are most effective where there is a source of waste heat in the form of very high temperature water or steam (>100°C). with air blown upwards to cool the water.2. when outside temperatures are lower and cheaper electricity may be available. 8. 8. Even then.7.7. Some chillers are claimed to work with water temperatures as low as 80-95°C.

1 gives the recommended minimum efficiency of various cooling systems: Minimum Size category (cooling Efficiency [COP] capacity) [kW] Air cooled split <19 2.5. Table 8.66 Air cooled split <19 1.7. a hospital) this should not be provided using electricity. in relation to the energy input (usually electrical power but sometimes heat). BMS systems should therefore only be used when it is clear that the building occupant will have the necessary resources to operate them. boilers and pumps are turned off. it resulted in savings of 48% in energy consumption. and it takes typically 2. However. Heating Equipment When a building has a substantial heating demand (e.9 mode) >40.1. The ideal would be to use unwanted materials (refuse. and no heating or cooling taking place. Significant savings can be achieved using dead band control strategies.9. Performance Standards .Cooling The energy efficiency of cooling systems is measured either by the Coefficient of Performance (COP). complex controls only save energy if they are set up correctly. <40 3. However. If the user does not understand how to use them or they are not reset.2 mode) >40 3. At the other extreme is a complex BMS (building management system) which offers much more flexibility and potential for optimising plant usage and facilities for off-site monitoring/control etc. It is Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 19 .8. where the temperature is allowed to drift within a defined band with ventilation only. (ASHRAE Standard 90.D. Many standards for energy efficiency specify minimum requirements for COP for different conditions.g. In one case where this was implemented as a retrofit. 8. Poor controls will lead to the risk of pieces of 8. <40 2. all equipment such as chillers. That is because the majority of electricity supplied to Botswana is generated from coal.93 unit (Cooling >19. All these measure the useful energy output (heating or cooling). the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) or the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER).1 Table 8.471). p.1-2001) Type therefore more efficient to generate heat locally using fuel sourced locally.8. even using fossil fuels such as coal and oil is more efficient than using electricity. wood) which are produced and managed sustainably. Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Unitary Applied Heat Pumps. agricultural waste) or renewable fuels (biogas. (Hunn. then the systems may end up using more energy. During the time when temperatures are within the dead band range.99 unit (Heating >19. B.7kWh of coal to generate and transmit 1kWh of electricity. <70 2. Controls The simplest form of control would be a thermostat for each zone plus a timeclock to allow the plant to be switched on and off at a given time each day.

this can also lead to wasted energy. it is important to ensure that it is installed and commissioned so that it functions as intended. or radiant heaters to increase perceived temperature. safe access to the roof for personnel carrying tools should be provided.10. 8. but considerable expense of energy. The degree of user control of the systems is important. Structured training in the operation of the systems should be given to the client. The manual should be arranged with relevant sections addressed to the owner. Maintenance & Replacement When the building and the mechanical systems are being designed. Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems . one cooling). but considerable effect on comfort. The mechanical systems selected must be suitable to the maintainance capacity of the available local tradesmen. The commissioning process includes cleaning and flushing of pipework. with very little success in achieving the desired temperatures. These will have little or no affect on dry bulb temperature. Commissioning & Handover Having designed a highly energy efficient system.11. establishing the correct water treatment. consideration must be made for maintenance access and for how plant will be replaced in the future. To avoid this. It is well described in the BSRIA series of documents. balancing the systems and then verifying that the controls are operating as intended. For plant located on roofs. 8. and balustrades should be considered to reduce the risks of falling. It may be better to consider other means of amending the local climate to suit individual preference. spare parts etc. poor balancing etc. Operation and Maintenance & Building Management Systems). This means that a solution appropriate to Gaborone may not be suitable for a remote site in say Bobonong. and the client should be encouraged to employ competent maintenance personnel who understand the basic tasks involved (see Section 10. If the occupants of one room set their thermostat in heating mode and the adjoining room is set in cooling mode. the two units may be busy pumping heat from one to the other. the commissioning process should be carefully programmed and the risks of early occupation explained to the client. An operation and maintenance manual should also be prepared including the installation drawings and information on the equipment. The commissioning process is very often rushed and not properly completed because the contractor is eager to finish the job and the client eager to occupy the building. While it is desirable for the occupants of each room to have control over their environment.equipment “fighting” (eg one zone heating. the building users and the maintenance team. such as ceiling or desk fans to reduce.

com/ Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 8 Mechanical Systems Page 21 .3.Natural ventilation in non domestic buildings 2005 CIBSE Commissioning Codes 8. CEN. http://www.org/ Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) http://www.12.PDF e-News. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration) 2005 CIBSE Guide F (Energy Efficiency in Buildings) 2004 CIBSE Applications Manual 10 . 8.ari.” Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (ed) 1996. CEN/CR 1752: 1998-12. Bruxelles 1998 CIBSE Guide A (Environmental Design) 2006 CIBSE Guide B (Heating.energydesignresources.org/ EDR.1-2004 .com/resource/224/ Hunn.12. http://www. Prepared for California Energy Commission.8. March 2004 “Development of an improved two-stage evaporative cooling system”. Issue 57.org/ ASHRAE http://www. Public Interest Energy Research Program .aeecenter. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) http://www.12. “Fundamentals of Building Energy Dynamics. ASHRAE Standard 62.12. December 2006.Commissioning of Water Systems in Buildings CEN Standard: “Ventilation for Buildings. Books and papers Davis Energy Group. Websites.energy.1.ashrae.org/ CIBSE Chartered Institute for Building Services Engineers http://cibse. B. Energy Design Resources http://www.ca. Contract P500-04-016. SI Edition (ANSI Approved. Design Criteria for the indoor environment.energydesignresources.1-2004 – Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ANSI Approved) ASHRAE Standard 90. Codes and Standards. “Designing Office Buildings to Perform Better Than Title 24.D.Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.2. Resource material 8. IESNA Co-sponsored) ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment 2004 ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2003 BSRIA Application Guides . Ventilation.gov/reports/2004-04-07_500-04016.

.

SECTION 9 LIGHTING – artificial and daylight ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

9. 4.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. 5. Building envelope. 7. Indoor Environment. Design Brief. 8. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Mechanical Systems. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Simulation. 12. Appendices. .artificial and day lighting. 3. 11. Planning. Design and construction process. Introduction. 2. Climate. 6. 13. Lighting . 10.

Overview 9.1.1.3. LIGHTING 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 13 13 14 Page 3 9. Fluorescent tube.2.1. Light Fittings 9.1. LIghting . Strategies for energy efficient lighting 9.3.6. Light requirements 9. Basic Principles 9.6. 9. 9. Lighting control 9. Strategies for Energy Efficient Lighting Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. 9.3.1.4.3. Basic principles 9.8. 9.8. Daylight as a light source 9. Standards for energy efficient lighting 9.5.5. Incandescent lamp. Light Fittings 9. Daylight as a light source 9.4.1.7.2.3.CONTENTS 9.3.2.1.5. Compact fluorescent lamp. 9. Light Emitting Diode (LED).7. Artificial Light Sources 9. Discharge lamps. Lighting Control 9.1. Light Requirements 9.1.3.4.1.1. Artifical light sources 9.3.

10. 9. Use daylight as much as possible. Select efficient light sources and fittings.8. 9.2. Codes and Standards 9. LIghting .8. Define light requirements.8.9.10.3.9. 9. Resource Material 9.8.1.10. 9.4.1.5. Websites Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. Effective design of lighting layouts.8.2. Effective control systems. Books and papers 9.3. 14 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 9. Standards for Energy Efficient Lighting 9.10.

9. and recommendations are made for approaches to lighting design.4.2.1. Artifical light sources The different sources of artificial light are described.1. including artificial lighting and daylighting. Strategies for energy efficient lighting Various strategies for achieving energy efficient lighting are discussed. 9. Lighting control Different approaches to lighting control are discussed. 9.1. 9. Standards for energy efficient lighting Many codes and standards for energy efficient building include specific targets for the amount of energy that my be consumed for lighting. with emphasis on their energy efficiency. Basic principles The basic concepts relating to measurement of light and lighting efficiency are defined and discussed.5.3.1. 9. Light Fittings The fittings into which a light source is installed are considered. There are various standards that define light requirements for particular applications.1. LIghting Page 5 .1. in relation to their impact on lighting energy efficiency. Light requirements The amount of light required for different spaces is discussed. with some information on their relative efficiency.1. some of which are reviewed. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9.8. The different topics that are covered are briefly described below. 9. LIGHTING Overview This Section addresses the subject of lighting. 9. Daylight as a light source Characteristics of daylight as a light source are described in this section. including limits on installed capacity and actual consumption.1.1.6.7. including the advantages and problems that can be associated with use of daylight in buildings. 9.9. 9.1.

and sunlight includes the full spectrum of visible light (as well as frequencies beyond the sensitivity of the eye. such as a book.1 Visible light. The efficiency of a luminaire is know as the luminaire efficiency (or light output ratio). and is the ratio of the luminous flux emitted by the luminaire and the luminous flux of the source or lamp. The three main problems that compromise the quality of light are glare. It is measured in lux (lx) that has units of lumen per meter squared (lm/m2). Basic Principles Visible light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye. known as ultra violet and infrared). It also has a wavelength or frequency that determines the colour. This is the unit commonly used Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. Illuminance is a measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface. The intensity of light (or luminous flux) is measured in lumen (lm). 9. one experiences a very large change in brightness. and W is the electrical power consumed. Light has an intensity that is determined by the amplitude of the radiation. where lm is the luminous flux emitted by the source. the sun.2. Fig. Veiling Reflections Veiling reflections are caused by bright light sources reflected from a task surface. This is the unit used to measure the amount of light emitted by a light source. A luminaire is the fitting that a light source is installed in. and determines the perception of the brightness of the light. LIghting . veiling reflections or excessive brightness ratios. As important as the quantity or brightness of light is the quality. This is 9. Brightness Ratio When moving from indoors to outdoors on a clear day. The efficiency with which a light source converts electrical energy into light is know as its luminous efficacy and is measured in units of lm/W. Light may include a range of different frequencies or colour.to specify the level of lighting required on a surface for different activities. or the reflection of a light source is in a person’s field of view. Glare Glare is experienced when a bright light source such as a lamp.

Brightness ratio is the ratio of the brightest surface to the least bright.2. LIghting Page 7 .1. The connection to a light fitting is either by screw thread or bayonet. Until recently the most common electric light source was the incandescent lamp.unpleasant for a short period of time during which it is difficult to see detail.3. giving a light output of 420 to 1360lm at the typical lamp efficiency of about 12%. A large variety of shapes. Artificial Light Sources Incandescent lamp. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) was designed as a more efficient replacement for incandescent lamp. 9. The problem occurs when there are surfaces within the same space with large differences in brightness. Power ratings of CFLs that can provide approximately the equivalent light output to incandescent lamps are shown in the table below. Incandescent 40 60 75 100 420 710 940 1360 11 12 13 14 Table 9. This is still widely used. It is supplied with the same fixing system (screw or bayonet).3. as well as different colour ranges. 9.1 Efficiency of incandescent and CFL lamps. Compact fluorescent lamp. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9.3. Power [W] Light [lm] CFL 400 630 900 1200 Efficacy [lm/W] 57 57 60 60 7 11 15 20 9. Then the eye adjusts to the new level of brightness and can see well again. and can be used in many light fittings designed for incandescent lamps. sizes and power is available. together with their efficacy ratings. although its relatively low energy efficiency is leading to its replacement by other more efficient lamps such as the CFL. Typical lamps for household use range from about 40 to 100 W.

LIghting . resulting in the most economical light source available. Discharge lamps work by striking an electrical arc between two electrodes. Fig. They are a form of gas discharge lamp. and are formed in a long thin glass cylinder with contacts at either end that secure them to the fitting (or luminaire) and provide the electrical connection. Discharge lamps.3. 9.3. When electricity is passed through the vapour it emits UV radiation that is converted by the phosphor to visible light. causing a filler gas to give off light. Fluorescent tubes are the main form of lighting for offices and commercial buildings. these can achieve a luminous efficacy of up to 104lm/W. 9. Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. Discharge lamps provide high luminous efficacy combined with long life. Fluorescent tube.2 Lamp types. The tube contains mercury vapour at low pressure.9.4. and the inner wall of the glass is coated with a phosphor that reacts to ultra-violet radiation. Different metals and filler gasses can be used to provide a range of colour and brightness. With a smaller diameter (16mm) than earlier tubes. The most efficient fluorescent tubes are the T5.3.

9.3.5.

Light Emitting Diode (LED). LEDs use semi-conductors to convert electrical energy directly into light. They are only recently becoming available as a light source for lighting purposes, and are highly efficient and long lasting. LED torches are becoming very popular, as they provide a far longer battery life than other types of light source.

Fig. 9.3 Light emitting diodes.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. LIghting

Page 9

9.4.

Daylight as a light source
Daylight entering a building all originates from solar radiation, but it may have arrived by a number of different routes, each of which will have modified it in various ways. Solar radiation when it reaches the earth’s atmosphere covers a wide spectrum of wavelengths, including the range of visible light, ranging ranging from red at the longest wavelengths of about 700 nm to violet at the shortest wavelengths of about 400 nm. This is selectively filtered by the atmosphere, so that the radiation reaching the surface of the earth is less than that above the atmosphere. The daylight entering a building may include direct sunlight when the window has a view of the sun, as well as diffuse sunlight that has been refracted by clouds, and reflected from various surfaces such as clouds, ground or other buildings. Daylight can therefore vary greatly with weather conditions, ranging from total cloud cover to clear sky with direct sunlight. Daylight has the potential to provide large amounts of effectively free energy, reducing the amount of electricity required to achieve a given level of lighting. However day lighting must be designed with care to ensure a high quality of light for the users.

Fig. 9.4 The spectrum of solar radiation.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. LIghting

The effectiveness of daylight as a light source is measured as the “Daylight Factor”. This is the average illuminance (lux) inside a room at a standard height above floor level compared to the illuminance outdoors on an overcast day. It is usually stated as a percentage. Typically the daylight factor should be between 2-5%. Less than 2% is experienced as a dim space, whereas over 5% results in unnecessary heat gain. The illuminance of the sky is typically in the range 20,000 to 100,000 in direct sun, and between 5,000 to 20,000 when the sky is overcast. Two potential problems associated with the use of daylight in buildings are glare and heat. Glare occurs when a bright light source such as the sun is in the field of view of users. It can also occur when reflections of the sun are in the field of view. The simplest way to control glare is to avoid large windows on the east and west elevations, and ensure that windows on the north elevation are shaded to control the low winter sun. The south elevation is very seldom exposed to direct sun, and even then it is at an oblique angle that is less of a problem. For windows that are exposed to direct sun at certain times of day and year, this can be controlled by careful design of the geometry of windows and the use of shading devices such as blinds or shutters.

Daylight is always associated with heat, and the challenge is to maximise the benefit from daylight with minimum heat gain. Daylight actually has a far better luminous efficacy than any electrical light source as can be seen in the graph. Generally daylight entering through windows provides far higher light levels than are actually required, resulting in significant associated heat gains. Typically the heat input from direct solar radiation on a horizontal plane is about 900W/m2, whereas indirect radiation through a window is typically 350W/m2 at midday in summer.

9.5.

Light Fittings
The fitting into which a light source is installed is an important consideration in achieving energy efficiency. The Fittings for fluorescent tubes are called luminaires and come in a variety of types, suitable for different applications. The important consideration in selecting a fitting is to achieve maximum efficiency without compromising the quality of light. This requires a fitting that transfers as much light as possible from the lamp to the working surfaces, without resulting in direct glare, veiling reflections or excessive brightness ratios. The important features of a luminaire are the reflector and the lens. Common types of luminaire are described below.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. LIghting

Page 11

Channel luminaires. This simplest form of luminaire is simply a tube holder with a white reflector. This has a high efficiency, but can result in glare problems since the lamp is visible. Prismatic diffuser. This uses an acrylic prismatic diffuser to conceal the lamps, resulting in low surface brightness, reducing glare problems. It is not very efficient, due to light losses in the diffuser. Parabolic louvre. This provides excellent glare control without compromising efficiency, using reflective aluminium louvres to conceal the lamps from low viewing angles. Uplighter. In this system the lamp is concealed by a reflector that directs the light onto a curved reflector that in turn directs it down into the room.

Luminaire Channel Prismatic diffuser Parabolic louvre Uplighter

Typical total light output ratio (% of lamp flux) 80 – 90 55 70 60

Table 9.3 Performance characteristics of luminaires (source: Lascon catalogue)

Channel

Parabolic louvre

Diffuser

Concealed lamp

Fig. 9.5 Typical luminaires for fluorescent lamps.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. LIghting

supermarket. stairs Escalator. This should provide enough flexibility to allow for variations in use patterns and availability of daylight. stores Entrance hall. (Source: Malaysian Standard MS 1525:2001) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. sufficent for orientation and general activities. Lighting Control Control of lights may be manual or automated. Typical lighting requirements for a variety of tasks are given in table 9. shops and stores.7. travellator Entrance and exit Staff changing room. on/off switches and time switches to achieve energy savings.Task and examples of applications Lighting to infrequently used areas Minium service illuminance Interiror walkway and car-park Hotel bedroom LIft interior Corridor. LIghting Page 13 . lobbies. This results in savings both on the initial installation cost as well as recurrent expenses compared to providing a sufficient background light level for typical office tasks (300-400lux).200lux and local task lighting at each work station as required for the particular activity. 9. reading and writing Drawing office Restroom Restaurant.4 Recommended average illuminance levels. cloak room. lavatories. Light level sensors combined with dimming controls can automatically reduce levels of artificial light in relation to the availability of daylight.400 300 – 400 150 200 150 – 300 150 150 100 100 300 – 500 200 – 750 300 500 1000 2000 9. Table 9. waiting room Inquiry desk Gate house Lighting for working interiors Inrequent reading and writing General offices. department store Museum and gallery Localised lighting for exacting task Proof reading Exacting drawing Detailed and precise work Illuminance [Lux] 20 50 100 100 100 150 100 100 100 300 200 200 300 . passageways. cafeteria Kitchen Lounge Bathroom Toilet Bedroom Classroom. In work environments such as offices or schools it is generally more effective to provide a low level of background lighting. library Shop.4. say 150 .6. Sensors including light level sensors and occupancy sensors are available that can be used in automatic control systems and combined with dimmers. Light Requirements Indoor light requirements vary depending on the task to be carried out. Effective zoning of lights in different circuits is critical to enabling energy efficient behaviour.

9. Quality of light should also be considered. The availability of daylight is greatly affected by the overall shape and orientation of the building. Avoid specifying lighting levels that are higher than actually needed. so this is an important opportunity for coordination between different members of the design team. including particular requirements regarding glare. then substantial energy savings can be achieved. establishing a clear ‘budget’ that specifies the lighting levels required at Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. o Select efficient sources and fittings. If this is done using the most appropriate light sources and fittings. These requirements should be included in the Design Brief. o Use daylight as much as possible. An accounting approach is probably best.6 Examples of lighting control 9. etc.Fig. different locations at different times.8. 9. The key strategies to achieving this are as follows: o Define light requirements. Providing low background light levels with flexible task lighting at workstations ensures sufficient light where it is actually needed.8. o Effective control systems. Generally north and south facing walls offer easier opportunity for daylight without 9. LIghting . o Effective design of lighting layout. Define light requirements. Strategies for Energy Efficient Lighting The challenge in lighting design is to provide sufficient light where it is required at the times when it is required. and combined with an effective control system.8. and agreed with the client at the pre-design stage of the project. without providing excess light.2.1. brightness ratio. Use daylight as much as possible.

Light pipes can be used to ‘transport’ light from the roof.7 Use of a lightshelf to increase daylight penetration. a 75W incandescent bulb can be replaced with a 25W CFL). often above a window to reflect daylight onto the ceiling and back into the interior of the building. and the most practical size is 1200mm since these are easy to change and not so vulnerable to breakage as the longer 2400mm tubes. High Intensity Discharge lamps.7. Select efficient light sources and fittings. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. LIghting Page 15 .problems from direct sunlight. when replacing incandescent bulbs. including light shelves. typically in high ceiling Fig. Various features can be used to increase the penetration of daylight further into the interior of a building.e. and windows facing these directions therefore need to be provided with shading devices. The use of daylight is limited by access to external walls. For most industrial and commercial applications with low ceiling levels the most effective background lighting will fluorescent tubes. and skylights. The increase in interior light levels using a light shelf is illustrated in Fig. For localised task lighting and most residential applications.3. The most efficient are T5 tubes.8. (Source: Advanced Lighting Guidelines. (EDR Design Brief: Lighting). and it is recommended to use a ratio of 3:1. CFL lamps are most appropriate. light pipes. 9. (i. since they provide a more even lighting level (lower luminance ration) and therefore allow for lower absolute light levels than direct fittings. Daylight can also be introduced through the roof with skylights. They are basically ducts with highly reflective interior surfaces. rather than the more optimistic 4:1 ratio often claimed. Again the challenge is to avoid heat gain and direct sunlight. New Buildings Institute) Light shelves are usually located near the ceiling. Indirect fittings should be considered where possible. which can be done with shading devices and careful orientation. The east and west facing walls are subject to direct sunlight in the morning and evening respectively. such as Metal Halide lamps should be used in situations where high intensity point sources of light are required. 9. through a roof space into the interior of a building. 9. They should not be undersized.

The number and location of light fittings is important to ensure that the required light levels are achieved with a minimum of fittings. It is therefore often best to design the system such that the occupants turn lights on. and they turn off automatically. Page 16 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. 9. LIghting . that allow modelling of different lighting arrangements.8 Energy savings from use of dimmers controlled by light sensors. Areas furthest from windows may require lights to be on at all times of occupation. but not switch 9.5. Zoning should also relate to occupancy patterns. People tend to switch lights on when there is insufficient light for the task they are doing. Areas closer to the windows can use daylight for much of the daytime. it will only achieve energy efficiency in practice if the lights are effectively controlled. Fig. This requires appropriate zoning. Typically this may result in two or three zones in a room. many for free.8.industrial or commercial applications and for outdoor lighting. Effective control systems. and off at all other times.4. Effective design of lighting layouts. them off when they are no longer required. such that they are turned on only when actually required. The choice between manual or automatic control of lights is critical. whereby the lights that are required at different times are on separate switching circuits. Using light level sensors in combination with dimmers to maximise the use of daylight can result in large energy savings as illustrated in the following diagram. so that if only one two people are working they have the opportunity to turn on only those lights that are needed. The use of formulae and diagrams has largely been replaced with software packages that are available. based on distance from windows. 9.8. (Florida Solar Energy Center). Having achieved an efficient lighting layout.

LIghting Page 17 .1-2001 Malaysian Standard 1525-2001 Lighting energy (W/m2) by building type Office Retail Hotel School 14 20 18 16 20 20-30 17-20 18-25 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. These aim to control the amount of energy consumed for lighting by setting limits on the installed lighting capacity for different purposes.In this case an office space with south-facing windows had a control system that used electronic dimming ballasts to control the lights in response to available daylight resulting in a saving of 38%. (EDR Design Guide: Lighting). Standards for Energy Efficient Lighting A large number of lighting codes and standards are available in different countries. The requirements of some typical lighting standards are given in the table below: Standard ASHRAE 90.9. 9. They may also have requirements for switching and control to ensure that the building operators have the ability to control lighting efficiently.

Heating.. et. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects.energydesignresources. J. New Buildings Institute. USA.3.com/ EERE Building Technologies Program Home Page http://www.uk/packages/clear/index.gov/buildings/ New Buildings Institute http://www. 1990. Resource Material 9.org/lighting. N. Codes and Standards ASHRAE Standard 90. Energy Design Resources.londonmet.10. 9.newbuildings. http://www.htm.10. Design Brief: Lighting. 9. Comprehensive Catalogue. Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings. Energy Design Resources . http://www. Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for NonResidential Buildings. Lascon. Cooling.10. John Wiley & Sons.org/ WBDG . Benya.org/ The Lighting Association http://www. Malaysian Standard MS1525: 2001.lightingassociation. “Advanced Lighting Guidelines” 2003.eere. Lechner. 1998/99. Department of Standards.learn. LIghting .1-2001.10.Whole Building Design Guide http://www.9.wbdg.2.ht ml Page 18 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 9. Books and papers EDR.com/ CLEAR http://www.ac. Websites EDR.energy.1. al.newbuildings. Malaysia.

SECTION 10 OPERATION & MAINTENANCE AND BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 0 July 2007 .

4. Mechanical Systems. 3. 6. Simulation. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. 10. Appendices. 7. 8. Climate. 2. 13. 9. . Introduction. Indoor Environment.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Building envelope. Design and construction process.artificial and day lighting. 5. Planning. Lighting . Design Brief. 11. 12.

1.1.5.2.5.2. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 10. 10.2. Facility Management. Building Management Systems 10.1. Websites Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10. 10. Resource Material 10. Resilience.2.5.1. Typical format for an O & M Manual 10.1. Operation & Maintenance.1. Books and papers 10. Operation and Maintenance Manual.3. Design for Operation and Maintenance. Design for Operation & Maintenance 10. Overview 10.1.4. 10. and BMS Page 3 . Operation & Maintenance Manual 10. Building Management Systems 10.3.3.3. Recommendations.CONTENTS 10. 10.2.2.1. 10.2.

1. Maintenance requirements may vary greatly depending on the materials. highly dependant on mechanical cooling. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10. Different approaches to operation and maintenance are considered. 10. The Operation and Maintenance Manual is an important tool in ensuring the effective and energy efficient functioning of the building. Designing a building with the control systems that can achieve high levels of energy efficiency is pointless if these are not managed to achieve this. The different topics that are covered are briefly described below.10.1.1. It is therefore essential that the building owners understand the human resource structure that will be required to operate and maintain the building. Operation & Maintenance. Design for Operation & Maintenance 10. and BMS . Overview operation and management of the building. Facility Management. 10.3.2. A basic outline of such a document is suggested. 10.2.2. OPERATION & MAINTENANCE This Section addresses the subject of operation and maintenance. Even large and complex buildings in many cases do not have a dedicated ‘Facilities Manager’ or similar employee who is responsible for the Page 4 Fig. The implications of departures from the ideal maintenance programme may also vary. 10. 10. etc is largely left to the individual occupants who generally are not given any training in how to achieve the best performance from the building at minimum cost.1. control of air conditioning equipment. Design for Operation and Maintenance.2.1. 10.2. and commit to implementing this in coordination with the building commissioning and handover process. lighting. components and systems that are included in the building. As a result. Operation and Maintenance Manual. depending on the resilience of the different elements of the building. and the conditions under which they are appropriate are considered. Resilience. It is important that a building is designed with the capability and resources of the users and operators in mind to ensure that it is able to function as intended. In Botswana until recently there was little awareness of the importance of building operation.1. Building Management Systems Building Management Systems are briefly described. 1 Modern building in Gaborone.

but still habitable while breakdowns are being repaired. and merely become less comfortable.3. In some cases poor maintenance may reduce actual operating cost.2. to ensure that these are understood and accepted. Recommendations. This is an opportunity to ensure that the energy saving concepts that have been designed into the building are formally communicated to the owner and hence to the users of the building. 10. and include these in the design brief. Poor maintenance of equipment tends to result in lower efficiency. Operation & Maintenance Manual On larger projects it is becoming common for the building design team to be required to prepare an Operation and Maintenance Manual to be handed over to the client on commissioning of the project. Generally there is a strong correlation between effective maintenance and energy efficiency. the team will ensure that O&M considerations are addressed at each stage of the design. Ideally the outline of the O&M manual should be prepared at an early stage of the design. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10. In contrast. and BMS Page 5 . Operation & Maintenance. which will result in poor productivity and employee morale. depending on the systems that are included in the buildings. o Discuss operation and maintenance requirements during client briefing meetings. a climate sensitive building that has a high level of interaction with its surroundings may be more resilient. and hence higher cost in relation to performance.3. a highly insulated ‘active’ type of building may become uninhabitable in a very short time if the air conditioning system breaks down. or uncomfortable rooms. o Discuss O&M implications with client as design and construction proceed. 10. o Prepare outline operation and maintenance manual at an early stage. In this way. and include information as design and construction proceed. It will therefore require backup power supplies. but always at the expense of environmental quality. The contents of the O&M manual will vary between different projects. and updated as the project develops. but at the expense of poor lighting levels. redundancy in the mechanical equipment and efficient planned maintenance procedures to ensure that the backup kicks in when a fault occurs.For example. Large numbers of blown fluorescent tubes or air conditioners that are dysfunctional may save money.

7. 4. 5.3. contracts.3.9.2. 3.6. 4.2.3.4.1. and BMS .2. Typical format for an O & M Manual A typical format would be as follows: 1. 8.1.1. 1. GENERAL INFORMATION Building Location. Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10. 5.5. 7. 4. insurance. 1. 2.3. Ownership and Tenancy Building Physical Data Building Construction History Utility Providers Other Important Contacts O&M OBJECTIVES AND GOALS O&M Objectives O&M Goals O&M MANAGEMENT Organisational chart Job descriptions External Contracts BUILDING SYSTEMS Building Structure Building Envelope External works and landscaping Internal Finishes HVAC system Electrical system Telecommunications Water Waste water 5. schedules manuals.6. etc. 3. 8. Operation & Maintenance.4.2.8. 4. 4.7. 4.1.3.1. 7.1. 6. 7. 6. 6.1. 7.5. 2.4. 8.1. 4. 3. 7. 7.2.2. drawings.2.2.1.3. 1. 2. 4. 1. 3. 4. ACTIVITY SCHEDULES Operational Task Schedule Maintenance Task Schedule O&M PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT Indicators Baseline data O&M PROCEDURES AND REPORTING Timesheets Equipment File Activity Schedules Work Order File Indicator Data File Quality Assurance O&M PLANNING AND REVIEW Annual plan Annual budget Monitoring and review APPENDICES All relevant documents including title deeds. 4. 1.10.5. 8.

good maintenance is essential to avoid the risk of Legionella virus and other problems developing. Typically they are installed in large buildings over about 10. correctly installed and commissioned and regularly maintained to ensure that it functions as intended. but may also operate lighting.5. and early replacement of filters. While they are principally used to control HVAC equipment. it is essential that the water quality is maintained and that the correct chemical dosing is used.4. If leaks are not repaired immediately they can lead to damage of the building fabric as well as highly accelerated corrosion due to increased oxygen levels in the pipework systems. It should however only be considered if the resources are available to design. fan belts etc when they show signs of wear. resulting in lower energy savings or no savings at all. BMS has the potential to achieve substantial energy savings. fire control and security systems. In any chilled water or LTHW system. Poor water treatment will drastically reduce the life of the equipment. Checks should also include spotting any water leaks from pipes or equipment. BMS has the potential to provide energy savings of up to about 10% if it is effectively implemented. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10. operate and maintain the system.10. Maintenance Maintenance is the client's responsibility. install.000m2. pumps and so on. Building Management Systems Building Management Systems are electronic controllers linked together via a computer network which are used to control important pieces of plant such as air handling units. In any system with open cooling towers. 10. commission. Variables such as set point control temperatures and hours of operation can be adjusted using software. (EDR Design Brief: Energy Management Systems). and the controllers can also be programmed to achieve very sophisticated levels of control such as turning plant on at night when external temperatures are suitable for night cooling. Good preventive maintenance can both increase the lifetime of equipment and also improve its efficiency thus reducing energy use. Fans operating with dirty. chillers. However many systems have been found to be under performing. and BMS Page 7 . Operation & Maintenance. but all too often clients employ poorly qualified staff and only attend to equipment when it stops working. partially blocked filters will use more energy and not achieve their design ventilation rates. Preventive maintenance consists of weekly and monthly checks on equipment. For a BMS to be effective it is essential that it is designed to suit the requirements of the building.

com/resource/18/ EECOB Project. ‘Heating.10. Resource Material 10.1.6.6.wbdg. Dept.energydesignresources. Operation & Maintenance. Energy Design Resources. Books and papers EDR. 10. John Wiley & Sons. Cooling.2 BMS system Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 10.6. USA.org/ Fig 10. http://www. http://www. ‘Guidance on Developing Building O&M Manuals Part II’. 1990.org WBDG . Nov. and BMS . 2005. Websites ASHRAE American Society of Heating. Refrigerating and Airconditioning Engineers. of Energy.Whole Building Design Guide http://www.ashrae. Design Brief: Energy Management Systems. N. Lechner.org/ CIBSE Chartered Institute for Building Services Engineers http://cibse. Botswana. Lighting – Design Methods for Architects’.2.

SECTION 11 SIMULATION 2002 25 Fri 26 Sat 27 Sun Ti /D t 28 Mon 29 Tue 30 Wed 31 Thu ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

3. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Climate.artificial and day lighting. Introduction. 13. Mechanical Systems.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. 8. . Simulation. 12. 5. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. Design and construction process. Planning. Building envelope. 9. 4. 2. Indoor Environment. Design Brief. Lighting . Appendices. 7. 10. 11. 6.

3.5. History. Summary 11.4.2. 11.1.2. 11. Detailed Design 11.1.6. SIMULATION 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 12 12 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 19 20 20 21 21 Page 3 11.1.CONTENTS 11. Compliance with Codes and Standards.2. Overview 11.1.2.5. Opportunities 11. Simulation Tools 11.3.5.3. Definition. Elements of Simulation 11.1. 11. Introduction .2. 11.7.7. Design Stages 11. Scheme Design 11.8. Building construction data.1.8. 11. Output reports. Limitations 11. 11.2.4. Building Performance Simulation 11.6. Occupancy and equipment. 11. Weather and location data.6.4.2. 11. 11. Analysis.2.4.2.4. Simulations. Books and papers Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 1.1. Resource Material 11.

2. Simulation . Codes and Standards 11. Websites 21 21 Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.11.8.8.3.

Especially interactions between different building systems and the feed-backs involved can be analysed. The main constraints in the use of simulation have been the availability and cost of the software. 11.2. History. The opportunities that simulation offers and its limitations are considered. availability of detailed weather data. SIMULATION This Section gives an overview of the role of simulation in the building design process. Many architects and engineers are aware of these concepts and apply them to the buildings that they design. and appropriate use of ventilation.1. energy transfer and lighting. but much development has taken place in the past 10 years making such tools more easily available and user friendly. capabilities and cost of each.2.2. Opportunities There is a wealth of information available on how to design energy efficient buildings for different climates. A number of available software packages are compared in a table that provides basic information on the features.1. location and the building itself. Definition. Overview 11. Simulation is defined in this context as the use of computer software tools to predict the performance of buildings. as well as the links to further information. and even more so. This includes suggestions for orientation of buildings.2. placement of insulation and thermal mass. particularly with respect to indoor environment. which is generally not possible without an 11. Software tools for building simulation have been available for about the last 30 years. 11. Summary Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. the skills and time required to use these. It is however only with the use of computer simulation tools that the actual quantitative impact of different approaches can be determined with useful accuracy. The elements of simulation are described. use of shading devices. indicating the information that is needed regarding climate. The role of modelling in different stages of the building design process is then considered in more detail.11. 11.2. Simulation Page 5 .3.

The use of simulation in the building design process allows the design team to quantify the actual impact of such design decisions. the more time is needed to prepare it. so that rational decisions leading to the most cost effective approach can be made based on actual quantitative information. 20 or 30 degrees from the optimum? It ‘makes sense’ to control heat transfer through the roof by fitting insulation and having a light coloured roof surface. In practice the economics of building simulation need to be considered in determining the extent to which it is appropriate to apply it in the design methodology. The combination of these two modelling tools enables rational choices to be made regarding measures that impact on energy performance in the context of the total cost of a building over long periods of time. even over its entire expected life to demolition.4. There are substantial economies of scale. but how much insulation is economically efficient? How much difference does the roof colour make? For buildings at the design stage. A key advantage is that through the use of advanced simulation software such information becomes available much earlier in the design process than would otherwise be possible thereby providing many opportunities for improving thermal performance in as cost effective a manner as possible. but what is the actual effect on internal temperature or energy consumption of a different orientation? How sensitive is the relationship? What is the effect on performance of a shift in orientation of say 10. depending on the package that is selected. Therefore accuracy of simplified methods quickly Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.2. The usefulness of energy simulation is greatly enhanced when it is combined with lifecycle cost analysis (See Section 12. The software itself can be quite expensive. so it is important to determine the minimum amount of detail required to provide the information that is relevant at each stage of the design process. Simulation . The more accurate and detailed the model. It ‘makes sense’ that a building should be orientated to present the smallest elevations to the rising and setting sun. and there is therefore more opportunity to use simulation for large projects. questions such as these can only be reliably answered by carrying out simulations that provide actual quantitative information on the dynamic behaviour of the proposed design.advanced simulation software except in a very simplified form. The greater cost however is the time and skill required to set up the simulation and run the various scenarios to provide the required information. such that a large building is not proportionally more time consuming to model than a small building. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis). Large projects in general also have more to gain from simulations since the increased size brings with it increased complexity as well. Limitations Naturally the benefits of simulation come at a cost. 11.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.deteriorates with increasing size and complexity of buildings. The report contains 14 tables detailing the specific features and capabilities of the programs. The results of this are available in the report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone. Botswana’. This information can then be applied to a large number of individual buildings that are essentially similar to the generic building.g. performance and price. The comparison of 17 programs in Table 11.) provides a comparison of 20 building energy simulation programs including an assessment of their capabilities. Government of Botswana. The authors recommend that it may be most efficient to use a suite of different programs for different stages of the design process. They differ widely in complexity and ease of user interface. Much information may be obtained from simulation of typical ‘generic’ building types in a particular climate.) 11. A report prepared in July 2005 (Crawley et. al. Price is not necessarily an indicator of capability or quality.1 is largely based on information from this report. An exercise to model a number of ‘generic’ building types in the Botswana climate has been carried out under the Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in the Building Sector project.3. which however has a very cumbersome user interface. and some of the most comprehensive and powerful software is available free (e. Simulation Page 7 . in terms of their features. Department of Energy. Simulation Tools A large number of software packages are available for simulating buildings. EnergyPlus. It can be seen from the table that there is considerable variety in the available software. January 2007.

Energy consumption analysis. advanced simulation of shades and solar illumination in and around the building etc.g. Can export to specialised programs e. Peak loads. Simulation .680 P20.com Provides a graphic input and output interface for EnergyPlus Highly visual and interactive. Graph / table output formats. Can generate the necessary climate input files from user-provided data (e.cox. Various US$1.ecotect. P 4500 DesignBuilder www. HVAC modelling Various / Complex Interface Accepts DXF input. uk www.g.200 US$49. Daylighting analysis. Daylight analysis. contribution from building integrated PV systems.500 Plus annual support subscription fee of approx.bsim. Life-cycle costing. Comprehensive scripting engine.designbuilder.830 US$690 P4.dk Features Advanced dynamic Thermal simulation. Can export data to various specialized programs like Radiance and CFD software.co. natural ventilation. Includes moisture analysis. Produces output files compatible with Excel. measured hourly data) using very flexible input criteria Graphical input for building model. Radiance.net/ener win/ Simple Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. etc.449 P8.00 P300 ECOTECT Simple Ener-Win members. Price (P) EUR2. User friendly graphic interface.Software package BSim URL www. EnergyPlus.

energyplus. Separate packages for architects and engineers. Text file input and output files. Simple Energy cost estimating.strath.Software package Energy Express URL www.au Features HVAC modelling Interface Fast and accurate input. Complex modelling of HVAC systems and controls. Can increase model complexity as a project develops. Primarily a simulation engine. US$325.223 Energy-10 www. comfort and loads.com. Intended for early stages of Simple design of residential and small commercial buildings.esru. Suitable for use with purpose made interface programs. Price (P) AUD$945 P4. Simulation Page 9 . Output graphs to compare alternatives.g. Easy to use. Moisture analysis. Full life-cycle costing.hearne. air flow.nrel.ee. Complex Fast.doe2. Interactive input interface. 3D view of building geometry. user-friendly input. HVAC systems and electrical power flow.htm Models thermal performance. e.gov/building s/energy10 Design tool for evaluating Simple / energy efficiency of Complex commercial buildings.gov eQUEST www. Daylighting and lighting system control.ac.com/equest ESP-r www. Energy efficient measures. Complex Integrated simulation for temperature. Built-in graphs illustrate different strategies.980 free free free Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Works with third party tools such as Radiance. DesignBuilder.00 P1. EnergyPlus www. HVAC system diagrams.uk/ Programs/ESP-r.

active chilled beams.000 from simple. Can model displacement ventilation. IES<VE> www.iesve.equa. Used for sizing and design of HVAC system. Links to SunCast for shading and solar penetration analysis. Graphical output reports comparing alternative schemes. Energy cost analysis.com Features Simulates building energy performance to derive annual energy use. Graphical and tabular reports.commercial. Can link to MacroFlo for ventilation and infiltration analysis.se/ice User friendly GUI input Free interface. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Comparative reports for alternative schemes. Four levels of interface. Part of a suite of programs covering many aspects of building design.Software package HAP URL www.com Complex Results viewed in Vista. air and water based slab systems. wizard to P15.edu/hee d Single zone simulation program Simple for use at the beginning of the design process. Dynamic thermal simulation tool. Simulation . Complex IDA ICE www.000 programmer. SEK18. radiative devices. HVAC modelling Complex Interface GUI input.ucla.carri er.aud. Price (P) ? HEED www. Based on a general simulation platform. ? a graphics tool for presentation and analysis.

Easily adapted to develop special purpose applications. Simulation Page 11 . Wizards for creating ? models. Models building and HVAC systems in four phases: design. Graphical results reporting with multi-run comparisons. including natural ventilation and infiltration. A modular transient system simulation program adapted to model building thermal performance. HVAC system performance. Visual interface for data US$4200 input. Graphical results reporting with multi-run comparisons. HVAC modelling Simple Interface Price (P) Graphical interface may US$50 be used to create input P305 files. system.edu/trnsys Complex Table 11.1. Specifically intended for optimisation of the HVAC system.nrel. Wizards for creating ? models. economics.600 Full source code provided for components and simulation engine.edsl.net Features Models small buildings dominated by envelope loads.wisc. Models natural and forced airflow.gov/building s/sunrel www. Tas Complex TRACE 700 www.tranecds.com Complex TRNSYS sel. Camparison of energy simulation software Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.Software package SUNREL URL www. A suite of programs that simulate thermal performance of buildings and their systems.me. P25. equipment.

1. In this way the different data parameters are kept together for each hour. Relative humidity.4. Other information that may be required includes ground temperatures at various depths. but most include a translation package to enable a TMY2 file to be translated into the required format. A standard format and methodology for the preparation of such a database has been adopted by most developers and is called TMY2 (Typical Meteorological Year 2). Wet bulb air temperature. Weather and location data. Weather files for other locations in Botswana will also need to be developed due to the variation in climate across the country (see Section 3. A key requirement for accurate simulation of energy performance or lighting in buildings is comprehensive and relevant data for the weather conditions. To prepare a TMY2 file for a particular location. Climate). Weather data is often compiled into a database that includes hourly data for various parameters for a typical meteorological year. hourly data for as many years as possible must be collated. but unfortunately not many in Southern Africa. Wind direction. Wind speed. Different software packages use different weather file formats. TMY2 files are readily available for many locations around the world. Horizontal infrared radiation. The weather data required by a particular package depends on the approach taken in modelling different heat flow and lighting processes. The most representative full month’s data for each month of the year is then selected. and none in Botswana. Elements of Simulation 11.11. Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Atmospheric pressure. and used to build up a ‘year’ of hourly data.4. Simulation . and realistic variation within each month is maintained. The location is defined by the longitude and latitude as well as the elevation above sea level. The first and last days of each month are then modified to smooth the transitions from one month to the next. The EECOB project has developed a weather files for Gaborone and Maun for use with EnergyPlus and DesignBuilder. and analysed to determine the averages for each month. Diffuse horizontal radiation. Typically they will include the following: • • • • • • • • • Dry bulb air temperature. Direct normal radiation.

0 40.0 60.0 90.0 30.0 30. Simulation Page 13 .0 20.0 00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 TIME Fig.0 10.0 0.0 10. Hourly average temperature and Relative Humidity for Gaborone Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.1.0 20 :0 0 21 :0 0 22 :0 0 23 :0 0 00 :0 0 01 :0 0 02 :0 0 03 :0 0 04 :0 0 05 :0 0 06 :0 0 07 :0 0 08 :0 0 09 :0 0 10 :0 0 11 :0 0 12 :0 0 13 :0 0 14 :0 0 15 :0 0 16 :0 0 17 :0 0 18 :0 0 19 :0 0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TIME HOURLY AVERAGE TEMPS GABORONE 2000-2002 35.0 80.0 DEG C 15.0 RH % 50.0 5.0 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 25.0 20.HOURLY AVERAGE RH GABORONE 2000-2002 100. 11.0 70.0 0.

Each vertex of each surface of the building needs to be defined by its Cartesian coordinates. which may be edited by the user. The building needs to be defined. The definition of the materials is generally supported by libraries of standard components and combinations of components. Other programmes provide graphical tools to input the geometry.2. while some allow the basic geometry to be imported as a DXF file from a CAD programme such as AutoCad. The input interface for this information is an important consideration in selecting a simulation programme. both in terms of the envelope geometry and the types of materials. similar to simple CAD tools.2 Building construction (DesignBuilder) Page 14 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Simulation . which is a time consuming and tedious process. Fig 11.4. which is entirely based on text input. At one extreme is a programme like EnergyPlus.11. Building construction data.

These are typically specified with schedules to define the times of occupancy and starting and stopping times for equipment use. Simulation Page 15 . In this case the contribution of daylighting through windows and other openings may also be determined by the programme if this facility is provided.2. 11. The power consumption and efficiency of equipment needs to be defined to determine the heat output. or define the heating and cooling energy needed to achieve defined indoor environment conditions.) The equipment definition may also include specification of HVAC equipment. Lighting equipment must also be defined. 11. Initial simulations to test out different envelope options may be carried out without any HVAC equipment specification. or to define target light levels and have the programme determine the lighting loads to achieve these. Again there is often the choice to define actual lighting layouts. including the times of occupation and use of equipment. Occupancy and equipment. Fig. (See Fig. and allow the programme to calculate the loads. depending on the purpose for which the simulation is being carried out.11. and report either on the ‘floating’ room temperatures. The occupancy of the building and the equipment to be operated need to be specified.3.4.3 Typical input data (DesignBuilder) Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.

Hourly Temperature and Heat Gains - Hall
EnergyPlus Output 36 34 32 Temperature (°C) 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 15 10 Heat Gain (kW) 5 0 -5 -10 Period 24 Oct - 30 Oct

25 Fri

26 Sat

27 Sun

28 Mon

29 Tue

30 Wed

31 Thu

Fig. 11.4. Typical output from simulation (DesignBuilder).

11.5. Simulations.
Having input all the required information relating to the climate, location, building, occupation and equipment, the simulation runs may be performed. Typically a number of simulations will be run for each of several scenarios to try out the effect of changing one or more parameters.
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The different simulations in each case may include different climatic conditions, e.g. typical summer and winter weeks, and a full year, depending on the purpose of the simulation. The sizing of HVAC equipment requires a simulation of the most extreme conditions under which the required indoor climate conditions are to be fulfilled.
Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Simulation

11.5.1. Output reports. Output reports may be in the form of text files that can then be imported into a spreadsheet programme for further processing(as with EnergyPlus), or the programme itself may generate both tabular and graphic output reports. It is critical to consider what information is relevant at any particular stage of the design process, and how to use it to best advantage. This will be considered in further detail in subsequent sections of this paper. 11.5.2. Analysis. The results of the simulations may be analysed in a number of ways, depending on the purpose of the simulation. Typically the selected indicators may be plotted on a graph for various simulations to illustrate the effect of changing various parameters. In other cases it may be more appropriate to present the results in a table format, e.g. where further calculations are to be performed using the results. Fig. 11.5. Cost / benefit of design change with regard to energy savings. (Source: ENSAR Group)

11.6. Design Stages
Simulation may be used as a tool at various stages of the design process. At each stage, the objectives, methods and analysis will be different. The design stages are discussed in more detail in Section 5. Design and Construction Process.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Simulation

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11.6.1. Scheme Design The scheme design stage is the stage at which there are the greatest opportunities coordinate and integrate the design of the different building systems to achieve the energy efficiency targets and criteria that were defined in the Design Brief. At this stage it is relatively easy and cheap to make substantial changes in the design approach, before the detailed design has been carried out. Building Simulation can be an effective tool in achieving this, since it allows the design team to try out a number of initial concepts and evaluate their performance under the climatic conditions of the proposed site. 11.6.1.1. Model preparation. For this purpose the model should not require a lot of detail, since it is the general concepts that are being evaluated. Suitable software packages for this purpose should provide a fast and easy input interface, so that various approaches can be modelled without taking too much time. Typically the software may automatically generate windows to a specified ratio of wall area for each elevation. Lighting may be specified in terms of the required lux levels, and air conditioning systems by indicating the set points and the times when these are required to be achieved.

11.6.1.2. Simulations and results. The objectives of simulation at this stage are to compare the effectiveness of different design approaches, and in particular the interaction of different building systems. A decision therefore needs to be made as to what the most appropriate indicators for success will be. This may vary for different building types. For buildings that are unlikely to use mechanical cooling or heating, the indicator may be ‘comfort temperature’ (weighted average between radiant temperature and dry bulb temperature). If heaters are likely to be used in winter, it may be appropriate to use heating energy as the indicator in winter. For buildings that will be fitted with HVAC systems, annual energy use may be used as an overall indicator. However other indicators may be needed to determine the effectiveness of particular building elements. Typical summer and winter week results will indicate whether the building functions well under each of these conditions. In all cases it is also helpful to analyse the energy flows between the building and its surroundings under different conditions. This will indicate where the major heat gains and losses are occurring. This information can be used to identify opportunities to improve performance, e.g. by increasing insulation, relocating translucent elements, etc. accordingly.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Simulation

Through an interactive process involving the entire design team working with the simulation exercise it is possible to coordinate the design of the different building systems such as the envelope, lighting, mechanical systems, etc. to arrive at an integrated design that meets the specific requirements of the design brief. 11.6.2. Detailed Design At the detailed design stage, building simulation can be used to quantify the energy and indoor environment impact of design decisions in each of the areas of speciality, and in particular regarding the interactions of different building systems. At this stage it becomes necessary to provide more detailed information in preparing the model, such as the actual position and shape of windows and other translucent elements, placement of internal thermal mass, air flow and ventilation elements, lighting arrangements, HVAC systems, etc. 11.6.2.1. Envelope design Aspects of envelope design that can benefit from simulation include the following: • Placement and capacity of thermal mass / insulating elements and their impact on HVAC loads and / or thermal comfort. • Interaction of daylighting strategies with artificial lighting systems. • Geometry of shading devices at different times of day and year. • Interaction of the mechanical systems with internal and envelope loads at different times of day and year.

11.6.2.2. Lighting design Purpose made lighting design software may be used for detailed simulation of lighting systems. Some thermal modelling programmes are able to link to lighting software, e.g. ECOTECT and ESP-r are able to interface with the Radiance. Particular aspects of lighting design that can benefit from simulation include the following: • Interaction of day lighting and artificial lighting strategies. • Checking for solar glare problems at different times of day / year. • Ensuring that required light levels are achieved. • Determining areas that require supplemental light at different times of day and year. • Checking on control strategies to avoid excess lighting provision. 11.6.2.3. Mechanical systems design Building simulation programmes are a particularly powerful tool for optimising the design of HVAC systems. They allow dynamic modelling of the interaction between climate, building fabric, occupants / equipment and the mechanical systems which cannot be achieved by static design methods. This can lead to significant savings in installed capacity. In a study of a large office building in Dublin, Beattie and Ward compared the actual installed capacity which had been designed using the CIBSE admittance method, with the design that would have been arrived at using dynamic modelling techniques. The results showed wide variations in peak cooling loads, with excess capacity of between 28% to 91% actually installed in
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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11. Simulation

or to demonstrate adherence to voluntary guidelines. Some software packages include cost analysis Page 20 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.7. and ventilation.1. Compliance with Codes and Standards. the aggregate ‘u’ value of a wall or a roof. • Testing different system configurations to optimise the selection of systems for heating. In fact LCC may in many cases be a primary optimisation parameter when choosing between options for the design. (Beattie and Ward) Particular aspects of mechanical design that can benefit from simulation include the following: • Dynamic modelling of envelope and internal loads to determine system capacity requirements. Simulation . e. and making any necessary changes. 11.7. It may also be carried out as part of the procedure to verify compliance with energy standards. Many codes for energy performance include two alternative procedures for compliance.g. An alternative procedure allows the applicant to demonstrate by a simulation using an approved software package that the overall performance of the building is within specified limits. An example of such a code is the ASHRAE Standard 90.12001 “Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings”.different zones of the building compared to the required capacity based on the dynamic modelling. Building Performance Simulation The final application of simulation to the building design process is in predicting the energy performance of the building after the design stages have been substantially completed. One requires the applicant to demonstrate that each element of the building complies with the requirements of the code for that particular element. to predict energy costs over the life of the building. modules for this purpose. either as part of a statutory compliance procedure. It may also be used to verify compliance with Codes and Standards. • Optimise control systems. cooling. 11. Simulation may be used to confirm that the building will meet the criteria set out in the Design Brief before commencing construction. Simulation may also be used to assist in lifecycle cost analysis. guidelines and regulations.

(http://www. US Dept.energy. Energy Design Resources . Books and papers Beattie.com/ Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 11.8. University of WisconsinMadison. BS 1999 ..eere. C and Groth. Simulation Page 21 .W. Government of Botswana. M.energydesignresources.. 11. A.3.8.11.ibpsa. Websites EDR.1-2001. Tokyo 1999. IBPSA conference. Griffith.8.C.8. Kummert. Solar Energy Laboratory.cd PB-16 http://www. 11... University of Sheffield. January 2007. B. EECOB Report: Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone.2. Energy Systems Research Unit. Hand. Dublin Institute of Technology.0. University of Strathclyde. July 2005: Contrasting the Capabilities of Building Energy Performance Simulation Programs. K.T. Colorado.gov/buildings/tools_directory/pdfs /contrasting_the_capabilities_of_building_energy_perform ance_simulation_programs_v1. http://www. Ward..1. 1999: The Advantages of Building Simulation for Building Design Engineers. USA. Proceedings. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings. Department of Energy..org/%5Cproceedings%5CBS1999%5CB S99_PB-16. of Energy. Botswana. Codes and Standards ASHRAE Standard 90. Golden. Resource Material 11.pdf Crawley. D. I.H.pdf) Bauer. J. B.

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SECTION 12 LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Insulated ceiling 20000 15000 10000 Pula 5000 0 -5000 -10000 1 3 5 7 9 years 11 13 15 White roof ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Indoor Environment. Introduction. Simulation. Design Brief. 11. 10. . 7. Building envelope. Lighting . 8.ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1.artificial and day lighting. Climate. Mechanical Systems. 12. 3. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. 9. 5. 4. 6. 2. Design and construction process. 13. Planning. Appendices.

Summary 12.4.3.3.3.5. 12.1.1. Websites Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. 12.5. Stage Two – Analysis. Stage Three – Evaluation.2. 12.2. Elements of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Overview 12. 12. 12.3. 12.3.4.CONTENTS 12.5. Definition and description. Stage One – Define Data. LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS 4 4 4 4 5 5 7 7 7 7 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 12 12. 12. 12.2. Opportunities 12. Resource Material 12. Stage One – Define Data. 12.3. Stage Two – Analysis. Stages of LCC Analysis.1.2.3. 12.1.4. Illustrative example.5.1.2.2. Essentials.3.4. Books and papers 12.2. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Page 3 .2. Limitations 12.

12.

LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSIS
This Section gives an overview of life-cycle costing (LCC) as it is applied to building projects. The relevance of LCC to energy efficient building design in particular was discussed in Section 5, Design and Construction Process. LCC is defined, and the opportunities and limitations of this costing system are considered. One of a number of possible approaches to calculating LCC is described, with references to sources for more detailed information and instructions. An example of the application of LCC analysis is described to illustrate how it may be used to assist in decision making at the design stage of a project.

12.1. Summary

Others include: o Simple Payback. o Internal Rate of Return. o Net Present Value. Simple payback is a cost analysis method whereby the annual savings arising from an investment is estimated, and divided by the investment cost to give the number of years required to recover the cost of the investment. This may also be compared to the expected time to replacement of the system or component. For example, if a solar heater costs P12,000 and results in a saving of P1,000 per year and has an expected life to replacement of 10 years, the payback time is 12 years and it would not be financially viable to make the investment. If the annual savings is doubled (e.g. due to increase electricity cost), then the payback becomes 5 years and the investment is now viable. Internal Rate of Return is the annualised return on investment, based on the amount saved in relation to the amount invested. This is compared with similar indicators, such as the interest rate that could have been earned in an investment account to determine whether the investment is cost effective. Net Present Value is a method of assessing the present value of future costs and returns, using a ‘discount rate’ to quantify the relative value of having access to money now compared to having access to it in the future.

12.2. Overview
12.2.1. Definition and description. Life-cycle Costing is defined in this context as: A method of cost analysis that estimates the total cost of a project over a period of time that includes both the construction cost and ongoing maintenance and operating costs. LCC is one of a number of tools that can be used to assess the cost effectiveness of various investment options.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

LCC is more complex than any one of these tools, in that it takes into consideration a greater number of relevant factors than the other methods. These include: Replacement cost for components or systems. Expected time to replacement. Maintenance costs. Variations in projected prices for energy and other inputs. o Variations in projected interest rates. o o o o 12.2.2. Opportunities Historically investment decisions relating to buildings have tended to be based on estimates of the initial construction cost, with little or no consideration for costs relating to operation and maintenance throughout the life of the building. Sharply rising energy costs have highlighted the opportunity for overall savings in the life of a building that can be achieved by investing in more energy efficient solutions initially. Savings on other operating and maintenance costs can also be considered, e.g. using building finishes that do not need frequent re-painting. LCC is a cost analysis tool that allows such factors to be quantified at the design stage, so that informed decisions can be made regarding the cost effectiveness of different possible design solutions. In some building codes it is a requirement that LCC be applied at an early design stage to demonstrate that the

building has been designed for minimum life-cycle cost. (e.g. Iowa Code 2001). The development of software packages that allow for accurate simulation of the energy performance of buildings has greatly increased the effectiveness of LCC, as it is now relatively easy to predict the effect on annual energy cost of changes in the design of a building. This information is essential to allow accurate LCC analysis to be carried out. 12.2.3. Limitations As with all predictive pastimes, the output from a LCC analysis is only as good as the input. It relies on a large number of assumptions, some of which may be quite accurate, and others that cannot be, since they are based on predictions of circumstances far into the future. With regard to energy cost, the most difficult predictions to make are those related to the future cost of energy supplies. The decision as to how energy cost will change in the future may have a large impact on whether a particular intervention is cost effective or not in a life-cycle analysis. Likewise, the costs of materials, labour, finance, etc need to be estimated for the full period under consideration, often 50 years or more, which obviously requires some very creative guesswork. The task has been made somewhat easier in that standard sets of assumptions for many of these variables are available, e.g. from the USA government that are required to be used for LCC analysis that relates to government codes. This means

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

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that valid comparisons can be made between different projects. However, if the predictions are inaccurate or based on false assumptions regarding the future, then the wrong decisions may result for a large number of buildings. Another problem lies in predicting the useful life of different components and relating these to the time frame for the analysis. Using a longer time frame, such as the life expectancy of the building has advantages in that it allows all costs and benefits related to the project to be considered, including cost of demolition, salvage value of materials, etc. However this time frame tends to be so long that sensible predictions of costs, discount rates, rental values etc. are unrealistic. When shorter periods are used for the analysis, care must be taken to avoid errors arising from component replacement periods that are of a similar order to the analysis period.

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Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

12.3. Elements of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis.
12.3.1. Essentials. A life-cycle cost analysis determines the estimated cost of all aspects of owning a building over a specified period of time. Often this is the anticipated life of the building to demolition, in which case the cost of disposing of the building may also be included. These costs are all reduced to Net Present Value (NPV), which is a measure of their value in today’s currency (i.e. 2007 Pula value). By reducing all costs and savings to NPV, the impact of inflation or deflation on value is removed, allowing comparisons between costs at different times in the future (or past). The result of a LCC analysis is therefore the total cost of owning the building over the specified period, at today’s prices. This is typically calculated for a number of alternative solutions. The results are then compared to show the relative benefits of the different alternatives. This information is then used to assist in making an informed choice between the alternative solutions. 12.3.2. Stages of LCC Analysis. Essentially LCC analysis carried out in three stages as follows: Stage 1. Define data. Stage 2. Analysis. Stage 3. Evaluation of results.

12.3.3. Stage One – Define Data. The first stage in performing a LCC analysis is to define the information that is needed for each option that is to be analysed. The key data required are as follows: o Construction cost. o Financing cost. o Recurrent operating costs. ƒ Energy costs. ƒ Non energy costs. ƒ Maintenance costs. ƒ Cyclical maintenance. ƒ Repairs. ƒ Equipment replacement costs. o Taxation costs and benefits. o Demolition and disposal cost. o Income generated (typically impact on productivity or sales, sale of electricity to the grid, etc.) In each case the present value of future costs must be estimated. This varies from current value due to two different factors. One factor by which future costs must be adjusted is the inflation rate, or the change in price over time. Assuming that all costs change at the same rate over time, this can be disregarded, if the analysis is carried out on the basis of constant currency, e.g. in 2007 Pula.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis

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The second stage is to carry out the actual computation of life-cycle cost for each of the alternative scenarios that are being evaluated. such as future energy price variations it is helpful to check the sensitivity of the analysis to these variables by testing a number of different values (e.3. LCC Definitions: LCC I Repl Res E W OM&R O = = = = = = = = = I + Repl — Res + E + W + OM&R + O Total LCC in present-value (PV) dollars of a given alternative PV investment costs (if incurred at base date. i. min and most likely) to see the impact on the results. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis .gov/femp/pdfs/ashb06.4. salvage value) less disposal costs PV of energy costs PV of water costs PV of non-fuel operating. This reflects the perceived difference in value of an investment made today. These are available for download at: http://www1..pdf Currently the ‘real’ discount rate used for assessing Government investment projects in Botswana is 8.g. to ensure a uniform approach to LCC between different jurisdictions. they need not be discounted) PV capital replacement costs PV residual value (resale value. This gives an indication of the confidence that can be applied to the results. so an adjustment is made for the real rate of energy cost inflation. K.energy.e. max. No official figures for future real inflation rates for energy sources are available in Botswana. the rate at which energy cost changes relative to general costs.e.eere. For variables that are difficult to predict. so an informed estimate must be made. Stage Two – Analysis. The second factor by which future costs must be adjusted is the discount rate. the rate by which interest on investments differs from the general inflation rate. PV of other costs (benefits) Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Standard ‘real’ inflation rates for different forms of energy and standard discount rates are issued by the US government for use in LCC analysis for federal buildings. Energy costs however tend to fluctuate independently of general inflation. (pers. 12. It is generally related to the real interest rate. The basic equation for Life-Cycle Cost is shown below (from Fuller). compared to value of the same investment being made in the future.Generally for LCC analysis of building projects it is assumed that costs other than energy costs change at much the same rate so that variations in inflation rate can be ignored. maintenance and repair costs. Future costs are adjusted to present value by applying the discount rate over the period between the present and the time when the cost will be incurred. Dr.0%. i. Jefferis). comm.

of Energy. Each criterion is then given a weighting depending on how important it is considered to be relative to the other criteria.5. such as a matrix to assist in evaluating the options in accordance with all the criteria. for example if increased lighting levels are expected to lead to productivity gains or increased turnover. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Page 9 . A large number of software packages are available that can perform the calculations of LCC. skills needed for operation and maintenance. Other. the highest scoring option being the most valued. say on a score of 1-5. The final stage in a LCC analysis is to compare the results for the different cases that were analysed.A negative value for other costs (‘O’) may be included to include a value for benefits relative to a base case. (http://www. A very detailed book on LCC analysis is the ‘Life Cycle Costing Manual. LCC essentially quantifies the financial costs and benefits associated with each option.gov/buildings/) 12. Stage Three – Evaluation. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. This is available for download from the US Dept. but is of course always limited by the quality of the decisions that are made in applying it. This is done by assigning a value for each option against each criterion. LCC cost is usually only one of a number of criteria that will be considered in making a choice between different options. availability of equipment. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.eere.3. making life considerably easier for the analyst. and many other considerations. The outcome is then a score for each option. NIST Handbook 135’. For complex investment choices it is helpful to use a rational decision making tool. non-financial factors may also need to be considered. access to finance (which may be dependant on availability of collateral. Such a tool can help to guide the decision making process. or budgetary limitations). such as aesthetics.energy.

and facility managers by providing the financial information necessary for making decisions based on the economic merits of improved building design. a simplified tool for life-cycle cost analysis from Energy Design Resources.400 8 3. Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12.4.440 1. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis .792 Insulated Ceiling 160 0 5 15 404. A differential inflation rate of 5% for energy costs was included to allow for energy costs to escalate at 5% more than other costs.1. The analysis was performed at current Pula prices to remove the effect of inflation from the comparison. Energy eVALUator is designed to analyze improvements that reduce energy cost. and enhance tenant satisfaction. A discount rate of 8% was used. A simple example of LCC analysis is provided to illustrate how the process works. The example uses a typical classroom building for which an energy performance simulation has previously been carried out using DesignBuilder and Energy Plus software.330 1.1 Input data for LCC.792 White roof sheets 160 0 5 15 402. which is the recommended for government investment appraisals (see above). architects. Illustrative example. 160 0 5 15 400. Stage One – Define Data. engineers. Item Baseline Building floor area [m2] General inflation [%] Electricity inflation [%] Analysis period [yrs] Project cost [P] Discount rate [%] Initial Energy expenses [P/yr] Other operational expenses [P/yr] Table 12.792 The input data was determined as shown in Table 12.1 It was assumed that the construction cost was paid for without loan.505 1.800 8 3. This example was calculated using Energy eVALUator. tenants. or using white roof sheets to reduce energy cost.12.000 8 4. developers.4. LCC analysis is used to evaluate the cost implication of providing 100mm of ceiling insulation. A 15 year period was selected for the analysis. improve employee productivity. 12. Energy eVALUator is a simple-to-use Windowsbased program for calculating the life cycle benefits of investments in improved building design. The tool is designed to help building owners.

Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12.339 462. 12. which occurs were the incremental savings become zero as shown in Fig.8 White roof sheets 15 402.339 459. This data was input into a project in the eVALUator software package which performed the necessary calculations.339 467.2 Results of LCC. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Page 11 .7 20000 15000 10000 Pula 5000 0 -5000 -10000 1 3 Insulated ceiling White roof 5 7 9 years 11 13 15 Cash Flow reports were also produced and used to provide a graph showing the incremental savings achieved by both interventions.1 Fig.2.12.800 42266 15.568 Insulated Ceiling 15 404. Stage Two – Analysis.405 5. Baseline 15 400.4.1 Incremental savings.400 41.000 52.229 15.233 2. The results were as follows: Item Analysis period [yrs] Project cost [P] Energy expenses [P] Non energy expenses [P] Total life cycle costs [P] Simple payback [yrs] Table 12.494 15. Output reports were generated that compare the LCC for both the alternatives with the baseline case and also provide the simple payback periods. 12. These illustrate the simple payback.

The strength of LCC analysis is that it allows a rational choice to be made.gov/buildings/ WBDG Whole Building Design Group http://www. Using white coloured roof sheets is the preferred alternative. A further analysis could be carried out to determine the impact of combining both strategies. Resource Material 12. This is greatly reduced by the availability of simple software tools that do most of the work. Rushing.php) Fuller. Websites EDR.wbdg. Sieglinde K.org/design/lcca. Sieglinde.1. using white coloured roof sheets and providing insulation over the ceiling.5.5. Amy S. http://www.4. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA). that would otherwise be based on hunches and guesswork. before the LCC analysis can be carried out. as well as a lower total life-cyle cost. Energy Price Indices and Discount Factors for Life-Cycle Cost Analysis . and Fuller.12. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (http://www. 1995 edition. This would first require a further energy simulation to determine the effect on energy consumption.1. Books and papers Fuller.wbdg. Steven.energy. The results indicate that both ceiling insulation and using white roof sheets are cost effective strategies for reducing energy cost. Stage Three – Evaluation. of Energy. since it gives a shorter simple payback time.5. NIST Handbook 135. Energy Design Resources .April 2006 Annual Supplement to NIST Handbook 135 and NBS Special Publication 709 12.2. US Dept. Life Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program. of Energy. Sieglinde and Petersen.com/ US Dept. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The weakness is the time and effort that it costs to carry out the analysis.eere. 12.org Page 12 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 12. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis . http://www.energydesignresources.

SECTION 13 APPENDICES ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Revision 1 September 2007 .

Indoor Environment. 10. 4. Design Brief. 5. Introduction. Mechanical Systems. 6. 7. Design and construction process. Appendices. Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. . Simulation.artificial and day lighting. 12. Planning. 11. Lighting .ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES FOR BOTSWANA Sections: 1. Operation & Maintenance and Building Management Systems. 13. Building envelope. 2. Climate. 8. 3. 9.

1 2001 (extract).APPENDICES Page 3 . PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS PROPERTIES OF BUILDING ELEMENTS .CONTENTS 1. PROPERTIES OF GLASS ASHRAE STANDARD 90. 2. 4.FLOOR 3. 4 5 5 6 9 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – 13.ROOF PROPERTIES OF BUILDING ELEMENTS .WALLS PROPERTIES OF BUILDING ELEMENTS .

17 0.1.303 1.K Conductivity W/m.4 0. PROPERTIES OF BUILDING MATERIALS Density kg/m 3 Specific heat J/kg.282 a e b a e 1800 2000 1300 480 960 1000 1000 1000 880 880 0.159 1.21 a b b b a a a Page 4 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.35 1.037 0.13 0.4 900 0.042 0.5 0.K Source Insulating materials Polystyrene Glasswool PVC PVC floor covering Woodwood cement Concrete. brick and plaster Plasterboard Concrete medium density Cast concrete Plaster (dense) Vermiculite plaster (light) Vermiculite plaster (dense) Brick (average) 15 12 1390 908 1.144 0. APPENDICES .

865 2800 390 0.3 1. APPENDICES Page 5 .173 d c 11340 7200 7870 2698 8960 10491 1900 520 4860 900 385 234 34 50 51. rock and clay Granite Sandstone Building sand Slate Soil Clay tiles Timber Pine timber Hardwood (American Beech) Metals Lead Cast iron Steel Aluminium Copper Silver Other Air Water Concrete Glass 3 Specific heat J/kg.5 0.609 2 1 d c d d Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.3 998 2250 2500 1 4182 1000 700 0.032 0.K Conductivity W/m.15 0.K Source 1500 2500 1500 1922 840 750 850 920 2.Density kg/m Aggregate.c d c c c c 1.4 1.84 a a a a a a 500 560 .295 0.92 1.9 210 385 419 a.

451 22.420 0.292 93.000 0.6 10 2.263 22.6 100 10 4.250 56.450 22.530 0. APPENDICES .493 55.222 a 2.K 2 2 C kJ/m .002 4.949 4. PROPERTIES OF BUILDING ELEMENTS thickness mm R value m .2.1 5.030 0.K/W 2 Construction layers ROOF Galvanised roof Galvanised sheet Galvanised roof with ceiling Galvanised roof Ceiling Galvanised roof with 50mm insulated ceiling Galvanised roof Fibre glass insulation Ceiling Galvanised roof with 100mm insulated ceiling Galvanised roof 100mm fibre glass insulation Ceiling Thatch Thatch Concrete tiles with underlay Concrete tiles Air gap Polythene U value W/m .887 14.897 56.6 0.360 a 1.500 27.949 0.250 0.500 27.883 a a 0.406 b Page 6 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.000 19.724 a 0.6 50 10 3.190 0.001 4.345 25 25 0.449 22.K CR sec Source 0.500 250 0.548 a 0.500 4.949 0.949 27.949 22.

K/W 2 U value W/m .512 1.000 19.000 19.237 b Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.439 3.000 19.000 19.500 189.567 15 105 50 105 15 1.538 1.500 162.001 19.000 0.908 b 82.311 15 105 15 0.500 435.400 19.574 a 171.000 19.000 0.500 70.439 b 815.500 248.K 2 2 C kJ/m .000 19.500 417.000 0.000 19.500 287.500 396.955 15 105 50 50 105 15 0.500 201.500 189.000 189.000 19.510 15 230 15 0.390 b 236.400 19.Construction layers thickness mm R value m .410 a 146.500 417.000 19. APPENDICES Page 7 .K CR sec Source WALLS Solid half brick wall plastered Plaster Cement brick Plaster Hollow block wall plastered 150mm Plaster Hollow cement block Plaster Hollow block wall plastered 230mm Plaster Hollow cement block Plaster Solid one brick wall plastered Plaster Cement brick Plaster Cavity wall plastered Plaster Cement brick Air gap Cement brick Plaster Cavity wall plastered with insulation Plaster Cement brick Air gap Glass wool Cement brick Plaster 0.394 15 220 15 0.500 189.410 15 150 15 0.215 228.961 2.764 2.001 189.

al. Botswana. Botswana’. 1984. b. Department of Engineering. EECOB Report: ‘Parametric simulation of the energy performance of three generic building types in Gaborone. APPENDICES .gov/insulation/ Page 8 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13. Department of Energy.5 4. L. Standard Reference Database 81. Government of Botswana. Matweb Material Property Data.K 2 2 C kJ/m .000 0..K CR sec Source 0. Data Book 1977 National Institute of Standards and Technology.com University of Warwick.344 b Sources: a. USA.626 46. Hamilton. http://srdata. d.626 200. BRET. January 2007. Passive Solar Design Workbook.Construction layers FLOORS Concrete on DPC Cast concrete PVC thickness mm R value m .329 200.matweb.231 100 0. c.B. e. http://www.K/W 2 U value W/m . et.nist.

The ratio of Total Visible Light Transmission compared to Total Solar Energy Transmission has been included to give a comparison of which glass is most effective at transmitting maximum light with minimum energy.50 0.8 3.8 5.28 0.61 0. the more heat the glass is allowing into the building.54 0.2 3.8 5. Properties of Glass (from Smart Glass Catalogue.8 5.75 0.1.71 0.61 0. PFG Building Glass) Notes: The “Shading Coefficient” is the ratio of Total Solar Energy Transmission of a glass compared to the Total Solar Energy Transmission for ordinary 3mm glass.38 0.36 0.3.87 0. The higher the 'Solar energy transmission'.27 0.00 0.73 1. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13. Thus the ideal glass would have high Visible Light Transmission and low Solar energy transmission. PROPERTIES OF GLASS Description Clear float glass SolarVue Blue – High Light SolarVue Blue – Extra High Light SolarShield Blue – S10 SolarShield Blue – S20 SolarShield Blue – S30 CoolVue Clear InsulVue Coolblue (ColourVue +12mm air gap + ClearVue) InsulVue Blue (SolarShield +12mm air gap + ClearVue) – S10 InsulVue Blue (SolarShield +12mm air gap + ClearVue) – S20 InsulVue Blue (SolarShield +12mm air gap + ClearVue) – S30 Visible light Transmission [%] 38 46 9 20 30 72 65 8 18 26 Solar energy Transmission [%] 47 53 25 33 41 47 61 16 24 31 Visible/Solar Transmission [ratio] 0.54 0. APPENDICES Page 9 .84 Shading coefficient [ratio] 1. The higher the 'Visible Light Transmission'.53 1.2 3.35 U value [W/m2°C] 5.2 3. the clearer the glass will appear.81 0.47 0.07 0.8 5.19 0.2 Table 3.8 5.

APPENDICES . ASHRAE STANDARD 90.1.1 2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low Rise Residential Buildings Climate data for Pretoria are given in Table 4. and 4. Climate parameter Latitude Longitude Elevation Heating Degree Days base 18°C Cooling Degree Days base 10°C Heating design Temp.0% Value 25.238 4 31 17 Table 4.330 639 3. 99.1. Extract from : ASHRAE Standard 90.0% Cooling Design Temp WB 1.1 2001 (extract).4.3.1-2001 Table D3) Page 10 Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.6% Cooling Design Temp DB 1. and the corresponding values for envelope requirements are given in Tables 4.28E 1.2. Climate data for Pretoria (source: ASHRAE Standard 90.73S 28.

wood framed and other: all other wall types. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation. Floors. APPENDICES Page 13 . or convected into the space. Wall. which is then reradiated. does not include spandrel glass or metal panels in curtain wall systems).. metal building: a wall whose structure consists of metal spanning members supported by steel structural members (i. conducted.e. mass: a wall with a heat capacity exceeding (1) 143 kJ/m2K or (2) 102 kJ/m2K provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 1920 kg/m3 Wall. Energy Efficiency Building Design Guidelines for Botswana – Section 13.Wall. mass: a floor with a heat capacity exceeding (1) 143 kJ/m2K or (2) 102 kJ/m2K provided that the wall has a material unit weight not greater than 1920 kg/m3 Assembly max SHGC: solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC): the ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration area to the incident solar radiation. including wood stud walls. steel framed: a wall with a cavity (insulated or otherwise) whose exterior surfaces are separated by typical steel stud walls systems). Wall.

Botswana Project Funded by Danida Department of Energy Ministry of Minerals. Energy and Water Resources .Developing Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation in the Building Sector.