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Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament
Outline of Contents
A The Origin and Function of Prepositions B Distinctive Features of Prepositional Usage in NT Greek 1. Characteristics in keeping with tendencies of Hellenistic Greek: (a) preference for acc., (b) prep. phrases for simple cases, (c) "improper" preps. more numerous, (d) preps. combined with advs., (e) cl. Gk. variety of usage curtailed, (f) "overlap" of preps. 2. Characteristics reflecting Semitic influence: (a) certain preps. or prep. usages more frequent or with new significance, (b) repetition of preps. with copulated nouns C Exegetical Dangers 1. Insistence on classical Greek distinctions 2. Failure to make adequate allowance for a writer's stylistic variation 3. Disregard of probable distinctions 4. Denial of a double entendre 5. Neglect of the possible significance of (a) the non-repetition of the prep. with copulated nouns, and (b) the order of nouns that follow a prep. II SOME ΤΗΕOLΟGICALLY ΙΜΡORTANT INSTANCES OF THE MAJOR PREPOSITIONS A anti: 1. Equivalence 2. Exchange 3. Substitution B apo: 1. apo and ek. 2. Some notable instances: (a) 1 Cor. 11:23 (b) Heb. 5:7 (c) Rev. 1:4 C dia: 1. Means or instrument 2. Attendant circumstances 3. Cause or Ground 4. Purpose D eis: 1. Relation to other prepositions: (a) pros (b) en 2. Telic and ecbatic eis 3. Causal eis? 4. logizesthai eis Ε ek: 1. Basic signification 2. Some notable instances: (a) Jn. 15:19; 17:14, 16 (b) Rom. 1:3 f. (c) Rom. 1:17 (d) Rom. 3:30 (e) 2 Cor. 13:4 F en: 1. Extended NT use 2. Its versatility and ultimate disappearance 3. Exegetical ambiguities 4. Figurative sense 5. Causal en 6. en Christ° G epi: 1. Basic meaning and versatility 2. Some notable uses: (a) epi to auto (b) eph' ho (c) Matt. 19:9 (d) 1 Pet. 2:24a H hyper: 1. With the ace. 2. With the gen. I hypo: 1. hypo and dia 2. hypo and apo 3. hypo and para 1171
kata: 1. Root meaning 2. kata sarka and kata pneuma 3. kata denoting correspondence or conformity 4. Distributive kata K meta L para: 1. Basic sense 2. Transferred meanings 3. para in the Fourth Gospel M peni N pros: 1. Jn. l:lb 2. 2 Cor. 5:8 3. 1 In. 5:16 f. O syn: 1. Relation to meta 2. einai syn Christo in Paul
III SPECIAL PROBLEMS A Prepositions with baptizo 1. Non-prep. constructions 2. Prep. constructions: (a) pert (b) pros (c) dia (d) en (e) epi with dat. (f) epi with ace. (g) eis with ace. 3. Concluding observations B Prepositions with pisteuo (and pistis) 1. Non-prep. constructions 2. Prep. constructions: (a) pen (b) pros (c) dia (d) en (e) epi with dat. (f) epi with acc. (g) eis with ace. 3. Concluding observations IV
The discussion that follows is not intended as a comprehensive classification of the meanings and uses of all prepositions ("proper" and "improper") which occur in NT Gk. (on which see the standard lexica and grammars). Attention is focused on some uses of the major prepositions which are judged to be theologically significant. There is no treatment of the meaning of prepositions in compounds (on which see Moulton, Grammar, II, 292-328). I
A. The Origin and Function of Prepositions To judge from Vedic Sanskrit and Homeric Gk., preps. were originally adjuncts to verbs, "adverbs". How adverbs came to be attached to nouns is illustrated by Homer, Il. 11, 89, "desire for sweet food seizes his heart round about" (peni phrenas). In Homer most preps. were also used adverbially, but in the NT only rarely is this original adverbial nature of preps. apparent (e.g., hyper ego, "1 more," 2 Cor. 11:23), although words such as engys and exo are used either as adverbs or as preps. Recognizing that in origin preps. were "ad-verbs," grammarians have traditionally (if arbitrarily) referred to preps. that can be compounded with verbs as "proper" (some 18 in the NT); those that cannot, are termed "improper" (42 in the NT). Most preps. may denote three relations (local, temporal, mental or ideal) but the primary representation is local: (1) motion to — eis (into), pros (to); (2) motion from — ana (up from), apo (from), dia (through), ek (out of), kata (down from); (3) at rest — anti (over against), en (in), epi (upon), hyper (over, above), hypo (under, beneath), meta (behind), para (beside), pen (around), pro (before, in front of), syn (with). However, it is not always possible to trace clearly this basic spatial sense (the "root meaning") in extended metaphorical uses of the preps. With regard to the main ideal 1172
relations, the preps. may be grouped as follows (reflecting principal usage): (1) origin (αρο, ek, para); (2) cause or occasion (dia, epi, ek, apo); (3) purpose or object (eis, pros, epi, hyper); (4) result (eis,pros); (5) association or identification (syn, meta, en, dia); (6) relation (peri, hyper, pros, eis); (7) agency (hypo; sometimes αρο, dia, para, or en); (8) instrumentality or means (dia, ek, en); (9) correspondence (kata, pros); (10) opposition (kata, para, pros). Strictly speaking, from the point of view of historical development, a prep. does not "govern" the case of a noun but rather adds a certain precision to the casemeaning of the noun whose case is determined by its relation to the verb or to another noun. For example, elthen eis ten polin , "he went to-the-city I acc. denoting motion to] inwards [adverb]," i.e. "he went into the city." But, in ever-increasing measure, the case-ending itself came to be divested of special significance because inflection expressed such diversified relations, and the accompanying prep. assumed part of the meaning of the case. Therefore it is somewhat artificial to analyse the case of a noun in cl. or Hel. Gk. apart from the "meaning" of the adjoining prep.; the writers themselves probably regarded preps. as "governing" or determining the case of the noun. In seeking to determine the meaning of a prep. phrase the NT exegete should (at least ideally) consider: (1) the primary meaning of the prep. in itself (i.e. the local relation) and then its range of meanings when used with a particular case; (2) the basic significance of the case that is used with the prep.; (3) the indications afforded by the context as to the meaning of the prep.; (4) the distinctive features of prep. usage in the NT which may account for seeming irregularities. B. Distinctive Features of Prepositional Usage in NT Greek 1. Several characteristics are in keeping with general tendencies apparent in He!.
(a) Preps. followed by the acc. are, in general, preferred over preps. used with the dat. (although en with the dat. gains ground and pen with the acc. loses ground in comparison with cl. usage). This occasions no surprise since the dative case, which is found in modern demotic Gk. only in a fossilized form, had already begun to be eclipsed in the NT era, although its disappearance was not complete until the tenth century A.D. (see J. Humbert, La Disparition du Datif en Grec, 1930; P. F. Regard,
Contribution à L'Étude des Prépositions dans la Langue du Nouveau Testament,
1919, 325-376, 677). (b) Prep. phrases are often used instead of simple cases (e.g., eis hymns in 1 Pet. 1:4 replaces hymin; en with the dat. serves for the simple dat.; compare Matt. 7:2 and Lk. 6:38) (see further N. Turner in Moulton, Grammar, III, 251-253). (c) "Improper" preps., used only with the gen. (except for engys, hama and paraplesion), become more numerous (42 in the NT), reflecting the tendency towards fuller expression and the preference for uniformity that mark Hel. Gk. (see M. Zerwick, Biblical Greek, ET 1963, ,¢ 83, §,¢ 480 f.). For example, emprosthen ( = Heb. lipnê) is preferred over pro to denote "before" in a spatial sense, although it is very rare outside biblical Gk. (d) Preps. are commonly combined with adverbs, especially those denoting time 1173
g. Evidence of such occasional enallage may be derived from: parallel passages in the synoptic gospels. and hypo (as it was in cl. 26:28 is hyper ροllón in Mk. Acts 18:1. 1 Pet. 30). 3:8. Acts 7:53. "a year ago". 13:3. gained several distinctive characteristics. 11:50. that preps. Some of these examples are debatable. pert pollon in Matt. 11:1. 7:9. 3:35 compared with Jn. Gk." Chrysostom).1. 11:19.1. 681). Préροsίtiοns. 4:44 v. 2:4.. 20:9). 3. (iii) o and para (e.g. Lk. 2:1. ' 106. 13:23. Turner in Moulton. (vii) en and eis (e. (ii) o and ek (e. 4. Gk. apo perysi. the use of two different preps. note also Jn. 2 Pet..g. simply the seemingly irregular use of a prep. 1 Pet. 1 Cor. often mediated through the Septuagint. Heb. Lk. (a) Certain preps. 1:7 f.g. which sometimes represent a scribal attempt to clarify meaning by removing ambiguities and irregularities in prep. 16:27. Heb. where eis may stand for en and en for eis. Grammar. 1:30.1. 6:4. 5). in close proximity. 6:44. Heb. following deésis . 9:61.g. para (and pros: once with the gen.. 3:18. 1 Sam. with dekaté .. usages become more frequent or assume a new significance. Acts 8:24.. (v) pros and eis (e. 2. the variety in the use of "proper" preps. to be sure. 20:3.. Rev. (iv) o or ek may stand for hypo (e. Concerning eis and en. Rom. and. 28:7. (f) Undoubtedly the tendency of the greatest significance for ΝΤ exegesis and theology is that the "overlap" or "confusion" between various preps. is curtailed. however. ana and anti have restricted use.) take three cases. Jn.g. (viii) hyper may stand for anti (e. and the textual variants in Matt. 2:21. with kolpos. 8:26. Mk. (e) In comparison with cl. use. 2 Thess. it appears that apart from Mark and Luke-Acts. the incidence of such "interchange" needs to be carefully analysed.. repetition of an identical noun with different preps. 28 v. Préροsitiοns. It is not that the following constructions or uses are without parallel in 1174 ... 1:18 compared with Jn. the proleptic or pregnant use of preps. 2:12a and b. 679). Phlm. Zerwick. N. with cheir. the ΝΤ use of preps. This is not to suggest. 7:2. (vi) en and dia (e. When a prep. Gk. the exegete should presume that eis retains its distinctive sense until the context or other considerations show that this is impossible or improbable (cf.g. 1:9. 1 Thess. Jn. 5:12).. or prep. 255). 1:11. 13). Matt. Jn. 11:7. textual variants. 2:6.). 10:1 compared with Eph.1. 8:10. 23:42 v. Lk. used in certain senses was becoming more and more blurred. 9:2) (see Regard. but it is now generally recognized by grammarians that in Hel. while the dat. cf. Phlm. for example.g.. 14:24. especially in a local sense. In the ΝΤ only epi..APPENDIX or place (e. 7:13. "the en signifies dia. 6:18 f. 28:6. Jn.. As a result of Semitic influence. 8:23. 7:14. III. o — Matt. 5:38 f. 13:3 compared with Jn.. on occasion. 22:20). were arbitrarily or indiscriminately substituted for one another. the distinction between some preps. "since last year'. Lk. ek —2 Cor. 15:3. Jn. Indeed. and the textual variants in Gal.g. 12:8. for each preposition has its own history and each writer his own idiosyncrasies. pert. and cf. 11:1. 2 Cor. Acts 15:4 v. 5:1. the least important usage tends to disappear (Regard. has multiple uses. is no longer used with meta. (when bearing certain senses) becomes more apparent. Mk. Biblical Greek. 1:2. ter. Jn.. 7:16 compared with Lk. Mk. 1:5. The more important instances of this "interchange" include the following: (i) hyper and pert (e.. apparently without distinction.. 15:16. within a single context or within a literary corpus. 2 Cor. 1:4. 2 Cor.
Isa. Rom. lipne) (e. Turner has ascertained that. cf. and note en haimati [where en = Beth pretii. Romans. 6:7. while such repetition is infrequent in the Ptolemaic papyri (E. Thackeray. J. Deissmann's inscriptional parallels (Light from the Ancient East..g. W. A. Grammatik." (b) The repetition of a prep.) (e. § § 391 f. b e. 10. Insistence on classical Greek Distinctions.. 5:9. 21:42. St. and pro) with prosopon (Moulton. see H. when there is an opportunity to repeat a prep. . 121 n. 688). C. writer may repeat a prep. Moulton. Also to be mentioned here is the frequent use of emprosthen (84 times in LXX for Heb. is the absence of cl. Acts 19:27. 18:14) which is very rarely found outside biblical Gk. III. the frequency of prep.AP PEND IX contemporary papyri. Grammar. Sometimes it is the greater number of instances that points to direct or indirect Semitic influence. the Heb. where sarx mia follows eis sarka mian.. for example. 4:3. Matt. The Old Testament in Greek. 1 Cor. le with the infinitive) (for this. Of course in itself a repeated prep. Pastorals 17% (4:24). 1 Pet. Grammar. John 53% (8:15). phrases (using ago.).. See the debate on this matter between A. II. Matthew 31% (11:35).g. 2. Gesenius—Kautzsch. occurs so frequently in certain NT books as to be a feature of biblical Gk. 11:26. 9:8. 1:24.g. the temporal force of en ώ with the infinitive (a characteristically Lukan feature). 466). Mayser.. LXX Ezekiel (B-text) accepts it 84% of the time (78:93). highlighted by N. 1955-6. 1954-5. inscriptions or literary usage. and note the conjunction en ho. One of the principal characteristics of NT Gk. III. and Aram. II. 8:3. Col. 2 and passim. 247) and N. Eph. 67. and Luke-Acts 23% (25:111) (Moulton. instrumentality (e. Turner (Moulton. 61:6. b e with the infinitive construct. the gerundival use of the infinitive (with or without tou. attributable to Semitic influence. phrase with eis after ginesthai. 275. Biblical Greek. and causality (e. 1954-5.g. Rev.. Matt. Préροsitiοns. for any Gk. Zerwick. in general. cf. reflecting the Heb. Turner ("An Alleged Semitism. 15:45. 19:5 f.g. To isolate these hazards will be useful before we examine some of the theologically significant uses of the major preps. 7:14. P. Heb." ExpT 66. 37% (6:16). Grammar. 1:18 f. 516). it was not uncommon. 5:2. Heb. 6:18). with several substantives in one regimen in order to highlight the distinction between them. Matt. l e with háyâh) instead of a nominative predicate (Matt. but cf. Rom.g. en often expresses accompaniment ("with") (e. the frequency of a prep. Notably. Exegetical Dangers Not only is the detailed examination of prep. under the influence of the Heb. 2 Cor. 1 Cor. einai or logizesthai (cf. epi. 3:25. usage richly rewarding. 1 Cor. Argyle ("An Alleged Semitism. 1 Cor. IV." e. 1) to this latter construction are unconvincing since they relate only to einai eis and only to the sense "be for the purpose of. 252-254). Rev. N. 120 n. Rom. for commentators to find in the Johan1175 . Lk. 1. Gk. 25. need not betray Semitic practice. standards. 177. 1:21. 5:9. 93). Heb. 58% (14:24). 119p)1 in Rom. Mk. 2:18). it is an undertaking made hazardous by several pitfalls that must be carefully avoided. see M.. 6:8. 47. 9:25). F. Acts 7:29. 4:21. Revelation 63% (24:38). G. For a contrary view. 2:26. 5:28). bis. In the days before the papyri finds from Egypt were available for comparison with the NT texts. 1903. 24:16. "because. Mark 38% (10:26). Regard. Grammar. with each noun connected by kai. with a series of nouns. eis to or pros to) [cf." ExpT 66. Grammar. 22:49. EΤ 1927.
12-15). note especially 2 Pet.(f1)." In 1 Pet. could express location. for example. As it is. while (elsewhere) po is twice used with persons (Rom. towards laxity of usage and overlap of function with respect to preps. since the distinction is inapplicable in 6:33. between ek pisteós and dίa tés piste&s in Rom. that denote direction or movement in cl. It was not recognized that in He!. never personal enemies. were used. between dia dοxés and en doxé in 2 Cor. One must assume that a writer chooses his preps. A. or the use and non-use of a prep. Gk. Abbott. to find indications of motion. 3. Jesus Christ came "in the flesh. From the viewpoint of linguistic usage. the extent of the "overlap" of preps. Disregard of Probable Distinctions. 3:30 (see below. 3:5). 39:2. between hon and hyper hou in Jn. 2:6. 2. 3:11. with care. and in Phm. 11:1 (and note that both o and ek are used with tou ouranou katabebéka. to distinguish between ex anthrópón and aph' hymón. but is effected by means of (dίa) the living and abiding word of God. 18) of pros and eis (preps. between lo gó.§ 2289 f. 3:5 the earth is said to have been formed out of the 1176 . there was no need. "Libera nos a malo". 1:1. 3:2) and once with a non-personal object (2 Tim. between nekroi tois parpt&masi (Eph. 3:18. in successive phrases or parallel passages. between pen pant&n tón hagión and hyper emou after proseuchomenoi in Eph. to treat en sarki as equivalent to eis sarka would be to embrace a species of Apollinarianism. It seems arbitrary and unwarranted. a change of case with a repeated prep. usage) proof of an intertrinitarian relationship involving either "eternal generation" or reciprocity of fellowship. 1:10. These tendencies conform with general LXX usage (see especially Ps. Only God was able to assess the true outcome of his ministry and supply the power for its accomplishment (2 Cor.). in 2 Pet.2. This danger is the opposite of the last. Or again. and en erg& in 1 Jn. to reckon any positive result of his ministry as actually originating from himself (ex heautón )... simply because these preps. on his own initiative or in his own wisdom (aph' heautón).. A writer must be permitted to alter his terminology either to vary his style but not change his meaning or to express a distinction in sense. Bauer. always marks a change of meaning. between apo (applying to domicile) and ek (applying to birthplace) in the Fourth Gospel (see Ε. Given the general tendency in Hel. the probability is that tou ponérou means "the Evil One" rather than "evil" (see J. 1906. LXX). In the discussion of 2 Jn. Gk. In the NT rhyesthai ek denotes deliverance from non-personal evil (7 times. §. A writer may simply wish to avoid repetition or vary his style. ΙIΕ. 7:41 f. Paul disowned his adequacy. 2 Thess. 42). B. Gk. 2:13). 5. the exegete should not assume that a change of prep. 7. ap' allón in 1 Thess. Johannine Grammar. 3:25 f... both preps. té glóssé. Verbum Domini 34. Failure to Make Adequate Allowance for a Writer's Stylistic Variation.(d)).1. In the interpretation of the last clause of the Lord's Prayer (Matt. 4:18). 2:1) and nekroi en tois parptómasί (Col. 2:9. To cite another example. then. 1:15. ek peirasmou). 6:13b). 1:23 regeneration is said to have its origin or source (ek) in an act of immortal procreation or in imperishable seed. 1956. it is relevant to observe that not ek but o follows rhysai.APPENDIX nine use (in Jn. 6:38. 6:18 f. Or again. 30. has not always been generally recognized (see above.B. between epi with the dative and genitive in Eph. in He!. 15:31. 41. between pros and eis in Rom." not "into flesh. as if Paul were indicating that "all the saints" were to be the subject (pen) of his addressees' prayer but that his own welfare (hyper) was also to be their prayerful concern. I.
1:4. dia tés teknogonias). 200: "the words not only declare His temporal priority to the universe. in parallel passages. "in its relation to righteousness. 10:5. 2:15 affords a comparable example. J. In addition. in fact) were saved through water" (op. and acc. 19:28 and with the ace. and so [ecbatic eis] righteousness is available to every believer" and "In the case of every believer. 1946. Heb. F." referential eis) (eis dikaiosynén) (Rom. 8. The woman who continues in faith. Peter. Selwyn. a distinction usually should be drawn between the same preposition used in the same sentence or in parallel or similar passages with different cases (e. N. 24:2 and Mk. 1969. Heb. 2 Cor. 9:11 f. 4. C. But care needs to be exercised in determining an intended double entendre. Bruce in Commentary on The Epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians. "a few (eight persons. 1 Tim. Atkinson. simply on a priori hermeneutical principles. and dat. Denial of a Double Entendre. instrumental dia and dia expressing attendant circumstances. It would hardly be permissible to affirm that Paul is saying both that faith is characteristic of the life of the person who is righteous before God and that 1177 . The exegete must choose between "Christ is the goal of the law. Kelly. Does the exegete have to choose between the concepts of "priority in time" and "supremacy in rank" in discussing autos estin pro ρantón in Col. B. The Theology of Prepositions. F..g. editors of the Greek text must choose between two accentuations of estin. local and telic eis expressing movement and purpose. 159) take diesóthésan di' hydatos in 1 Pet. No one will doubt that a repeated preposition may beat two different senses with the same case within one sentence (e. Phil.. it is not because of any reluctance to make a decision between evenly balanced exegetical possibilities but because the author may have intended a double meaning that some commentators (e. 2:10. 10:4. 1957. but note epi with the gen. G. 13:2 vi... The Epistles of Peter and of Jude. 2 Cor. But what of prepositional phrases that may be construed either with what precedes or with what follows? Is a double entendre ever to be found here? Probably not. But in addition it seems illegitimate.. 11:9. 3:20 to mean both "they were brought safely through water" (local dia) and "they were preserved by means of water" (instrumental dia). but with a reversal of emphasis)? Certainly. love. 2:12. For example. BNTC. but Moffatt appears to reproduce the ambiguity of pro in his translation "he is prior to all". 3:9). 202 f. 6:6) both the sense "in holiness of spirit" and the meaning "by gifts of the Holy Spirit" (NEB).. in Matt.APENDIX material of water or to rise from and above water (ex hydatos) (a gloss on Gen. 3:11. Christ is the end of the law viewed as a means of gaining (telic eis) righteousness" (or. to exclude the possibility that on occasion an author may use a single preposition in a dual sense. cf. The First Epistle of St. 2 Pet. D.. with apparently no difference in meaning). in Matt.. NLC. 6-8) and to stand amidst water or to exist by the action of water (in descending to fill low areas and ascending to form clouds) (di' hydatos). Kelly's rendering. so also B. cit. F. Similarly. 1:17 and Gal. ek pisteós must be taken either with ho (de) dikaios ("it is the person who is righteous by faith that will live") or with zésetai ("the person who is righteous will live by faith")..g. 1944. but also suggest His primacy over it". dia in 1 Cor. local and instrumental en). retains the ambiguity in translation. 12. 1:17 (cf. It would scarcely be defensible to find in the phrase en pneumati hagió (which appears in the midst of a catalogue of moral virtues. holiness and modesty will be "saved through child-bearing" (sbthésetaί .g. 158). in the Pauline citation of Habakkuk 2:4 in Rom. 1:2.
) who is the Spirit" or "by the Lord (Jesus) who is spirit" (cf. 1:4. 4:21.. No contrast is intended between an external element of "water" and an inward renewal achieved by the Spirit.g. 2 Tim. eis aphesin hamartión. that may be interpreted either as the messianic purification and judgment that would be effected by the Spirit (cf. 2:13.) Thus in 2 Cor. Rev. in the standard monographs on the subject (viz. 7:17). phrase (e. 3:6). 3:15. 3:3.g. 13:33. SBT. 2 Cor. If prep. Krebs. phrase (e. . 3:13. 4:18. but note the exceptional Matt. Matt. 1:3) suggests that the apostle envisaged the Father and the Son as a joint source of "grace and peace. the wicked with fire). may be theologically significant.. II SOME THEOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT INSTANCES OF THE MAJOR PREPOSITIONS References to discussions of individual preps. 7)..) The fact that "God our Father" and "the Lord Jesus Christ" are joined together under the bond of a single prep. is followed by a noun in a case other than the genitive. 5:16. indicating that the writer regarded the terms that he placed in one regimen as belonging naturally together or as a unit in concept or reality. Conceptually the two are one. ex hydatos kai pneumatos (Jn.2. There is a comparable ambiguity of construction in Lk. 190-192.B. ex ergón nomou (Rom. therefore. Col. Gal. 4:30. 20:23. when the nouns involved are articular. in NT Gk. (po) in all Pauline salutations (e. dia mesou autón. 5. 2:26). Similarly. Kuhring. a prep. it always qualifies the former. ek tés tou diabolou pagidos.g. Baptism in the Holy Spirit. A Grammar of the New Testament Greek." not "by the principle of works. 3:2. tends to be repeated before a series of nouns joined by kai more frequently in biblical Gk. 22:44. 1970. ek dexión mou. Rom." but "by the Lord (= Yahweh. Similarly. 3:20. o tou nomou tes hamartias kai tou thanatou. is followed by two anarthrous substantives both in the genitive case. or as the outpouring of the Spirit on believers at Pentecost that would refine and inflame them. Phil. Lk. in Matt. R. Second Series 15.APPENDIX faith in Christ is the means to divine approval and eternal life. Neglect of the Possible Signifi cance of (a) the Non-repetition of the Preposition with Copulated Nouns. (see the discussion of A. Rom. 3:16. 15:45. Generally speaking. (See further on these two examples J.§ 295).g. Heb. the righteous with the Holy Spirit. Johannessohn. M. C. 3:5) shows that for the writer (or speaker) "water" and "Spirit" together form a single means of that regeneration which is a prerequisite for entrance into the kingdom of God ( = birth anóthen. 3:16 f. any limiting genitive usually follows the prep. 8-14. Sometimes. Helbing. Rossberg) 1178 . F." (Cf. but occasionally it may be inserted according to the ABBA word-order (e. Jn. 1 Cor. (under Semitic influence) than in non-biblical Gk. Dunn. D. Mk. 3:11 the phrase en pneumati hagió kai pyri points not to two baptisms (viz.(b)). G. 30:28) and experienced by all. Jn. They sustain a single relation (not two diverse relations) to the grace and peace that come to believers. 10) means "by the works of the law. 4:4. 5. 8:2). 3:18 aρo kyriou pneumatos does not mean "by the Spirit of the Lord. 2:9. 1 Thess. 1 Cor. but to a single baptism in Spirit-and-fire. the non-use of a second or third prep... 2 Cor." rather than as distinct sources or as source and channel (respectively). 4:14. ET 1873. Acts 22:3. W. A related matter concerns the order of nouns that follow a prep. 2:16 bis. the limiting genitive generally follows the prep. Even when the prep. 1 Cor. and (b) the Order of Nouns that follow a Preposition. (see above. 9:11. Buttmann. I. Isa.
anti 3). 1970. and substitution (one object. kóper. cf. 3:9). as in non-biblical Gk. T. In Jn. 1 Pet. exchange (one object. a tooth for a tooth. In 1 Cor. opposite" (cf. Judah offers to remain in Egypt instead of (anti) Benjamin as a slave to Joseph (Gen. Homer. Exchange ("in return for". 12:16. 3. Abraham offers up the ram as a burnt offering instead of (anti) Isaac his son (Gen. but rather. See also Lk. Der Gebrauch der Präροsitionen in der Septuaginta. Equivalence ("for". Matthew probably wished his readers to understand that the redemption tax was a substitutionary offering designed to release the giver from obligation (see further R. 11:15 Paul's point is not that a veil is superfluous for a woman since nature has given her hair in place of a covering. 1:6). 17:24 was regarded as redemption money (Heb. 3:9). "in the place of"). Davies. New International Version) denotes a perpetual and rapid succession of blessings. 5:15. Shek. that is distinguishable from another. Matt. 1. Jas. Il. Johannessohn. Exod. is given or taken in return for the other). Archelaus reigns over Judea in place of (anti) his father Herod (Matt. (e.. Under the lex talionis (Exod. 46. cf. 249-280. III. 79 f. "to her") that the more generous supply of hair that a woman has when compared with a man shows the appropriateness of her being covered when she prays or prophesies in the Christian assembly. "on behalf of". Turner. 4:15. The half-shekel tax alluded to in Matt. 173). Alternatively. 12:17. opposing or distinct from another. Grammar. as though there were no interval between the arrival of one blessing and the receipt of the next. one eye was required as equivalent compensation for another eye (ophthalmon anti ophthalmou. In return for evil received (anti kakou) the Christian is not to do evil (Rom. 1:16 charm anti charitos ("grace upon grace". 4) including the papyri (Moulton-Milligan. Matt. Lamenting the death of his son Absalom. 1 Pet. is given or taken instead of the other).in antworten). 2. I instead of [anti] you" (2 Sam. LXX lytron. 21:23-25). 1 Thess. "Christ in our place — the Contribution of the Prepositions". 11:11. (see M. N. David says "Would that I had died instead of [anti] you. LXX). "as the equivalent of '. 9. German ant. when Jesus commanded Simon Peter to give the collectors the shekel he would find in the fish's mouth anti emou kai sou ("for me and for yourself". arguing analogically. 22:13).g. 1. 5:38). 30:12) that would release the donor from hypothetical slavery or absolve him from the divine anger (cf. 73 s. 116 f. It was for the price of a meal (anti bróseós) that Esau sold his birthright (Heb. "one blessing after another". Grammatical Insights into the New Testament. Xen.). 2:22). 1.v. In its prevailing sense in LXX Gk. 198-200). he infers from the general fact that "hair has been given to serve as a covering" (anti' peribolaiou) (p 4D6 G omit ante. naturally came to denote equivalence (one object is set over against another as its equivalent).APPENDIX may be found in the relevant footnotes in Moulton. 44:33). 1965. 1926. when abused he is not to give abuse in exchange (loidorian anti loidorias. "for the price of"). Substitution ("instead of". Α.). Accordingly. It is improbable that anti ever has the diluted sense of "for the benefit of". antis in modern Gk.. the idea of constant renewal may be less prominent than the notion of the replacement of 1179 . see Arndt. TB 21. the prep.. anti clearly denotes a substitutionary exchange. E. anti Since the root sense of anti is "(set) over against. 19:1. 17:27). Anab.
2 Cor. 19:3. For a discussion of the theological implications of "substitution". Andriessen and A. (f) to denote membership (aρo. 12:2). 1970.. 4:6. TB 25. o 1. the parallel in 11:25 f. 2:5'. 9:1). 12:1 (cf. The preps. aρο and ek. Two disputed passages remain to be discussed. Jn. ek. αρο. Lk. I. Jn. (This view is defended by P. 6:65). As in 1 Tim. Jn. When the author of Hebrews observes that Jesus endured the cross anti tés ρrοkeimenés autó charas (Heb. anti pollón in Mk. 3:16 (both phrases being preceded by a form of anabainó. may be used in the following senses: (a) temporal (e. 17:27 (or Gen. 22:11. The second alternative seems preferable in light of: the use of prokeimai in Heb. Acts 12:1 "church members". 16:9. In fact the process in which aρο ultimately absorbed ek has already commenced in Hel. 10:20. on behalf of [ = hyper] many) but with lytron ("a ransom in the place of many"). "go up"). or of personal advantage as the primary motive of Jesus for his suffering. 2:6 (antilytron hyper pantón). (e) to denote place of origin (aρo and ek together. 8:12) to denote a present reality. Rev. (13 times) shows that even the broad distinction is not everywhere applicable. ek. 51.. The life of Jesus. Matt. 6:18. Such overlapping of function between o and ek makes one hesitate to distinguish between the ek tου hydatos of Mk. the notions of exchange and substitution are both present. 9:7). ek. 207-220. He acted on behalf of the many by taking their place. 44:33) as the key to the proper understanding of anti in this passage where the customary sense of the prep. ek. Matt. 10:45 ( = Matt.) Finally. 1974. ek. (d) adverbial (aρο. as though the later Matthean tradition testified to baptism by affusion or aspersion rather than by immersion (as in the Markan tradition). (viz. motion from within. 1:10 (cf. 1:44. Jn. Lk. 2 Cor. 3-45. throw no definitive light on the mat1180 . B. Thus "Joseph went up from [aρο] Galilee. 11:1). 11:12. brought about the release of forfeited lives. 2 Cor. Matt.g. with reference to Moses. 53:11). It is hardly a sound hermeneutical procedure to appeal to a contestable "wider" sense of anti (viz. 20:28) should be construed not with dounai ("to give. "Quelques passages diffi ciles de l'Épître aux Ηébreux (5:7. Gk. or (b) "instead of the joy of continued fellowship in God's immediate presence that lay before him as a distinct possibility within his grasp. surrendered in a sacrificial death. 16:10-12). see J. Acts 8:38 f. 2:4). Acts 12:14. In general they are related as ab is to ex in Lat. out of [ek] the city of Nazareth" (Lk. the meaning of the prep. So we find that both preps. exchange-substitution) gives an unobjectionable meaning and the term lytron is applied to a human life. ek. 1:14. phrase could be (a) "in exchange for" or "in order to obtain" the joy that was in prospect for him. (c) instrumental (o.. 11.APPENDIX "old" grace by "new" grace (sometimes taken to refer to the spiritual presence of the Holy Spirit in place of the physical presence of Christ). that of seeing "the fruit of the travail of his soul" (Isa. Bib. Acts 6:9 "members of the synagogue").) and the aρο tou hydatos of Matt.. 11:19 = Lk. 12:2)". 18:7. Packer. (b) causal (aρο. "on behalf of') in Matt. "What did the Cross achieve? The Logic of Penal Substitution". 7:35. the inappropriateness of any hint of reciprocal bargaining between Jesus and God. the prevailing substitutionary sense of anti. o denotes motion from the edge or surface of an object. But often aρο marks simply the general point from which movement or action proceeds. However the fact that αρο is regularly used with exerchomai in Lk. Lenglet.
. a paraphrase of the indeclinable tetragrammaton YHWH. John. That intermediaries were involved is not suggested by the use of o (as though para necessarily implied immediate communication) but by the two verbs paralambanó ( = Heb. But see Funk. dia pyros). Αllο. The Revelation of St. When this notion of "extension through" is applied to temporal categories. Charles. 376). 5:7. III. if the preps." but more probably o is causal ("he was heard on account of his godly fear") since eulabeia in Heb. Insights. John. optanomenos implies iteration) clearly show that the prep. 1950. every word that proceeds from [ekporeuomenó dia] the mouth of God") and 1 Cor. 1:4. but the references to "many (separate) convincing proofs" (1:3a) and to various self-presentations (l:3a. H. a nominative apposition which was originally preceded by four dots standing for the tetragrammaton (G..APPENDIX ter (pace N. eisakoustheis aρο tés eulabeias could mean "his prayer was heard (and so he was delivered) from his anxious dread (of death). 4:4 (". ' 223 (1) and see references in A. On the relation of o to hypo. Oepke. O. 460-462. 180-197. see below 1I. (c) Rev. (b) Heb. 1181 . I. (ii) the Lord was the immediate source or originator of the tradition or the authority constantly operating through human tradition and confirming it by his Spirit. Mussies. mάsar) which were technical terms for the transmission of tradition. Turner. SJT 3. 1920.g. 12:28 and eulabeomai in Heb. Acts 13:31. 11:7 both refer to reverent awe before God. is that Matthew's o does not exclude Mark's ek. Ford. 93 f. 2. the meaning is "during the course of" (e. 3:15 ("he himself will be saved. Cullmann. are here distinguishable. In the controversial phrase aρο tau kyriou (D reads para) the use of o is in itself indecisive as to the nature of the transmission and accords with either of the following views: (i) the Lord was the ultimate origin of a tradition that reached Paul in reliable form through unbroken transmission.. For the influence of the Heb. dia Originally dia signified "passing through and out from. M. See the discussions of E. "He who is" (J. Première Épître aux Corinthiens. Revelation. II. but only as one who escapes through fire".I.). In itself di' hémerón tesserakonta (Acts 1:3) could mean either "continuously throughout a 40-day period" (though this would more commonly be expressed by tesserakonta hémeras) or "intermittently (or repeatedly) during the course of 40 days" (cf. The most that may be said. 10). ICC. but see his earlier remark in Moulton. Anchor Bible. B. see Moulton. parestésen is a constative aorist) and repeated appearances (1:3b. Grammar. Grammar. Some Notable Instances of aρο. 259). prep.2. gibbél) and paradidómi (= Heb. 1956 309-316. C. dia. "Kyrios as Designation for the Oral Tradition concerning Jesus". The remarkable phrase (eiréné) o ho ón kai ho én kai ho erchomenos has been explained as: the result of the Seer's reverence for the divine name which kept him back from submitting it to declensional change (R. "during the night". Acts 23:31)..§ 211. min on the NT use of o. 29. 11:23. here signifies "intermittently throughout" (so also Funk. "over a period of (epi) many days"). dia nyktos." a sense reflected in Matt. (a) 1 Cor. The Morphology of Koine Greek as Used in the Apocalypse of St. 1975. 1971.
1:16 (ta panta di' autou . Col. agent (die). die pisteós in 2 Cor. Jn. the idea of his mediation may not be prominent (Biblical Greek. 5:10) and therefore during life on earth.. Accordingly.1.g. 1). Col. if die tés epitheseós tón cheirón mou (2 Tim. Attendant Circumstances. Paul. 13:11). dia may denote accompaniment as well as instrumentality. Sometimes. 1:20). 3:19). Means or Instrument. 1 Cor. It follows. Paul's view of the interrelationship of faith and (good) works is similar to that of James (Jas. 4:14 may well be explained (on this view) by the presence of another die phrase (die prοphéteias). Rom. 11.. The Theolοgy of St. 1:3). 5:11. of Christ in creating and sustaining the universe. 5:9) is expressed by dia. Rom. Not infrequently die expresses the circumstances that accompany an action or state. 4:14 (used of the elders' imposition of hands) and die in 2 Tim. From the local sense of die there naturally developed the instrumental sense. 1:6 (used of Paul's imposition of hands) in regard to the consecration of Timothy. then.. in 1 Cor.§ 113). 5:6). the actual participation of the body of elders in this imposition of hands need not be excluded: the presbytery and the apostle may have acted conjointly.. Since. When the apostle says that at the tribunal of Christ recompense will be received for both good and bad actions that have been performed by means of the earthly body (dia tou sómatos. 2:14-26). everything that pertains to life and godliness is granted to believers by God's divine power but comes through (dia) the knowledge of Christ (2 Pet.1. that when the rôle of Christ as creator (e. On the other hand. which marks the medium through which an action passes before its accomplishment. see below. 8:6 the function of God the Father as the source of creation (ex hou to panta) is distinguished from Christ's rôle as mediator of creation (di' hou to panta). Zerwick observes. 1I. not mediation but agency (e.APPENDIX TDNT 11 66 n. however. Thus. Again. 1:6) does denote the instrumental cause of Timothy's receipt of his gift. 2. ET 1945. in the expression pistis di' agpés energοumené (Gal. Expressions of love (= good works) must intervene between faith in its infancy and faith in its maturity. ektistai) may be emphasizing the agency. Prat. 1. 11:36 where God the Father is designated the source (ek). Abraham received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the faith-righteousness which he had while he was as yet uncircumcised (en té akrobystia). overlaps with en. 5:18 God is the reconciler and Christ the divinely appointed means (die Christou) of reconciliation (cf. and goal (eis) of all creation. Thus stated.g. . as M. 270 n. 4:11). while in 2 Cor. 1:9. 10) or redeemer (e. thus becoming the father of all who are believers while being uncircumcised (di' akrobystias) (Rom. rather than the mediation. 5:7 also probably belongs to this category of ac1182 . Gal. Rom. Paul represents the angels not as the authors (hypo) of the law but as the mediate agents (dia in its enactment or transmission. it is special pleading to distinguish between meta in 1 Tim. as if an apostolic laying on of hands were a prerequisite for "ordination" while the imposition of presbyters' hands was simply a desirable concomitant (contra F. he excludes the possibility of reward or punishment for any conceivable post-mortem action. 3). On the relation between diα and hypo. love is specified as the means by which faith becomes visibly operative or effective. and in this function the prep. Heb. The use of meta rather than die in 1 Tim.. dia seems to express not the efficient cause but the principal or sole cause. Earth was not necessarily the place of Jesus' whereabouts in the interval between his resurrection and ascension. On the other hand. 1:3. 2 Cor. Several more examples of this instrumental use of die may be given.g.
The verse may be paraphrased thus: "Prompted by a prediction of the Spirit they told Paul not to go on to Jerusalem. This use of dia extends even to marking circumstances that turn out not to help but sometimes even to hinder an action. phrase in Acts 21:4 should be rendered "while under the inspiration of the Spirit" (but C. 57 tentatively suggests "as a spiritual insight"). 3) and Hel. 2. Rep. 389 s. it should occasion no surprise since: (a) dia with the acc. 11:9. as in Jn.. Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik. 2 Cor. N. Acts 19:21) and with the constraint and testimony of the Spirit (Acts 20:22 f.APPENDIX companying circumstances ("we walk in the realm of faith. D. .v. "for. Perhaps therefore the crucial prep. 11:361. "through" (Lat. oh and propter). Plato.. 3. Just as there has been debate whether eis ever bears a retrospective ( = causal) sense in the NT (see below. 25 f. 53. 5 :20a). The inter-relation of these two senses is evident from the fact that dia with the acc. Thuc." 3. 1892. since the advice not to go on to Jerusalem given to Paul by the Tyrian disciples (= prophets? cf.g. Jn. where the revivification of mortal bodies is attributed to the agency of the indwelling Spirit (dia with gen. 2:27. the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead. ExpT 50. 3:18) or (in the inferior reading of dia with acc.. Acts 21:12) that was occasioned by the prediction and immediately followed it. 8:2. Hatzidakis. Meecham "Romans iii.g.. not of sight") since it is difficult to take (peripatoumen ou) dia eidous in a modal sense.). although one would expect such circumstances to aid in keeping the precepts of the law. 2. 25 — the meaning of dia c. 4).). the Father is the source of the Son's life. F. 2:10 where di' hou refers to the Father as the principal cause and di' hon perhaps stands for the Pauline ex autou kai . D. Acts 21:11) and their own personal exhortation (cf. and cf. 8:11. Rev. The two principal non-local meanings of dia are "by means of". 212 f. Acts 21:12-14). dia tés gynaikos. yia (= dia) with the acc. and 11:11. Acts 11:28) "through the Spirit" conflicted with his own resolve "in the Spirit" (en tó pneumati. There are. per) and "on account of". dia tén gynaika. cf. G. acc. cf. In his condensed statement Luke has not distinguished between a prophecy regarding Paul's suffering at Jerusalem (doubtless given by the Tyrian disciples before their exhortation) that was delivered at the direction of the Spirit (cf." is used to express purpose (G. 524 C — cited by H.. 1938-9. 4. see Arndt 180.) who already is active in the transformation of character (2 Cor. 89. Gk. ii. v. History. 3:6) indwells believers. Heb. 564. 12:11. 31. III.) it is grounded in the fact that a life-giving Spirit (Rom. II. occasionally. 1 Cor. (e. dia. s. B.. 1 Cor. 4. Purpose. exceptionally has a prospective sense in cl. several 1183 . Idiom-Book.". If. it were to bear this meaning in the NT. (e.g. 6:57a. "Even with" ( "in spite of one's having") the written code and circumcision (dia grammatos kai peritomés).. Rom.. in fact. dia tou pneumatos in Acts 21:4 is difficult. "because of" (Lat. 3). 12:3 and 15:15). so there is no unanimity concerning the alleged prospective ( = telic) sense of dia. 56. 15:45. iv. Nic. 5:26. transgression of the law occurs (Rom. Eth. dia B. 12). Cause or Ground.v. may occasionally denote the efficient cause (e. II. Polyb. 1t is noteworthy that Agabus's subsequent prophecy at Caesarea (Acts 21:11) that predicts Paul's suffering in Jerusalem and begins "Thus says the Holy Spirit" does not include an injunction or exhortation to Paul not to go to Jerusalem (but cf. LiddellScott. and is well illustrated by the textual variants in Rom. Aristot. Gk. (b) in modern Gk. eis auton [Rom.. Moule. On other occasions these two most common uses of dia are found juxtaposed (in paronomasia.
. 2 Cor. v. 3:25. Isa. 171-173. hina formula in Rom. 96-99. 25α ("because of". but he had temporarily suspended. Rom. The Epistle to the Galatians. Christ's Resurrection in Pauline Soteriology. ICC. 222-238. where there is a parallelism between the two dia phrases (dia to parptómata hémón and dia ten dikaiósin hémón) that would suggest prima facie that each should be taken in the same sense.g. and the seal of divine approval on. But see per contra D. "to confirm [or. 25b ("in order to achieve". v. 4:25. just as the delivering up of Jesus to death was the consequence of our sin. On this latter view. 25α. Biblical Greek. 217 f. 2:9. but the alleged instances that are most regularly adduced are Rom. alternatively. 11:28. Stanley.§ 112. Lyonnet. 493 s. "and was raised to life because of our justification"). 25b. 25b (viz. 11:42. yet a causal sense is difficult in v. Jn. 1921. (ii) dia is causal in v. with the resurrection being here regarded as the inevitable consequence of. Burton. M. In the former verse dia tén paresin seems to mean "on account of his passing over" rather than "with a view to (or. Three solutions may be mentioned (in ascending order of probability). LXX) but final in v. It seems that paresis ( = remission of punishment or debt) should be distinguished from phesis (= remission of sin) (references in Moulton-Milligan. 1:15 f. and (correspondingly) that eis is used with impersonal objects and pros with personal (e. Mk. 4:16. 1961. Exegesis Epistulae ad Romanos. a righteousness that needed vindication because. eis 1.. 25b (cf. in his patience (not his indifference). paresis.APPENDIX NT examples where dia approaches a prospective sense (Matt.. God had refrained from exacting the full and proper penalty for acts of sin committed previously. That these are simply tenden1184 . that the apostolic division of labour was primarily territorial Jewish lands — Gentile lands) rather than racial [Jews — Gentiles)). AnBib 13. or.. . when the more regular causal meaning accords with the context. Zerwick. (a) pros. (i) dia in final in both clauses: "in order to deal with". Rom. or. v. withheld or set aside appropriate punishment in light of his eternal purpose to provide an altogether adequate basis for the forgiveness of sin in the atoning death of Christ. God had not always left sin unpunished. Christ's procurement of our justification. the conceptual sequence would then be: our sin — Jesus' death — our justification — Jesus' resurrection. the parallel in Rom. Its relation to other Preps. cf. based on Paul's twofold use of eis in Gal. Phlm. and see the argument of E. The matter is more complex in Rom. 1 Cor. and the distinctive view of S. 5:9 f. Although the distinctions are not uniformly maintained.).. 1 Tim. so his resurrection was the consequence of our justification (that had been achieved by his death. 13:5). guarantee]"). it is generally true that with regard to literal movement eis denotes entry ("into") and pros approach ("up to"). 12:30. 15). v. better. 24:2. 1963 3 . that this whole phrase refers to the provisional and anticipatory remission of sin accorded the Jewish people) and that an unusual telic or instrumental sense need not be given to dia with the acc. 2:27. "because of (the need to achieve or confirm)". "with a view to". Paul is observing that the purpose or outcome of God's provision of Christ as a propitiatory sacrifice was the demonstration of his own righteousness. M. D. 1:16. 15:3). compares the dia touto .v. 53:12. (iii) dia is causal in both clauses: "because of (the need to atone for)". de W. 25α (cf. through) his forgiving". 4:25.
). 1962. and finds two theological truths expressed: a personal distinction between Father and Son. 8. All the apparent exceptions in the Fourth Gospel to the cl. Tob. the reading ek tou kolpou reflected in syr ).. 366-387. 5:38 f. The confusion was in both directions: eis denoting position (e. is marked by a general tendency to confuse the categories of linear motion ("to") and punctiliar rest ("in"). B. N. In Rev. O'Rourke. of a continuous relation. cit. who is all that God is and who resides eis ton kolpon tou patros – he has revealed him"? The imagery (kolpos. As for metaphorical use. eis. but what is the import of eis? Some give the prep. 1934 ". a dynamic sense.§. 210 f. Phlm. I. Johannine Grammar.. vernacular where only eis (with the acc. Bible Translator 25. Robertson. the view that prevails 1185 . 385).. Hatzidakis. Jos. 11:11.. being originally ens. "bosom") suggests the exclusive and privileged intimacy of a deeply affectionate inter-personal relationship. with a realisation of it (comp. John. 5:5). J. 1.g. surprisingly. But the idea of eternal generation would comport better with the preps. 5:16 f. on this view. 6:46) or ek (cf. Westcott wrote: "There is the combination (as it were) of rest and motion. but of "eternal generation" (cf. quotation from page 386). Gk. Gk. both preps. ón and Jn. Gk. én pros). 584-586.-Acts does this interchange occur with any frequency. Grammatik. The `bosom of the Father' (like heaven) is a state and not a place" (The Gospel According to St.g. and that the idiosyncrasies of each author must be examined. Examples of this interchange are not lacking in cl. (b) en. 1:18) that "the only Son. its direction is in effect reversed. 591). Abbott. B. Bib. case in Gk.08% of Jn's. 20:3-6. What did John mean when he affirmed (Jn. (i) Etymologically eis was a later variation of en.g. 4:21. compensatory lengthening produced eis (see A. "the constant orientation of the Son towards the bosom of the Father as towards his origin (eis. not pros). meant the disappearance of en from the modern Gk. 3:35 is en (218 uses) possibly used for eis ("EIS and EN in John". 1:20. a thought developed still further by E. 37:17Α. the eis of Ezek. 2712). who concludes that only in Jn. 15. noting that it normally denotes not simply orientation or direction but "movement towards or into". 3:25 f. Rom. but they are relatively infrequent.. Other scholars have seen eis as both static and dynamic in sense. de la Potterie..) is found (cf. for example. F. In 1880... 139-142). N. 1 Jn. the s having been added to en on the analogy of ex (= ek-s). Rom. 43.g. There are two reasons why it is not surprising that eis and en shared some common territory in He!. use of eis and en have been examined by J. . If any element of movement is implied in eis. A. 1:1). The obsolescence of the dat. before the influence of the papyri finds had been felt. especially in narrative. Jn. Α Grammar of the Greek New Testament. and Lk. T. however. 1 (f)) that the interchange of eis and en is not promiscuous in NT Gk. 5. renders the whole phrase "turned towards the Father's bosom". For de la Potterie it is not simply a matter of "filiation" (as in Jn. may express purpose (e. G. Exod. as towards the source of his own life (eis ton kolpon)" ("L'emploi dynamique de eis dans Saint Jean et ses incidences théologiques". "the eternal act of receiving divine life from the Father" (op. Gen. 6:57) (op.APPENDIX cies is apparent from Mk. 3). 1974. With the disappearance of the n in ens. 1:1b and 1 Jn. 1958 ed. Only in Mk. 1906. i. 7:22) and en implying movement (e. on which see below II. (ii) Hel. 183 uses of eis) and only in Jn. 1:18 and 19:13 does eis possibly stand for en (1. pros. there is only one clear example (Rev. 1t was observed above (I. cit. Jn. 37:10 [LXX] has become en).§ 2706. 386). Now. where.) and result (e. para (cf..
A celebrated example is the eis auton of Col. Some of the Greek Fathers. 218. In the case of Jn. M. the phrase indicates that the Son "is laid upon" or "rests against" the bosom of the Father. John. Elsewhere. Of the NT writers. giving eis a static sense. Funk. Jn. ET 1872. eis. H. xiv. M. W. Moulton-Milligan. In any discussion of the inter-relation of eis and en in NT Gk. Barrett) is that eis ton kolpon is equivalent to en tó kolpó (Jn. F. 1897.g. No one has ever questioned that eis can express metaphorical direction. C. which would imply personal intercommunion (A Grammar of the Idiom of the New Testament. e. goal or purpose (final or telic eis). 19082 . I. speaks of the Son's dwelling in the Father's bosom as involving "affinity of essence": "the Father would not have in his bosom one of another essence" (Homilies on the Gospel of St. T. always to insist on a distinction between them. 13:23).§ 205. TDNT II 433) and commentators (e.. eis.§. Bultmann. 2:8. To sum up. a distinction generally observed in NT Gk. "The Preposition EIS in the New Testament". i. Liddell-Scott. or of unbelievers to "stumbling" over the Stone because of their deliberate rejection of the message (1 Pet. lexicographers (e. Chrysostom. 1:3). Then eis can mark the divine appointment (tassó. R.. Meyer. A. A. s. Abel. B. except for Luke (in the Third Gospel and Acts) and perhaps Mark. Bauer. only Matthew seems never to confuse eis and local en (notwithstanding Matt. 1927. so there is a teleological convergence of reality on Christ. Christ is its ultimate goal. Heb. but more generally between the static and dynamic senses of eis. Grammaire du Grec Biblique.e. 1:17b.v. 491. § 1548. two dangers are to be avoided: to treat them as everywhere synonymous. . 2. 2). R.g. 1:18 the real choice is not between eis = eternal generation and eis = en = consubstantiality.. not from the prep. A. cf. E. John. NT authors do not ordinarily use eis for en. An Historical Greek Grammar.g. Dos Evangelium des Johannes. K. A. Schnackenburg. 47(a)). 1:16 (wrongly rendered in ipso in the Vulgate) which indicates that as well as being the efficient cause (di' autou) of creation. While in Jn. 70). 1:1 pros ton theon may point to an active relation of the Logos with God. tithemi) of believers to eternal life (Acts 13:48). ET 1885. 1952.. cf. 3.v. Telic and Ecbatic eis. Hoskyns. 415 and n. the exegete's presumption ought to be that. Arndt. N. Winer. 13) or points to the Son's return to his pre-incarnate state through the Ascension (H. XV). But the difficulty with the suggestion that eis implies an earlier entrance into the Father's bosom (J. believed that the verse described the consubstantiality of the Father and Son. in 1:18 eis ton kolpon tou patros seems to stand for the passive notion en tó kolpó tou patros (cf. Oepke. is that the preceding ho ón depicts a supra-temporal condition that had no beginning. 229 s. Col. some find in eis a hint of the suppression of a preceding idea of movement (see. III. C. W. Again. 1). The difference between the two verses is that between pros with the accusative of the person (theos) and eis with the accusative of the thing (kolpos). Just as there is creatorial coherence in the sustaining power of Christ (ta panta en autó synestéken. 18 stems from the nouns kolpos and patér. "they who do not 1186 . 13:23). eis. The Gospel According to St.g. Any notion of dynamic interpersonal relationship found in v. Zahn. Bible Translator 3. 96. Lagrange.. Greenlee. 28:19 — on which see below. for example. . eis 9a. But few scholars are content to affirm that the phrase denotes simply the personal juxtaposition of Son and Father. (c)).APPENDIX among grammarians (e. Jannaris. For G.
10:10 eis dikaiosynen means "[for with his heart a man believes] and so is justified". 2 Cor. vv. Jas. 3:17. ΕΤ 1863. "why?"). 11:32 ("consigned to disobedience". Oepke (op. 12:56) God's will naturally results from the renewal of the mind (cf. Therefore it is sometimes impossible to determine which is intended (e. they who stumble are also appointed for stumbling". 12:41 (= Lk.g. Weymouth). "within the category 'prophet'" = "because he is a prophet" — Arndt 577. 16. 2 Tim. 7:9 f. Phil. 3:14 ("to supply the necessities"). 2:23: 1187 . (a)). 2:11. T. I. 7:53 ("as delivered by angels. 4:20 ("looking to the promise of God"). 12:13). and (ii) God would hardly be said to have "tolerated most patiently" a situation that he himself had ordained. 155-167). 45-48): Mk. J. Acts 2:38 (see below. 9:23). however. Gnomon of the New Testament. 22). M. cf. 1:11. although earlier (v. Tit. cf. cit. 4) the same phrase may bear a telic sense "[Christ is the end of the lawl viewed as a means of gaining righteousness". 11:17.) Finally. Biblical Greek. 1II.. 4:3 (cf.g. 9:22 ("the objects of his wrath. ecbatic eis with verbs denoting renewal in Col. Bengel. A. 10:41 (eis onoma prophétou. Zerwick. (Compare a similar alternation of senses for eis to with the infinitive in Rom. Moule. C. Heb. R. 12:7 ("it is for the benefits of discipline [or. 2 Cor. But whether eis ever expresses a purpose that is actually realized (consecutive or ecbatic eis).) gives further examples. Beckwith concludes that in 8 NT passages (viz. as well as prospective. This phrase." RSV). Gk. F. A. In Rom. it must be noted that (i) katértismena should be distinguished from ha prohétoimasen (Rom. Mantey. cf. Gal. 1n a thorough article that deals with "The Articular Infinitive with eis" in both cl. 15:34 (and Matt. 1:10. 11:32. "The Causal Use of Eis in the New Testament".. 18. as a discipline] that you have to endure"). 1 Cor. 15:6 found in Rom. Paul's point is not that the aim of the transformation of character is the discernment of God's will ( = telic eis). 4:11. Heb. for a result may be a designed consequence. as opposed to a result that is simply aimed at. Whatever construction we put on the notoriously difficult skeué orges katértismena eis póleian in Rom. 4:15.. giving the cause. and Hel. That eis sometimes expresses result (cf.g. D. 7:5. 70. Jas. § 106).. A. Heb. e. 12:2. 2:26 ("entrapped by him to do his will". the occasional ecbatic use of hina) seems now to be generally recognized (see. 14:31. A.g. TDNT 11 429-431).. which in the LXX renders hásab l. 3. 6:6). LiddellScott list no causal uses of eis. fit only for destruction"). 3. Matt. 1951. "at the preaching of Jonah"). Ps.v. defining the purpose or result? Such a sense for eis seems unlikely in any one of the passages sometimes adduced (see. 3:3) a consecutive sense for eis with the articular infinitive is highly probable. eis. the categories of purpose and result merge. 3:11 (see below. 2:25 ("repentance that leads to a knowledge of the truth").). onoma 11. 1 Cor. 77:62. (a)). eis hen sóma ebptisthémen. 1896. if the consecutive sense of eis is recognized in Rom. especially when a divine action is spoken of (e. Causal eis? Can eis be retrospective. 10:31 it is undoubtedly telic). III. Rom. has been an issue hotly debated by grammarians and commentators.g. Lk. V. but rather that the Christian's ability to ascertain ("determine by scrutiny". 55). Gal. logizesthai eis. 4. 11:3. in the phrase eis doxan theou in 2 Cor. 3:6. 1:20. in which ecbatic eis is followed by articular or anarthrous substantives (e. but in 1 Cor. s.. JBL 70. LXX). occurs in the quotation of Gen. Phil. Idiom-Book. e. 3:10. 8:6. 3. Rom. 5:10 ("he has refused to believe the testimony"). 1 Jn.APPENDIX believe. 9. (JBL 15. stumble. 12:2. J. Often. Oepke.
1 Macc. Therefore it naturally came to be used to denote origin. where it is argued that the "correlativity" [not the equation] of faith and righteousness permitted Paul to say that "faith was reckoned to Abraham as righteousness". A. 359.g. (g) and 3. Cremer. Some Notable Instances of ek. The Epistle to the Romans. corresponding to the rôle of the male in the act of physical procreation (cf. and it was reckoned to him as righteousness (elogisthe autó eis dikaiοsynén). 18a. 2:12a) and of spiritual gifts (1 Cor. 336-362. hoi ek nomou. the verse has been interpreted in several ways: (a) Righteousness was reckoned to the account of ( = imputed to) Abraham on the basis of his faith (cf.. With respect to human descent (kata sarka. 17:14b. . source.. ek 1. 10:6. 195 f. cf. A. Rom. the one who provides a new and right relationship with himself (Phil. Heb. 8:47 bis. . and the one true source of love (1 Jn. 10:3) is the Johannine contrast between living en tó kosmó (Jn. 17:15) yet not being ek tou kosmou (Jn. 3). 18:36 bis). the architect of the resurrection body of believers (2 Cor. 4:7). Its Basic Signification. 399). 9:30. not to two coexisting states (kata sarka . (b) Rom. (c) Abraham's faith in God was equivalent to righteousness. the source of all life. 234 s. 2 Cor. 3:5b). 1. Ziesler. both physical (1 Cor. TDNT IV 289-292). 7:17).. the prep. The ubiquitous ek (tou) theou depicts: (i) the agency of God in effecting spiritual regeneration (Jn. i. 127-139. 17:11. (b) Abraham's faith was reckoned as a substitute for (law-)righteousness (H. On the other hand. I. Heidland. 1 Jn. So. Gal. ek is sometimes equivalent to the subjective genitive (e. H. cf.. "nomists" or "partisans of the law".). 1:3 f. 1 Jn. 3:9 bis. Diog. Ep. derivation or separation. . (ii) God as the authoritative source of Jesus' teaching (Jn. 15:19 bis. 2. 4:4. ek 3a). 3:9). On the use of eis with bptizó. Rom. with pisteuó. 5:18). 6. Rom. it was in itself the ground of his acceptability (see the comprehensive discussion in J. logizomai. 27:29). hoi ekρisteós.g. Arndt. the giver of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. Ε. 3. is used of the material out of which something is made (Matt. However in the stereotyped ho ek or hoi ek before a noun (e. cf. Rom.g. and cf.1." With regard to Pauline usage. 2:52 A. 4:9). 11:7) (see the discussion of J. 16α. Jn. 11). B. B. 4:14. "men of faith". EΤ 1895. Christians must live in the world (or flesh) but must not display the characteristics of the world (or flesh) (cf.APPENDIX "Abraham believed God. 43. 17:15). The Meaning of Righteousness in Paul. 9) the notion of belonging is more prominent than that of origin. 1:18) (cf. 16. his installation as Son of 1188 . 1:13. the country of one's origin (Acts 23:34) or a person with whom a connexion is (to be) severed (Jn. 4. 3:7. 17:14. Originally ek signified an exit "from within" something with which there had earlier been a close connexion. 4:7. 9:5) Jesus Christ was born of David's stock (ek spermatos Dauid). 5:19. III. kata pneuma hagiδsynés). These two verses refer to two successive stages of Christ's existence. 1972. 172-185. 15:19 bis. 3 Jn. 5:1). On the relation of ek to apo see above II. 5:1. 8:7 v. especially 343. 2. 1959. W. Murray. Biblico-Theological Lexicon of New Testament Greek.. for example. NLC.e. Parallel to the Pauline antithesis between living en Jn (a) sarki and yet not acting kata sarka (e. the one who empowered Paul to carry out his divine commission (2 Cor. 7:7). 11:12b) and spiritual (2 Cor. see below III.v. Matt. 2 Cor. cf. Having this root sense.
11975 57-64. E. in his resurrection from the dead (ex anastaseos nekrón).APPENDIX God in power. ICC. (For ek as introducing the means used to achieve a definite purpose ["through"] or the reason which forms a presupposition for something ["as a result ou see Arndt. 234. with the eis pistin either intensifying the effect of ek pisteós (thus. several points may be urged. but Gentiles by means of the faith of the Jews (tes being an anaphoric article) as in Rom. (c) Rom. "by faith from first to last". Against there being any substantial difference between the justification of Jew and Gentile. by means of that same kind of faith (dia tés pisteós). Ο. 2 Cor. 1:3) and the use of the plural nekrón suggest that Paul envisaged the resurrection of all believers as ideally achieved in the resurrection of Christ (cf. On either of these latter views. from smaller to greater degree of faith (cf.v. Turner. 1 Pet. 3:18). phrases. 15:20. A myriad of proposals have been made in regard to the meaning of the phrase ek pisteós eis pistin. it has been maintained that: (i) while the Jew is justified by faith (as "the moving cause". 234. such as: from the faith of the preacher to the faith of the hearer. viz. 95. o dοxés eis doxan. 1977 reprint of 1899 work." For a full discussion see C. "as a result of") the resurrection itself. 80). "by starting from and developing their existing faith in a coming messiah". 96. Headlam. (d) Rom. Cranfield. Jesus was visibly designated Son of God. ek 3 f. Gal. 11:15 (N. accomplished by the power of the Holy Spirit (kata pneuma hagiósynés. (ii) Jews were to be justified by a subjective belief in the messiah. this view highlights the contrast between peritomén and akrobystian). Sanday and A. s. from faith as a starting-point to faith as a permanent condition. Liddon. since both preps. a. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. cf. Col. cf. dia 1II. 2:4). causally). 23. 178. (i) Both prep. On the basis of the difference between ek pisteós and dia tés pisteós. "the resurrection of the dead.) In the crucial phrase ex anastaseós nekrón ("the resurrection of the dead"). d. the Gentile is justified by faith as both "moving cause" (ek pisteós) and "sole condition" or channel (dia tés pisteós) (W. 1902 5. whereas Gentiles would be justified through the instrumentality of that developed and objective Faith of Christendom. 107-110). Insights. B. as in Hab. ek 3. If any distinction is intended between these two prep. phrases (ek pisteós and dia ίtésl pisteós) may mean "through faith" or "by faith". "his resurrection from the dead. may express either the effective means or the efficient cause (see Arndt. 1.v. s. about which they as yet knew nothing (H. inclusive category. or denoting the goal of God's impartation to men of a righteous status ("leading to faith"). Explanatory Analysis of St. took its rise. and the Gentile on the same ground. The Epistle to the Romans. 79. 1 Cor. but the absence of ek before nekrón (cf. New International Version). (iii) God will justify the Jews as a result of their own faith. But it seems more natural to construe ek as indicating not the source or starting-point ("from faith") but the basis or means ("by faith". The Epistle to the Romans. Rom." includes the first determinative instance. 4:29). C. the primary allusion in this context must be to Christ's own resurrection from the dead. The general. it is formal not substantial: God justifies the Jew as a result of his faith (ek pisteós). ek pisteós) through the channel of circumcision (supplying dia peritomes. 1:18). 1:17. temporally and instrumentally (or. faith is portrayed as the vital and perpetual characteristic of Christian experience. 3:30.v. Not only "from the time of the resurrection but also "through" (or. s. e. 4:12). (ii) Elsewhere Paul uses either ek or dia to denote the immediate means or cause 1189 . from God's faithfulness to man's faith. P.
F. meta or dia with the gen.). syn (in expressing accompaniment — e. 12:9).. such as en Christο. F. 9:30. 22:49. Commenting on this latter point. one would be tempted to render estaurbthe ex astheneias. 323 f. (vi) Stylistic or rhetorical variation is not untypical of Paul (e. and in Gal. 11:20 f. the more a particular linguistic form is employed. 5:3 we should render en eschatais hémerais "(you have piled up wealth) in the last days" rather than `for the last days (as if en = eis).g. but ek probably bears a causal sense "because of (his weakness)" (thus Arndt. en encroached on the territory of eis (in being employed with verbs expressing motion — e. Turner isolates three factors that contributed to its extended NT use: (a) the increasing imprecision of the dot. where en generally rendered the diversified b e (see above. divine power comes to its full strength (2 Cor.g. 9:34).. and even kata (in indicating a standard of judgment — e. see Weymouth).. 4:16. Gal. 4:2c). (c) the influence of distinctively Christian ideas. Gal. 10-13. P. in one sentence in 2 Cor. This is the most popular prep. 3:30) would tend to undermine Paul's earlier insistence that there is no difference between Jew and Gentile with respect to sinfulness (Rom. 10 f. was obliterated. 261).APPENDIX of justification or salvation (ek—Rom. "he was crucified in (a condition of physical) weakness". 2:16 (in reference to anthrópos). III. is no longer used. 13:4b. (b) the extremely diversified use of en in Hel. than it had been earlier. 9 f. 30. 4:11. the prep.. 2 Cor. Col. 10:1 f. 23:53. the "weakness" of obedience to God's will.). en pneumati (Moulton. 3:22. the more it is subject to weakening (Ρreροsitiοns. 3:24). Its Extended ΝT Use.. (iv) In Gal. case. (in expressing the ground — e. 2 (a)). 1:17 bis. (v) Any suggestion that there are two distinct means or grounds of justification (mentioned in Rom. 2:8). 2. Lk. 2:8). but the "weakness" — in men's eyes — of non-retaliation or non-aggressiveness (cf. Far example. Rom. Ν.. (e) 2 Cor. 3:26. Lk. ek 3 f. 1. Matt. 5:1. Without the wider context of 2 Cor. 12:9 f.. but the area and frequency of overlap in usage became greater in Hel. 6:7). 3:28) are said to be sons of God dia tés pisteós. But in such weakness. Matt. 8:16). Eph. Gal.v. Each potential example of such overlapping needs to be carefully weighed. 2 Cor. en 1. (in expressing instrumentality or agency — e. and especially biblical Gk. dia with the gen. cf.g. 2:16.g. a process completed by the tenth century. Regard notes that in the case of the infin. In its diversification (note the 20 uses of en. Gk. 3:25 f. All the more remarkable.. dia— Rom.. The ultimate disappearance of en from the spoken language is related to two facts: (a) the disappearance of the dot. for Christ.g.g. Lk. 14:31).698 uses). 3:26 the Jews and Gentiles of the Galatian churches (ponies." given the fact that James does not confuse eis and en 1190 . 2:16. also there was an extension of usage simultaneously with signs of its ultimate eclipse. Its Versatility and Ultimate Disappearance. similarly Rom. 3:22. 2:7c. 13:4. therefore. Eph.g. B. (iii) There is a comparable change from dia pisteós to ek pisteós in Rom. 25. is the fact that in modern demotic Gk. in Jas.. 32. 3:26.) or the ultimate ground (= grace) and means (= redemption) of justification (Rom. 6:3-7a)..).. in the NT (some 2. 234 s. dia with the ace. (in denoting attendant circumstances — e. 3:22 f. (b) LXX usage. The weakness referred to it not physical or moral. It is not that the distinction between en and any other prep. Grammar. 10:17). 25. with various senses. involved death on a cross (Phil. which.
5. 3. may well be the key to the proper understanding of this difficult passage. 3:1. 1t is used to denote the sphere within which some action occurs or the element or reality in which something is contained or consists. The Epistle to the Galatians.D. not "through me" (which would more commonly be di' emou). 26:16. en I. en emoi means "(with)in me". says Paul (1 Cor. "Those who belong to Christ" will be made alive "át his coming". which is emphatic by position. After citing several LXX passages 1191 . 1:23. (b). 1 Thess. RSV) (denoting his indwelling of all members of the redeemed community)? Sometimes all the exegete can do is to reduce the number of possible meanings of en by examining the context. 1 Cor. en pneumati. 22:14. d). A fina1 example of this basic locatival sense of en may be found in Gal. de W. en pistei and en alétheia indicate states in which Christians live and act. (c) it is the following statement of purpose — hina euangelizómai — that points to Paul's agency in proclaiming the revelation he had received. 1. 15:22 f. 2 Cor. 1921. the pledge of the full harvest (1 Cor. but only because Christ is the firstfruits. that is. 27. 19. en heni sómati. The basic figurative sense of en corresponds to its origina1 local signification.) By en emoi Paul is stressing the inward and intensely personal character of God's revelation to him of the risen Jesus. 1:20).v. A corollary of the versatility of en is the exegetical ambiguity that often attaches to its use. Heb. but only "in the (sphere of the) Lord". that the apostles Peter and John established the general idea of resurrection from the dead (Acts 4:2). since (a) a personal revelation is to be distinguished from a public proclamation. or the influence of the en tois ethnesin that follows. en de eiréné (1 Cor. 4. a proleptic en (cf. 1:16. involving a pleonastic en (cf. 1 Pet. a confusion of en and eis. Lk. On the relation of en to eis see above II. (See further E. ICC. 4:7) or (ii) in the sphere of (Christian) peace (locatival en). it was en ώ Ι sou. Phrases such as en kyrió. NT writers never argue from a general resurrection of all men to the resurrection of Jesus or of believers. Col. Again. that is. But it is not impossible that the phrase could mean "to me" (thus RSV). Of considerable importance for theology is "causal en" (usually regarded as a sub-division of "instrumental en"). But even when it proves impossible to eradicate all ambiguity. Exegetical Ambiguities. by appealing to the fact and precedent of Jesus' resurrection. cf. Figurative Sense. 23:19). at the end. she may marry only a fellow-Christian (see Arndt. "in the case of Jesus". "for" RSV) a Christian partner in a mixed marriage is not bound to persist in seeking a reconciliation (when the nonChristian partner has initiated a separation) is the fact that God has called Christians (i) into a state of peace in which they should now live (pregnant or proleptic en. "in (the sphere of) my soul". 4:4). 1:2. 15:28 (cf. 5. For instance. Burton. that is. 3:20 children's obedience to their parents is said to be pleasing (to God) en kyrió. 2 Tim.ΆΡEΝDΙΧ and the NT conviction that with the coming of Jesus the "last days" had dawned Acts 2:16 f.). phrase may be of crucial import. Causal en. 3:11) mean that. Eph. God will be "all in all" ( KJV) (denoting his unchallenged supremacy in the universe) or "everything to (= in the case ou) everyone" (Moffatt. 14:11). (b) the revelation was visual as well as verba1 (Acts 9:17. the Christian widow is free to remarry. provided it arises from Christian motives. 259. The reason (de. s. Similarly. To cause wrangling and discord is inappropriate for those with such a calling. In Col. 49-51. does the phrase panta en pasin in 1 Cor.. 7:15). a prep. where Paul is describing how he received his gospel. 7:39).
2:10). A. F. "Das Paulinische `In Christó' ". (b) Sphere of reference: "1 know a Christian man" (2 Cor. the en has no uniform function but seems to express the following range of ideas or relationships. "They were Christians before I was" (Rom. Kennedy adduces comparable examples from the Pauline epistles (Rom. 1916-17. "because of". or a corporate personality (B. patterned on the archetype of divine coinherence (Jn. 6:56. 394 f. en. ExpT 28. so that believers as a corporate whole dwell "in Christ. "Have this attitude among you that also characterized Christ Jesus" (Phil. Oepke.. I. It is also noteworthy that Paul more often depicts Christians as being en Christó and the Spirit as en hymin than Christ as en hymin and Christians as enpneumati. "Life in Christ and Life in the Spirit". D. A. 1967. 29). The Theology of Saint Paul. Only in Johannine thought is there the idea of personal co-inherence (Jn. 2 Cor. "Christ (Jesus) in you" (en hymin) (Rom. 14:20. H. 8:39). Jn. On the relationship between the expressions en Chrisώ and en pneumati in Paul. 4:1).. 15 f. 3:27. 1909. see E. F. see F. Second Series 1. 2 Sam. 12:2). If the concept that lies behind Paul's en Christό formula is that of Christ as a universal personality (A. 1965. 41:10) in which en = b e = "on account of". 30:11. 1n the many uses of this common Pauline formula. ET 1945. 1957-8. if anyone is united to Christ. H. Paul. 3:3). 8:1). Rom. see C. 6.APPENDIX (Deut. (f) Location: "The love of God that is focused in Christ Jesus our Lord" (Rom. A Specia1 Use of en". (d) Cause: "You have come to completeness as a result of being in him (Christ)" (Col. 289-293. 16:7). 3:24. Rossberg. we might become the righteousness of God" (2 Cor. 15:4 f. 6:7. 24:16. (c) Agency or instrumentality: "They are justified freely by his grace through the redemption accomplished by Christ Jesus" (Rom. 5:17). Best. Best. 124-138. Acts 7:29. 2:5). incorporate in the person of Christ. 23). cit. 29 and Moulton-Milligan. 2 Cor. (g) Authoritative basis: "We urge you on the authority of the Lord Jesus" (1 Thess. the notion of a direct relation between two individuals is more pronounced. 12:5. 1:27. 2 Cor. 8-19. 3:24). Col. Prat. Phil. 1955. cf. Gal. 3:14). 15:22). 24:16. 4:13. 1 Cor. 5:19a may be translated in two basic ways: "that through Christ (en 1192 . "The Corporate Christ" in his The Phenomenon of the New Testament. en Christó. 14:10 f. To these might be added Matt. Col. 10:38. 26). "Consequently. 2:20). Anglican Theological Review 47. an inclusive personality (C. De. 1:21. 4:4. II. (e) Mode: "You are all one by being in Christ Jesus" (Gal. "We make our boast in the sphere of Christ Jesus" (Phil. For instances from the papyri. 24." in the complementary expression.). "There is therefore now no penal servitude for those who are in union with Christ Jesus" (Rom. 5:3.). 1 Jn. F.. 13:5. 6:8. Usu. 8:10. 210. For the immense literature on the subject. 9. 16:30. there is a new creation" (2 Cor. (a) Incorporative union: "So that. SBT. 3:28). 1:13) ("Two Exegetical Notes on St. Neugebauer. op. 322 f. 1:21. A paraphrase will bring out the import of the expression in the examples cited. 20. 5:21). TDNT II 542).. Woodhouse. One Body in Christ. 17:21.. NTS 4. 14:21. 7:14. "All will be made alive by virtue of their connexion and solidarity with Christ" (1 Cor. Pss. Moule. "The veil is not lifted because only through Christ is it removed" (2 Cor.
g. 1:22) the fixed order: verb (katallassein) — object(s) of reconciliation — goal of reconciliation. 1:19). gen.. kosmon is not in its normal position). "created . only because there dwelt embodied in Christ the total plenitude of Deity (Col. 2 Cor. 216. 2:26. that the en Christó would precede the thess or follow the heautó (although. Col. 5:19). 5:10. 176 — Moulton. 9:5). Paul here alludes to Christ as the locus of divine revelation ("God was in Christ") and therefore as the means of divine redemption ("reconciling the world to himself". such as a trance (Acts 10:10). and finds its ultimate basis in.. there is God.. katallassen were a periphrastic imperfect. dat. There is also established an identity between the redemptive action of God and that of Christ. see also Matt. 107). 2 Cor. or the dat. "upon". 1:20. epi. 8:20. 5:18. 7:13. "the charter of Christian liberty". Grammar.. "you were called to freedom". thus giving validity to his reconciliatory sacrifice. 5:5. God was in Christ and therefore acted through Christ (cf. In this primary local sense of "on". and each embodies a typically Pauline sentiment. 1 Tim. gen. Rom. inter alia: addition (Lk. 4:9 f. Col. 1:19-22). A functional christology presupposes.. 14:10b. 2 Cor. cf. 1193 . 464 times. the gen. 3:20.APPENDIX Christó) God was reconciling the world to himself" or "that God was in Christ. 21:5 dat. Basically denoting position on something which forms a support or foundation. Gal. superintendence (Matt. epi is followed by the ace. 5:19 specified agency and én . circumstance (Rom. G. 5:10 f. the kingdom of God (Matt.." Nothing in the immediate context demands that either of these renderings be excluded as inappropriate.. on any view. Rev.. Tit. the dia phrase employed to express the latter idea either precedes (as in Col. 4:4. 2:22. Its Basic Meaning and Versatility. Jn. 5:18). the word of God (Lk. Not only was Christ God's agent in effecting reconciliation (Rom. Ubi Christus. has a versatility of use that is matched only by en. 2:9). This might lead us to expect. used frequently with three cases (ace. (ii) elsewhere when Ρaυl uses the verb katallassein and specifies Christ as God's agent in effecting reconciliation. 3:3 is no real parallel). the one NT prep. 2 Cor. so that the prep. reconciling the world to himself.. 5:11) or follows (as in Rom. "the Father who dwells in me does his works"). 3:2). katallassón) to be separated by three words (cf. . 1 Thess. 4:2 ace. 1:22 f. 25:21). that reconciliation was accomplished. The finite verb (én) and the participle (katallassen) are perhaps related as expressing something akin to cause and effect: it was only because God in all his fullness had chosen to dwell in Christ (Col. cf. 3:14). Acts 3:16. From the simple spatial meaning of epi there naturally developed a multitude of derived senses. a statement that epitomizes the argument of this epistle. Phil. 2:10. and purpose or destination (Gal. Col. may express. 5:13..) to denote the recipients of various spiritual blessings or experiences. ibi Deus: where Christ is. 1:2). 5:18. cause or basis (Matt. I. ep' eleutheria. 4:7). What makes the second translation preferable are the following considerations: (i) it would be awkward for the two elements of a periphrastic (imperfect) construction (én . epi is the opposite of hypo ("under") and differs from hyper ("above") in implying actual rest upon some object.. Rom. 1 Cor. Of special interest is the use of epi (with the ace. 9:10... Eph. if en Christó in 2 Cor. he also mediated the divine presence. Lk. cf. an ontological christology. with kathémenοs and thronos. Lk. 12:44. often without distinction in meaning (e. Tit. for doing good deeds". epi 1.
This meaning. The focus of exegetical attention therefore naturally moves to pantes hémartοn. 3:6. Μ. 2 Cor. 5:12 et l'exégèse des Pères 119756.). See further the discussions of S. 1 Cor. in New Dimensions in New Testament Study.g. (ii) "death spread to all men because all (since the time of Adam) have sinned" (hémartοn a constative aorist). with epi meaning "in" or "because of". 46D) the phrase is not a mistranslation of the Aram. 10:1. common in the Apostolic Fathers (e. Johnson. 13:1. 2:2) and in Matt. 14:23 and possibly Acts 1:15. 5:4. signifying "in church fellowship". C. As for 2 Cor.. 2). Jr. 436-456. C. 2. 5:12 fall into two main grammatical categories: those that construe hó as a relative pronoun (whose antecedent may be either ho thanatos. egesis and Theology". Lyonnet.. 1965. that".APPENDIX 12:28. Bib 36. Mayser. Phil. Grammatik. 5:18 f. 5:4 the vast majority of commentators agree that a causal sense should be given to eph' hb. Lk. Cranfield. 7:1. .. viz. 15:22). 4:10) eph' hó is conjunctional. 33:4) the meaning of this prep. Lk. the most likely options seem to be: (i) "death spread to all men because all sinned" (either actually in Adam's primal transgression or in their federal representative. Adducing illuminating parallels from the Qumran Manual of Discipline (e.. That epi to auto and en ekklésia are sometimes virtually synonymous. 47. Then. 7:5. or the grace of God (Lk. 93-100). Tit. 44 v. 10:9). since some nexus between Adam and his descendants with regard to sin seems demanded by Paul's Adam-Christ analogy (see Rom. Phil.. 1 Clem. 298-316. The Epistle to the Romans. the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:17 f. 17:35. 2 Sam. . 274-281. (b) eph' hó. whatever its precise nuance. do sin" (hémartοn a gnomic aorist) (as those who have inherited Adam's nature). II. 2:40). "Le sens de eph' ho en Rom.. In the LXX (e. 1 Pet. Adam) (hémarton being a constative aorist). grecs". C. "Romans 5:12 — An Exercise in ExICC. Longenecker and Μ.1. (a) epi to auto. 2:2. The phrase has the sense of "together" in Acts 4:26 (quoting Ps.. 3:1. and S. R. or henos anthrópou." The former alternatives must be pronounced improbable since elsewhere in Paul (viz. 4:14). Mag. phrase is "together" or "at the same place". 2. II. N. 6:2. 1 Cor. As a euphemism for sexual intercourse. B. the power of Christ (2 Cor. which may refer to man's corporate involvement in the transgression of Adam or to men's personal sin in imitation of Adam or as a result of inheriting a corrupt Adamic nature. Torrey maintained — see Moulton. " `When You Come Together': Epi to Auto in Early Christian Literature". L. Grammar. 5:3. 418 n. landd' (as C. Restoration Quarterly 16. 2:44. Eph. The only viable alternative. 2:13.g. 4:10 — cited by Ε. 12:9). 1974. cf. eph' ho = "on condition 1194 . 34:7. Pss. or". 22:34. 10:45. "death". Ε. The "togetherness" of the early Christians was expressed principally in their meeting for public worship "in church fellowship" or "in the assembly". The innumerable interpretations of Rom. should be given to the phrase in Acts 2:1. while in the papyri it is frequent in the sense "in all" (denoting the sum total of an account) (E. 46D. Ign. "on the ground of this fact. 1955. Wilcox has shown that in Acts 2:47 (as in 1:15. 1QS 5:7). seems evident from the parallelism of 1 Cor. Ferguson.. 11:20. Barn. equivalent to epi tοuώ hoti. "one man"). Tenney. 11:18 and 11:20. 473) but a quasi-technical expression denoting the union of the Christian fellowship: "the Lord was day by day incorporating into the Fellowship those who were being saved" (The Semitisms of Acts. epi to auto einai occurs in 1 Car. and those that treat eph' hó as a conjunction. "because. 1973.g. ed. Some Notable Uses of epi. 205 f.
"except for f the reason of) immorality" (cf. (vi) a mixed marriage between a Jew or Christian and a pagan. 5:2. 29. In itself the crucial phrase mé epi porneia (lit. n&sái and epi with the ace. that is. 299. parektos logou porneias and me epi porneia) is formal rather than substantial. his sense of frustration under the limitations of a sarx-dominated sóma. 53:12 anénenken. 5:4) for "superinvestiture" (ependysasthai. that longing arose because God had given him the Spirit as the pledge of the resurrection transformation (5:4b. "not [event for immorality lean he divorce herl". chórizó. 19:9. 24:1." and Peter's anénenken . (ii) "He himself. A distinction should be drawn between (an)énenken epi tou xylου.24α. Die Α uslegung der neutestamentlichen Texte fiber die Ehescheidung. 15:44). porné. 1195 . we desire to put on (our heavenly dwelling)" (the/omen . phrase to complete the sense. 479 s. 5:32. 5:2) or wish (the/omen. is not to be located in a Hellenistic depreciation of corporeality but in his yearning (epipothountes. For further discussion —+ Separate. 1. 5:32) = Heb. Ott. "some indecency". "except for immorality". parektos logou porneias. the mé of Matt. l Cor. Arndt. 75). Schulz. 22:13-21). carried our sins up on to the cross. "we groan with a sense of oppression because. Arndt. (ii) marriage (entered in good faith) within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity (Lev. 4). `erwat dábαr (Deut. Greek Particles in the New Testament. epi II. Sir. "we groan because we long to put on over it (ependysasthai epipothountes) (viz. where porneia = Heb. Num. eρi III. 2. cf. providing a negative explanatory refinement: "it is also not allowed on the ground of fornication" (A. art. To treat mé epi as meaning "not in addition to" yields no satisfactory sense in the context. "except on the basis of immorality" (cf. Many identifications have been proposed for the porneia (here listed in descending order of probability): (i) adultery (cf. there are several reasons fοr preferring the second translation. "not on the basis of immorality") in this famous Matthean divorce-saying could conceivably be interpreted as parenthetical. labours under a twofold difficulty: it demands the insertion of a complex parenthesis before the prep. . 53:12 and Deut. 5:1 where incest = porneia). 287 s. 21:23 ("cursed by God is everyone who hangs on a tree. fοτ the acquisition of a spiritual body (cf. The origin of Paul's groaning or sighing (stenazomen. can denote location (Arndt. (i) If 1 Pet. The dif ference between the two Matthean phrases (viz. 2:24a is a combination of Isa. .v. And if Paul "groaned" in physical embodiment because he longed for spiritual corporeality. 19:9 should be treated as equivalent to ei mé.g. e. 14:33) . "(but such sighing is permissible only) on condition that". (d) 1 Pet. 23:23). 94). our earthly tentdwelling) our heavenly habitation". 1 Cor. that is remarkable..v.. (c) Matt. both rendering Heb. (iv) moral or spiritual adultery (since figuratively z`'nút can denote apostasy or violation of the covenant." eρi xylou). (iii) pre-marital unchastity discovered after marriage (cf. But in light of the unambiguous parallel in Matt.and epi with the ace. 1911. LXX aschémon pragma). b. so far from wishing to become disembodied. Hauck and S. Acts 15:20. d). 53:4 pherei. Thrall. introducing an exception. 4).. "he bore on the cross. Two translations of this verse may be offered: (i) "He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross".APPENDIX that" (proposed by M.v.(v) logos porneias (Matt. (ii) It is the combination of ana. in his own person. logos 2. 18:6-18. cited by F. E. LXX 1sa. Deut. zeta). Peter's change to eρi to xvlon is significant. and it overlooks the parallelism between 5:2. and 5:4. TDNT V1 592 n. (vii) prostitution. 5:2. 5). 1962." While it is true that anapheri' may mean nothing more than pheró (cf. znût. gamma). 288 s. ependvsasthai).
13). Dc. 40) but not in the LXX or ΝΤ. ExpT 33. Epaphras had represented St. 6. Usu. Thus sou allagma is parallel to hyper sou in Isa. Lev. 7:27. 181). Bible Studies. and Irenaeus has hyper tón hemeterón psychón in parallelism with anti tón hémeterón sarkón (Haer.). 127-132). 2. B. For the relevant phrase. E.. Caiaphas remonstrates with the Jewish leaders: "You do not un1196 . Selwyn finds a possible allusion to Peter's actually having seen Jesus ascend Golgotha as the sin-bearer (The First Epistle of St. 1946. 96. Although ingenious efforts have been made to explain the awkward to mé hyper ha gegraptai in 1 Cor. Paul says to Philemon: "1 would have been glad to keep him with me. the meaning will be "for the sake of". "Do not go beyond what stands written") or (conceivably) as Paul's repudiation of a Corinthian watchword (νiz. since sins could never be conceived of as an offering to God and Peter has preferred the term xylon ("gibbet") over thysiastériοn ("altar"). 2:21). here the verb does not mean "offer up in sacrifice" (as it does in Heb.. "carry up". 14:20). Hdt. 2:14 f. When the benefit is gained by things. 9:2.g. 2.). Commenting on hyper hémón in Col. A. see below 1II. A. The commonest meaning this preposition bears (viz. Usu. 19) and occasionally in the papyri (C. its sense is "on behalf of" (representation) or "in the place of" (substitution). Lightfoot observes that "as the evangelist of Colossae. which approaches a causal sense ("because of"). Jas. 1963-64. Paul there and preached in his stead" (Saint Paul's Epistles to the Colossians and to Philemon. 2. Gk. 1:7. Moffatt has "as your deputy". rather the verb should be understood in a non-technical sense. For the view that anpheró epi is a forensic technical expression for the laying of one person's debt upon another. With the Genitive. 5. iv. "above" (Lat. When the prep. "Beyond Scripture") (cf.. 2). "cover with a shield"). 43:3. "1 Corinthians iv." NTS 10. Diog. The picture is not of Christ as a priest and the cross as an altar but of Christ as the sin-bearer (cf. 41). see G. Rossberg. 5. 1:29) and the cross as the place where sin was destroyed (cf. or of a shield lifted over the head which suffers the blow instead of the person (cf. On the use of epi tó onomati after baptizο. 5.... B. Howard.g.. Col. expresses some advantage or favour that accrues to persons. 1. De . the phrase is better understood as a quotation (note the to) of a Pauline slogan (νiz. on to the cross. Deissmann. Hence hyper not infrequently has the sense of anti (as in the papyri — Rossberg. As recorded in the Fourth Gospel.AΡΡΕΝDΙX epi to xylon. 6 (Exegesis or Emendation?)". ET 1901. "on behalf of") seems to have arisen from the image of one person standing or bending over another in order to protect or shield him. 479 f. 1900. To act on behalf of a person often involves acting in his place. 4:6 as a scribe's marginal gloss that crept into the text (see the survey of views in W.. antallagé to lytron hyper hémón in Ep. H. M. 1. III. 6. "in your place". (e) and (f). D. G. hyper Its original local sense of "over". With the Accusative. 1921-2. "'Beyond the Things which are Written': An Examination of 1 Cor. Of Onesimus. 88-91. (e. 134)." (iii) Although anpheró is a technical term describing the priest's task of bringing a sacrifice and placing it on the altar (e. so that he might serve me as your proxy (hyper sou) during my imprisonment for the gospel" (Phlm. super) is found in cl. Jn. F. hyperaspizein. Hooker. Peter. J.. and of epi with pisteuó. and Goodspeed. "he carried up .
310-313. "The Use of hyper in Business Documents in the Papyri". Riesenfeld. see also A. Bultmann notes (Der Zweite Brief an die Korinther. Johannine Grammar. any substitutionary notion is unlikely since a parallel in 1 Cor. "with reference to our sins". 2:6 is the nearest he comes – antilytron hyper pantón)? Probably because the prep. 1 Tim. Grammar. C. 5:8. it is difficult to determine whether or not the prep. Gk. yet a substitute represents and a representative may be a substitute. "Note on the Meaning of HYPER in Certain Contexts. II. 15:29. hyper. A. Rom. 11:50. That is. E. Α. 276). TDNT VIII 509. where. Mayser. 2:14). 18:14). politically the death of the one (as a scapegoat) would be a substitute for the death of the many. Eph. In becoming the object of divine wrath against human sin. 2:6. As John saw it (10:41 f. "to expiate our sins". He assumed the liabilities of others in "being made sin" and "becoming a curse" (katara. E. Ρaυl can say that he died or gave himself hyper tón hamartión hémón (1 Cor. . Synonyms of the New Testament. Robertson.). unlike anti. 1 Thess. "abstractum pro concreto: bearer of the curse". The Theology of Saint Paul. 51 f. because he was dying their death. see below III. Simpson. Robertson. 5:10. 1948 reprint of ninth edition.g. 2 Cor. 1945. But why does Paul never say that Christ died anti hémón (1 Tim. 5:14 f. H. in anti on substitution. 5:14). 11:50b.e. We may conclude that the emphasis in hyper is on representation. 1954. hyper hmón. Grammatik. viz. 14:15 (hyper /iou.1. hyper hémón. Heb. 5:10). In Rom. note the singular). could simultaneously express representation and substitution (similarly R. 1976. II. hypo There are several ways in which agency is expressed in the NT: hypo (Matt. vv. cf. and A. 460. hyper. 4:1. 25. denotes substitution (e. hyper pantón. hyper sometimes implies anti. However. Tit. T.. I. to show that hyper not uncommonly denotes proxyship.. in addition to affirming that Christ died for persons (hyper asebón.. 1t is striking that. Trench. Rom. It is clear that hyper here denotes substitution. Gal. 2. 15:3..). "to deal with our sin". 5:21. 631). The Expositor 8th series 18. Caiaphas had unwittingly expressed a theological profundity: Christ's suffering was vicarious and redemptive (cf. Very similar is the Pauline affirmation that "one died for all" (heis hyper pantón apethanen). Gal. Κ.. i. 8:32. not simply benefit or representation. and Hel. 8:11 has di' hon. 110-112. 152 f. 1919. laps and ethnos both refer to the (same) Jewish nation. The Pastoral Epistles. T. That is. It is significant that in the papyri we find that a semi-technical formula (egrapsa hyper autou agrammatou) is used to indicate that one person had written or signed a letter on behalf of and in place of another person who was illiterate (see E. hyper is shown to bear a substitutionary sense by the inference Paul draws: "therefore all died" (2 Cor. since Caiaphas remarks that such a death "for the people" would ensure that "the whole nation" did not perish (Jn. Gal. hyper tou ethnous. 1197 . 1906. Christ was acting vicariously. l Λ. 3:13). v. Abbott. 1. Rom. not only "on our behalf" or "with a view to our good" but "in our place" (2 Cor. cf. 7:27).§ lxxxii. Prat. 5:2." where there is an impressive assembling of evidence from cl. similarly in 18:14). 321-327). but see per contra F. On the use of hyper in 1 Cor. in several places where the phrase apothanein (or its equivalent) hyper occurs.APPENDIX derstand that it is expedient for you that one man should die for the people (hyper tou laou)" (Jn. as R. 197). 1 Thess. "in lieu of '. 5:6. The death of Christ was the death of all. 2:20. 5:1.
1:22.. (For the view that James is here re-interpreting Matt. 7:13.. Arndt. 1:19). 6:1) (see A. 4:4) and possibly para with the gen. may allude to the intermediate agency of the angel (see M. Grammar. 5). or between the efficient cause and the occasional cause ("that from which a result ensued") (G. proceeding from..1. 820). ek. Root Meaning. Acts 2:22. 1:13α). hypo fórt therión. o (2 Cor. A. 6:13a in a distinctively Christian sense.. 7:24). 4. Lk. the Lord as the ultimate author (h ypo kyriou) of the prophetic word is distinguished from the prophet Isaiah who acted as a mediate agent (dia tou prορhétou) in speaking the divine word. Grammar. Mk. en with the dat.. Turner. is that between immediate and active causation (hypo) and less immediate and less active causation ( o). Where the two preps. History. 1n such cases o may be rendered "at the hands of" (e. hypo and o. ek (Gal. Grammar. para. 10:40 v. when it obtains.1. Robertson.).g. cit. in the following order with regard to the degree of intimacy of connexion between the objects in question. 22:30 v. Rev. hypo and para. to non-human agents (e. Buttmann. B.. 369). 325). or the simple dat. may be distinguished. In the expression αρο theou peiraaomai (Jas. 8:6 with regard to creation and preservation. Insights.). 7:35. `1 am being tempted by circumstances and influences that come from God or are permitted by him. o. 7:13).) But that o occasionally stands for hypo seems incontestable (see Lk.g.. hypo specifies the personal agent. Thuc. B. 20:9. 161-163. hypo tou noos. 365).v. see Ν. 1. ek representing the most intimate and o the most remote: ek. hypo and dia. 635 f. 9:34). Winer. Compare the similar distinction between primary origin and subordinate agency in the ek (of God the Father) — diα (of Jesus Christ) contrast in 1 Cor.g. 2 Cor..APPENDIX bis ). Only o and ek directly imply "disjoining" and "removal" (op. Ι. 2:18). Grammar. 3:18). There is no clear instance where para replaces hypo (but see Mk. 9:18). That kata is 1198 . 12:6) or "as a result of" (Rev. 2 Cor. aρο V. cf. 2. 364 f. § 90).g.g. hypo relates an action to its efficient cause (so G.. "by the will (or command) of" (e. local meaning of kata seems to have been either "down (from or upon)" (expressing vertical extension) or (less probably) "along while remaining in contact with" (expressing horizontal extension). kata 1. Whereas para traces an action back to its point of departure or source. (Matt. Zerwick. what was spoken to her [Mary] para kyriou") the prep. between the direct and indirect origination of an action (cf. Rev. The distinction here. v. 1n Lk. for dia may express personal agency (e. God is viewed as the ultimate cause of temptation but not directly as the tempter. Acts 10:33 v. 15:21) and hypo may be applied to inanimate agencies (e. T. 1:45 (". 13c) shows that a direct divine temptation was also in mind. The primary. 3. 8:31. Thus in Matt. 25.." Winer ranges these four preps.. 15:4. 6). para and hypo all denote "issuing. Col. 6:8) or to personified forces (e. 1 Cor... 33. James is saying: "Let nobody say when he is tempted.g. (Matt. 1t cannot be maintained that while dia denotes the inanimate instrument.l. hypo. Biblical Greek.. dia (2 Cor. hypo anemou.'" However the following rebuttal of this sentiment ("he himself tempts no one". 87 s. dia marks intermediate agency and hypo ultimate or original agency. Winer. Observing that o. between an internal and an external causal relation (cf.
Rom. 10:12 f. FT 1863. kaώ. so the prep. 1:3. 2 Cor. Acts 27:14 ("a tempestuous wind swept down from it" [kat' antés] = the island of Crete with its mountain ravines). A.. 33 f. 266 (1)) that the messiah ( = Christ) belongs to the Jewish people. 8:31. 5:16b a Pauline disavowal of interest in the historical Jesus (kata sarka Christon). Just as he now repudiated as totally erroneous his sincere yet superficial preconversion estimate of Jesus as a misguided messianic pretender whose followers must be extirpated (Acts 9:1 f. Just as ana corresponds to auó.) include Matt.. 1:18. 5:17 the active mutual antagonism of two irreconcilable adversaries — the flesh and the Spirit — is expressed by the words epithymei kata: `the cravings of our old nature conflict with the Spirit. 17:3." Since the time of his conversion Paul had ceased making superficial judgments based on external appearances (cf. Explaining why he does not expect the Corinthians to discover him to be a false apostle or counterfeit Christian. and the Spirit with our old nature." From the local meaning. 8:32. 172). kata sarka and kata pneuma. Paul speaks of God's obliteration. Funk. 1 Cor. rather than qualifying Christon with the whole phrase meaning "a physical Christ. Two basic and profound changes had been brought about in Paul's attitude as a result of his Damascus encounter with the risen Jesus: he now acclaimed Jesus as messiah and Lord (Acts 9:22. so he regarded the time-honoured division of mankind into Jew and Gentile (2 Cor. there naturally arose the idea of hostile movement directed against someone or something (where kata is the opposite of hyper. 1 Cor. e. 1 Cor. of the signed acknowledgment of indebtedness (cheirographon) "that stood against us [kath' hémόn] with its regulations and was directly hostile to us [hypenantion hémin]" (Col.g. J. 2. 2:28 f. Acts 6:13. Bengel finds the distinction to be that between "a state of war and an actual engagement" (Gnomon of the New Testament. Paul is asserting that he would never be able to bring himself to propagate falsehood or to hinder the advance of the truth without first changing his identity as an apostle. 1199 .. "down(wards)". 11:4. 4:6). cf. 5:12 f. Jude 3) ("for we cannot do anything against the truth [kata tes a1 'theiasl"). 8:2 affords a clear example of the developed metaphorical sense: "poverty reaching down to the depths" (kata bathous) _ "extreme poverty. "up(wards)". 5:12). kata sarka sometimes means simply "with respect to (physical) descent" (Rom." Again. 26:9-11). Gal. 6:10) which was based on a kata pneuma ("in light of the Spirit") or kata stauron ("in the light of the cross") attitude. 13:8 should not be taken to mean that truth is its own defence (contrast Rom. But kata sarka here signifies "from a worldly [or nationalistici point of view" and qualifies egnόkamen ("we regarded").. 1n this regard 2 Cor. 2:14). 5:16x) as less significant for him than the believer-unbeliever distinction (see. "down upon". Appearing in the form tο kata sarka. IV. 2 Cor. The former phrase emphasizes the brute fact of indebtedness. Not a few commentators find in 2 Cor.APPENDIX closely related to ana is clear from the fact that "down" and "up" simply represent the same idea from opposite viewpoints. 9:3)... through the cross of Christ. Rom. kata answers to the adv. Rom. 4:1. Attention may now be given to several uses of kata that provide theologically significant statements.g. 9:5 either of pointing to a complementary antithesis (as if to kata pneuma stood after "God over all") or of affirming that it is only "as far as human descent is concerned" (cf. the phrase has the purpose in Rom. In Gal.) (e. 10:9). while the latter stresses the active hostility produced by this fact. Examples of the spatial meaning of kata (with the gen.
but in Rom. brothers in Christ (Gal. 53:4-6. "those whose lives are directed by the Spirit" (hoi kata pneuma = hoi pneumatikoi. 1970-1. "in the image of God" (Eph. 23a) and then (allegorically) to the descendants of Abraham who do not have his faith. "corresponding to". 2:6. 3:26-29. 11). 2:15. 6:2. cf. 8:5 is that "those who are controlled by (or live in obedience to) their old nature" (iioi kata sarka ontes = hoi sarkikoi. For a review of the various interpretations of 2 Cor. The prep. 29b) refers first to Isaac as "the son of the free woman in fulfilment of the promise" (v. 3:1) give their attention to spiritual matters or take the side of the Spirit. 5:16-24). and (ii) the resurrection of Christ (Ps. 16 once more". Rom. 1200 . 2:11-21) and Jewish unbelievers as needing salvation in Christ (Rom. 4:13-18). 293-313. which constitutes an appeal to OT predictions of (i) the death of Christ or his death to atone for sins (Isa. 5:2). 1 Cor. see J. 1 Cor. Often the noun that follows kata specifies the criterion. two radically different sources for the prompting of conduct. will mean "according to". they should live in a spiritual state as God does (kata theon). 1 Pet. 29a) refers to Ishmael as "the son the slave" (v. "as God intends" (1 Pet. But the contrast is given another turn in Gal. 28). or simply "godly" (hé kata theon Ιypé. 3:10). cf. 4:21-31. 4:14. 16:27. Gal. Addressing a concern some believers evidently felt about the fate of Christian martyrs (cf. Rev. 53:10b. 2:20). 3:3) are earthly-minded or take the side of the flesh in the Spirit-flesh conflict (cf.. 2:23). Peter observed that the very reason for the proclamation of the good news to such Christians who were now deceased was that. 7:5. 1:17. Eph. referring to mortal embodiment or existence (2 Cor. 10:1-4). Fraser. v. 16:10. 10:3. There is an interesting contrast of two kata phrases in 1 Pet. is the contrast between kata sarka and kata pneuma. 23b) and then to all those who share Abraham's faith as "children of promise" (v. 5:16. standard or norm in the light of which a statement is made or is true. 8:27). 1sa. Gal. In this kata sarka — kata pneuma antithesis the contrast is between two diametrically opposed determinative principles of action." 2 Cor. 11 a.APPENDIX he now viewed Gentile believers as Abraham's offspring. Both the death and the resurrection of Christ formed part of the age-long plan of God (cf. Noteworthy too is the twice-repeated kata tas grphas ("in accordance with the Scriptures") in 1 Cor. "Paul's Knowledge of Jesus: I1 Corinthians v. 10-12). 8:8 f. Elsewhere (1 Pet. fellow-citizens. kata theon may signify "in accordance with God's will" (Rom. 1 Thess. 4:6. Paul can use en sarki in a neutral or non-moral sense. Col. "in conformity with". 1 Cor. 3:8. then. Gal. an action is performed. NTS 17. 13:34-37). 2 Tim. while ho kata pneuma (gennétheίs) ("who was born by the power of the Spirit". There is no need to insist that kata should bear an identical sense in both parts of the verse. Acts 2:23-32. "in a godly way" (2 Cor.g. 54:7) or his resurrection on the third day (Hos. or a judgment is passed. cf. 7:10). The sense of Rom. 5:17). so too. The opposition between "flesh" and "Spirit" is an important ingredient in Pauline theology (e. "godly sorrow. 7:9.). Here ho kata sarka gennétheis ("he who was born in the ordinary of course of nature". it is equivalent to kata sarka. 23:10 f. in confirmation of the reliability of the NT kerygma and the continuity of God's action in the two Ages.. although in men's estimation (kata anthrópous) they had been physically judged by death. 3. 15:3 f. W. Lev. 4:24. kata Denoting Correspondence or Conformity. v. This use is common in reference to the precise and impartial standard of judgment that will be applied at the great Assize (Matt.
the phrase kat' ekklésian ("in each individual church". 1:8 f. Similarly. 1:3b). with the gen.v. and results in (eis) the possession of a vibrant hope (1 Pet. rest or position "beside" (Lk. para 1. K. 6:19. O.).v. (the other is epi) regularly used with three cases. regeneration is the result of the Father's great mercy (kata to poly autou eleos. and aims at or achieves (eis) obedience and the constant sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ (1 Pet. Acts 6:1) celebrations of the Lord's supper (Acts 2:46) and daily (pasan hémeran. in Peter's view. compounded with ek [ex]). he implies that Judaistic teaching was not conforming to the apostolic norm. And with regard to ecclesiastical polity. Acts 14:23). "beside". Arndt. para with the acc.APPENDIX 3:7) Peter encourages Christian husbands to live with their wives kata gnósin. 7:3-5). Distributive kata. but note Lk. 1:23b). where para follows a vb. 4. Mk. Transferred Meanings.v. which may mean: (i) in a considerate and tactful manner. phthartou. came to mean "beyond" and then "contrary to" (used of that which goes beyond specified limits).... "[throughout] every day") teaching and preaching (Acts 5:42) took place "by households" (Moulton-Milligan. at least in the earliest days of the Jerusalem church. 1:3a) and an act of immortal procreation (ek sporas . d. As well as expressing this notion of contrariety. Sometimes the ideas of "standard" and "reason" merge: hoi kata prothesin klétοi (Rom. If its radical signification is "by the side of". oikos). 9:47.. meta See the discussion under syn below II. but cf. not a person). Acts 4:35. or (iii) in accordance with Christian knowledge about husband-wife relations in general and sexual relations in particular (cf. delta). (50 times). The use of kat' oikon ("in the various houses". This is one of the two NT preps. kata 11. 408 s. 2. is effected by (en) the sanctifying work of the Spirit. 1:6. movement or procession "from beside" (Jn. Or the notion of "conformity" may be totally displaced. 4:4. b) implies that every Pauline church in South Galatia had a plurality of elders ("And they had appointed elders [presbyterous] for them in every church . By transference from the local sense it bears with the gen. is achieved by means of (dia) God's living and enduring word (1 Pet. 8:28) indicates that God's calling is in accord with and because of his purpose (thus Arndt. daily (kath' hémeran. 4:1. Consequently when Paul anathematized anyone who preached a gospel at variance with (para) the gospel he proclaimed and the Galatians had received (Gal. Jn. The opposite of para in this sense is kata ("in accordance with"). (60 times in the NT) designates movement "to a position beside" (Mk. (78 times). (ii) in light of the knowledge of God's will and character.v. Para may mark a comparison by indicating that one thing lies beyond and therefore is superior to 1201 . 1 Cor. 240 s. 1 Pet. 443 s.) affords evidence that. ekklésia 4. Arndt. para with the acc." Thus. 8:38. a. 1. 1:23a). with the dat. 1 Pet.". Its Basic Sense. 19:25. 1.). with kata denoting the "basis. L. 407 s. kata 11. the latter being the only NT use with a thing. 10:46 where no idea of movement is implied). election is based on (kata) the foreknowledge of God the Father. cf. 5. 1:1 f..
. parc patros following hós monogenous is equivalent not to tou ontos ek patros but to tou exerchomenou (or exelthontos) para patros (cf. 48-53).. 2. Josephus. A. TDNT V 734 f. then. see above II. figures prominently in denoting the relation of the Son to the Father. No one else can lay claim to the title Son of God in the sense in which it applies to Christ. 2:20) or para kyrió (2 Pet. 3. Hesiod. para] the other") does not point to two types or degrees of justificatioń (". cf. para 11. 16:27 f.. One aspect of Paul's indictment of mankind in Rom. Two Dissertations. 376). 3.). 615 s.. monos. should now be assessed and will in the end be judged. 8:42. 1 Pet. however. Jdg. Jn. "species"). 17:8). 1:18-32 is that they worshipped and served created things instead of (para) the Creator. some have found associated with pare the doctrines of the eternal generation of the Son (monogenous parc patros. one of which was experienced by the tax collector. porn. literature (e. Hort. Jn. and the NT (Lk. where "is from [beside[" (Jn.g. para ΙΙΙ. Lk. Rom. Moulton-Milligan.1. 1:27.g. He is without spiritual siblings. v.. 2:11. 14:5. Etymologically monogenés is associated not with begetting (gennaomai) but with existence (gignomai). 3:16. referring to the only child in a family.g. not his eternal generation. 1n the Fourth Gospel this prep. 15:26). a meaning attested in secular Gk. 18. more than the Creator" might suggest) that "creature-worship°" is permissible provided it does not usurp the place of "Creatorworship". But in Johannine usage the conjunction of monogenés and hyios (Jn. H.g. that may be traced back (cf. From the personal application of monogenés to "the only member of a kin" there developed a non-familial and (sometimes) non-personal use in reference to "the only member of a kind" (unicus. "one man approves one day in preference to another". the LXX (e. Works. 7:12. instead of. Where this comparison is heightened. Tob. "unique". there is present the idea not merely of preference ("more than") but of exclusiveness ("instead of '). more than the other"). 2:13: 1 Cor. para in the Fourth Gospel. part) to God the 1202 .. 479).) indicates the ultimate standard — the purity of the divine life and the clarity of the divine vision — by which all aspects of thought and conduct. 17:8). 6:46. 264)..v. 1. 7:29. 3:19. "[the glory of an Only Son] coming from the Father. only the former was justified (see Arndt. It seems that the impulse to render monogenés by unigenitus (as in the comparatively late Greek creeds translated into Latin) rather than by unicus (as in the earlier Latin renderings) arose from christological dispute and in particular the desire to establish from Scripture the doctrine of the generation of the Son by and from the Father (see F. Biichsei.14. 1. unlikely that either verse supports this particular interpretation. Ant. 5. 1. J. 616 s. Riesenfeld. 18:14 ("this man went home justified rather than [or. 7:24 [on which see Arndt. 3. Jn. 1 Jn. 31: Jas.. "alone" and genos.. In Jn. 3:15) and other Jewish literature (e.") In a similar way. 9:38). The phrase para (tó) theó ("in the sight ]or judgment] or God") (Rom.v. whether human or angelic. (But it is just possible that para here means "(passing) beyond" _ "neglecting. TDNT IV 738).APPENDIX something else (e. 16:27 f. 4:9) shows that it is not the personal uniqueness of Jesus in itself that John is emphasizing but his being "of sole descent" as the Son of God. On the relation of para to hvpo. It is. the other by the Pharisee. "sole". 11:34. 222." It is the Son's mission. monogenés.. The apostle is not implying (as the rendering ". 1876. Elsewhere in John. 9:33) means "came from [beside]" (Jn. 1:14) and the eternal procession of the Spirit (to pneuma tés alétheias ho para tou patros ekporeuetai. It means "of sole descent" (F.
5:3 (note the double pen). 3). with its emphasis on the truth of the Spirit's witness to Christ (Jn. 12:1. by to (or ta) peni tés hamartias (Lev. a point of importance for the reconstruction of the Corinthian letter to Ρaυl which he answers in 1 Cor. For a defence of the view that interprets the verse as relating to "the procession of the Spirit". 7:37. 3:18. see above I. 14:19). 413. LXX) and probably in Heb. "Paul and his companions") marks out the apostle as a sun with several satellites." Twentieth Century New Testament. 16:5. 1n Rom. local sense of per is "around" or "encircling" (Lat. 9:331 came "from God" para theoul. Weymouth). In its derived. "to deal with sin". "sacrifice for sin". 39:7. Lagrange. 1 Cor. 16:27) this phrase means "sin-offering". M. AnBlb 48. but John also fin. or "sacrificial victim") by peni hamartias (e. 1:61. an object around which an action or a state revolves. (f).g. 8 (citing Ps. It is possible that the plural peni (tón) hamartian has this sense in Heb. 14:26) and therefore could be said to proceed from him (Jn. less commonly. and Sacrifice. (v) In the context. 39:7) or. On the partially overlapping functions of per' and hyper (e. where the river of the water of life is described as flowing from (ekporeuomenon ek) the throne of God and of the Lamb. it would hardly be necessary for John to have indicated the eternal mode of the Spirit's personal and essential subsistence. Evangile selon Saint Jean. 1948. 10:18. circum) (as in Acts 22:6). 2:12. 212. (ii) para tou patros is unlikely to bear two different senses in successive parallel statements. 2:2 (where the phrase is dependent on a noun). 5:1. 7:1. the rendering "as a sacrifice for sin" (NEB. 1 Pet. peni (de) means "(now) concerning" (for parallels in the papyri. Sabourin. (It is the context. 1 Jn. (iv) Just as Jesus was sent by God and therefore could be said to have come forth from him (Jn. Generally the LXX renders Heb. Ps. it designates a centre of activity. Heb. 194. 15:26 and 1 Cor. 8:1. 8:42). only ek tou patros would be appropriate to denote an eternal procession from the being of the Father (as the creeds testify. so the Spirit would be sent by the Father (In. Redemption. 1. J. Compare Rev. 10:6. but. 25. and not the preposition itself that has theological implications. 13:11 (cf. 249 f.g. Lev. 16:1).) Similarly in Jn. 504) and marks a new section of thought (e. Sin. In Heb. but not in Heb. 8:3 peni hamartias could mean "in reference to sin" (_ "to atone for sin. With the abbreviated phrase peni hamartias one should understand to (dóron). given OT usage. 15:26).).APPENDIX Father. similarly RV) seems more apposite (see further S. 6:23. to pneuma to ek tou theou). 15:26b). Lyonnet and L. per' The basic.g. Thus hoi pert ton Paulon (Acts 13:13. (i) Although ekporeuetai could imply either an emanation from a divine source or a procession on a mission. "the offering (that relates to sin)". 15:26 it is not inter-trinitarian relations that John is discussing but Christ's sending of the Spirit from the presence of the Father. the verb ekporeuetai should probably be taken as a futuristic (not a timeless) present. figurative meanings. 7-16. hatta't (which may mean "sin". Standing absolutely at the beginning of a sentence... 22:1. 26. 1203 . see M. (iii) Following pempsó and preceding martyrései.. B. see Moulton-Milligan. not only Jesus (Jn. Lev. 1970. which read to ek tou patros ekporeuomenon — a combination of Jn.
. Heb.g. A second alternative is to take pros with the acc. Burkitt." There seem to be three alternatives with respect to the meaning of pros in this verse. 19:8). Phil. does not imply any movement or action on the part of the Logos in his relation to the Father. 3:14) or hostile (e. In questioning the customary translations "near" or "with" for pros. 2 Cor. 12:47. one might expect after v. Funk. and only 23 in the LXX) and 6 with the dat.. This usage reflects (i) the blurring of the notions of movement and rest in Hel. 20. some indeterminate and nameless Being. . 1:7). The prep. 6:1. 3:6). 1 Cor. 16:6 f. 4:13.g. after einai. Heb. Gk. (iii) "an extension of many 1204 . N. for faith. 9:41 but Matt. after logos. Gal. (Moulton. see above II. έn pros could conceivably mean "spoke to". referring to relationships that are friendly (e. 4:14) and reference (Lk.. D. éηΡ pros ton theon) rather than "Where was the Word?" (para with the dat. compared with 679 instances with the acc. 1:Ib. 1932. 26:57. `in the beginning' there is not an unknown and unknowable God. 1:26. (ii) the reduction of the dat. Masson argues that since a "word" is spoken to a person. 1n turn. "Thus. C. Gk. Gk. Grammar. In itself Jn. in creation and in redemption is the eternal Word" (ibid. Turner in Moulton. Col. However.g. 1965. Eph. Phlm.. 9:19 (= Lk. Church and Gnosis. Idiom-Book. 6:3 (= Matt. but the developed sense of mental direction or tendency followed naturally. 52 f. "in accordance with" (Lk. Support for this view may be found in the ΝΤ parallels where pros with the acc. C. 1 Thess.g. 14:49. 13:56).APPENDIX N. there is the God who speaks and whose Word in time. 13. 2:5." Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie 98. F. denotes not linear motion but punctiliar rest (Matt. 2 Thess. Grammar. 1 Jn. it is just as reasonable to think that 1:1b answers the question "What was the eternal relationship of the Logos to the Father?" (cf. 55 v. ("Pour une traduction nouvelle de Jean 1:1b et 2. ". 1 Thess. this notion of psychological orientation led to the use of pros to express the ideas of estimation. denoting position: "with" (thus e.. as equivalent to para with the dat. 1. 5:10. 6:10. "in view of" (Matt. This rendering ("the Word spoke to God") was suggested earlier by F. enveloped by night and by silence. John specifies his relation to the Father: "The Word was pros ton theon. Matt. 1a an answer to the question "To whom was the word spoken?" (pros with the acc. 3:4.. On the relation between pros and eis.. 1 In. 1:2). 1 (a). D. 2 Cor. (Acts 27:34. Moule. 2:23). but in the ΝΤ there is only one instance of the gen. Masson is scarcely justified in filling out the meaning of en pros on the basis of an accompanying substantive (ho logos) that here functions as a proper noun. Gal. p. 381). 6:37 bis: 2 Cor. 18:1. 106). éπ para tó theύ). 17:17 has meth' hymón).. "with a view to" (1 Cor. Having defined the relation of the Word to time. Moreover. 1II. 3:16. 3:10. Eph. purpose. conformity. often following the verb einai. 274).. In its basic spatial sense pros denotes actual motion or literal direction (e. C.. 95. 11:9. 1:la ("in the beginning the Word already existed") speaks only of the pre-temporality or supra-temporality of the Logos.. 376-381). case in Hel. 10:11). Gal.1. 4:18. Masson believes that his rendering of 1:1b. pros In cl. 1:18. 1:2). 26:18. appropriately reflects the dynamic nature of the Word. but by his conjunction of en arché and en John clearly implies the eternal pre-existence of the Word whose true sphere was not time but eternity. "et la Parole parlait (s'adressait) à Dieu". Mk. 5:8. case and the extension of the acc. 1 Cor. First. 2:14. pros was regularly followed by three cases. Jn. Jn..§ 239 (1).
APPENDIX classical usages. cf. And while I. Driver. points to eternal intercommunion. tendency of the Son to the Father in the unity of essence" (Gnomon of the New Testament. H. finding Aram. 5:8. 14:17. never pros tina. the sense is: "the Word was (in active communion) with the Father. On a third view. ET 1863. 3. T. R. 19:25. In 2 Cor. to express motion towards). whether or not pros bears a dynamic sense. he preferred to leave his present form of embodiment and take up residence pros ton kyrion. I. Grammar. prep. where a pre-temporal divine relationship is being affirmed. 3:22. rather than Aramaic influence (e.. 1:39. 8:38. l ewcιt. claims that "pros. if the believer's future destiny may be summed up in the phrase endémein pros ton kyrion ("dwelling in the company of the Lord") (= syn Christ° einai. the prep. 1967. 1960. 5:14 ff. 5:16 f. so in 2 Cor. Used of divine persons. A. On the other hand. as it were. F. 8:38. Alford alleges that "both the inner substantial union. Dewailly ('"La Parole parlait à Dieu'?". de la Potterie (loc. As in Jn. and thé distinct personality of the logos are here (in 1:1b) asserted" (The Greek Testament." This seems to be the import of John's statement. 5:6 Paul states that as long as he continued to dwell in a mortal body he was (spatially) absent from the Lord. 1205 . 25 f..1n. as I. F. Rib. 43. for when pros describes a relationship between persons it must connote personal intercourse rather than simply spatial juxtaposition or personal accompaniment. 128) rightly warns against discovering in Jn. cited in Moulton. 1I. 467). Isaac (La Révélation Progressive des Personnes Divines. note also meta tinos in Jn. 17:5). cit. pros implies (rather than expresses) dynamic interpersonal communion. 1:1b "all the patristic and conciliar christology which was much later attached to it. viz. Burney. . TDNT 11 64. démos. since this would presuppose that pros had both a static and a dynamic sense at the same time. he rejects the view of J. J. "with (or. 1 . Revue de Théologie et de Philosophic 100. 1962. 1922. rendered it by pros rather than para under the influence of the more common use of the Aram. pros contains no idea of reciprocal action. 1958 revision by E. 1:23). In the context these two verses identify one prayer of intercession that is "according to God's will" and therefore will be answered (1 Jn. etc. cf. 379). Because he knew (eidotes) this. M. 23." Some commentators seem to have erred here." Similarly W.. But. 5:8. where an eterna1 human-divine relationship is being depicted. pros being "employed for living relationship. 381 n. 234). 14:23. still less the speculation of Eastern or Western traditions concerning the existential (subsistentes) relatons. 80) that the mutual belonging (ppartenance) or immanence of the Father and Son is indicated. Grundmann." Phil.g. 2 Cor.. in the presence of) the Lord".) or the nearness of the Son to the Father (Jn. a settled mutual fellowship. Robertson (Grammar. phrase may simply be equivalent to emprosthen tou kyriou or para t5 kyrió. 625) comments: "It is the face-to-face converse with the Lord that Paul has in mind". for example. intimate converse. 1:1 b. de la Potterie has pointed out ( "L'emploi dynamique de eis dans Saint Jean et ses incidences théologiques ". Bengel. The prep. 4:40. 3) believes that the Son's "filiation" is expressed by the Johannine formula pros ton theon. 29. 25. A. suggests that the translator of an Aramaic original. The Aramaic Origin of the Fourth Gospel. C. something more must be signified than an impassive spatial proximity to Christ. "being with Christ. elsewhere John uses para tini to express the proximity of one person to another (Jn.. for in itself the prep. Harrison. But L. denotes a perpetual. 2. 681). particularly in such phrases as enthymeisthai pros hauton" (G. H.
717 s. it is significant that Paul regularly ends his letters with the prayer that grace be with (meta. are used in connexion with Christian discipleship. TNDT V1 725. 16) to such a person would be contrary to God's will.. but in Hel.. Prdpositionen.). 75 are in Lk.v. regarded as a penalty administered not by man (cf. phrase may be rendered either "tending to death" or "issuing in death". 2:18-27. Of the 127 NT uses of syn. O. and (ii) John is unlikely to have countenanced the idea of sins that do not "tend towards" or "result in" eternal death. 10:26-31). 202-212). of the two preps. TDNT VII 794-797). ouk estin pros thanaton). cf. While the "death" could be that of exclusion from the Christian community (= excommunication. Reicke pros. 18:22. it may be: (i) the open and deliberate rejection of Christ.) but by God (as in 1 Cor. 145). si'n has not survived in modern demotic Gk. syn was the more suited to express intimate 1206 . Num. means "with") and is only rarely used in the so-called "purist" language (where meta with the gen. cf.) is more common (364 uses) than svn. As a result of intercessory prayer God will grant such a person the boon of further physical life and of renewed spiritual life — in spite of his open or wilful sin (such as may be seen.) On this view the apostle is encouraging intercession for any believer whose sin has not met with immediate divine judgment. prayer for a fellow-believer who has sinned. 2:22: 4:2 f. In Attic Gk. death is the actual result or a necessary consequence. 15:30 f. whereas he depicts the Christian life as one of identification with Christ and the Christian's destiny as "being with Christ" (sir. as evidenced in the promulgation of heretical doctrine (1 Jn. since (i) eternal life could scarcely be said to be given to an erring believer as a result of vicarious intercession. Grundmann. 1n one case. 16α). sv/1 1. Heb. is found). B. 5:16 f. syn . Such prayer for the dead would be contrary to God's will. 15:30 f. in both cases). 22:25 f. is recognized by Arndt. the "anti-christian" denial of the incarnation or messiahship of Jesus (1 Jn. Gk. they are virtually synonymous (for LXX usage see M. death is the natural but not necessary outcome. 7): in other words. 11:30-32. it is better understood as physical death. not meta.. 6:4-8).). (ii) blasphemy against the Holy Spirit (Mk. since the granting of pardon or life (zοén.ΑΡFEN DIX 3:21 f. 1926. But he discourages intercession for any believer who has experienced divine judgment in the form of death. (iii) deliberate sin (cf. unlike svn. Heb. Acts 5:1-10). Its Relation to meta. Johannessohn. (where me with the acc. syn meant "including" and "with the aid of" and meta "(in company) with". fellowship meals and eschatology (W. idé. 2 Jn. and accordingly pros will denote not tendency but result (as in Jn. In spite of the general interchangeability of the two preps. 3:28-30). It is difficult to understand "life" and "death" as referring to eternal life and eternal death. but. cf.meta with the Genitive. meta (with the gen. in the other. pros III. As a NT prep. "this illness will not end in death". never svn) his addressees. As for the identification of the "sin that leads to death". viz. such as premeditated murder or persistent hatred.-Acts (Morgenthaler. The prep. Num. This would suggest that. (That pros is consecutive in 1 Jn. 3b. Deut. v. 11:4. v. is rarely used in compound verbs. But John places one restriction on the scope of such prayer: he does not counsel intercession for a person who has committed a sin pros thanaton.). apostasy. sin performed "with a high hand" (Num. Both preps.
any proposed interpretation of this crux interpretum must meet two requirements: (a) hyper should not be given a sense unparalleled in the Greek Bible (since the customary meanings of the preposition afford a suitable sense). Dupont has distinguished two phases in Paul's use of the syn Christó concept. To be satisfactory. not "those who died in Christ" _ hoi koiméthentes en Christó. is not related to en Christó einai. EΤ 1927. The destiny of believers after death or after the parousia (syn kyrió einai. syn must signify more than mere spatial juxtaposition (as if two objects were being related) and even more than co-existence (as if two persons were being related who were either unacquainted or unfriendly). 1 Cor. primarily an individual and active experience. 39-47. Tannehill. Dying and Rising with Christ. For a discussion of the compounds in syn. hyper (1 Cor. 170-173. whereas in Phil. Paul's distinctive description of Christian existence is embodied in the phrase einai en Chrisώ (e.APPENDIX personal union (e. Col. 1 Thess. This parallel to the Pauline use of syn is all the more impressive when one recalls that the person to whose presence the Christian departs at death is not dead but alive. 1 Thess. 4:17 (and 5:10) "being (or living) with the Lord" emphasizes believers' sharing in the eschatological blessings of the Kingdom enjoyed by Christ since his resurrection. 4:17.. einai syn Christó in Paul. 1:23) is not simply spatial proximity to Christ but active communion with Christ. 1 Thess. 15:29. It is highly improbable. syn Christó einai (never used of the earthly experience of Christians). 15:18) would indicate. see R. 95 f. (a) that hyper is 1207 . Deissmann mentions a graffito from Alexandria. 3:13). Only if Christ had not risen from the grave could Paul have spoken of departed saints as hoi kekοimëmenoi syn Christó ("those who have fallen asleep with Christ"). When used to indicate a relation between two persons known to and esteemed by each other. 1:23). J. 2. see W. by succession. The difference between "the dead in Christ" and living Christians is not in their status (en Christó in both cases). 4:16). When the believer dies. bis). 3:4). there is added to en Christó corporeity a personal and "spatial" syn Christó dimension (Phil.. where a deceased person is addressed thus: "1 would that I were soon in fellowship with you" (syn soi einai) (Light from the Ancient East.which develop the syn Christó formula. (b) the resultant meaning of the verse should contribute to Paul's argument in the chapter. 1967.. 5:8 ("dwelling with the Lord") the emphasis falls on intimate fellowship with the King in the Kingdom (SYN CHRISTO. 1:23 ("being with Christ") and 2 Cor. for example. 2 Cor. Phil. G. 5:17).. 303 n. In 1 Thess.). 1952.g. as the expression hoi nekroi en Christó ("the dead [who are] in Christ". 186 Γ. but in the quality of their fellowship with Christ and the degree of their proximity to Christ. III SPECIAL PROBLEMS A. 1). TDNT VII 786-794. 4:16. the prep. C. perhaps of the Imperial period. 112-115. A.g. syn Christó einai. since hoi nekroi remain en Christó (1 Thess. Prepositions with baptizó 1. There is no evidence in the Pauline corpus that death removes the Christian from his en Christó incorporation: this persists at and after death. on the general theme of identification with Christ. Grundmann.g. essentially a corporate and passive experience. and meta the more suited to denote close association or attendant circumstances (e.
1962. some baptized Corinthians who had a semi-magical view of baptism were being rebaptized vicariously for certain deceased Corinthians (the articular tón nekrón presents no difficulty for this view) who were thought to be at a disadvantage because they had not been baptized before being overtaken by death. points to the personal agent administering the rite of water baptism (Matt. eis may simply mean "in relation or reference to. 3:11 eis may be telic ("with a view to. (b) that hmi baptizomenoi refers to all new converts who were. It was probably John the Baptist's personal administration of the rite that in part accounted for his title. 309-311.) and J. where he refers to his apostolic peril and labour) in support of a conclusion already established (viz. marked by) repentance". 3:6 where the participle exhomologoumenoi suggests the simultaneity of baptism and confession of sin [ = repentance]). 1:4. 15:29?" ZNW 46. 13. 7:30). and Matt. 3:11 and Acts 2:38. cf. Barrett. More probably. 3:7. 1 Pet. consecutive ("resulting in").. In Matt. The First Epistle to the Corinthians. Marcus. hypo. "On Causal Eis Again". 514. There are 7 instances of baptizesthai hypo in the NT (all in the Synoptic gospels) in which the prep. 2. (a) Matt. (That Paul could argue e concessis is evident from 1 Cor. R. 104. Mantey has not adduced any convincing example from extra-biblical Hel. Mantey (A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament. R. 362 ff. Rissi. Acts 13:24. "a repentance baptism" (Mk. "on a profession of repentance. "in token of your repentance"). 4:23 eis (his) = l e = "regarding.APPENDIX local ("over [the graves of] the dead"). 14. III . Beasley-Murray. K.). Robertson (Grammar. BNTC. Mk.) The verse may be paraphrased thus: "Otherwise [viz. For the history of the interpretation of this verse. Hal. 3:21) or their outcome (ec1208 ." but see his note. 45-48. G. Weymouth. ibid. "The Causal Use of Eis in the New Testament". since elsewhere John's baptism is termed a "baptism of ( = relating to. 1951. replying to the rejoinder of R. T. 389. Baptism in the New Testament. Die Taufefiir die Toten.v. M. or means "in memory of" or "out of respect for". Lk. by their baptismal incorporation into the church. in Acts 2:38 forgiveness of sin could be the purpose of repentance and baptism (final or telic eis) (cf. where eis expresses "immediate and direct cause".. 19:4). cf. 592. without giving it his approval. E. Raeder gives hyper a final sense: converts to Christianity were having themselves baptized in order to be united with their departed relatives and friends at the resurrection ("Vikariatstaufe in 1 Kor. Gk. On this interpretation Paul is using an ad hominem argument (as also in vv.. 3:6 [ = Mk. "On Causal Eis". in these verses has been vigorously defended by A. 185-192. eis. but cf. JBL 70. ibid." Similarly. while in Gen. 8:10. 35 f. J. in view of (see BDB. 30-32. or possibly even temporal (eis = en = "at. see M. if there is no resurrection of the Christian dead] what will those people achieve by way of advantage who are going to the trouble of having themselves baptized in place of the dead?" A close parallel to this sense of hyper ("in place of") is afforded by Dion. 1:9. in order to obtain"). 1968. ho baptistés or ho bptizón (proselytes immersed themselves in the presence of two or [later] three rabbis who constituted a court). and cf. 1962. Word Pictures in the New Testament. and cf. 258-260). Goodspeed's rendering. 1927. C. 8: additional soldiers were enrolled in the place of (hyper) those who were dying in battle. s. 5 f. Lk. The causal sense of the prep.. 10:20 f. 5 g. upon". 1955.. However. 3:3. that the dead in Christ will rise) and is appealing to an aberrant practice (otherwise unknown to us in the first century). 1:5]. filling up the ranks left depleted by Christian martyrs (hoi nekroi). 129 f. 3.
who distinguishes the mystical Christ [e. 3:11 and Acts 2:38 (eis. c. which he takes to mean "with mention or confession of the name of Christ (A Critical and 1209 . 1 Cor. finds eis to be final in both Matt. A Suggestion Concerning the Earliest Meaning of the Phrase". First. 15 ff. 28:19) or the Lord Jesus (Acts 8:16. Delling. 1942. On this understanding. 1 Cor. 100 ff. 1945. 6:3a.v. FRLANT 1. which distinguished Christian baptism from other rites. traces the origin of the phrase eis to onoma to the Heb. 3:28)). Three principal views have been taken of this prep. as when money is paid "(in)to the account of a certain individual or is credited "to the name of" someone (thus W.APPENDIX batic or consecutive eis). onoma I. 3:27b) = to be in Christ (Gal. Baptism "with respect to" Jesus was a "Jesus baptism".. beta. bptizó 2. beta). Prat. Identification with Moses or allegiance to him as leader was the goal and outcome (eis) of the Israelite submission to baptism (ebaptisanto. it may denote a transference of ownership. 4.g. (c) Baptism eis to onoma (tinos). Hartman (" `Into the Name of Jesus'.g. especially 127). 432-440. But E. through baptism. NTS 20. with the benefits of the salvation accomplished by Jesus Christ (Die Zueignung des Hells in der Taufe. F. or the baptized may be conceived of as entering into (local eis) the Body of Christ that already exists (see E. 223-226). on the other hand. but the phrase may also describe the believer's entry into (local eis) personal union and communion with Christ ("into fellowship with Christ")." denoting the fundamenta1 reference or purpose of some thing. Gal. 462-466. but more probably eis = local en. who notes an occasional causal eis in the NT. 131 s. Percy. 21-48). Barth. G. The Theology of Saint Ρaυl. 1961). They are mentioned here in descending order of probability. recently defended by I. 1:12) and comes under his control and protection (Arndt." StTh 28. 12:13). According to Hartman. Acts 8:161. A third interpretation. Burton renders the phrase "with reference to Christ". the person being baptized passes into the possession of the Triune God (Matt. 19:5. 1:13. Im Namen Jesu.v.e. 1 sém or Aram.). 1973-4. (b) Incorporation into the one Body of Christ is the purpose and effect (eis. 575 s. b. or else forgiveness is being regarded as conceptually (but not necessarily chronologically) coincident with baptism (eis = temporal en) or as connected with baptism (referential eis). Heitmüller. 3:271 from the physical Christ [e. 1974. 1903. Die Taufe — Emn Sakrament?. 3:27) is generally taken to be brachylogy for "into the Body of Christ" (i. EΤ. phrase. Gal. 6:3b) is to participate in all of the saving benefits of "his death to sin" (Rom. 2. 10:2 v. In Mk. Oepke. TDNT II 429).1). / ΚΪ1m. cf. 15 where baptism into Paul's name is equated with belonging to Paul. Some Tentative Considerations. "Baptism `Into the Name of Jesus' and Early Christology. "to baptize into the name of the Lord Jesus" means to endow a person. It is significant that A. or "into the name of Christ" (thus Arndt. the church. or to submit to a water-baptism that relates to his death." (d) eis Christon (lesoun) (Rom. 1951. the "high" christology which the phrase presupposes may have used Son of man categories but not the actual title "Son of man. especially John's baptism. 1:9 eis ton Ιοrdanén may denote the element into which the baptizand was plunged. M. argues that since the salvific work of Jesus is inextricably linked to his name. often used in the Mishnah and Talmud with the meaning "with reference to. Der Leib Christi. "so as to form") of "baptism in the Spirit" (1 Cor. de W. To be baptized "into the death of" Christ Jesus (Rom. 6:10). so that to be baptized into Christ = to put on Christ (Gal. 1I. rite or action.
(b) There is no certain instance of an instrumental en with bptizó: in the other examples of en pneumati.. 11:16): believers are either immersed "in" the Spirit. 4:30). "Name. Kaye. and the Laying on of Hands".. 12:13b) suggests an inward participation in the Spirit to which a preceding outward "immersion in the Spirit" would correspond. (f) The parallel en heni pneumati in Eph. 3:5. en. but simply to recognize that baptizd need not always mean "to baptize in water". EQ 45. the parallel with en hydati dictates that en should mean "in" or "with" and not "by (means of)". 4:121. H. but may be used metaphorically of immersion. (e) The following phrase "we were all given one Spirit to drink" (1 Cor. Eph. baptizó 3. Baptism. 1973. Acts 22:16) or to the administrant's acting on the authority of Christ or his invocation of the name of Jesus during the baptismal rite (cf. 8b. 3:11. Generally this has a local sense when used with baptizó: in the (river) Jordan (Matt. Mk. Acts 11:16. (c) In the logic of John the Baptist regarding "Spirit-baptism". 11:16). Accordingly in 1 Cor. 1:4). 7. 1:8 v. it is always Jesus who is the baptizer. Lake and H. N. 3:23). R. to deny the personality of the Spirit. 28'7. 5. 4:13). denoting the "sphere" or "material" but not the agent (but for instrumenta1 en denoting personal agency. vv. 1:8 v. 130-140). E.. Jesus Christ).1. "The Name. or drenched "with" the Spirit (for a defence of the latter view. Livingstone]. Lk. never the Spirit. (d) In the one place Paul uses en with bptizó (1 Cor. 28. the prep. 2. 281-286.1. of course. en/epi ώ onomati. 2:38 v.APPENDIX Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. in light of the preceding dia tou pneumatos (1 Cor. Acts 1:5. 13b. 3). cf. c).g. I 3a) and within (v. Jn. Abba. VI [ed. 3:16.). in the cloud and in the sea (1 Cor. The Spirit is both around (v. in the name") referring either to the candidate's confession of faith in the name of Jesus Christ (cf. 10:2).g. A. inundation or deluging (see Arndt 131 s. cf. 3:6. Some commentators find no distinction between the three phrases eis to onoma. Acts 1:5.v. 33. 1II. A. the simple dative hydati in Mk. since di' autou (= Christ) precedes (but cf. "with regard to") both from en (= Hebrew b "on the authority of") and from epi ("resting upon" or "devoted to" the name [ _ person] of Christ) (e. 2:18 cannot be an instrumental use of en. 12:13 is not. 12:9 is undoubtedly instrumental in sense. 1:33. while others distinguish eis ( = Hebrew 1'. 5:18). Lk. Marshall. cf. Acts 17:31 [cf. 10:2).§ 195). Phil. (e.v. Mk. is local in sense ("in the cloud and in the sea"). 12:13 means not "by one Spirit" but "in (or with) one Spirit". 31. Personal agency cannot be expressed simply by pneumati (cf. 6:3a and 3b). 1921. who stresses the need for baptizein eis to have the same meaning in Rom. the agent should be taken as implied (viz. To deny that en is instrumental in 1 Cor. en ώ onomati and epi ώ onomati after bptizó. Arndt. 123 n. 507a). So also with the phrase (en) pneumati (hagió). 3:12. en hydati denotes the element in which the baptized were "immersed" or with which they were "drenched" (Matt." IDB. However en ώ henipneumati in 1 Cor.1. Funk. Jn. Eph. For several reasons it seems probable that en heni pneumati in 1 Cor. in the desert (Mk. 203-205. 3:16. which is generally contrasted with (en) hydati (Matt. III. in Aenon (Jn. epi 1210 .) and epi ώ onomati (Acts 2:38) are identical in sense ("at. Probably en ώ onomati (Acts 10:48. J. "The Meaning of the Verb `to baptize' ". V of The Beginnings of Christianity [ed. in Studio Evangelica. see I. "Bptizein eis with Special Reference to Romans 6". cf. 12:24. 12:8. similarly B. Cadbury] 1966 reprint [= 19331. 1:5 [ = eis ton Iοrdanén. New. 1:26. 4. (a) Elsewhere hypo expresses personal agency with bptizi (see above. in Vol. . 9:34. s. Κ. 1973. see Matt. S. 11). 1:91. 12:13..
5 both prep. 475-478. 3). 26:27a. e. 1211 . where pisteuei means "has confidence" and/or "has f sufficiently strongi faith (to eat)". cf. 1 Cor. with ho g following (Jn. 3:2. (Rom. 1 Thess. Rom. c. and with the "retained accus. there are numerous constructions found with this verb in the ΝΤ. 4. B. the sense of pisteuó will range from "give credence to (the testimony of)" men or God (e. in ascending order of frequency: (a) pen with hoti following (Jn. 1898. pros modifies pistin. Acts 15:11). 1 Tim. di' autou (or di' han) is found following pisteuó (Jn. III. 11:31.1. where the verb means "believe". 28:16). Acts 8:12. phrases (pros ton kyrion Ιέsoun and eis pantos tons hagious) probably refer to both pistin (which must therefore signify "fidelity" rather than "[savings faith") and agaρέn. and infin. of Paul and Apollos) with Christ probably as the object of faith. 1910. 4:14. 1 Cor. pros never follows pisteuó in biblical Gk. 2 Tim. 1:10) or in a non-religious sense ("give credence". 60 f. 68 n. 1921. cf. This prep. (f) Dat. 1:21 a. I. Mk. Mk. either in a religious sense ("have faith". Rom. and eis to onoma its nature or goal (on which see above. 7:9. 20:31x.g. on this verse see F. J. and following pistis (Acts 3:16. 2. although some of the statistics mentioned below differ slightly. of John the Baptist. of the person. Gal. 81-84) with God as the object of faith. A chart that classifies ΝΤ uses of pisteuó (when it is not used absolutely and does not mean "entrust") my be found in Moulton. of the thing. Hort. 16:22). 5:10b) to "entrust oneself to" God (Acts 16:34. Jn. 14:2). (b) pros. 1:7. certainly of Jesus. 1-1I. I. 6:30. Peter. Jas. 4:50. Prepositions with pisteuσ (and pistis) For a convenient analysis of the meaning of pisteuó and pistis in cl. Johannessohn. or "have faith (in Christi". 267). probably of Jesus) and pistos (tons di' autou pistous eis theon.APPENDIX II. 14.. 2:7. In the latter category. 9:23 f. 4:21.. 19. with the verb signifying "believe that". see M. 16:11.g. 1. 4:16) or "entrust" (Lk. (= Heb. 3:5. Acts 27:25). Even if the structure is chiastic (ABBA). 2:19a). 8:31. de W. 9:18. Jn. in. Ant. Apart from the many instances where pisteuó is used absolutely (a rare use in the LXX — Isa. 1:45. Grammar. Mk. 11:26b. 3:18b. 1:3) or ace. and the Pseudepigrapha. (c) Infin. phrases would then describe the administration or operation of the rite.. 22:67). (b) Acc. 1 Jn. 13:21.. he'emîn ki). 2. 1 in. Josephus. 1 Pet. Galatians. 1:1 1.g. 1n Phlm. constructions that follow pisteuó (and pistis) are. (d) hoti (= Heb. 1:12).g. 17. e. Luc. Jn. 1. 3. 2 Thess. 10:9. see E. 2:24). Gk.). Acts 2:44. Burton. (Acts 8:37 v. The phrase pros ton theon depicts the object of pistis in 1 Thess. constructions are: (a) Ace.. Lk. 4:13. Tit. 5:36. 2:4. where the verb means "entrust" (Jn. 1:8. "be convinced of" (Jo. 2 Cor." after a pass. These two prep. 1:20. A. Jn. he emîn le or b e . Acts 24:14) or the person believed. 11:18. The prep. Plut. The non-prep. PrέίρosιΡtionen. (c) dia. although such a construction is rare in the LXX (4 Macc. Tit. 15:24. 1 Thess. phrase therefore expresses the human or divine instrument by which persons come to faith in Christ or God. 3:8) or Christ (e.g. 6:8. The First Epistle of St... (e) Dat. the LXX. A.) of the thing believed (Lk. e.. 13:7. "be convinced that" (Lk.
pisteuó. 14:1 lb v1. Dan. 1 Pet. with only 8 of the 45 NT uses being found outside the Fourth Gospel and 1 Jn. Col. Furthermore it is clear that for John pisteuó eis is intimately connected with erchomai eis (Jn.) in which en after pisteuó denotes the object of faith. Theod. see also the textual variants in Mt. are lacking in cl. 6:29 and 6:30) (but see per contra. There is no doubt that occasionally John uses the dat. 65. 46 f. 4:21..). 2:16. but other MSS read ep' autó. 1:8. Matt. 2 Tim. 22:19. Jn. 210 f.).). he"mîn b e (not the Gk. 1:15. cf. 9:33. (f) epi with ace. eis auton). TDNT VI 203 and n. 14:11a. 5:40. 3:26). with en meaning "in the sphere of" (A.. Each of the three possible instances is contested. 18:6. ζΡ 67 f. 27:42. 1:15. 1:4 may be rendered "your faith (that rests) in Christ Jesus" (= pistis eis Christon = pistis Christou) or "your faith experienced in fellowship with Christ Jesus". 1:4. for pisteuó with the dat. 9:42 v. Bultmann. Jn. 464) since there are several LXX instances (Jer. phrase is as likely to mark out the sphere or realm in which faith was operative and evident as to specify the actual object of faith. 16:31. 1 Tim. Wis.). 8:45 f. cf. eis auton. 12:2) and the one example with pistis (Heb. 8:30. The idea of metaphorical movement that is implied in the 7 instances that occur with pisteuó (Matt." 1n Eph. 1:29. 28:16]. 1892. but elsewhere it is more frequently used (12 times) than eis (8 times).. Deissmann. 24. Die neutestamentliche Formel `In Christo Jesu". and the LXX (but see Sir. 38:31). 5:46 bis. and note Mk.. a meaning pisteuó eis never bears (compare Jn. 19:4 (?). H. 3:25 and probably not Gal. 339) paraphrases thus: believe "in the truth of the substance of the Gospel. 3:13. 37. or ep' auton) and exegetical (en autó may be construed with what precedes or what follows). 6:1) may derive from the notion of turning away from former objects of devotion that brought disappointment to a new personal object of faith in whom one has confidence. 1 Tim. 10:14. 5:24. 12:6. (viz.1. Jn. Finally. Regard (Prέροsitiοns.. epi never follows pisteuó in the Johannine corpus. Examples of this construction with pisteuó. Moulton's change of mind on the matter. 10:37.. 1n the 4 instances where en is to be construed with pistis (Eph.APPENDIX (d) en. eché zόen aiónion (cf. 221. and note J. Col. once with an impersonal object (Ik. 47 bis. Pss. Grammar. R. not pisteusantes. pisteuó epi denotes the placing of one's reliance upon a person who affords a firm support or a solid foundation. the prep. Rom. In the former cases.. Phil. Rom. 3:15 v. For example. Gk. epistrephó epi or pros). 6:35. read en autó after pas ho pisteuón. 11:17. 4:5. 44 f. 6:24. which is modelled on the Heb. Gal. (e) epi with dat. 3:15 is textual (ρ 75 B al. 105:12. 5:39. In the NT it is a characteristically Johannine idiom. of the person believed sometimes means simply "give intellectual credence to" (Jn. Four times this construction (with pisteuó) is used with a personal object (Rom. 10:11. with the same sense as eis with the acc. 1t is unlikely that pisteuete is absolute in Mk. 1:13 en hó should be construed with esρhragisthéte. Nor should en be rendered "on the basis of". 1:16. 3:15.. 8:31. P. Acts 10:43. 27:42 v. 77:22. Acts 9:42.1. but not Rom. Probably en autó should be read and the phrase should be taken with hina . 16:33 and note that John generally uses eis with pisteuó): "that everyone who believes might ixn him have eternal life". but it ought not to be assumed that the two constructions are completely interchangeable.1. (g) eis with ace. cf. 2:6 [these three verses being citations of Isa. 1 Pet. 38a. F. II. 7:37) and pisteuó eis to 1212 . 24:25). 14:23. (viz. 38. the uncertainty in Jn. The verse may be translated "believe (in) the Good News". 77:32.
Paul. SBT 50. Η. 8:22) and only once is the expressed object impersonal (1 Jn. 1937. Since the person of Christ is the essence of the message that is proclaimed and accepted. I. Dodd. Gal. It involves not only recognition and acceptance of the truth but also adherence and allegiance to the Truth. cf. and found only in Wis. (b) Nowhere is pisteuó eis used with a human object of faith (note that in Gal. 3. 1953. 1:15 — see above. 1917. 1 Pet. viz. III. P. Concluding Observations. cf. one might have expected en with the dat. 46). cf. 1:12. 20:31 and Rom. resulting in a new allegiance (but this view is scarcely possible in Jn. Christon) pisteuein (Phil. 1:21b). 1 In. as Jn. his Der Glaube im vierten Evangelium. 12:36). It is true that the dat. Préροsitions. 12:2 in the LXX. the state in which the Christian lives. the object of faith (P. cf. 3:18 shows that pisteuó eis to onoma may simply be a variant of pisteuó eis and that the absolute pisteuó may stand for either (see the discussion of C. ET 1966. 23. (a) As used in profane Gk. Regard. 2:23. use of he'emfn. denoting confidence. 2:16) (cf. This latter phrase probably means "believe in the person of" but it could possibly be related to the formula baptizó eis to onoma and imply a transfer of ownership. 10 f. F. (d)). 3:18.).) or the direction of faith (R. But the two aspects are intimately related. 182-186). with dat. pisteuó (or pistis) eis Christon depicts the committal of one's self to the person of Christ. cf. It follows that eis after pisteuó denotes. 2 Cor. Bptism in the Thought of St. 2:23. The objective genitive after pistis may stand in the place of (i) eis after pisteuó. The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel.). Son of God. Η. 5:10c. Schnackenburg. after pisteuó to be far more frequent (it is found only in Mk. 3:23. So then to eis auton (sc. never found in the LXX) and pisteuó epi (with ace. Acts 26:18. 2. W. for one tendency of Hel. was for en to be added to the simple dat. denoting reliance). is reflected in the Christian coinage of the phrases pέsteuó eis (denoting personal trust.APPENDIX onoma (Jn. eis Christon) (Acts 2:44. Lord. pisteuó (or pistis) with the dat. The twofold moral emphasis in the Heb. In ΝT usage "believing" connotes the confident trust that an individual places in a divine person. 4:32. 6-11). Kramer. Col. The Pauline Idea of Faith. 2 Thess. Gk. B. B. and (ii) pistis eis (a phrase found in Acts 20:21. while entrance into that state is denoted by hoi pisteusantes (sc. emphasized the element of intellectual apprehension or simple credence. as a minimum. But more seems to be implied. If no new connotation were intended by ΝT writers in using eis and epi after pisteuó.... tó onomati). 2:5. 1 Jn. 5:10 egó pepoitha eis hymas means "I am confident with respect to = int you". not merely the simple credence he gives to verifiable facts. 2:24). 24:24. case. case was beginning to wane in the ΝT period (see above. 10:9—11 clearly establish. 341 f. personal trust and confident reliance. 1:29) describes the Christian condition. cf. but even here eis tén martyrian signifies God's testimony concerning his Son. 1n Gal. 2:16 it is apparent that pisteuó eis Christon Iésoun = pistis Christou (see W. see also In. 1:10. 1213 . phrases. pisteuó hoti naturally becomes pisteuó eis or epi. But Jn. something more than an intellectual acceptance of the message of the gospel or a recognition of the truth about Christ (which may be expressed by pisteuó hoti or pisteuó with the dat. Hatch. 1 (a)) but this fact in itself cannot account for the coinage of these two prep. to accept the message concerning him is to accept him. Christ. ET 1964. 5:13.
"Two Exegetical Notes on St. 113-120. " `Into the Name of Jesus. 1916. Μ. N. (b). There are not two competing personal objects of human faith. 358-433. Vergleichende Syntax 1 1893. 1944. Jannaris. I. An Historical Greek Grammar. Book of New Testament Greek. H. and Syntaxe Grecque.. Turner. Delling. J. 8th Series. C. ΕΤ 1927. Handbook of the Modern Greek Vernacular. I. Funk. 1-47. Brugmann. Lumberton. IV SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY (a). J.. Kennedy. Expositor. 3:8. A. Ε. B. " `When you Come Together': Epi To Auto in Early Christian Literature". Die Prdpositionen bet Herodot und anderen Historikern. and hyper. Atkinson. Blass and A. Series in Philology. Mantey. F. "Aristotle and the Koine (Notes on the Prepositions)". ΕΤ 1873. "The Causal Use of Eis in the New Testament". 1934 4 . Turner). Restoration Quarterly 16. 1214 . anti. B. Introduction. Rom. 110-112: P. 3:6. Syntax of Classical Greek from Homer to Demosthenes. R. A.. R. W. A Grammar of the New Testament Greek. en. 1904. unpublished D. L. 1970. E. G. "The Articular Infinitive with eis. 1:8. Τ. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen. Deissmann. JBL 70. 6:1. 1892. Oepke. A. Southern. I 1900. 1891. Didaskaleion 2. B. TDNT V 727-736. W. T. 1959. Dissertation. 45-48. 1909. 1906. B. Louisville. Davies. II. 1973. G. Turner). A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research. 1897-1916. Publications of the University of Pennsylvania. 249-280. 98-107 and passim. A. Marcus. Bible Translator 25. The Theolog y of Prepositions. 1919. and en. Satzlehre. Beyer. 1951. and "The Preposition en in the New Testament". 553-649. "Pros with the Acc. A. "Uso di en instrumentale ". 139-142. N. Grammaire du grec biblique suivie d'un choix de papyrus. 1951. A. and "Οπ Causal Eis Again" ibid. "EIS and EN in John". Verborum Ventas. Ferguson. II (ed. Humbert. 24. W. Light from the Ancient East. in O. Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. indicates that it is in Christ that God meets the individual in salvation. Reicke. Grammatical Insights into the New Testament. Philology. Bbcher and K.". G. 17. Dutton. 1930. M." JBL 15. Expositor 8th series 18. TDNT VII 766-797. J. 1936. 1960 48-92. and pros. Acts 16:34. Buttmann. F. Johannine Grammar. A Short Manual of Comparative 19012. 1 Thess. ek.the Contribution of the Prepositions". R. pert. 1952. IV (by N. ET 1872. I 3 1908 . syn . in his The Pastoral Epistles. J. 1965. Livingstone) 1973. C. Grundmann. L'Union avec le Christ suivant Saint Paul. E. and "The Use of hyper in Business Documents in the Papyri". 1903. 27-46. K. J. 1974. "On Causal Eis". St.' A Suggestion Concerning the Earliest Meaning of the Phrase". 1923. P. 1897. apo. Kentucky. 321-344. 1861. Thackeray. P. A.292-332. 1:21. A Special Use of en". Die neutestamentliche Formel "in Christo Jesu". 129 f. eis. Riesenfeld. Robertson. ΕΤ 1963. O'Rourke. 365-399. Paul. Gildersleeve. P. A Grammar of the Greek Language. E. Hartman. Delbruck.460-467. III (by N. 4:3. 1916-17. Heitmiiller. Biblical Greek. 1 Pet. Festschrift für Gustav Stjhlin Zum 70. 321-327. F. 453-460. Hatzidakis. N. JBL 70. E. Κ. "Unusual Meanings for Prepositions in the Greek New Testament". Kaye. 25. TDNT VI 53-56. Debrunner.. Simpson. 1896. 3. Studies in Greek Prepositional Phrases: dia. TDNT 11 537-543. I. TDNT VI 683-688. SYN CHRISTO. NTS 20. TDNT 1I 420-434. Barale. BüchseΙ. ΕχρΤ 28. TB 21. K. 202-208. R. Bible Translator 10. TDNT VI 720-725. Winer. Beckwith. 309-311. F. 12:44c. 1961. E. Moule. W. 5. W. Moulton. N. Acts 13:12 D) and Christ so frequently. T. eis. FRLANT 1:2. 211-24: J. Semitische S y ntax im Neuen Testament. A. 110-125. Abel. A. Emily H. 1913. "Christ in our Place . F. A Grammar of the Idiom of the New Testament. II 1911. J. 1970. Helbing. Haacker. Heb. 1919-1929. 1948. H. 1963. An Idiom2. para. in Studia Evangelica. 322 f. D. ΙΙ. ΕΤ 1912. TDNT II 65-70. dia. L. Tit. Giles.. G. Ι. A. Jeff. 432-440. Acts 11:17 D. Howard). eds. 1968 2 . W. 281-286. The New Testament Use of the Preposition ΚΑTA with Special Reference to its Distributive Aspects. Einleitung in die neugriechische Grammatik. S y ntax. "Note on the Meaning of HYPER in Certain Contexts". B. 204-217. TDNT VIII 507-516. Zerwick. TDNT I 372 f. 155-167. "Baptizein eis with Special Reference to Romans 6". A Grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint. Geburtstag. Thumb. pro. G. Im Namen Jesu. Dupont. I. 423-439. F. Classical Quarterly 30. La disparition du datif en grec. Orthography and Accidence. A.. A Grammar of New Testament Greek. H. A Greek Grammar of the New Testament. Theol. "Der Bezugnahme von neutestamentlichen eis auf Vorgegebenes". E. Stevens. cf. Abbott. A. I. ΕΤ and revision by R. H. 1973-4. 1-3. 14:1α. 1975. Deissmann.APPENDIX (c) The fact that God is (relatively speaking) so infrequently held up as the object of faith (only in Jn. VI (ed. 1927. 1954. 71-91.meta etc. B. 1892. Gal.
and Beitrιige zu der Lehre von den griechischen Prίίροsitiοnen. 1926. Thumb. Tabachovitz. E. Contribution à l'Étude des Prepositions dans la Langue du Nouveau Testament. 1898 3 . S. Das Verhάίtnis von PISTIS und Christusfrδmmigkeit bei Paulus. 1927. 1956. Gebrauch der Kasus. 1917. Neugebauer. Kiser. 124-138. M. 1 (ed. 2. 298-344. 1909. M. ed. Kiihner. I. I 1889. A. Rossberg. Die Priίροsίtiοnen bei Polybius. 1907. "Le sens de eph' hb en Rom 5:12 et l'exégese des pères grecs ". Harris 1215 . by B. Bib 43. F. J. E. mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung von Griechisch. 337-543. 1897. 1901. A. B. 448-555. NTS 4. 1900 3 . Lohmeyer. 137-146. 1925 2 . "L'Emploi Dynamique de eis dans Saint Jean et ses Incidences Théologiques ". 1961. K. T. and Der Gebrauch der Prίίposίtiοnen in der Septuaginta. E. kber Syntax Die griechische Sprache im Zeitatter des Hellenismus. J. Lateinisch und Deutsch. Die paulinisehe Formel "durch Christus ". Grammatik der attischen Inschrj/?en. A. Griechische Grainmatik. 1928 Wissmann. De praeposίtionis para usu atque significatione in Pentateuchi versione Alexandrine. Schettler. "Das paulinische `In Christo' ". 1906. I. W. 1895. Untersuchung zum paulinischen Glaubensverstdndnis. A. Die Prâposίtίοnen bei Dionysius von Halicarnassus. 1915. Ricardo. Die Prnροsitiοnen svn und meta bei den nachhomerischen Epikern. F. I. F. II. H. Stilstudien. Radermacher. 1926. 1934. Grammatik der griechischen Papyri aus der Ptolemέίerzeit. C. 1955. 366-387. and Die Prίίpositίοnsadverbίen in der spάteren historischen Grdcitδt. Bib 36. in Festgabe fϋr Adοlf Deίssmαnn. Neutestamentliche Grammatik. 1910. 1957-8.APPENDIX 1945. De praepositionum Graecarum in chartis Aegvptiis usu quaestiones selectee. 153-248. 1932. Schwyzer. Der Gebrauch der Kasus und der Prbpositionen in der Septuaginta. Die Prdpositionen bei Pausanias. "Syn Christel'. E. Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache. Die Entstehung der Koine. 1879. 1962. De praepositionum Graecarum in charlis Aegyptiis Ptolemaeorum aetatis usu. Beitriige zur Syntax der spdtgriechischen Volkssprache. Gerth). P. Regard. de la Potterie. Mommsen. Mayser. L. R. II. II. J. and In Christus. Riiger. Kuhring. 12. Die Septuaginta und das Neue Testament. Krebs. Meisterhans. 218-257. 1901. D. Ljungvik. Debruπner. 1950. Kretschmer. 1882. 435-456. Johannessohn. Wackernagel. Lyonnet. II. Vorlesungen 2. P. 1919.
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