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NIOEC-SP-00-03 (2)

DOCUMENT CODE
PLAN/PRJ/SUB UNIT PHASE DISCIPLINE DOCUMENT. TYPE SERIAL NO. REV. NO. NO. OF SHEETS: 9 DATE

NIOEC

000

EG

CE

SP

0003

A1

JULY 2009

NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL REFINING & DISTRIBUTION COMPANY

NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY

NIOEC SPECIFICATION FOR

GROUND TREATMENT AND TRIAL TAMPING

SECOND EDITION JULY, 2009

THIS SPECIFICATION IS THE PROPERTY OF NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. IT IS CONFIDENTIAL AND ALL RIGHTS RESERVED TO THE OWNER. NEITHER WHOLE NOR ANY PART OF THIS DOCUMENT MAY BE DISCLOSED TO ANY THIRD PARTY, REPRODUCTED, STORED IN ANY RETRIEVAL SYSTEM OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS WITHOUT THE PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF THE NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY.

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IN THE NAME OF GOD

FOREWORD By their very nature, technical Specifications are continuously subject to modifications and revisions.
To strengthen their merit and usefulness, continuous improvements, addendum, deletion of disparate information and consequently provision of updated revisions are to be made in order to ascertain that such Specifications meet the current requirements, inclusive of Iranian Petroleum Standards (IPS) and the recognized and acceptable national and international Standards, as well as the optimal codes and practices based on the accumulated in-house know-how and plant knowledge and experiences. However, in reality, due to several reasons, not to mention the complexity of the matter, the ultimate goal of continuous direct embedment of the required changes on the relevant Specifications may be far reaching. Therefore, in the interim periods between the officially issued revisions, the required changes will appear in other documents related to the engineering and design work of the on going projects. In response to the initiative of the Design and Engineering Directorate, and considering that the task of the execution of several important and mega projects for the realization of the new oil refineries, pipelines and oil terminals as well as improvements of the existing facilities, has been assigned to NIOEC, it was decided to update the NIOEC Specifications and to issue new official revisions. The Design and Engineering Directorate was itself entrusted to carry out this important task, and as such by forming several special technical committees, working in close co-operation and cohesion and sharing their expertise and knowledge, the updated and revised NIOEC Specifications were successfully prepared and complied. These Specifications are intended to be used for Oil Refineries, Distribution Depots, Oil Terminals, Pipelines and Pump Stations within NIOEC's projects, and have been proven to be of high value for such purposes. It must however be appreciated that these Specifications represent the minimum requirements and should in no way be interpreted as a restriction on the use of better procedures, engineering and design practices or materials. We encourage and highly appreciate the users and other clear sighted and experts to send their comments on the Specifications to the Design and Engineering Director of NIOEC for evaluation and approval.

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REVISION INDEX
REV. PAGE

REV. PAGE

REV. PAGE

REV. PAGE

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
NOTES:

26 27 28 29 30 31

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

1) 2) 3) 4)

THIS SHEET IS A RECORD OF ALL REVISIONS TO THIS SPECIFICATION. REMARKS RELATED TO EACH REVISION SHOW A BRIEF DESCRIPTION. THESE REMARKS SHALL BE INTERPRETED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE REVISED TEXT MARKED BY REVISION NUMBERS. WHEN APPROVED EACH REVISION SHALL BE CONSIDERED AS A PART OF THE ORIGINAL DOCUMENT. NUMBER OF PAGES EXCLUDES THIS SHEET AND THE COVER SHEET.

5 4 3 2 1 0 JULY, 2009 JULY, 2005 A.RAFIEAN S.M.J.SEYEDI S.M.J.SEYEDI M.R.FARZAM M.R.FARZAM M.A.A.SAJEDI M.A.A.SAJEDI

REV.

DATE

PREPARED

CHECKED

APPROVED

AUTHORIZED

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CONTENTS:
1.

PAGE NO.

SCOPE .................................................................................................................................3

2. REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................3 3. UNITS ..................................................................................................................................3 4. DEFINITIONS & THE RMINOLOGY ...........................................................................3 5. GENERAL ............................................................................................................................4 6. GEOTECHNICAL PROCESS FOR GROUND IMPROVEMENT ..............................4 6.1 GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................4 6.2 CONTROL OF GROUND WATER ................................................................................4 6.3 IMPROVING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GROUND .........................5 7. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUND TREATMENT WORK ................7 THE FOLLOWING ITEMS.........................................................................................7 8.GROUND TREATMENT BY DYNAMIC COMPACTION/CONSOLIDATION ..........8 8.1 CONJUNCTION WITH THE GENERAL REQUIREMENT......................................8 9. TESTING GROUND TREATMENT ................................................................................9 9.1 GENERAL ..........................................................................................................................9 9.2 PARTICULAR SPECIFICATION .................................................................................9

7.1 THE METHOD STATEMENTS SCOPE OF WORK SHALL INCLUDE

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1.

SCOPE NIOEC specifications cover the general requirements for detailed engineering procurements, testing inspection & construction of refinery/oil plant, distribution depots, pump stations and pipe lines. This specification cover the geotechnical process and general requirements for groud improvement and Testing.

2.

REFERENCES Throughout this Specification following dated and undated standards/codes are referred to these referenced documents shall, to the extent specified here form a part of this Specification. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any supplements and amendments) applies. For dated references, the edition cited applies. The applicability of changes in dated references that occur after the cited date, shall mutually be agreed upon by NIOEC and Vender / Contractor. NIOEC-SP-( NIOEC-SPECIFICATIONS ) NIOEC-SP-00-10 NIOEC-SP-10-17 NIOEC Specification for units NIOEC specification for soil Engineering

BSI ( BRITISH STANDARD INSTTITUTION ) BS 8004, 1986 clause 6.4 BS 8004, 1986 clause 6.6.3 BS 8004, 1986 clause 6.7 BS 8004, 1986 clause 6.6.4 BS 8004 1986 clause 6.5 3. UNITS International system of unites (SI) shall be used in accordance with NIOEC-SP-00-10, unless otherwise specified. 4. DEFINITIONS & THE RMINOLOGY The EMPLOYER means the NATIONAL IRANIAN OIL ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION COMPANY (NIOE&C). The CONTRACTOR means the company whose offer has been accepted by the EMPLOYER and includes the contractors personal representative, its successor and permitted assigns. Methods of dewatering excavations Deep compaction by vibration Ground treatment by injection of Grouts Ground improvement by vibrodisplacement soil characteristics

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5.

GENERAL The CONTRACTOR shall supply detailed and dimensioned layouts of the treatment point in duplicate for the approval of the EMPLOYER; such approval shall not remove the responsibility of the CONTRACTOR for the accuracy of drawings. Each treatment points shall have a unique reference number for record purposes. The execution and performance of the ground treatment shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. Where appropriate, estimates of the total and differential settlement anticipated at the working load shall be given by the CONTRACTOR. Geotechnical process for ground improvement 6.1 General Several methods are available to decrease the permeability, increase the strength or decrease the compressibility of the ground. In the following clauses a brief description of various ground improvement techniques is given. 6.2 Control of Ground Water Ground water control is one of the most important foundation engineering problems. There are many methods to control the ground water which depend, upon such factors as: the dimensions of the excavation; the thickness and type of soil strata; the position of the excavation and permanent structure relative to the soil strata; the magnitude of the water pressures in the various strata; the prevention of damage to adjacent structures; the length of time for which the excavation has to be open and the overall economics of any particular solutions. In the following sub-clauses different methods of ground water control is discussed. 6.2.1 Gravity drainage Where site conditions permit, water should be drained by gravity from an excavation; this may be possible on a sloping site where ground water can be collected in a sump in one corner on the downhill side of the excavation, or a gravity drain can be installed to a discharge point farther down the slope. 6.2.2 Pumping Water may be removed from excavations by pumping from sumps, well points or deep wells. The method adopted will depend upon soil conditions, depth of excavation below ground water level, the method of supporting the sides of the excavation etc. A well point is a suction device used as a small well that can be readily installed in the ground and withdrawn. The well point system has the advantage of low capital cost; it is quickly installed and can readily be moved from one position to another. Deep well system is primarily devised for use in connection with deep excavations and is of special value where artesian water is present below an impermeable stratum. For more detailed information refer to Clauses 6.4.3 and 6.4.4 of BS 8004

6.

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6.2.3

Special methods for excluding water from excavation In certain cases excluding water from excavations may be implemented by using special methods like: - use of compressed air; - freezing the surrounding ground; - cast-in-situ diaphragm walls; - use of injection methods to form an impervious wall around the excavation; The choice of each method depends, to a great extent, on site conditions, the soil characteristics and the availability of technology etc. For detailed information on the abovementioned methods refer to Clause 6.5 of BS 8004,

6.3

Methods of Improving the Physical Properties of the Ground Where the ground does not have adequate bearing characteristics and stability, consideration may be given to general or local improvement of the bearing characteristics or to replacement of the ground in depth. It may then be possible to use a shallow foundation or a cheaper type of deep foundation. Several methods are available to improve the physical properties of the ground. These methods are: preloading compaction, installation of vertical drains, injection of grouts and electrochemical and thermal hardening of the ground. In the following clauses a short description about various methods are given. 6.3.1 Shallow compaction Loose or disturbed granular soils at the base of excavations for strip or pad foundations can be compacted by rolling or ramming. Vibratory rollers or plate compactors work efficiently in granular soils but the depth of compaction with ordinary equipment is unlikely to exceed about 300 mm.
For more detailed information see section 6.6.2 BS 8004

6.3.2 Preloading The preloading is applied by means of a mound of soil or rubble imposing a bearing pressure on the ground equal to or higher than that of the permanent structure. The preloading material is kept in place until level measurements show that the time-settlement curve has flattened or that the settlement has decreased to a very slow rate. When preloading soft clays or clay fills the rate of settlement of the mound may be rather slow, requiring the load to be in place for many months. In such cases consideration should be given to accelerating the rate of consolidation of the soil by the introduction of vertical drains. (see Clause 6.3.6) 6.3.3 Deep compaction by vibration The settlement due to loading of loose non-cohesive granular soils or fill materials above or below the water table can be improved by deep compaction, achieved by introducing large tubular vibrators into the ground to depths of up to 25 m. This process may be an economical alternative to piling or other methods of improving the bearing capacity of such soils. Liquefaction risk of loose soils under earthquake shocks can also be reduced by compaction. 5

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For more detailed information refer to Clause 6.6.3 of BS 8004. 6.3.4 Ground improvement by vibro-displacement and vibro-replacement Large vibrators are also used to place columns of coarse granular material in soft silts or clays or weak compressible fills with the primary objective of reducing their compressibility but also to improve shearing resistance. Foundations can then be constructed directly on groups or rows of these columns. Clays strong enough to permit a stable unlined bore may be displaced by penetration of the vibrator which is then removed to allow gravel or stone to be tipped and compacted by the vibrator in about 1 m stages to fill the hole. Some forced compaction of the ground surrounding the column is achieved; this is known as vibro displacement. In soft unstable soils, water circulation is used to support the bore as in washboring. For more details refer to Clause 6.6.4 of BS 8004 6.3.5 Deep compaction by heavy tamping This process is for compacting granular soils and silts or mixtures of these including a large variety of fills. It may also be employed to displace soft organic soils with a stronger fill. It involves simply dropping a free-falling weight, usually of 10 t to 15 t, from heights varying between 5 m and 25 m or more onto the ground surface. Forced compaction results from dissipation of energy of successive impulses inducing a degree of irreversible compression of void spaces. For more detailed information refer to Clause 6.6.3 of BS 8004 6.3.6 Vertical drains The natural process of consolidation of compressible soils can be accelerated by improving the drainage conditions within the soils, so assisting in the outward migration of the water.
If such soils are loaded on their surface by a temporary surcharge or permanent work such as an embankment, the water pressure in the underlying soil will increase. If the water cannot escape sufficiently quickly a dangerous stability condition could arise, which in some cases can be relieved by a reduced rate of forming the surcharge

This condition can be anticipated and exploited to accelerate drainage of the compressible soils by installing vertical columns of sand or strips of preformed permeable material within the ground to enable the excess water to escape more rapidly. These columns are called sand drains, vertical drains or wick drains, and are frequently considered for improving the strength of the soil. 6.3.7 Electro-osmosis The electro-osmosis system can be used to reduce the moisture content of a very silty clay or clayey silt and thus increase its shear strength and reduce its compressibility. It consists of an electrical potential to drive the water to negative electrodes at the wells, using expandable metal rods as the positive electrodes. Electro-osmosis has been employed to remedy a difficult situation where other methods have failed.

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6.3.8 Grouting Grouting is used to reduce the permeability of the ground or to improve its strength, or to do both. The geology of the ground will influence the choice of method of grouting and it is axiomatic that no treatment can be properly considered until an adequate site investigation of the relevant ground and water conditions has been undertaken. Possible variations in the nature of the ground on any particular site may call for the use of more than one grout. For example, saving may be effected by using cheaper coarse grouts to fill the larger voids, followed by a more expensive penetrative grout to fill the remaining fine voids. For more detailed information refer to Clause 6.7 of BS 8004. 7. 7.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GROUND TREATMENT WORK The method statements scope of work shall include the following items:

7.1.1 At the commencement of the contract The CONTRACTOR shall provide a detailed method statement. This shall include a program giving full details of both type and quantity of all the plant he proposes to use, the order of carrying out the work and where not already specified by the EMPLOYER, the detailed and dimensioned layout of the ground treatment, type and frequency of the proposed control testing and where applicable, the anticipated ground heave after treatment. 7.1.2 The sources of supply of materials shall be approved by the EMPLOYER and shall not be changed without prior approval of the EMPLOYER in writing. 7.1.3 Rejected materials shall be removed promptly from the site. 7.1.4 Before the start of the work factual information or reports on site investigation for the works will be made available to the CONTRACTOR. 7.1.5 The CONTRACTOR shall report immediately to the EMPLOYER any circumstance which in the contractors opinion indicates that the ground conditions differ from those expected by him from his interpretation of the site investigation report. 7.1.6 The CONTRACTOR shall satisfy the EMPLOYER regarding the suitability, efficiency and adequacy of equipment to be employed. The CONTRACTOR shall state the type and number of rigs be intends to use. 7.1.7 On completion of each area of ground treatment the CONTRACTOR shall grade debris and surplus material arising from the ground treatment to leave a reasonable firm and level working surface. 7.1.8 The CONTRACTOR shall remove all plant and unwanted material from sit on completion of the treatment to the satisfaction of the EMPLOYER. 7.1.9 The CONTRACTOR shall provide and maintain bench marks throughout the duration of the works. 7.1.10 All treatment points shall be located to the tolerances given in the specification. 7

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7.1.11 The CONTRACTOR shall inform the EMPLOYER at regular mutually agreed intervals of the forward program of ground treatment. 7.1.12 If during the execution of the work damage is or is likely to be caused to mains services or adjacent structures, the CONTRACTOR shall inform the EMPLOYER of his proposals for avoidance or repair of such damage. 7.1.13 The CONTRACTOR shall arranged the sequence and timing of works to ensure that damage does not occur to treated ground by any subsequent work. 8. GROUND TREATMENT BY DYNAMIC COMPACTION/CONSOLIDATION 8.1 CONJUNCTION WITH THE GENERAL REQUIREMENT The following clauses shall be read in conjunction with the general requirement for ground treatment given in section 6 of this specification. 8.1.1 The following matters are where appropriate, described in the Particular Specification (a) Materials (b) Design loads and settlement criteria (c) Method of treatment (d) Depth of treatment (e) Area of treatment 8.1.2 Material The CONTRACTOR shall supply where required prior to and during treatment, a suitable granular layer of adequate thickness which shall be placed over the site to provide a firm dry working surface. The granular material used shall be inert and free of clay and organic material all particles with any dimension greater than 200mm shall be discarded. The material used by the CONTRACTOR for filling to make up ground levels to the working surface prior to treatment shall be inert granular material capable of passing through a 200 mm ring with not more than 10% passing the 75 m sieve. 8.1.3 Treatment shall be carried out by repeated tamping on a predetermines pattern with drop heights appropriately chosen to ensure compaction to the full depth. In addition, there shall be an adequate area or treatment outside the periphery of the proposed structure to ensure long-term stability. If a change in pattern of tamping, drop heights or total amount of energy is required it shall be carried out without delay and unless resulting from unforeseen conditions, without cost to the EMPLOYER. 8.1.4 The tamper should be dropped within 500mm of the grid positions shown on the drawings for each grid spacing. 8.1.5 The CONTRACTOR shall keep daily records of the treatment carried out and shall submit signed copies of these records to the EMPLOYER within two working days, The records shall show: (a) Are treated (b) Date (c) Weight of tamper (d) Height of drop 8

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(e) Number of drops at each compaction point (f) Depth of imprint (g) Obstructions and delays (h) Number and type of tests carried out (i) Quantity of imported backfill (j) Readings of installed instruments 8.1.6 Grids levels shall be taken by the CONTRACTOR before treatment commences, at intervals during the treatment process and on completion. The records of these levels shall be submitted to the EMPLOYER within two working days of completion of leveling in any area of the site. 8.1.7 The CONTRACTOR shall keep the site clear of surface water. 8.1.8 In saturated low-permeability ground with a high water table, particular care shall be taken to prevent excessive rise in pore water pressures and any liquefaction of the ground caused by over tamping. 8.1.9 Where ground treatment is being applied to the sub grades for road bases or ground floor slabs, the ground near the surface shall be either by tamping or by rolling. 9. TESTING GROUND TREATMENT 9.1 General All materials and workmanship shall be in accordance with section 3 and those sections of this Specification relating to the type of ground treatment carried out, the Particular Specification and this section; except where there may be conflict of requirements, in which case those in the Particular Specification and in this section shall take precedence. This section deals with the testing of treated ground for control purposes during the progress of the treatment and to provide information show that the required criteria have been met on completion of the ground treatment. The standards for acceptance of the work as represented by various tests shall be deemed to have been attained if the results conform with the criteria in the Particular Specification and /or as determined following completion of preliminary treatment. 9.2 Particular Specification The following matters are, where appropriate, described in the Particular Specification (a) Working area (b) Test programmer (c) Types of test (d) Proof load and settlement acceptance criteria (e) Accuracy of measurement (f) Special instrumentation (g) Frequency of readings (h) Removal of test equipment