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**1 Issues with inverters
**

1.1 “Dead” or “Blanking” Time

When attempting to command accurate voltages from an inverter one must take into account the deadtime effect. Typical waveforms for the inverter phase are shown in Fig. 1.1. To avoid shorting the bus voltage, there is a speciﬁed delay between when one switch is opened and the other is closed. This is known as the “dead” time or “blanking” time,

¢¡

. The value of £¥¤§¦©¨ during

this deadtime is dependent on the direction of the current §¤§¦¨ . Diodes parallel to the transistors carry the current §¤§¦¨ during this deadtime, the lower diode if ¤§¦¨ is positive and the upper diode if ¤§¦¨ is negative. Hence, during deadtime the output voltage will be

¢ ¢ when ¤§¦¨ is positive and when ¤¦¨ is negative. ¡!#"%$& '

To determine the effect of the deadtime, we separate the output voltage into two parts: a part £ when either the upper or lower transistor is “on”, and a part £ given by:

1 £ ¡!#" $& '32 4 4 4 4 6 " @ 6 "CB @ ¡ 6 a " ` 5 Q ` H IQ ¦ HcI ¦ "%d WYX W X 5 5 798 £ ¡!#" $& '#A¥ ¦ Q " A¥ SR 7 8 FE ¨&G D 8 X ¡ 6 a " ` W HPI Q ¦ " AT VU ¦ " ` ¡!#(¢¡

corresponding to time

¡!#")$0 '

corresponding to the deadtime. The average value of £

is

79D 8 FE ¨&G HPI "

RbW

5

H IQ

(1)

or the same as the average-value output voltage when deadtime is neglected. As there are two deadtime intervals per switching 1

is given by: 1 $0 '32e4 W Xv$& ' 5 Q ` " ¦ $ ' " ¡ ¦ 6 " H I £ ¤¦¨ wfihqp H I ¤§¦©¨ (3) This deadtime voltage is annoying for two reaons: x The fundamental component of the square-wave deadtime voltage will alter the magnitude and phase of our commanded average-value output.5.3 Frequency Modulation The inherent assumption in pulse-width modulation is that the switching frequency is substantially higher than the frequency of the average-value waveforms we wish to generate. 1. The total average-value output voltage..period.. The extreme case of overmodulation occurs when one commands a square-wave output with the desired frequency. . including deadtime. additional harmonics can occur in the frequency range of the desired output frequency. x The square-wave deadtime voltage will add odd harmonics (3. 1. then 5©s¥t¥u out of phase with #¤§¦¨ .) of the fundamental frequency to the output voltage waveform. the average deadtime voltage is therefore given by: 1 £ ¡!#(¢¡a$& '32e4 gfihqp $ #¤¦¨ 6 " @ ' Q 7 ¨G HPI Q ¦ " A¥ 4 $ ' " ¡ ¦ 6 " H I 1 £ ¡!#(i¡¥$& 'r2 gfihqp #¤¦¨ (2) will be a square wave If #¤¦¨ $0 ' is a sinusoid (as is expected for steady-state induction machine operation). If the switching frequency is signiﬁcantly less than 21 times the desired output frequency. In this case the magnitude of the fundamental is y ¦ HcI " . If we are trying to command small voltages.2 Overmodulation Overmodulation occurs when one attempts to command an average-value output voltage whose magnitude is larger than can be achieved by the bus voltage. and the harmonics are odd-valued with magnitude y ¦ HPI " . the deadtime voltage will completely overwhelm the desired voltage.. This results in additional harmonics below the switching frequency. An accepted “threshold” ratio between the switching frequency and the desired output frequency is 21.

Hence to achieve a desired bus capacitance one must purchase two bus capacitors of twice the size. Note also that the harmonic at sY5% v does not have a peak value of 126V. Though conceptually easy to understand. We will now deﬁne state “0” of a half-bridge as . If our load requires DC currents. Hence for single-phase applications we often use the full-bridge inverter. The full-bridge inverter consists of 2 half-bridge inverters. Fig. but the command frequency is increased to s5 Tv . shown in Fig. Fig. it is generally desirable to use only one bus capacitor instead of two. Inspection of the ﬁgure reveals that the desired output frequency harmonic is achieved. Because of the close proximity to the switching frequency. In this situation the impedance of the bus capacitors would have to be sized to minimize the resulting AC voltage across them.4 presents the output of a half-bridge inverter with a bus voltage of T t H . Note that the fundamental voltage is less than the desired value. and a commanded output voltage of 126V peak. the harmonic output in the range of the desired frequency is no longer a single. x Having a neutral connection between the two bus capacitors forces the load current to ﬂow through these capacitors. 1. 1. each half-bridge can be in one of two “states”. Having two identical bus capacitors in series reduces the effective bus capacitance by a factor of two. The output voltage is the voltage between the outputs of each half bridge.1. Having two bus capacitors in series is typically desirable only when it is necessary to achieve the desired voltage rating of the application. As discussed previously. we look at an example.4 reveals the output harmonics if we attempt to command 216V peak. 2 Full-bridge inverter In the last lecture we discussed the half-bridge inverter. which is economically unattractive. This is mainly due to two reasons.4 Example To illustrate the effects discussed in the previous sections on overmodulation and frequency modulation. Fig. 2. which is beyond the capability of this half-bridge inverter unless we enter overmodulation. 1. both having to do with the neutral connection between the two bus capacitors: x If possible. in which case the neutral connection would not exist. the half-bridge inverter is typically not used in practice. which can be achieved with the stated bus voltage without entering overmodulation. and that odd harmonics of the fundamental have now entered the waveform. pure harmonic. this will become impossible to achieve.4 presents output harmonics if the command output voltage is returned to 126V peak.

the full-bridge inverter has the additional advantage of a zero voltage output. The full-bridge inverter. . This zero voltage can be used in a PWM switching scheme known as “unipolar PWM”. 3. and only one bus capacitor can be used.the state where 6e is off and 6 E is on. the output could switch only between Yqd and Yqd . H ef 3 3-phase inverter A schematic of the 3-phase inverter is shown in Fig. and could therefore only generate average-value voltages between these two values using linear PWM techiniques. one advantage of the three-phase system is the lack of a need to make neutral-neutral connections between source and load. provided it has the appropriate voltage rating. There are 4 combinations of states for the full-bridge inverter: (4) Recall that in the half-bridge inverter. but have them generate average-value AC output voltages which are equal in magnitude yet 5 t u out of phase. and negative average-value outputs are generated by switching the output between t and . 1 £ 1 1 ( £ I £Tm $0 'g2 $0 'g2 $0 'g2 4 4 4 Hwh¢i¥j Hwh¢i¥j Hwh¢i¥j $ QkSl ' W Q)kSl W Q)kSl R Qk Q k ` ` Q (5) As discussed in previous lectures. Fig. One method of generating 3-phase output voltages is by controlling each half-bridge individually. 2 displays the difference between these two switching schemes. and state “1” as the state where £ t t 5 5 t 5 t t 5 t Hc Hc ( I 6 is on and 6 E is off. therefore has twice the output voltage capability of the half-bridge inverter. For example. positive average-value output voltages are generated by switching the output between H and t . 3 is not even necessary. as opposed to the “bipolar PWM” used in the half-bridge inverter. Hence the neutral point shown in Fig. Furthermore. by switching between and Hce Hc . In the unipolar scheme.

the two currents are n t u out of phase in balanced operation. the 3-phase machine has distinct advantages over the 2-phase machine in implementation. As we will discover later in the class. In a 2-phase machine. this is a signiﬁcant advantage.Most medium. . and therefore do not cancel as they do in three-phase systems. Hence controlling a 2-phase machine would require 2 full-bridge inverters. it is much easier to analyze and control 2-phase machines. However. As power electronics switches are still quite expensive (though their price is dropping). one more than the 3-phase machine. or a total of 4 half-bridges.and high-power electrical machines are 3-phase.

+ VBUS - R n R + C VBUS 2 C VBUS + T T + D - + iout (t) + 2 Figure 1: Half-bridge inverter D vout (t) - - .

Vbus /2 v dead Vbus /2 td t .Vbus /2 T Figure 2: Output voltage waveforms .vge+ t vge- t i out t vout Vbus /2 t .

5 3 3.5 2 Frequency (Hz) 2.180 Switching Frequency 15kHz. (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Frequency (Hz) 700 800 900 1000 Figure 3: Half-bridge harmonic output. Command Frequency 415Hz 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag.5 x 10 4 180 Switching Frequency 15kHz. (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0. l " 4 5% Topv . H I ¦ " 4 T t H . Command Frequency 415Hz 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag.5 1 1. l 4 5% v .

5 2 Frequency (Hz) 2. (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Switching Frequency 15kHz.200 180 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag.5 3 3.5 1 1. l 4 5 Tv . (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Switching Frequency 15kHz.5 x 10 4 200 180 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag. Command Frequency 415Hz 0 500 1000 1500 Frequency (Hz) 2000 2500 3000 Figure 4: Over-modulated half-bridge harmonic output. H I ¦ " 4 T t H . l " 4 5 ToYv . Command Frequency 415Hz 0 0.

180 Switching Frequency 15kHz. Command Frequency 4815Hz 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag. H I ¦ " 4 T t H . (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.5 3 3. (V) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 Frequency (Hz) 6000 6500 7000 7500 Figure 5: Half-bridge harmonic output. l " 4 5% TopC .5 1 1.5 x 10 4 180 Switching Frequency 15kHz. Command Frequency 4815Hz 160 140 Harmonic Voltage Mag. l 4 s5 C .5 2 Frequency (Hz) 2.

R n R C + VBUS Ta + Da + - + Tb + vab(t) - Db Db + C - Ta Da Tb - - Figure 6: Full-bridge inverter .

VBUS v ab (t) t -V BUS Bipolar Switching v ab (t) VBUS t -V BUS Unipolar Switching Figure 7: Full-bridge inverter .

R n R C + VBUS Ta + Da - + Tb + a - Db - + + Tc + b - Dc - + c - C - Ta Da Tb Db Tc Dc Figure 8: 3-phase inverter .

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