Brasilia – The capital city of Brazil Socio – Economic Dynamics of Urbanization in Town Planning

Submitted By: Ali Reza Naqvi Irfan Haider Khan B. Arch. IV Year 2010 – 11


817. •The nearest railroad was 125km distant. working capital city limited by the Preto River on the East and by the Descoberto River on the West. and the nearest airport was 190km from the site. 000 in 1996 already. •In 4 years. 000 inhabitants that had grown to 1. and 1148 km from Rio de Janerio. •Plano Piloto is about 13. •The city was planned for 600. 1015km from Sao Paulo. . and touched over 21 lacs by 2003 (12.BRASILIA: WORLD HERITAGE CITY (1987) •Conceived in 1956. the nearest paved road was 640 km away. 11 km for residential and rest corresponds to the downtown areas. the site chosen for the capital was centrally located in Brazil.5 km long.9% growth).km. by 1960 Brasília had become a large. total area of the Brasília federal district is 5817 sq. •Divided into 29 administrative division.

BRASILIA: LOCATION AND STATISTICS Federal District BRASILIA Territorial Area Population 5.5 million Cities Economic Areas 29 33 .8 thousand km² 2.

gardens. medical and transportation areas) RESIDENTIAL SCALE Represented by the “Superblocks” BUCOLIC SCALE Represented by Leisure and Landscape Green fields. focusing in social and environmentally friendly values is divided into four scales: MONUMENTAL SCALE Represented by the Monumental Axis GREGARIOUS SCALE Represented by Convergence Sectors Commercial.BRASILIA: WORLD HERITAGE CITY (1987) Brasilia is the only city in the world constructed in the 20th century to have been declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO. lakeside and city park . Brasilia’s Urbanistic Plan. conceived by Lucio Costa. squares. financial.

or the wings of an airplane. •Bucolic Scale One of the greatest accomplishments of the Pilot Plan was the vast highway network which was built to provide access to Brasília from practically everywhere in Brazil. or fuselage of an airplane. . intersecting in the center of the city with a Residential axis. •Residential Scale. The basis of the city is a Monumental Axis.BRASILIA: PLANNING THE PILOT PLAN The Pilot Plan was based on the shape of an airplane. linking Brasília to Northeast Brazil. •Gregarious Scale. The longest highway in this network is the 2. The construction of these highways insured that Brazils new capital would be accessible to the entire population of the country.276 km Belem-Brasília highway. Costa designed the city in four scales of design: •Monumental Scale.

no high rises. • The Gregarious (or social) scale consisted of the bus station. and the Plaza of Three Powers. . where everything was separated by vast green spaces and parks. the Cathedral. the Esplanade. the bus station. where the two axis cross. and vast motorways providing an excellent transportation system. where the ministries and public buildings are located. low population density. • The Residential scale contained orderly superblocks with a uniform height of six stories. commerce.BRASILIA: PLANNING • The Monumental scale was intended to provide Brasília with the dignity of a capital city. and retail sectors. • The Bucolic scale showed Costa's intent for Brasília to be a park city. This was achieved with wide avenues of six lanes in each direction. and special sectors of the city. like the entertainment. The superblocks also had ample parking for vehicles. and plenty of wide open green space for people to enjoy.

Theatre 9. Cathedral 8.BRASILIA: PLANNING The Pilot Plan was built to conform to Le Corbusier's Letter of Athens. Ministry buildings 7. Plaza of Three Powers 5. which embodied the ideal qualities of a city (at least according to the Modernists). Main Traffic Interchange (bus station) . Ministry of Foreign Relations 6. Supreme Court 3. near residencies • The separation of the circulation of vehicles and pedestrians The Monumental Axis 1. Congress Complex 2. Planalto Palace 4. with industries excluded from the city proper • Exclusive space for cultural activities. The Letter had four basic tenets for the ideal city: • Well ventilated residences near green spaces • The separation of residences from workplaces.


commercial districts. Fig 4. FREE PRINCIPLES OF HIGHWAY ENGINEERING No intersections. entertainment and sporting centers. cultural. liberal professions and retail trade. 1 EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE The curved axis crossing the monumental axis because of the geographical constraints (to fit in triangle). offices for private business. by designing to suit the best possible orientation. the natural drainage of the area. Fig. Fig 3. municipal administration facilities . Fig 2.barracks. the storage and supply zones. INTERSECTION Appertaining functionally and in terms of urbanized composition to the monumental axis. small local industries and railway station. Placement of banking. .BRASILIA: PLANNING RATIONALE Two axes crossing at right-angles in such a manner so as to gain maximum out of the local topographical conditions. MONUMENTAL AXIS Civic and administrative centers (transverse axis).

beneath the lower ground level. Fig 6. at which local traffic continues to circulate and which slopes gently down until it levels with the esplanade in the ministry district.BRASILIA: PLANNING PLATFORM Monumental axis is on a lower level. The platform being closed at its ends open on the two broader sides. ROAD LEVELS Through traffic passes along the lower ground level under the platform. This also creates the location of the entertainment center for the city and interstate bus station. in one way lanes. The intersection of the monumental and the highway residential axes creates a broad platform where only parking and local traffic would be permitted.urban bus station has been placed there and is accessible to passengers from the upper level of the platform. . When the transversal axis reaches the platform its central lanes go underground. Fig 5. Inter.

ensuring free circulation.TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Three separate clover. goes around the civic center on the lower plane. automobiles and buses circulate both in the central and the residential districts without any intersections. Lower level crossings. Fig 8 .shaped turn-offs on each arm of the highway axis. This secondary system has access to the buildings of the commercial district at basement level. independent paths for local pedestrian traffic were created both in the central and the residential districts. Fig 7 PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC With the general network for automotive traffic thus established. except above the sports district. For heavy vehicular traffic a secondary independent road system with point crossings. but without interfering with the main system. and is reached through galleries at ground level.

BRASILIA: PLANNING ADMINISTRATIVE ZONE The fundamental powers are three in number. The equilateral triangle seemed the elementary form to enclose these buildings. Each building was placed at each angle of this plaza “Plaza of the Three Powers” Government House and the Supreme Court occupying the base of the triangle and Congress at the apex. The application of this ancient oriental terrace technique. A triangular terraced embankment was created supported on retaining walls of rough stone. and autonomous. The latter faces a broad esplanade on the second terrace. rising above the surrounding countryside. .

the buildings rested on massive pillars. so there was an open area beneath the building for free movement of pedestrians and for children to play under. so that people of all income levels could live together and would interact on a personal and classless level. . These superblocks were large groups of apartment buildings. Each group of four superblocks was supposed to serve as a single neighborhood unit. •Each building was only six stories high. and make Brasília a more personal. •The intent of these superblocks was to create single neighborhood units with all the necessary services located close at hand.SUPERBLOCKS •The Pilot Plan was built to house people primarily in superblocks. grouped in a very orderly manner. •Perhaps the most important aspect of these superblocks was that they were intended to be egalitarian.BRASILIA: PLANNING RESIDENTIAL ZONE . This would negate the absolute need for a vehicle to perform daily functions like running errands. community oriented city.


secondary schools. adjacent to the traffic lane. are located in the sections of the strip nearest to the service lanes while the barbers. hardware stores etc.BRASILIA: PLANNING PLACEMENT OF PUBLIC FACILITIES/ UTILITIES • Far side of the blocks runs the service street for heavy vehicles. wooded belts surrounding the blocks. and a strip along the other side of the highway reserved for the installation of garages. • Churches. • The market. gas stations are in the section nearest the traffic lane used by cars and buses. cake shops. hair dressers. cinemas and retail placed on broad strips joining service and residential axis highways at intervals layout as per type or nature. • The Local Church placed where four blocks meet.. • Large free spaces between the shops and the cinemas have been reserved for youth clubs. repair shops. behind it are the secondary schools. • A strip of land is set aside for flower and vegetable gardens and orchards. green grocers. parking on the opposite side of the shops. with playing fields and play-grounds. wholesale warehouses. . • Shops are set in ranks. with display windows and covered walks facing the pedestrian approaches. butchers. dress-makers. • Cinemas are located on the service strip facing the highway. grocers.

RESTAURANTS 3.000 CLUBS 40 MOVIE THEATERS 92 .500 MUSEUMS 65 THEATERS 70 BARS 7.BRASILIA: THE GLOBAL CITY Brasilia: Metropolitan city without typical problems of traffic and violence.

São Paulo. . to Europe and USA. and the Federal District. Direct flights to all of Brazilian capitals. Sergipe. Goias Bahia. RAILWAY INTEGRATION Middle-Atlantic Railway (FCA) covers seven states: Minas Gerais. HIGHWAY INTEGRATION Brasilia is integrated with all the regions of Brazil through roadway systems. Integration with North-South and East-West railways will add another modality INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Brasilia International Airport is on the top 3 in the country in number of passengers. Espirito Santo.BRASILIA – AN OVERVIEW A STRATEGICALLY POSITIONED HUB Brasília is already an air and roadway hub. Rio de Janeiro.

and the great distances between the buildings. which results in great commuting distances. As a consequence.BRASILIA – AN OVERVIEW BRASILIA Brasilia is a peculiar city regarding its territory occupation. SHORTCOMINGS •Housing prices are very high. •Public transportation is inefficient. increases as we move away from the center. compared to other Brazilian cities. •The newer satellite towns have very few green areas. •Many of the famous buildings are beautiful but not functional. the construction of Brasilia's subway is going slowly because of funds shortage. . •Only few people are to be found on the streets. It is one of the most dispersed cities in the world and its population density. only around 15% of the population lives in a radius of less than 10Km away from the centre. This center is where 82% of formal jobs and 44% of total jobs in the city are concentrated. The urban bus system has a lot of deficiencies. unlike other cities. In addition. most of the people commute by car. unlike some other satellite towns and the Pilot Plan itself.


SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING URBANIZATION Urbanization. The population size of urbanized areas varies among different countries. as of 2006 . When more and more people leave villages and farms to live in cities. The rapid growth of cities can be attributed largely to people from rural communities migrating there. urbanisation or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change. by country.. therefore urbanization is attributed to the growth of cities. it results in urban growth. Urbanization is closely linked to modernization and industrialization. Percentage of population which is urbanized.

and in times of drought. flexible land use regulation and investments in basic services. flood or epidemics. Farm living is dependent on unpredictable environmental conditions.SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING Urbanization occurs naturally from an individual and corporate efforts which improves opportunities for jobs. and transportation. In rural areas. CHANGING FORMS OF URBANIZATION Different forms of urbanization can be classified depending on the style of architecture and planning methods as well as historic growth of areas. Rural migrants are attracted by the possibilities that cities can offer. Health is another major factor. Delhi: The planned Dwarka Sub City can be seen in foreground while the unplanned and congested residential areas of West Delhi are visible in the background. Massive urbanization in cities result in tremendous strain on the infrastructure. especially the elderly are often forced to move to cities where there are doctors and hospitals that can take care of their health needs. . often on small family farms. Most of the urban poor in developing countries able to find work can spend their lives in insecure. survival becomes extremely difficult. education. poorly paid jobs. it is termed as suburbanization. When the residential area shifts outward. housing. but often settle in shanty towns and experience extreme poverty. supported by labour protection. According to a research pro-poor urbanisation will require labour intensive growth. it is difficult to improve one's standard of living beyond basic sustenance. People. People move into cities to seek economic opportunities.


etc ).SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING EFFECTS OF URBANIZATION • • • • • • Housing needs Slum development Transportation needs increase Water supply and sanitation issues Environmental pollution Insufficient provision for social infrastructure (schools. the cost of living has forced residents to live in low quality slums and shanty towns . hospitals. Redirection of investment is recommended to develop strong economic base for small and medium city neglected so far. crimes and anti-social activities. Urbanization is not always attributed to high density. Urbanization is degenerating social and economic inequalities which warrants social conflicts. In many cases.

The drive for rapid urban growth and often efficiency can lead to less equitable urban development. education. and marketplace competition. financial service provision. Similar problems now affect the developing world. diversity. and transportation. As cities develop. This relation among places of different sizes is called the urban hierarchy. and accumulate more capital. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity. but can in fact. Urbanization is often viewed as a negative trend. as well as often concentrating administrative functions for the area in which they lie. and an educated labor force. often pricing the local working class out of the market. .ECONOMIC EFFECTS Research in urban ecology finds that larger cities provide more specialized goods and services to the local market and surrounding areas. effects can include a dramatic increase in costs.SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING SOCIO . be perceived simply as a natural occurrence from individual and corporate efforts to reduce expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs. including such functionaries as employees of the local municipalities. rising inequality resulting from rapid urbanization trends. housing. function as a transportation and wholesale hub for smaller places.

social security. more control. public. and any flow of earnings received. interests or dividends. or other governmental. relative and absolute. profits. Higher levels of education are associated with better economic and psychological outcomes (i. and greater social support and networking). Some of the factors to establish this relationship are : • Income • Education • Occupation Income Income refers to wages.SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS Socio – economic is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. salaries. or family financial assistance.: more income. Income can also come in the form of unemployment or workers compensation. . Education A person’s educational attainment is considered to be the highest level (grade or degree) of education they have completed.e. royalties. trusts. pensions. Earnings increase with each level of education. rents. Income can be looked at in two terms. alimony. Education also plays a role in income.

new roads carved through the cities. and there are so many competing scales. Examples can be seen in many ancient cities. Planned urbanization. ie: planned community or the garden city movement. Occupational status reflects the educational attainment required to obtain the job and income levels that vary with different jobs and within ranks of occupations. is based on an advance plan. . sustainable urban drainage systems. which can be prepared for military. AN OVERVIEW Urbanization can be planned urbanization or organic. or afterward to revitalize an area and create greater livability within a region. decision making ability and control. UN agencies prefer to see urban infrastructure installed before urbanization occurs.SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF URBANIZATION IN TOWN PLANNING Occupation Occupational prestige includes both income and educational attainment. which meant that many invaded cities took on the desired planned characteristics of their occupiers. although with exploration came the collision of nations. and new parcels of land were cordoned off serving various planned purposes giving cities distinctive geometric designs.) which can be planned before urbanization takes place. aesthetic. Occupational status measures social position by describing job characteristics. economic or urban design reasons. and psychological demands on the job. greenways etc. Many ancient organic cities experienced redevelopment for military and economic purposes. It shows an achievement in skills required for the job. Landscape planners are responsible for landscape infrastructure (public parks. Occupation is the most difficult factor to measure because so many exist.

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