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built on the subgrade. Lebuhraya Air Keruh –Pagoh. •Lebuhraya Kuala Lumpur –Tanjung Malim. •Lebuhraya Gurun Bukit Kayu Hitam.
Mass concrete brings with it many challenges, among them the generation of high heat and problems that can stem from it. While creating these projects can be difficult, careful design of mass concrete can minimize or eliminate issues, and new research points to approaches that will allow us to create bigger projects than ever before.
Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement
Jointed reinforced concrete pavement (JRCP, see Figure 1) uses contraction joints and reinforcing steel to control cracking. Transverse joint spacing is longer than that for JPCP and typically ranges from about 7.6 m (25 ft.) to 15.2 m (50 ft.). Temperature and moisture stresses are expected to
helping to reduce or even eliminating the occurrence of cracking. http://classes. therefore. But as the length of the slab increases the amount of steel needed also increases. However. This is the main reason why the length of conventional slabs has always stayed within 40 to 100 feet. is that a continuously reinforced pavement is designed to keep the cracks tightly closed so that the slab will retain its structural integrity. however. The design. The important difference. . the number of cracks also increases. this is highly desirable because it means that stresses due to any cause will be distributed more evenly among the cracks and no single crack will then show a tendency to open excessively. Continuous reinforce concrete pavement Continuously reinforced pavement is pavement in which the continuity of the longitudinal reinforcing steel is interrupted only at structures or at the ends of the projects. It has simply proved more economical from a first cost standpoint. There are no transverse joints other than construction joints and expansion joints at structures. As discussed in the previous chapter. the amount of reinforcement needed to control the cracking is relatively low if the length of the slab is short.engr. while also reducing the required slab thickness. Prestressing induces a compressive stress in the slab. prestressing provides numerous benefits for long-term pavement performance. the steel is not directly proportional to the slab length as is usually assumed in the design of conventional jointed reinforced pavement.cause cracking between joints. The whole idea of continuously reinforced pavement is based essentially on the "so let is crack" philosophy rather than the fussy concept of avoiding cracks at any price. It has also been found that as the amount of steel in the slab is increased. the relationship is a parabolic function with the steel increasing at a progressively decreasing rate as the slab length increases and reaching a maximum at slab length of 600 to 800 feet. Theoretically. should include only the optimum amount of steel that will (1) cause sufficient cracks to occur and (2) ensure that they will remain tightly closed under service. In an unreinforced slab cracks which occur will normally widen and get progressively worse under the effects of traffic and climatic conditions.htm Prestressed Pavement The PCP concept incorporates prestressing in both the transverse and longitudinal direction in the form of pretensioning and/or post-tensioning. Dowel bars are typically used at transverse joints to assist in load transfer while the reinforcing steel/wire mesh assists in load transfer across cracks.edu/cce/winter2012/ce492/Modules/02_pavement_types/026_body. Fortunately. An excessive number of cracks has no real influence on the structural efficiency of the slab. hence reinforcing steel or a steel mesh is used to hold these cracks tightly together. As a matter of fact.oregonstate.
and post-tensioned together along the short axis (longitudinal pavement direction) after installation. Likewise. the precast panels are pretensioned along the long axis of the panel (transverse pavement direction) during fabrication. These forms may also serve as tracks for various . which is critical in colder climates where deicing salts are used http://www.fhwa. but also permits longer and thinner precast panels to be used as it helps counteract lifting and handling stresses. but also provides load transfer between the panels. without compromising the integrity of the entire longitudinal post-tensioning system. Transverse pretensioning not only provides the necessary permanent prestress in the pavement slab. This continuity also permits individual panels to be sawcut and removed from the pavement. side forms are used to hold fresh PCC in place at the proper grade and alignment until it sets and hardens. A bonded post-tensioning system provides continuity between the prestressing strand and concrete. reducing the amount of non-prestressed steel required in the panels. as will be described below. the longitudinal post-tensioning not only provides the necessary permanent prestress.pdf FIXED FORM PAVING In fixed form paving. Grouting also provides an additional layer of corrosion protection for the post-tensioning tendons. The post-tensioning system used for the longitudinal tendons is a bonded post-tensioning system.gov/pavement/concrete/pubs/hif08009/hif08009. grout is pumped into the ducts to bond the strands to the precast panels. After the longitudinal post-tensioning tendons are tensioned.dot. if necessary.In general.
110). Custom geometry. 1995): Tight tolerances and side clearances. Forms and equipment are less expensive than slipform paving equipment. Better construction staging. however it can be used for large jobs as well (see Figure 7.111). Forms can be placed such that staged construction can be used to maintain traffic flow or intersection use (see Figure 7. this cost savings can more than offset the higher production rates of slipform paving.112). smooth curves. If paving operations are small enough. . which allows for multiple changes in pavement width. complicated geometry pavements or variable width pavements. Less expensive equipment and mobilization . Forms can be placed in just about any pavement geometry. blockouts and other abnormalities. Fixed form paving is most appropriate for small jobs (see Figure 7. Particular advantages of fixed form paving are (ACPA. Existing curbs or other features can be used as forms.pieces of placing and finishing equipment.
Particular advantages of slipform paving are (ACPA. consolidation.Figure 7.oregonstate. http://classes.htm SLIPFORM PAVING Slipform paving is defined as a process used to consolidate. finishing and curing as they are typically done in fixed form paving. which serves to strike off and consolidate the fresh PCC.110 (top left): Small Fixed Form Job Figure 7. or a traveling carriage paver which can perform all three steps. Often more than one of these steps can be performed by the same piece of equipment.111 (top right): Large Fixed Form Job Figure 7. form into geometric shape and surface finish a PCC mass by pulling the forms continuously through and surrounding the plastic concrete mass. placement.edu/cce/winter2012/ce492/Modules/07_construction/07-11_body.112 (right): Construction Staging Using Fixed Form Paving This section presents PCC forms.engr. Slipform paving is most appropriate for larger jobs that require high production rates. such as a vibrating screed. 1995): .
90 m/hr (230 .300 ft. Slipform paving production rates are typically in the range of 65 100 m3/hr (85 . and the texturing and curing machine. Low-slump PCC (on the order of 0 .75 mm (0 . Large jobs generally require high production rates in order to be profitable./hr) of 3. 250 mm (10 inch) thick PCC surface course.66 m (12 ft. Uses low-slump PCC. That translates into between 70 . finishing and curing as it is typically done in slipform paving.3 inches)) is necessary so that the fresh PCC is able to hold its shape once the slipform paver has passed.90 m/km or less). Most often. Smooth riding surface. . these steps are accomplished by three pieces of equipment: theplacer/spreader (used for rough placement). consolidation. consolidation and initial finishing). These machines usually travel together in series down the length of the project.) wide. Automation and computer control allow slipform pavers to produce very smooth riding surfaces (IRI on the order of 0. Low slump PCC can be made with less water and usually has higher compression and flexural strengths than comparable high slump mixes. the concrete paver (used for final placement.131 yd3/hr) for mainline paving. High productivity. This section presents PCC placement.
Refer to Standard Specifications §4023. usually the longitudinal joint. As a minimum.” . If the designer anticipates the longitudinal pavement joint in excess of 30 meters can be left exposed to traffic overnight they should include maintenance and protection of traffic requirements to alert drivers of the uneven edge.09B for details of construction of butt and tapered joints. „UNEVEN LANES‟ signs should be posted on both sides of the roadway at a maximum 300 meter spacing. (Note: Refer to §619-3. Under no circumstances can traffic be allowed to travel over a longitudinal pavement joint constructed as a butt joint. The following are examples of special notes for the designer to use: • “During paving operations on this contract a longitudinal pavement joint length in excess of 30 meters at the end of the working day is prohibited. except bridge dropoffs or other drop-offs in excess of 1. An exposed longitudinal pavement joint should not be allowed if it is expected that traffic will frequently change lanes. Longitudinal Joints The first signs of distress in a hot mix asphalt pavement occur at the weakest point in the pavement.8 m deep). W8-39. rural projects) and the safety of the motoring public must be considered in the decision to allow an exposed longitudinal pavement joint. This requirement will help the Contractor bid the contract accordingly.. Consideration should be given to include R4-10. Construction of durable longitudinal joints is critical to a pavement‟s service life. the standard specification states that placement of the surface course should be carefully planned to ensure that the longitudinal joints in the surface course will correspond with the edges of the proposed traffic lanes. „STAY IN LANE‟ signs. The Contractor shall provide traffic protection in accordance with the provisions of Table 619-1 for drop-offs within three meters of the travel lanes. The Regional Traffic and Safety Unit should be consulted.01G3 for the case when the longitudinal joint is the lane/shoulder joint. When using either method. The optional methods for constructing longitudinal joints are butt joints and tapered wedge joints. Minimizing damage to the shape of the joint (urban vs. The designer must include a special note in the project proposal that indicates if the longitudinal pavement joint can be left exposed to traffic overnight.
ac.• “Prior to paving operations on this contract. the contractor may request approval.civil.pd f .in/~kvkrao/CE%20742%20Pavement%20Systems%20Engineering/CE742LEC2. in writing.Tapered Wedge Joint of Section 4023.ny. to leave exposed a longitudinal pavement joint in excess of 30 meters at the end of the work day. As a minimum W8-39. of the Standard Specifications.dot. advanced warning to motorists must be provided as detailed in these contract documents. Maintenance and protection of traffic requirements to provide adequate.09 Joints.pdf Cross Section of a Rigid Pavement Figure shows a typical cross-section of a rigid pavement The pavement can be placed directly on prepared subgrade or on a singular layer of granular or stabilized material The only layer of material under concrete and above subgrade is called base course or subbase http://www. Approval is contingent upon the use of Option B .gov/divisions/engineering/design/dqab/cpdm/repository/chapter8. „UNEVEN LANES‟ signs must https://www.iitb.
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