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In Partial fulfilment of the Requirements of the Course: MAPSS 213 (National Peace & Security Management, The Global Perspective) Presented to: Dr. ALBERT IGNATIUS D FERRO, Ph.D., Professor Police Senior Superintendent

National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. Initially focusing on military might, it now encompasses a broad range of facets, all of which impinge on the non military or economic security of the nation and the values espoused by the national society. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, etc. Security threats involve not only conventional foes such as other nation-states but also non-state actors such as violent non-state actors, narcotic cartels, multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations; some authorities include natural disasters and events causing severe environmental damage in this category.

Measures taken to ensure national security include: using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats marshalling economic power to facilitate or compel cooperation maintaining effective armed forces implementing civil defense and emergency preparedness measures (including anti-terrorism legislation) ensuring the resilience and redundancy of critical infrastructure using intelligence services to detect and defeat or avoid threats and espionage, and to protect classified information using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation from internal threats

There is no single universally accepted definition of "National Security" since there are some differences on describing National as State and everything consist in a nation. The variety of definitions provide an

overview of the many usages of this concept. The concept still remains ambiguous, having originated from simpler definitions which initially emphasized the freedom from military threat and political coercion to later increase in sophistication and include other forms of non-military security as suited the circumstances of the time

A typical dictionary definition, in this case from the Macmillan Dictionary (online version), defines the term as "the protection or the safety of a countrys secrets and its citizens" emphasising the overall security of a nation and a nation state.[3] Walter Lippmann, in 1943, defined it in terms of war saying that "a nation has security when it does not have to sacrifice its legitimate nterests to avoid war, and is able, if challenged, to maintain them by war".[1]:5 A later definition by Harold Lasswell, a political scientist, in 1950, looks at national security from almost the same aspect, that of external coercion:[1]:79 "The distinctive meaning of national security means freedom from foreign dictation."

"An ambiguous symbol meaning different things to different people. National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, the absence of fear that such values will be attacked.

"National security is an appropriate and aggressive blend of political resilience and maturity, human resources, economic structure and capacity, technological competence, industrial base and availability of natural resources and finally the military might."

"National security then is the ability to preserve the nation's physical integrity and territory; to maintain its economic relations with the rest of the world on reasonable terms; to preserve its nature, institution, and governance from disruption from outside; and to control its borders.

"National security... is best described as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinion of a given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or autonomy, prosperity and wellbeing."

National security is a corporate term covering both national defense and foreign relations. It refers to the protection of a nation from attack or other danger by holding adequate armed forces and guarding state secrets. The term national security encompasses within it economic security, monetary security,

energy security, environmental security, military security, political security and security of energy and natural resources. Specifically, national security means a circumstance that exists as a result of a military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations, or a friendly foreign relations position, or a defense position capable of successfully protesting hostile or destructive action.

Peace administration as a critical area in public administration and governance draws its urgency from the continued struggle of the government to forge peace specifically the peace settlement. The slow progress in the peace development process continues to be hampered by the very concerns of Public and Peace Administration and governance: poor capacities amongst local government units involved; overlapping/duplicating of functions of government bodies; and, lack of transparency and accountability in the management of public funds.

In sum, the AFP Internal Peace and Security Plan is our commitment to the attainment of a secure and prosperous country. While there may be a myriad of threats to our internal peace and security, it is very clear that the Filipino nation can address these challenges through the concerted and united efforts of all stakeholders.

Definition of PEACE 1 : a state of tranquillity or quiet: as a : freedom from civil disturbance b : a state of security or order within a community provided for by law or custom <a breach of the peace> 2 : freedom from disquieting or oppressive thoughts or emotions 3 : harmony in personal relations 4 a : a state or period of mutual concord between governments b : a pact or agreement to end hostilities between those who have been at war or in a state of enmity 5 used interjectionally to ask for silence or calm or as a greeting or farewell at peace : in a state of concord or tranquillity

administration (d-mn-strshn)n. 1. The act or process of administering, especially the management of a government or large institution. 2. The activity of a government or state in the exercise of its powers and duties.

3. often Administrational. The executive branch of a government. b. The group of people who manage or direct an institution, especially a school or college. 4. The term of office of an executive officer or body. 5. Law Management and disposal of a trust or estate. 6. The dispensing, applying, or tendering of something, such as an oath, a sacrament, or medicine. administrative (-strtv, -str-) adj. administratively adv.

administration [dmnstren]n 1. management of the affairs of an organization, such as a business or institution 2. the duties of an administrator 3. the body of people who administer an organization 4. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the conduct of the affairs of government 5. term of office: often used of presidents, governments, etc. 6. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the executive branch of government along with the public service; the government as a whole 7. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) (often capital) Chiefly US the political executive, esp of the US; the government 8. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) Chiefly US a government board, agency, authority, etc. 9. (Law) Property lawa. the conduct or disposal of the estate of a deceased person b. the management by a trustee of an estate subject to a trust 10.a. the administering of something, such as a sacrament, oath, or medical treatment b. the thing that is administered administrative adj administratively adv

PEACE ADMINISTRATION is also termed Peace building is a term describing outside interventions that are designed to prevent the start or resumption of violent conflict within a nation by creating a sustainable peace. Peacebuilding activities address the root causes or potential causes of violence, create a societal expectation for peaceful conflict resolution and stabilize society politically and socioeconomically. The exact definition varies depending on the actor, with some definitions specifying what activities fall within the scope of peacebuilding or restricting peacebuilding to post-conflict

interventions. In 2007, the UN Secretary-General's Policy Committee defined peacebuilding as follows: "Peacebuilding involves a range of measures targeted to reduce the risk of lapsing or relapsing into conflict by strengthening national capacities at all levels for conflict management, and to lay the foundations for sustainable peace and development. Peacebuilding strategies must be coherent and tailored to specific needs of the country concerned, based on national ownership, and should comprise a carefully prioritized, sequenced, and therefore relatively narrow set of activities aimed at achieving the above objectives."[1]

In order that Peace Administration be successful, conflict transformation focused upon establishing equitable power relationships robust enough to forestall future conflict, often including the establishment of means of agreeing on ethical decisions within a community, or among parties, that had previously engaged in inappropriate (i.e. violent) responses to conflict. Peacemaking seeks to achieve full reconciliation among adversaries and new mutual understanding among parties and stakeholders. When applied in criminal justice matters, peacemaking is usually called restorative justice, but sometimes also transformative justice, a term coined by the late Canadian justice theorist and activist Ruth Morris. One popular example of peacemaking is the several types of mediation, usually between two parties and involving a third, a facilitator or mediator.

Some geopolitical entities, such as nation-states and international organizations, attempt to relegate the term peacemaking to large, systemic, often factional conflicts in which no member of the community can avoid involvement, and in which no faction or segment can claim to be completely innocent of the problems, citing as instances post-genocide situations, or extreme situations of oppression such as apartheid. However peacemaking is a universal and age-old approach to conflict at all levels and among any and all parties, and its principles may be generalized and used in many different kinds of conflicts.

The process of peacemaking is distinct from the rationale of pacifism or the use of non-violent protest or civil disobedience techniques, though they are often practiced by the same people. Indeed, those who master using nonviolent techniques under extreme violent pressure, and those who lead others in such resistance, have usually demonstrated the capacity not to react to violent provocation in kind, and thus may be more highly skilled at working with groups of people that may have suffered

through violence and oppression, keeping them coordinated and in good order through the necessary, often difficult phases of rapprochement.

Given that, and a track record of not advocating violent responses, it is these leaders who are usually most qualified for peacemaking when future conflict breaks out between the previously warring sides. Peacemaking in smaller, traditional societies has often involved rituals. For example, Alula Pankhurst has produced films about peacemaking among Ethiopian communities.

In contemporary international affairs, especially after the end of the Cold War, the concept of peacemaking has often been associated to the imposition upon warring parties of a peace settlement, usually under the auspices of an international organization.

In order to have a good Peace Administration, Conflict resolution must be conceptualized as the methods and processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict. Often, committed group members attempt to resolve group conflicts by actively communicating information about their conflicting motives or ideologies to the rest of the group (e.g., intentions; reasons for holding certain beliefs), and by engaging in collective negotiation. Ultimately, a wide range of methods and procedures for addressing conflict exist, including but not limited to, negotiation, mediation, diplomacy, and creative peace building.