&SpfpuUef@ +idrf

pGef hv$wfolwdk h.&mZ0if

1988 aemufyidk ;f 'Dru
dk a&pDa&;twGuf v_y&f Sm;&if; usq;Hk oGm;olrsm;udk 1988 ckEpS /f 8 vykid f; 8
&ufae@ &Spaf v;vk;H 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;v_y&f Sm;r_udk todtrSwf jyKjcif;tm;jzifh &Sppf uUe@f
+idro
f ufjcif;jzihf trSww
f & *k%jf yKavh &do
S nf? 

xkwfa0jzef‹csd
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH)
arv 2006 ckESpf

tkyfa&
1500

qufoG,f&efvdyfpm
AAPP
P.O Box 93
Mae Sot
Tak Province 63110
Thailand
Email
aappb@cscoms.com
info@aappb.org
Website
www.aappb.org  

aus;Zl;wifv$m
tusOf;uspOfumvtwGif; usqHk;oGm;aom 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;cJhol EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;
udk u|Ekfyfwdk@ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) rS “&SpfpUef@+idrf”
TtpD&ifcHpmjzifh *k%fðyrSwfwrf;wiftyfygonf? xkdyk~dKvfrsm;onf ppftm%m&SifpHepf csKyf+idrf;
a&; jrefrmhvGwfajrmufa&;ordkif;wGif &J0HhajymifajrmufpGm pGef@v$wfay;qyfcJh=uaom acwfopf
tmZmenfrsm;yif jzpf=uygonf?
xdk@a=umifh TtpD&ifcHpmtwGuf owif;tcsuftvufrsm; r#a0ay;cJh+yD; jzpf&yfrSeftajctae
rsm;udk &J&ifhpGm az:xkwfajym=um;ay;aom usqHk;oGm;olEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;. rdom;pk0if
rsm;/ owif;tcsuftvufrsm;r#a0ay;=uaom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;rsm;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDESifh
vl@tcGifhta&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;/ xdkenf;wlpGm owif;tcsuftvuf pkaqmif;ay;jcif;/ bmomjyef
ay;jcif;/ tpD&ifcHpma&;om;jcif;ESifh wnf;jzwfjcif; vkyfief;tqifhqifhwGif pdwfa&mudk,fyg yg0if
ulnD tm;jznfhay;cJhaom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) .
&kH;vkyfief;tzGJ@ESifh tzGJ@0ifrsm;tm; u|Ekfyfwdk@taejzifh aus;Zl;wif *k%fðyygonf?
xdk@tjyif TtpD&ifcHpmtm; ydkrdkIwduscdkifrmap&ef tm;jznfht}uHðy wnf;jzwf ulnDyHhydk;ay;cJh
=uaom tdkif,mvefEdkifiHtajcpdkuf jrefrmhta&;v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;tzJG@ (Burma Action
Ireland)/ tar&duefEdkifiHtajcpdkuf jrefrmhta&;v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;tzGJ@ (US Campaign
for Burma) rS &kH;vkyfief;tzGJ@ESifh tzGJ@0ifrsm;/ EdkifiHwum t0ef;t0dkif;odk@ a&muf&Sdatmif jzef@csd
ay;aom t*Fveftajcpkduf jrefrmhta&;v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Gufolrsm;tzGJ@ (Burma Campaign UK)
ESifh okawoevkyfief;rsm;ðyvkyf&ef vkdtyfonfhtaxmuftyHhyPnf;rsm; jznfhqnf;yHhydk;ay;aom
trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDa&;&m&HyHkaiGtzGJ@ (National Endowment for Democracy) wdk@tm; txl;
aus;Zl;wif *k%fðy rSwfwrf;wifygonf?
TtpD&ifcHpmtwGuf jynfhpHkaom pmpD/ pm&dkuf/ 'DZdkif;rsm;udk tcsdefay;vkyfaqmifay;aom
udkrdk;ausmf ({&m0wD) udkvnf; aus;Zl;rSwfwrf;wifygonf?
xyfrHI TtpD&ifcHpm jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf apwemxufoefpGm aiGa=u;tm;jzifh ulnDyHhydk;ay;
aom tdkif,mvefEdkifiH zGH@òz;wdk;wufa&; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_tzGJ@ (Development Cooperation
Ireland) udkvnf; txl;aus;Zl; rSwfwrf; wifygonf?

EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH)  

rmwdum
trSmpum; ...................................................................................................................... 9
tpD&ifcHpmtusOf;csKyf ....................................................................................................... 17
awmif;qkdcsufrsm;
19
tpD&ifcHpmrdwfquf
1? ed'gef; ..........................................................................................................................
2? ppfa=uma&;pcef;rsm; ....................................................................................................
3? tusOf;axmifrsm; ........................................................................................................
4? &Jbufpcef;rsm; ............................................................................................................
5? aysmufqkH;oGm;olrsm; ....................................................................................................
6? axmifrSvGwf+yD;tajctae ............................................................................................
7? aoqkH;jcif; ..................................................................................................................
8? ed*kH; .............................................................................................................................

21
21
23
25
26
26
27
28

aemufqufwJG (u) (1) ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;pm&if; ....................................... 29

(2) ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf; ....................... 30
aemufqufwJG (c) (1) tusOf;axmifwGifaoqkH;olrsm;pm&if; ........................................... 39

(2) tusOf;axmifwGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf; ........................... 46
aemufqufwJG (*) (1) &Jbufpcef;wGif aoqkH;olrsm;pm&if; .............................................. 143

(2) &Jbufpcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf; ..............................
144
aemufqufwJG (C) (1) tusOf;uscHae&pOfaysmufqkH;olrsm;pm&if; ...................................... 146

(2) tusOf;uscHae&pOf aysmufqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf; .................... 148
aemufqufwJG (i) (1) tusOf;axmifrSvGwfajrmuf+yD;r=umrDaoqkH;olrsm;pm&if; ................ 151

(2) tusOf;axmifrSvGwfajrmuf+yD;r=umrD

aoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf; .................................................... 152
aemufqufwJG (p)

(1) jrefrmEkdifiH&dS tusOf;axmif/ &Jbufpcef;rsm;wnfae&mjyajrykH ........... 164
(2) jrefrmEkdifiH&dS ppfa=uma&;pcef;rsm;jyajrykH ........................................ 165

pmudk; .............................................................................................................................. 167
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) . ta=umif; ........... 169  

trSmpum;
wdkif;jynfwpfjynfY EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;&Sdaeonf qdkonfh tajctaexuf rnfonfhtajc
taeur# xdkwdkif;jynf. vl@tcGifhta&;ESifhywfowfaom tajctaeudk ydkI az:jyEdkifpGrf; &Sdvdrfh
rnfr[kwfay? TtajctaewGif vGwfvyfpGmazmfjyajymqdkcGifh/ pka0;cGifhpaom vlom;wdk@. r&Sd
rjzpfvdktyfonfh/ vGwfvyfr_ tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;udk jiif;y,fcHae&jcif;udk xif[yfazmfjyae
ygonf? xkd@tjyif vlom;rsm;udk rnfuJhodk@oabmxm; qufqHa=umif; azmfjyaom Ttðy
trlrsm;onf tpdk;&u ‚. jynfoljynfom;rsm;udk rnfodk@rnfyHk csKyfudkifxm;a=umif;
azmfjyaeygonf? EdkifiHa&;qdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh/ tenf;qHk; jrefrm
EdkifiHom; (1156) OD;rSm tusOf;uscHae&+yD;/ r#waomw&m;pD&ifa&; vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;
udkvnf; cHpm;EdkifcGifh r&cJh=uyg? w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfonfvnf;/ woD;yk~v vlwOD;csif;pD.
tajccHw&m;r#wr_ pHE_ef;rsm;udk aqmif&Gufay;Edkif&ef a0;pG/ tpdk;&ESifh oabmxm;uGJvGJolwdk@
tm; E_wfydwfap&ef ESdyfuGyfonfhvufeufozG,f w&m;pD&ifa&;pepfudk toHk;csaeygonf?
rdrdonf jrefrmEdkifiHvl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&m txl;pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;t&m&Sdtjzpf pwifwm0efxrf;
aqmifco
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f wnf;u/ Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;&S&d m tusO;f axmifrsm;twGi;f oGm;a&muf
=unfh&_jcif;ESifh ‚wdk@. 'kQtcuftcJwdk@udk jyefvnfwifjyjcif;wdk@udk aqmif&GufcJh&ygonf?
tusOf;axmif. tajctaersm;udk rdrdudk,fydkiftuJjzwfcsufrsm;omru/ (atatyDyD) ac:
EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;ulnD apmifha&Smufa&;toif;xHrS ay;ydk@vmaom/ ,Hk=unf&avmufonfh
owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udkvnf; tm;udk;I qHk;jzwfEdkifcJhonf?
,ck xkwaf 0onfh tpD&ifcpH monf 'Dru
kd a&pDa&;v_y&f mS ;olrsm;ESihf vl@tcGit
hf a&;twGuf wdu
k yf 0JG if
umuG,fay;olwdk@ jrefrmEdkifiHtusOf;axmifrsm;twGif; tusOf;uscHae&pOf odk@r[kwf axmifrS
v$wf+yD; rsm;r=umrDyif a=uuGJzG,f&m aoqHk;cJh=u&onfhta=umif;rsm;udk pkpnf;azmfjyxm;jcif;
jzpfygonf? Tod@k trSmpma&;om;aepOfrmS yif tusO;f axmifY Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; aemufxyf
wpfOD; aoqHk;oGm; cJha=umif;udk =um;od&jyefonf? aoqHk;oGm;cJhol OD;udkOD; tygt0ifqdkv#if/
(2005) ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;rSpI aoqHk;cJhaom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;aygif;rSm od&Sd&or# (9) OD;
&SdcJh+yD jzpfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd tusOf;axmifrsm;ESifh xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;rsm;. qdk;&Gm;=urf;wrf;aom tajctaersm;
udk rSwfwrf;trsm;tjym;wGif aumif;pGm azmfjy rSwfwrf;wifxm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf? jyifyESifh
qufoG,fcGifhray;yJ xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;/ n‡Of;yrf; ESdyfpufcH&jcif;/ rawmfrw&m;ðyrljcif;/ tpm;
taomufnzhH si;f jcif;/ use;f rma&;ESin
hf !
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G rf r_ &Sjd cif;/ vHak vmufaomaq;0g; ukoay;r_r&Sjd cif;
odk@r[kwf aq;0g;ukor_ray;jcif;/ ponfjzifh pGyfpGJajymqdkcsufrsm;&SdcJh+yD;/ tusOf;axmiftm;vHk;
vdkvdkwGif jzpfay:aeygonf? xdkuJhodk@aom tajctaersm;ESifh n‡Of;yef;r_rsm;wdk@onf tusOf;om; 

rsm;twGuf a&m*grsm;&&SdapEdkif+yD;/ a&m*gudk ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;apygonf? (2006) ckESpf Zefe0g&DvrSpI/
jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;Y vkyfief;rsm;udk pGrf;pGrf;wrH óu;yrf;vkyf udkifay;aeaom tjynfjynfqdkif&m
=uufajceDaumfrwD (tdkifpDtmpD) onf tusOf;axmifrsm;ESifh xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;rsm;odk@ vGwfvyf
pGmoGm;a&mufcGifhESifh tusOf;om;rsm;ESifh v#Kd@0SufvHkðcHpGm oD;oef@pum; ajymqdkzvS,fr_udk quf
vufðyvkyfEdkifcGifh r&&Sdawmhjcif;rSm txl; pdk;&drfylyefzG,f tajctae jzpfygonf?
&ufpuf=urf;ñuwfonfh vl@tcGifhta&;rsm;csKd;azguf usL;vGefaer_ESifh qufpyfI/ twdwfumvu
rdrd wifjyzl;cJhonfhtwdkif;/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;aoqHk;r_ v#ifjrefpGmwdk;wuf
rsm;jym;vmaeonfh tay: tajctaeudk vGwfvyfpGmpHkprf;ppfaq;Edkifaom tzGJ@wpfzGJ@xm;&SdcGifh
ðy&ef/ EdkifiHwumrdom;pku jrefrmtpdk;&udk wdkufwGef;&ef tcsdefwef+yD[k rdrd,Hk=unfrdygonf?
xdkuJhodk@aom pHkprf;ppfaq;r_Y wm0ef&Sd=uonfhyk~dKvfwdk@udk &SmazGazmfxkwf ta&;,ltjypfay;Edkif
&efEiS hf epfem&olro
d m;pkw@kd twGuf avsmaf =u;ay;jcif;rsm;vnf; yg0ifoifyh gonf? TpHpk rf; ppfaq;r_
rsm;wGif aysmufqHk;ae=u&olrsm; udPvnf; yg0ifoifhygonf?
TtpD&ifcHpmygwifjycsufrsm;onf jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm; ,ckuJhodk@ aoqHk;jcif;rsm;
aemufaemif rjzpfyGm;Edkifap&efESifh umuG,fEdkif&ef twGuf tjynfjynfqdkif&mvl@tcGifhta&;t
ajccHrlrsm;udk jrefrmtpdk;&u vdkufemusifhoHk;vmap&ef/ ta&;w}uD;vdktyfaea=umif;udk odom
xif&Sm;ap&ef xyfrHrD;armif; xdk;ay;vdkufonfhES,f jzpfygonf?
vGefcJhaom (15) ESpfuwnf;upI xyfcgxyfcgðycJhaom uwdudk todtrSwfðyjznfhqnf;&m a&muf
+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm;. EdkifiHa&;vdkvm;csufqürsm;udk av;pm;aomtm;jzifh/ usef&Sdaeao;aom
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vHk;udk jyefv$wfay;oifhygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh tpdk;&onf rdrd. ydkif;
jzwfxm;r_udk jyo&ma&muf+yD;/ ydkrdkwm0efodjcif;udkvnf; ay:vGifapygvdrfhrnf? xdkEdkifiHa&;tusOf;
om;rsm; vGwfvyfcGifh&vmonfESifh/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ESpf&Snfvrsm; ar#mfvifhawmifhwaecJh&aom
'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;a&;wGif tqHk;tjzwfay;rnfh tcef;u¾rS yg0ifvmEdkif=uvdrfhrnf
jzpfonf? xdk@twGufa=umifh 'Drdkua&pDtoGiful;ajymif;r_udk zifhaES;qkwfqdkif;ae&jcif;twGuf
qifajcrsm;ay;ae&efvnf; vdktyfawmhrnf r[kwfyg?
jrefrmEdkifiH. tarSmifcs zkef;uG,fxm;aom tusOf;axmifrsm;ta=umif;udk trsm;od&Sdvmatmif
wpdkufrwfrwf/ oHüdXmef&Sd&Sdjzifh óu;yrf;cJh=uaom (atatyDyD) tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk csD;usK;tm;ay;vdk
ygonf? xdkolwdk@onf xl;jcm;ajymifajrmufaom/ vl@tcGifhta&;jr‡ifhwifa&;twGuf aqmif&Guf
ae=uolrsm; jzpfygonf? xdkolwdk@rSm EdkifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif;rS pdwfydkif;/ &kyfydkif;qdkif&m tm;ay;
axmufcHr_udk trSefwu,f &&Sdxdkufolrsm; jzpfygonf? TtpD&ifcHpm xkwfa0jzefcsday;Edkif
a&;twGuf ulnDaxmufyHhay;cJhaom tdkif,mvefEdkifiH zGHŒòz;a&;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_tzGJŒ (Development Cooperation Ireland) ESihf tjcm;aom tzGŒJ tpnf;rsm;udv
k nf; aus;Zl;wifygonf?
10

TtpD&ifcHpm. pmrsufESmrsm;wGif uÿnf;xdk;yg&SdcJh=uaom 'Drdkua&pDol&Jaumif;rsm;.b0
rsm;rSm/ 'Drdkua&pDESifh tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm;/ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;rsm; &&Sda&;wdk@twGuf/
ZJGoWd}uD;rm;pGm/ pGrf;pGrf;wrH óu;pm;aqmif&Gufaeaom jrefrmjynfoljynfom;rsm;. pGrf;tm;
}uD;vSaom jy,k*f/ om"u jzpfygawmhonf?

ay:vdk qm*sD,dk yDnJ&dk; (Paulo Sergio Pinheiro)
jrefrmhvl@tcGifhta&;twGuf ukvor~ txl;owif;pHkprf; rSwfwrf;ðypka&; t&m&Sd?

11

trSmpum;
jrefrmtpdk;&uJhodk@/ tm%m&Siftpdk;&trsm;pkonf/ ‚wdk@jynfolrsm;tay: olwdk@ usL;vGefxm;
aom jypfrr_ sm;udk trsm;jynforl od&EdS ikd af tmif twwfEikd q
f ;kH zH;k uG,af vh&=dS uonf? od@k aomf
olwdk@usL;vGefxm;cJhaom jypfr_rsm;onf &SufzG,faumif;aom udPrsm;jzpfonfudkvnf; wpHk
w&mtwdkif;twmtxd olwdk@em;vnfxm;jyefonf? trsm;qHk;jzpfEdkifaom udPwckrSm Todk@
v#Kd@0SufzHk;uG,fxm;jcif;udk tm%m&Sifrsm;u olwdk@zdESdyfcsKd;ESdrfxm;aom twdkuftcHrsm; ydkI
epfemcHpm;&ap&ef &nf&G,fjcif;vnf; jzpfonf? olwdk@ qdkvdkonfrSm “usKyfwdk@u cifAsm;wdk@udk
&kyfydkif;qdkif&m ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;Edkif&Hkomr[kwf/ usKyfwdk@cifAsm;wdk@tay: vkyfxm;ðyxm;aom
rw&m;r_rsm;udkvnf; uBmuodvdrfhrnfr[kwf? cifAsm;tckvdk epfemcHpm; ae&rSef; rnfolr#
od&Sdvdrfhrnf r[kwf? cifAsm;wdk@wnf&SdaerSef;awmif rnfolr# odvdrfhrnfr[kwf? Todk@ vltrsm;u
rod&Sdjcif;tm;jzifh/ cifAsm;wdk@ta&;udkvnf; *&kpdkufvdrfhrnf r[kwf?” [k t"d`g,fxGufonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH tusOf;axmifrsm;twGif;/ ESdyfpufn‡Of;yrf;cHae&r_ tzHkzHkudk/ ,ck (atatyDyD)u
rSwfwrf;wif ðypkxkwfa0cJhaom TtpD&ifcHpmonf/ tpdk;&. &ufpuf=urf;ñuwfr_rsm;udk
rD;armif;xdk;jyvdkufjcif; jzpfonf? tpdk;&u jiif;y,f&ef óu;yrf;aeaom xdkðycH&ol um,uH
&Sifrsm;. vlom;*k%fodQmwpHkw&mudk jyefvnftyfESif;jcif; jzpfonf? TtpD&ifcHpmwGif vl@
tcGifhta&;&&Sd&ef +idrf;csrf;pGm óu;yrf;r_rsm;a=umifh/ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tjzpfñuHawG@=u
&aom ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;cH&r_/ wcgw&H toufaoqHk;onftxd jzpf&aom rw&m;&ufpufr_
rsm;ta=umif;udk trnf/ jzpf&yfESifhwuG twdtus pDpOfazmfjy xm;ygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh
xdkolrsm;. pGef@v$wftepfemcHr_rsm;udk pdwfaumif; apwem&Sdaom vlolawmfaumif;rsm;u
trSwf&/ *k%fðyEdkifapvdrfhrnf? wae@wGif Tjypfr_rsm; usL;vGefcJholrsm;udkvnf;/ xdkufwefonfh
twdkif; w&m;&Hk;wif ta&;,l&ef rSwfwrf;rSwf&m aocsmapvdrfhrnf jzpfonf?
xdk@tjyif ,cktpD&ifcHpmu jrefrmh'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;. OD;wnfcsuftwdkif; v_yf&Sm;
aepOftwGif;/ =uHh=uHhcH&ifqdkifae&yHkrsm;/ Tvrf;twdkif; rrSdwfrokef csDwufaepOftwGif;
ajymifajrmufvSaom olwdk@. pdwf"gwfpGrf;yum;/ oWdrsm;udkvnf; axmufjyI/ rdrdwdk@udk
trSwf&apygonf? Tóu;yrf;tm; xkwfr_rsm;onf t=urf;zufr_rsm;ESifh t}udrf}udrf&ifqdkif
ñuHawG@cJh&aomfvnf;/ &efudk &efcsif; rwkH@ESif;cJhay? t=urf;rzuf +idrf;csrf;aomenf;vrf;
rsm;udkom cdkifrmpGm udkifpGJ qifEJ$aeqJjzpfonf? 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_tzGJ@om;rsm; tcsKd@
axmifoGif;tusOf;cs+yD; &ufpufpGm ESdyfpufcH&/ trsm;tjym; towfcH&/ tjcm;olrsm;rSm
axmifoGif;cH&v#ifcH&/ r[kwfv#if EdkifiHrSxGufajy;ae&aom tajctaeYyif/ xdkolrsm;u
jrefrmppftpdk;&ESifh trsKd;om;jyefvnfoifhjrwfa&;twGuf ajymqdkae=uqJ jzpfonf? xdkolrsm;
tm;vHk; awmif;qdkae=uonfrSm “awG@qHkaqG;aEG;a&;” omjzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. jy±emt&yf
12

&yfudk ajyvnfapa&;twGuf taumif;qHk;tajztjzpf/ ppftpdk;&ESifh jynfolrsm;t=um; wnf+idrf
at;csrf;pGm awG@qHkaqG;aEG;Edkifa&; jzpfonf?
tpD&ifcHpmt& awG@&Sd&onfrSm/ oWdaumif;vSaom jrefrmvlrsKd;trsm;pk taejzifh olwdk@.
,Hk=unfcsufudk pGef@v$wfjcif;/ t=urf;rzuf +idrf;csrf;a&;vrf;pOfukd pGef@v$wfjcif;xuf/ tESdyfpuf
cH&zdk@&ef/ olwdk@touf pGef@zdk@&efudk ydk+yD;wefzdk;xm; vdkvm;=ua=umif;yif jzpfonf? Tolrsm;
ESifhpmv#if/ E_dif;,SOfcsuft& tœ&m,fpGef@pm;&r_enf;aom/ jrefrmEdkifiHvl@tcGifhta&;/ uBm
wv$m;axmufcHae=uolrsm;taejzifh/ tm;rav#mhoifhay? vufrajr‡mufvdkufoifhay? TtpD
&ifcHpmu jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;usL;vGefaeaom vl@tcGifhta&; usL;vGefcsKd;azmufr_ jypfr_rsm;udk
pHkprf;ppfaq;a&;twGuf uBmhukvor~ vHkðcHa&;aumifpDu/ jrefrmppftpdk;&ESifh qufoG,fI
aumfr&Siw
f pf&yf cef@tyfapv$wEf idk &f ef awmif;qdx
k m;csurf mS vnf; avsmu
f efonfh awmif;qdck suf
jzpfonf?
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ppftpdk;&usifhoHk;aeaom rl0g'rsm;onf ‚.jynfolrsm;tay:wGif vHkðcHr_uif;rJhap+yD;/
+cdrf;ajcmufaeonfrSm txift&Sm;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;. vHkðcHwnf+idrfr_
udkvnf; +cdrf;ajcmufvsuf&Sdonf? Ttcsufrsm;a=umifh vHkðcHa&;aumifpDu ta&;,ludkifwG,f&ef
xdkufwefvHkavmuf ae+yDjzpfonf? tjcm;EdkifiHtoD;oD;uvnf; Tóu;yrf;r_udk 0dkif;0ef;axmufcH
=u&ef vdktyfae+yD jzpfygonf?

awm (rf) rvifaempuD; (Tom Malinowski)
0g&Sifwef axmufcHpnf;&Hk;a&; 'g&dkufwm (Washington Advocacy Director)
vl@tcGifhta&;apmifh=unfhavhvma&;tzJG@}uD; (Human Rights Watch)

13

trSmpum;
2005 ckESpf arvwkef;u vli,fwa,muf[m pm;aomufqkdifwckrSm npmpm;aewkef; vlwcsKd@
\kwfw&uf a&mufvm+yD; ol@ukdzrf;ac:oGm;w,f? 7 &uft=umrSm olaoqkH;oGm;chJw,f?
ol@emrnfu ukdatmifvd_if0if;? ol[m jrefrmEkdifiHxJu ppfa=uma&;pcef;wckrSm aoqkH;whJtxd
n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcHchJ&olyg? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf&J@ tzJG@0ifwpfOD;jzpfygw,f? tm%mykdif
awGu ol tJ'Dvkd EkdfifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf;wpfckrSm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;wmukd &mZ0wfr_usL;vGefwmyJvkd@
owfrSwfykH&ygw,f? oluG,fvGef+yD; 3 &uft=umrSmawmh tm%mykdifawGu ol@rdom;pkukd
ta=umif;=um;chJygw,f/ aoqkH;chJ&whJta=umif;&if;u ESvkH;a&m*ga=umihfjzpfw,f/ n‡Of;yef;
ESdyfpufcH&vkd@r[kwfygbl;whJ? 'ghtjyif o+*õK[f+yD;pD;+yDjzpfwhJta=umif;/ 'Djzpf&yfeJ@ywfouf+yD; a&ikH
E_wfydwfxm;zkd@ vkdtyfa=umif; ajym=um;+yD; aiGa=u;wcsKd@ ay;tyfzkd@ urf;vSrf;chJygw,f?
ukdatmifvd_if0if;aoqkH;r_eJ@ywfoufvkd@ b,folawG wm0ef&dSovJqkdwmukd od&dS+yD; jzpfygw,f?
okd@ayr,fh tm%mykdifawGu ta&;,lr_ wpkHw&m rvkyfao;ygbl;?
'Dvkdjzpf&yfawG[m 1988 ckESpfaemufykdif; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG &ifqkdifae&whJ tajctaeukd
azmfjyaewmyg? &Spfav;vkH;'Drkdua&pDa&; v_yf&Sm;r_+yD;uwnf;u ppftm%mykdifawG[m twkduf
tcHvkyfvmolawGukd zrf;qD;ESdyfpuf/ tEkdifusihfwhJenf;awGokH;+yD; tjyif;txef acsr_ef;aewmyg?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG aoqkH;&whJ t"duta=umif;&if;uvnf; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcH&vkd@ygyJ?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG[m tusOf;axmif/ ppfa=uma&;pcef;awGrSm pepfuswhJ jyif;xefqkd;&Gm;
vGef;whJ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_awGeJ@ }uKHae&ygw,f? ESdyfpufr_awG jyif;xefvGef;vkd@ twGif;'%f&mawG&/
arhajrmoGm;=uwhJtxd \kyfykdif;qkdif&mxdckdufysufpD;r_awG jyif;xefchJovkd/ toufraobJ vGwf
ajrmufoGm;&ifawmifrS pdwfykdif;qkdif&mxdckdufr_awGeJ@ usef&pfchJ&wmyg?
tusOf;axmifxJu tajctaeqkd;awGukd tm%mykdifawGu OayQmðyxm;wm/ usef;rma&;
apmihfa&Smufr_ r&dSoavmuf enf;yg;wmawG[mvnf; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_xJrSm tusKH;0ifygw,f?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;wcsKd@[m axmifxJrSm/ &Jbufpcef;awGrSm tvkyfvkyf=u&w,f? tifrwef
yifyef;whJ tvkyf=urf;awGvkyf=u&+yD; tpm;tpmukdawmh r0a&pm pm;=u&w,f? 'ga=umihf
wcsKd@[m &Jbufpcef;rSmawGrSm aoqkH;oGm;chJ=uygw,f?
wcsLd@uawmh tusOf;axmifxJuae aysmufoGm;=uw,f? olwkd@ b,fukda&mufoGm;=uw,f/
touf&Sifao;ovm;qkdwmawG olwkd@rdom;pkvnf; rod=ubl;?
14

axmifxJuae touf&Sifvsuf jyefvGwfvmwhJolawGtaeeJ@vnf; olwkd@&ifqkdif&whJb0u
tifrwefcufcJvGef;ygw,f? oifhwifhwhJ usef;rma&;apmihfa&Smufr_awG/ ukor_awGeJ@a0;chJ&awmh
axmifuv$wf+yD;r=umcif aoqkH;=uwmawGvnf; trsm;tjym;ygyJ?
'ghtjyif axmifuvGwf+yD;rS udk,fhudk,fudk,f owfaocJh=uwmawGvnf; &SdcJhygw,f? 'g[mvnf;
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;awG&Jh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_awG b,favmuf cHcJh&ovJ
qdkwm&J@oufaojycsufawGygyJ?
EkdifiHwdkif;rSm tusOf;axmifqdkwm &Sd=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh tkyfcsKyfolawG tay:rSm rlwnf+yD;
tusOf;axmif&Jh tajctaeawGvnf;uGmjcm;wwf=uygw,f? qdkpum;wck&Sdw,f/ axmifqdkwm
[m vlxkudkzdESdyfwJh ud&d,m wJh? wu,fawmhvnf; axmifqdkwm[m wdkif;jynf tkyfcsKyfolawG&Jh
twGif;o&kyfudk jyowJh jycef;av; wckqdk&if rrSm;bl;vdk@qdk&ygr,f?
jrefrmEdkifiHrSmvnf;tusOf;axmifawG/ tusOf;pcef;awGxJ avhvm=unfhr,fqdk&if tkyfcsLyfaewJh
vlawG&J@twGif;o&kyfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; jrifomygw,f? ckcsdefrSmawmh twkduftcHvkyfvmol
rSefor#ukd n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_eJ@wkef@jyef&r,fqkdwm EkdifiHawmf&J@rl0g'jzpfaeyg+yD? n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_
a=umihf aoqkH;oGm;wht
J cg wcsKd@rdom;pkawG[m pkd;&drfxdwfvef@+yD; a&iHkE_wfydwfaewwf=uygw,f?
usaemfwdk@ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif;u 1988 ckESpfuae ,ae@txd
tusOf;axmiftwGif; aoqkH;oGm;olawG&J@ tcsuftvufawGukd pkpnf;wifjyvkdufygw,f? okd@
ayr,hfvnf; aoqkH;oGm;whJta&twGuftwdtusukd rodEkdifao;ovkd &&dSxm;whJ tcsuf
tvufawG[mvnf; tjynhftpkHr[kwfao;ygbl;?
1962 ckESpf ppftm%modrf;+yD;aemufykdif; EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm yg0ifolawG[m zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;/
n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpuf/ tEkdifusihf/ owfjzwfcHchJ&ygw,f? 'Djzpf&yfawGeJ@ ywfouf+yD;awmhvnf; tjynhf
tpkH rod&ao;ygbl;? jrefrmjynfvGwfvyf+yD;/ 'Drkdua&pDumvukd a&mufrSyJ ppftm%mykdifawG&J@
&mZ0wfr_awGukd od&dSEkdifrSmyg?
tusOf;axmifawGxJrSmvnf; jyifyrSmvkdyJ wkdufyJGawG \kef;uefr_awG &dSygw,f? tm%mykdifawG&J@
w&m;vufvGwfðyusihfr_/ &ufpufr_awGukd wGef;vSefzkd@twGuf \kef;uef=u&ygw,f? 'Drkdua&pD
ta&;/ vl@tcGihfta&;wkd@twGuf \kef;uef=u&ygw,f?
'DtpD&ifcHpmrSm EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;olawG aoqkH;whJtxdjzpfapchJwhJ =urf;=uKwfr_awG &ufpufr_
awGukdvnf; azmfjyxm;ygw,f? aoqkH;oGm;olawG&J@ &J0hHajymifajrmufr_awGukdvnf; awG@&rSmyg?
15

olwkd@ usqkH;oGm;=uayr,hfvnf; olwkd@[m jrefrmjynfvGwfajrmufa&;twGuf qufvufv_yf
&Sm;aeolawG&J@ &ifxJrSmawmh t+rJwrf; &dSaerSmyg?

wdwfEdkif
twGif;a&;rª;
EdkifiHtusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH)

16

tpD&ifcHpmtusOf;csKyf
1988 vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_aemufykdif;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHom; &maxmifcsDI zrf;qD; tusOf;cscHchJ&onf?
tm%mykdifwkd@. n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpuf okd@r[kwf tEkdifusihf&ufpufr_rsm;ukd cHchJ=u&onf? wcgw&H
aoqkH;r_rsm; jzpfay:chJonf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif;u tusOf;uspOf aoqkH;chJ&aom EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om; 127 OD;. jzpfpOfrsm;ukd &SmazGawG@&dSchJonf? jrefrmjynf. EkdifiHa&;tajctaersm;
a=umihf aoqkH;chJjcif;rsm;ESihfywfoufonhf owif;tcsuftvuf tm;vkH;ukd od&dSEkdifrnfr[kwfay?
xkd@jyif xkd 127 OD;. tao;pdwftcsuftvufrsm;ukdvnf; &SmazGawG@&dSjcif; r&dSao;acs?
xkd 127 OD;xJwiG f tusO;f axmiftwGi;f aoqk;H cho
J l 88 OD;/ ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGiaf oqk;H ol 10 OD;/
&Jbuftvkyf=urf;pcef;wGif aoqkH;ol 4 OD;/ tusOf;axmifrSjyefv$wf+yD;r=umrD aoqkH;ol 10 OD;/
tusOf;axmiftwGif;rS aysmufqkH;oGm;ol 15 OD; yg0ifonf?
2005 ckESpf wESpfwnf;wGifyif tusOf;uscH&pOf 8 OD;aoqkH;chJonf? ,cifESpfrsm;xuf aoqkH;r_E_ef;
ykdrkdchJjcif;onf n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_/ rawmfrw&m;ðyrlr_rsm; ykdrkdjzpfyGm;chJa=umif;ukd jyoaeonf?
TonfrmS Ekid if aH wmfat;csr;f om,ma&;ESizfh @GH +zKd;a&;aumifpD (etz). rl0g'vnf; jzpfayonf?
etzonf twkduftcHEdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; &yfwef@oGm;ap&ef pepfwus pDpOfv#uf&dSonf? etz
onf xkdrl0g'ukd taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ukd n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/
rawmfrw&m;ðyjcif;ukd enf;vrf;wpfcktjzpf okH;pJGv#uf&dSonf?
tusOf;cs xdef;odrf;xm;pOfaoqkH;&jcif;. ta=umif;&if;ukd azmfxkwfonhftcg jrefrmjynfwGif;&dS
ppfa=uma&;pcef;/ tusOf;axmif/ &Jbufpcef;rsm; ponhf ae&mrsm;ta=umif;ukdvnf; avhvm
chJonf? n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ rawmfrw&m;ðyjcif;wkd@onf xkdae&mrsm;wGiftom;usvsuf
&dSa=umif; awG@&onf? EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;trsm;pktwGufrl axmifwGif; taxGaxGtajctae/
usef;rma&;apmihfa&Smufr_tqihfwkd@rSm n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufonhf ykHpHwrsKd; jzpfaeonf?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; aysmufqkH;oGm;onhfjzpf&yf 15 ckukdvnf; azmfxkwf awG@&dS&onf?
qufvufazmfxkwf&ef tajctae ray;ao;ojzihf aysmufqkH;r_trsm;tjym; &dSaeonf[k
,lq&onf? tpD&ifcHpm. wae&mwGif pkHprf;azmfxkwfawG@&dSonhf jzpf&yfrsm;ukd tao;pdyf
azmfjyxm;onf? oufqkdif&mrdom;pkrsm;tm; ajcmufvSef@&eftwGuf tusOf;om;rsm;tm; rnf
onfhae&mwGif xdef;odrf;xm;onf[laom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;ukd ppftpkd;&u v#Kd@0Suf
xm;wwfa=umif;ukdvnf; azmfjyxm;onf?
17

EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; trsm;tjym;onf tusOf;axmifrS vGwfajrmuf+yD;csdefwGif \kyfykdif;/ pdwfykdif;
qkdif&ma&m*grsm; &&dSwwf=u+yD; oifhavsmfonhf aq;ukor_rsm;ESihf tvSrf;a0;aeqJjzpfonf?
t"duta=umif;&if;rSm Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;. use;f rma&;tajctaeESifh ywfoufonhf
em;vnfpmemr_/ ukefusp&dwfwkd@ r&dSjcif;yifjzpfonf? EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif; 10 OD;onf
usef;rma&; wjznf;jznf;csKd@,Gif;vm=u+yD; aoqkH;oGm;=uonf? xkd@jyif jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
pdwfykdif;qkdif&m usef;rma&;ðypkapmihfa&Smufr_rsm; r&dSoavmuf enf;yg;ojzihf pdwfykdif;qkdif&m
usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;r_rsm; qufvufjzpfay:vsuf&dSonf? tusKd;quftm;jzihf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;
a[mif;tcsK@d onf uk,
d u
fh ,
dk u
f ,
dk f aoa=umif;}uHpnfc=Jh uonf? TtpD&ifcpH mwGif tusO;f axmifrS
vGwfajrmuf+yD;pwGif aoqkH;oGm;&onhf ta=umif;&if;rsm;ukdvnf; xnhfoGif;xm;onf?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; aoqkH;onhftcg usef&pfolrdom;pkrsm;wGif tcuftcJrsm;pGm &ifqkdif&
avh&dSonf? rD;o+*õK[f+yD;onhftcgrS um,uH&Sifrdom;pkrsm;u od&dS&onhftcgrsKd;wGif n‡Of;yef;
ESdyfpufcHxm;&onhf oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm; aysmufqkH;oGm;+yDjzpfonf? xkd@jyif tm%mykdif
wkd@onf oufqkdif&mq&m0efrsm;ukd aoqkH;ol. \kyfuvmyftm; cJGpdwfppfaq;awG@&dScsufrsm;
tm; rSwfwrf;wifjcif;ESihf ywfoufI zdtm;ay;r_rsm; +cdrf;ajcmufr_rsm; ðyvkyfavh&dSonf? xkd@
a=umifh um,uH&Sifrdom;pku aoqkH;r_ESihfywfoufI w&m;pJGchJyguvnf; rsufjrifoufaorsm;
r&&dSEkdifay?
um,uH&Sifrdom;pkrsm;ukd aoqkH;r_rsm;ESihfywfoufI vlod&Sif=um; xkwfazmfajymqkdr_rsm; rðy
vkyf&ef aiGa=u;jzihf vmbfxkd;avh&dSonf? rdom;pktrsm;pku xkdurf;vSrf;csufrsKd;ukd vufcHavh
r&dSay? rdom;pktcsKd@u tusOf;cscHxm;&pOf aoqkH;r_rsm;ESihfywfoufI zGihfcsajymqkd=uonf?
wcgw&H tm%mykdifwkd@. cGihfðycsuf&aoma=umihf rdom;pktcsKd@onf psmyetm; ukd,fwkdif pDpOf
EkdifchJonf? axmufvSrf;a&;tzJG@0ifrsm;u psmyeokd@ rnfolrnf0g wufa&mufonfukd apmihf=unhf
avh&+Sd yD;/ aemufyidk ;f wGif ‚wk@d udk zrf;qD;jcif; ppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;rsm;vnf; ðyvkyw
f wfonf? T
tpD&ifcpH mwGif Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;aoqk;H +y;D aemufqufwt
GJ ajctaersm;ukad zmfjyxm;onf?
aoqkH;ol tusOf;om;wkd@. EkdifiHa&;aemufcH/ aoqkH;ykHwkd@ukd twwfEkdifqkH; tao;pdwf azmfjy
xm;onf? Ttcsuftvufrsm;ukd avhvmjcif;jzifh tm%mykdifwkd@. &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_/
tusOf;om;wkd@. tjypfuif;pifr_wkd@ukd awG@Ekdifrnfjzpfonf?
tcsK@d aom aoqk;H r_rsm;wGif wm0ef&o
Sd nft
h m%mykid yf ~k Kd vfudk od&aSd omfvnf; rnfonhf ta&;
,lr_r# ðyvkyfEkdifjcif; r&dSao;ay? tenf;qkH; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; 127 OD; tjypfuif;rhJpGm
aoqkH;chJ+yD;jzpfonf? ,cktcg jrefrmEkdifiHwGif EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om; tenf;qkH; 1151 OD; &dSonf?
trsm;tjym;rSm usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;aeonf? ‚wkd@vGwfajrmufvmjcif;r&dSao;oI ‚wkd@.
touftœ&m,frSm pkd;&drfzG,fjzpfaeonf? ?
18

awmif;qkdcsufrsm;
EdkifiHtusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH)u atmufygtwkdif; awmif;qkd
vkdufonf?
uBmhukvor~okd@ awmif;qkdcsuf
Ð

uBmhuv
k or~ vk+H cKHa&;aumifpu
D taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rª;csKyftm; aumifp.
D jrefrm
EkdifiHqkdif&mtxl;ukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf cef@tyf+yD; txl;ukd,fpm;vS,f. aqmif&Gufr_
rsm;/ jzpfay:wkd;wufr_rsm;ukd aumifpDokd@ tpD&ifcHwifjyap&ef?
Ð uBmhukvor~u vGwfvyfonfhaumfr&Sifwpf&yfzJG@pnf;+yD; xkdaumfr&Sifu jrefrm
jynf vl@tcGit
fh a&;csK;d azmufrr_ sm; txl;ojzihf w&m;rhcJ sKyfaESmifxed ;f odr;f jcif;/ rw&m;
ðyvkyfjcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ xkdokd@ðyvkyfjcif;rsm;a=umihf aoqkH;r_rsm; ponfwkd@ukd
pkHprf;ppfaq;&ef?
Ð uBmhukvor~ vl@tcGihfta&;aumfr&Sifu jrefrmjynfvl@tcGihfta&;tajctaeESihf
ywfoufI ESpfpOfcsrSwfonhf qkH;jzwfcsufrsm;wGif tusOf;axmif/ xdef;odrf;a&;pcef;
rsm;wGif w&m;rhJ csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;/ rw&m;ðyvkyfjcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ xkdokd@
ðyvkyfjcif;rsm;a=umihf aoqkH;r_rsm;ukd uef@uGuf&SKwfcs&ef?
EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESihfzHG@òz;a&;aumifpD (etz) okd@ awmif;qkdcsuf
Ð
Ð

EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vkH;ukd ¹cif;csufrxm;bJ tjrefqkH;vGwf&ef?
vlom;csif;pmemaomtm;jzihf usef;rma&;tvGeftrif; csKd@,Gif;vsuf&dSaom EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om;tm;vkH;ukd csufcsif;v$wf&ef?
Ð Ekid if o
H m;ESiEfh idk if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_ tcGit
fh a&;qkid &f m Ekid if w
H umoabmwlncD su/f n‡O;f yef;
ESdyfpufr_qef@usifa&;oabmwlnDcsuf wkd@ukd oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xkd;&ef/ xkdoabm
wlnDcsufrsm;twkdif; tusOf;axmif/ ppfa=uma&;pcef;rsm;wGif jyKrlaqmif&Guf&ef?
Ð ukvor~tzJG@u}uD;=uyfonhf EkdifiHwumaumfrwDwckukd tusOf;csxm;pOfrw&m;
jyKvkyfjcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ aysmufqkH;jcif;/ aoqkH;jcif;rsm;ESihf ywfoufaom
pGyfpJGcsufrsm;tm; tjrefqkH;/ vGwfvGwfvyfvyf pkHprf;ppfaq;cGihfjyK+yD;/ jypfr_usL;vGefol
rsm;tm; w&m;Oya't& pD&if&ef?
Ð jrefrmEkdifiHwGif vkdtyfaeonhftajymif;tvJrsm;jzpfay:vma&;twGuf trsKd;om;
'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf/ wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;pkukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf tjrefqkH; awG@qkHaqG;aEG;
tajz&Sm&ef?
19

tpkd;&tzJG@rsm;okd@ awmif;qkdcsuf
Ð

EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vkH;ukd ¹cif;csufrxm;bJ tjrefqkH;vGwfay;a&;twGuf etz
tpkd;&tm; awmif;qkd=u&ef?
Ð ppfa=uma&;pcef;/ tusOf;axmifwkd@wGif aoqkH;jcif;/ aysmufqkH;jcif;ESihfywfoufonhf
pGyfpJGcsufrsm;ESihfywfoufI wkH@jyefapa&;twGuf etztpkd;&tm; awmif;qkd=u&ef?
rw&m;ðyvkyfjcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;wkd@ &yfpJa&;twGuf awmif;qkd&ef?
Ð trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf/ wkdif;&if;om;ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; ponfwkd@ESihf ppfrSefonhf
awG@qkHaqG;aEG;tajz&Smr_rsm;ðyvkyfa&;twGuf etztpkd;&ukd ykdrkdzdtm;ay;&ef?
Ð vl@tcGit
fh a&;tajctae odomxif&mS ;pGm ajymif;vJaumif;rGev
f mcsed t
f xd pD;yGm;a&;
ydwfqkd@r_rsm;ukd qufvufðyvkyf+yD;/ zG@Hòz;r_tultnD/ acs;aiG/ taxmuftyhHrsm;ukd
vnf; &yfqkdif;xm;&ef? txl;ojzihf w&m;rhJcsKyfaESmifxdef;odrf;jcif;/ rw&m;ðyvkyfjcif;/
n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;wk@d EiS yfh wfoufI vGwv
f w
G v
f yfvyf aqmif&u
G Ef idk o
f nht
f csed t
f xd
&yfqkdif;xm;&ef?
tifef*sDtkdrsm;/ EkdifiHwumtzJG@tpnf;rsm;okd@ awmif;qkdcsuf
Ð

jrefrmEkdifiHwGif w&m;rhJcsKyfaESmifxdef;odrf;jcif;/ rw&m;ðyvkyfjcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpuf
jcif;rsm; &yfwef@apa&; }udK;yrf;aqmif&Gufaeonhf EkdifiHwum v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ukd
tm;ay;axmufcHjcif;/ vlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefa=unmjcif;rsm;ðyvkyfjcif;jzihf 0ifa&muf
yl;aygif;=u&ef?
Ð ppfa=uma&;pcef;/ tusOf;axmifwkd@wGifjzpfay:aeaom vl@tcGihfta&;csKd;azmufr_
rsm;ukd rSww
f rf;wifazmfxw
k Ef idk af &;twGuf Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;a[mif;rsm;. pGr;f &nf
jrihfwifa&;twGuf aqmif&Guf=u&ef?
Ð jrefrmEkdifiHtwGif;&dS EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;rsm;. \kyfykdif;qkdif&mjyefvnfðypkysKd;
axmifa&;/ pdwfykdif;qkdif&moufomr_&ap&ef ESpfodrfh aqG;aEG;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyfEkdifa&; t
wGuf axmufyhHulnD=u&ef?
Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;wk@d . rdom;pkrsm;vkt
d yfaeonhf tusO;f axmifo@dk omG ;a&mufIaxmif0ifpm
awG@a&;/ tusO;f om;twGuf use;f rma&;qkid &f m vkt
d yfcsurf sm; &&daS &;wk@d udk axmufyu
Hh n
l =D u&ef?
vkdtyfonhf ynma&;/ toufarG;0rf;ausmif;qkdif&mrsm;twGuf aqmif&Guf=u&ef? ?

20

tpD&ifcHpmrdwfquf
tydkif;(1) ed'gef;
1988 rS ,ae@xd 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;ol EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; tenf;qHk; 127 OD;onf EdSyfpuf
n‡Of;yef;r_ rsdK;pHka=umifh tusOf;axmifrsm;xJwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJh&onf?
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ppfa=uma&;pcef;rsm;/ tusOf;axmifrsm;/ &Jbuftvkyf=urf;pcef;rsm;wGif EdSyfpuf
n‡Of;yef;r_rsm;onf pepfwusESifh wGifus,fvsuf&Sdonf? tm%mydkifrsm;onf &kyfydkif;qdkif&m/
pdwfydkif;qdkif&m/ vdifydkif;qdkif&m t=urf;zufr_ ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;r_rsm;udk tpDtpOf&Sd&Sdjzifh pOfqufr
jywfvkyfaecJhonf? xdkodk@ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef; r_rsm;a=umifh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; aoqHk;cJh&onfh
tjyif useo
f w
l @kd rmS vnf; qufvufnO‡ ;f yef;ESyd pf ufcaH e&qJjzpf+yD;/ touf&iS &f efvrf;ESihf a0;vm
vsuf toufaoqHk;jcif;odk@ OD;wnfae&avonf?
tcsdK@EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;rSm tusOf;axmifwGif; aumif;rGefvHkavmufaom usef;rma&;
ukoapmifha&Smufr_ r&aoma=umifh tusOf;axmifrSvGwfajrmufjyD; &ufydkif; vydkif;twGif;rSmyif
aoqHk;oGm;cJh&onf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh tvG,fwul uko&Edkifaoma&m*grsm;rSm toufqHk;&_H;
&onfxd jzpfcJh&onf?
tusOf;usI axmifxJa&muf+yD;rS aysmufqHk;oGm;cJh&olvnf; 15 a,muf&SdcJhavonf? xdk
aysmufqHk;oGm; aom 15 a,mufonf trSefwu,faysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm; t&nftwGuf. tpd
wftydkif;wckomjzpfayonf? rdom;pk0ifrsm;/ rdwfaqGtaygif;toif;rsm;taeESifh aysmufqHk;oGm;
olonf touf &SifoefaeqJvm;/ aoqHk;oGm;+yDvm;qdkonfudk rod&jcif;onf wu,fhudk
t=uifemuif;rJhaom vkyf&yfyif jzpfavonf?
aoqHk;oGm;aom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rdom;pkrsm;. tcuftcJrsm;u ppftpdk;&. &kdif;pdkif;&ufpuf
r_udk az:jyonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh aoqHk;ol.&kyftavmif;udk rdom;pkrsm; rawG@&rDrSmyif
cGJpdwfppfaq;r_twk jyKvkyf+yD; rD;\_d@oç*[fypfvdkuf=uonf? xdk@jyif usef&pfolrdom;pkudk a&iHk E_wf
ydwf ae&efESifh jyifyodk@rajym&ef aiGa=u;ESifh vmbfxdk;urf;vSrf;avh&Sdonf? psmyewGif tm%mydkif
rsm;. !$ef=um;csuftrdef@twdkif; ae&+yD;/ axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. apmifh=unfhr_ESifh psmyeydk@
aqmifolrsm;rSm pm&if;rSwf,lr_rsm;vnf; cH&onf?

tydkif;(2) ppfa-uma&;pcef;rsm;
yHkrSeftm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf nbufY tzrf;cH&avh&Sdonfhtjyif aetdrfrSmyif
21

zrf;0&rf;rygyJ tzrf;cH&+yD;/ acgif;pGyfpGyf vufxdyfcwfcH&um um;xJwGif arSmuftdyfIac:aqmif
cHoGm;&onf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf ppfa=uma&;pcef;rsm;odk@ ac:aqmifoGm;jcif;cH&+yD;
ppfa=umar;jref; EdSyfpufn‡Of;yef; jcif;cH&avonf?
ppfa=uma&;pcef;&Sd ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;r_rsm;onf t&ufpuf t=urf;=uKwfqHk;jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;t
usOf;om;rsm;onf ppfa=uma&;umvY rtdyf&jcif;/ tpm;taomufESifh a& jzwfawmufjcif;cH&
jcif;tjyif tdrfomoGm;cGifh ydwfyifcH&jcif; wdk@udkvnf;cH&avonf? ppfa=umar;jref;onfh
axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. auseyfavmufonfhtajzr& onfhtcg EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udkom
ruyJ rdom;pk0ifrsm;/ rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;rsm;udkyg zrf;qD;rnf/ ESdyfpufrnf/ rk'def;usifhrnf/
owfjzwf ypfrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;wkd@cH=u&onf?
trsm;qHk; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;wGif vlrqefpGm&dkufESufjcif;jzpfonf? owdvpf arhajrmvJusoGm;
onftxd }udrfzefrsm;pGm &kdufavh&Sdonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh owdvpfarhajrmaecsdefwGif/ twif;
t"R owdjyef&atmif vkyfI xyfrHn‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufavonf? tjcm;n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;rSm
em&Daygif;rsm;pGm &yfcdkif;jcif;/ }udK;jzifh aZmufxdk;qGJxm;jcif;/ ndK@o}uD;ay:Y oHjrif;vHk;jzifh
tom;ta&rsm; ndKrJa,mifudkif;onftxd vSdrfhjcif;/ tcsdef=umjrifhpGm “av,mOfysHpD;cdkif;jcif;”
“armfawmfqdkifu,f pD;cdkif;jcif;” “ qDrD;cGuftu ucdkif;jcif;” “rdacsmif;oGm; oGm;cdkif;jcif;”
“óu;vHk;}uD;rsm;/ csdef;}udK;rsm;jzifh csnfaESmifjcif;” “cýmudk,f (odk@r[kwf) OD;acgif;ay:odk@
em&D=umjrifhpGm a&wpufwpufcsjcif;” “pD;u&ufrD;jzifh xdk;jcif;” “za&mif;pufcsjcif;” “rD;wkwf
(odk@r[kwf) v#yfppfwkwfjzifh wkd@jcif;” “v#yfppfusifpufjzifh wdk@jcif;” wdk@jzpfonf?
wa,mufwnf; ydwfavSmifxm;jcif;udkoHk;I pdwfydkif;qdkif&mn‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_ vkyfonf? EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;wa,muf zrf;qD;cH&aomtcg ol@udkrnfonfhae&mwGif xm;onfqdkonfudk ol.
rdom;pkyif odciG rhf &ay? xdu
k mvonf &ufoWywfaygi;f rsm;pGm (od@k r[kw)f vaygi;f rsm;pGm (odk@
r[kwf) ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmyif =umwwfavonf? wa,mufwnf;ydwfavSmif xm;jcif;onf wOD;
wa,mufrSrodatmif n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufawmhrnfh a&S@ajy;edrdwfyif jzpfonf? wa,mufwnf; ydwf
avSmifxdrf;odrf;xm;jcif;twGuf cef@rSef;r&Edkifaom pdwf'kQrsm;vnf; jzpf&avh&Sdonf? tusOf;
om;udk acgif;pGyfpGyfxm;jcif;/ Oya'a=umif;t& acsycGifh ckcHumuG,fcGifh/ a&S@aeiSg;cGifhray;jcif;/
rdom;pkESifhawG@cGifh ray;jcif;/ txD;usef wdkufydwfxm;jcif;/ tvGeftrif;ta=umufvGefatmif
jyKvkyfjcif;/ rSm;,Gif;pGm xkwfjyefa=unmjcif; wkd@onfvnf; pdwfydkif;qdkif&m n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;
jzpfonf?
ppfa=uma&;umvwGif rk'def;usifhrnf[k +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;/ taESmuft,Sufay;jcif;/ vdifwHudk
v#yfppf usifpufjzifhwdk@jcif;/ wkwfjzifh&kdufjcif;/ acG;jzifh rk'def;usifh&efjyKvkyfjcif; wdk@uJhodk@ vdifydkif;
qdkif&m t=urf;zufr_rsm;vnf; vkyfavh&Sdonf?
22

1988 rSpI ppfa=uma&;umvtwGi;f n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufjcif;a=umifah oqH;k oGm;ol tenf;qH;k 8 OD;
&Sdonf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u ppfa=umar;jref;Iauseyfaomtcg tusOf;om;onf ppfa=uma&;pcef;rS
tusOf;axmifodk@ ydk@jcif;cH&rnf? tusOf;om;onf txufyg ESdfyfpufn‡Of;yef;r_rsm; cH&\Hkomru
tusOf;axmif. taxGaxG &ufpuf=urf;=uKwfr_udkvnf; cH=u&onfhtjyif tusOf;axmifwGif;
usGrf;usifr_r&Sdaom usef;rma&;ukor_ rsm;ESifhvnf; &ifqdkif&onf?

tydkif;(3) tusOf;axmifrsm;
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd tusOf;axmifrsm;. tajctaeonf uBmay:wGif tqdk;&Gm;qHk;pm&if;wGif yg&Sd
rnfjzpfonf? tusOf;axmifrsm;onf oef@&Sif;r_r&Sdonfhtjyif owfrSwfxm;aom vlOD;a&xuf
rsm;pGm ydkv#HIxm;ojzifh =uyfodyfpGm aexdkiftdyfpuf=u&onf? taqmifrsm;/ wdkufcef;rsm;wGif
tif;qufydk;r$m;aumifrsm; tajrmuftrsm;&Sdonf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf yg;v$maom
csnfxnf0wfpHkudkom0wfqif&I at;pufaom tkwforHwvif;jyifay:wGif tdyfpuf=u&onf?
wdkufcef;wGif;wGif *efzvm; ac: tifwHkudk tdrfomtjzpf toHk;jyK&+yD; avmufaumifrsm;/ teH@
qdk;rsm;ESifh wae@vHk; ae&um w&ufrSw}udrf pGef@ypfcGifh &onf?
Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;onf ul;pufa&m*g&adS om tjcm;omreftusO;f om;rsm;ESiv
hf nf; wcef;xJ
twlae&onfrsm;vnf; &Sdonf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf wae@w}udrfom a&csdK;cGifh&+yD;
wcgw&H wywfw}udrf/ wvw}udrfom a&csdK;cGifh&onf? a&csdK;&onfhtcgwGifvnf; xrif;pm;
yk*Hjym;ESifh 7 cGuf 8 cGufom csdK;cGifh&+yD; vHkavmufaom qyfjymr&ay? 0wfpHkrsm; npfywfaya&
aeaomfvnf; wywfrSwcgom av#mfzGwfcGifh&onf? trsdK;orD;EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; twGuf
"RwmvmcsdefwGif tcufcJaygif;rsm;pGm=uHK&onf?
tusOf;axmifrSau|;aom tpm;tpmrsm;onf t&nftaoG;nHhzsif; roef@&Sif;onfhtjyif
vHkavmufatmif r&&Sday? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf aysmhvGef;aom xrif; (odk@r[kwf)
rmvGef;aomxrif;/ a&vHkjyKwff[if;ESifh tnhHzsif;qHk; ig;ydtenf;i,fom &&Sdonf? wywfv#if
weyfpmom tom; (odk@r[kwf)/ ig; (odk@r[kwf)/ bJO &&Sdonf? tpm;tpmrsm;onf wcgw&H
xrif;rsm;wGif cJrsm;/oJrsm;a&maESmaewwfonf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf oef@&Sif;vHkavmufaomtpm;tpm&&Sd&ef rdom;pkudkom tm;udk;
wnfrSDI ae=u&onf? xdk@a=umifh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;twGuf axmif0ifpmawG@cGifh &&Sda&;
onf trSefwu,fvdktyfaom/ tusdK;oufa&mufr_&Sdaom udPjzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;
rsm;twGuf aumif;rGefvHkavmufaom aq;0g;rsm;&&ef rdom;pkrsm;onf t"dujzpfonf?
23

jrefrmjynf tusOf;axmifrsm;wGif usef;rma&;ukoapmifha&Smufr_onf r&Sdoavmufyifjzpfonf?
tusOf;om; vlrrmonf tusOf;axmifaq;&kHwGifaexdkifukocGifh&&ef vmbfaiGay;&rnf?
tusOf; axmifwGifaexdkif&pOf vmbfaiGray;Edkifygu (odk@r[kwf) vmbfaiGay;&ef qür&Sdygu
usef;rma&;aumif;rGefpGm aexdkifEdkif&ef tcuftcJ rsm;pGmawG@&rnfjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf axmifq&m0efrsm;ESifh awG@qHkukocGifh&rnfhtpm; rsm;aomtm;jzifh
axmif0efxrf;aq;rª;/ tusOf;om;aq;rª;rsm;ESifhom ukocGifh&=uonf? axmif0efxrf;aq;rª;rsm;/
tusOf;om;aq;rª;rsm;onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh a&m*gZpfjrpfudk r&SmazGedkifaoma=umifh tao;
tr$m; a&m*gav;rsm;ESiyhf if toufq;kH &_;H =u&onf? Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm; aq;ukor_vt
kd yfI
aq;pm vdktyfonfhtcg &ifqdkif&aom jy±emonf wdusrSefuefaom q&m0ef n$ef=um;csuf
yifjzpfonf?
txufygtcsufrsm;tjyif tjynfjynfqdkif&m=uufajceDtzGJ@onf tusOf;om;rsm;. usef;rma&;
tusdK;tvdk@iSg t&nftaoG;aumif;rGefaom acwfrDaq;0g;rsm;udk tusOf;axmifrsm;odk@ vSL'gef;
cJhonf? odk@aomf axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u xkdt&nftaoG;aumif;rGefaom aq;0g;rsm;udk
aps;uGufwGifa&mif;pm;+yD;/ t&nftaoG; nHhzsif;aom aq;0g;rsm;om ay;avonf? &Hzef&Hcg
aq;rSm;ay;jcif;cH&avonf? xd;k aq;xd;k &ef vdt
k yfonft
h cgwiG v
f nf; oH;k +y;D om; wcgo;kH aq;
xd;k tyfudk aygif;cHoef@pifjcif;vHk;0rvkyfyJ vlemrsm;pGmudk qufvufoHk;pGJonf? xdk@a=umifh
tusOf;om;rsm;twGif; a&m*grsm; ul;pufysH@ESH@jyD;/ tcsdK@EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf attdkif'D
tufpf/ tdyftdkifAD a&m*grsm; ul;pufcHvdkuf&avonf?
axmifaq;&kHrsm;onf vlemrsm;xm;&Sdoifhonfxuf ydkv#Hjynfh=uyfaejyD;/ oef@&Sif;r_r&Sdonfh
tjyif u|rf;usifaom usef;rma&;0efxrf;rsm;vnf; vHkvHkavmufavmuf r&Sday? tcsdK@tusOf;
axmifrsm;wGif q&m0efyif xm;&Sdjcif;r&Sday? rsm;aomtm;jzifh usef;rma&;raumif;aom tusOf;
om;vlemrsm;onf a&m*g&SmazGppfaq;r_cH,l&efESifh ukocGifh&&ef aq;&kHwufcGifhr&=uay? jyify
aq;&kHodk@ wufa&mufukocGifh&aom tcgwGifvnf; aq;&kH&Sd tusOf;om;rsm; xm;aom
ae&mY vufxdyf/ ajcusOf;rsm;ESifh ae&onf? xdk@a=umifh usef;rma&;raumif;aom EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;tcsdK@onf ajcusOf; cwfvsuf wef;vef;jzifhyif aoqHk;oGm;=u&onf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; aoqHk;&aom tjcm;tcsufonf axmiftm%mydkifrsm;. ESdyfpuf
n‡Of;yef;r_a=umifh omruyJ/ &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;. ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;r_a=umifhvnf; aoqHk;=u&
onf? Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;udk ESyd pf uf&ef tm%mydik rf sm;u tm;ay;tm;ajr‡mufjyKxm;aom/
vufeufrsm; w&m;r0if udkifaqmifcGifh&xm;aom &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;ESifh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;
om;rsm;onf wdkufcef;usOf;xJwGif twlxnfhxm;jcif;cH&onf? &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;onf
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;/ ESdyfpufjcif;jzifh tm%mydkifrsm;. rsufESmomay;jcif;/
24

ta&;ay;jcif;cH&+yD;/ axmifwGif;wGifvnf; AdkvfusaexdkifcGifh&onf? xdk@a=umifh tcsdK@EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;rsm;onf &mZ0wfom;rsm;. vufcsufjzifh aoqHk;oGm;=u&onf?
rsm;aomtm;jzifh wufºuaom/ vlxkudkOD;aqmifr_ay;Edkifaom EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftrsm;pkudk
&kH;wifjcif;/ w&m;pGJqdkjcif;/ wdusaom axmif'%fcsrSwfjcif;r&SdyJ ‘EkdifiHawmftm; aESmufh,Sufzsuf
qD;vdkolrsm;.ab;tœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh Oya'’ [kac:onfh yk'fr 10(u)
jzifh 5 ESpf txufxd zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;avh&Sdonf? xdkodk@ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;udk az:
jyyg tajctaejzifh ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifxm;jcif;onf ao&myg &kyfydkif;qdkif&m/ pdwf
ydkif;qdkif&ma&m*grsm; &&Sdaponfhtjyif EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tcsKd@ toufqHk;&_H;&onftxd jzpfcJh
&onf?
tusOf;axmifxJwGif tenf;qHk; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;aygif; 90 OD; aoqHk;cJh+yD;jzpfonf?

tydkif;(4) &Jbufpcef;rsm;
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd tvkyf=urf;&Jbufpcef;toD;oD;wGif tenf;qHk; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (4) OD; aoqHk;
cJh&onf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; trdef@csrSwfcH&onfhtcgwdkif; axmif'%ftjyif tvkyf=urf;yg csrSwfcH&
onf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;pDrHudef;rsm;twGuf ppftpdk;&. t"Rvkyftm;cdkif;apr_
rsm; tajrmuftrsm;&Sdonf?
tcsdK@EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;onf tjcm;aom &mZ0wfr_yk'frrsm;jzifh pGJqdkaxmifcscH&+yD; &Jbuf
pcef;rsm;odk@ ydk@aqmifjcif;cH=uonf? &Jbufpcef;rsm;wGif t"Rvkyftm;apcdkif;&ef tusOf;om;rsm;
a&G;cs,f&mwGifvnf; usef;rma&;ESifh touft&G,fudk *&krpdkufyJ a&G;cs,fr_rsm;&Sdonf? &Jbuf
pcef;rsm;rS jyifyxGufcGifh&&eftwGufvnf; vmbfaiG tajrmuftrsm;ay;&avonf?
xdkodk@ tvkyf=urf; &Jbufpcef;rsm;odk@ ydk@aqmifjcif;onf n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_wrsdK;yif jzpfonf?
tusOf;om;rsm;onf &Jbufpcef;rsm;wGif aomufoHk;a&/ csdK;a& ESifh tpmt[m& vHkavmuf
atmifr&&SdyJ yljyif;vSaom aea&mifatmufwGif yifyef;EGrf;csdonfxd tvkyfvkyf=u&onf?
,if;odk@ &Jbufpcef;rsm;wGif tvkyf=urf;cdkif;ap+yD; vHkavmufaom tpmt[m& ray;jcif;onf
zsm;emjcif;/ emwm&Snfjzpfjcif;ESifh aoqHk;&jcif;. tajccHtcsuftvufrsm; jzpfonf?
&Jbufpcef;rsm;Y tusO;f om;rsm;zsm;emaepOf t"Rtvky=f urf;cdik ;f apjcif;onf pmemaxmuf
xm;r_ tvsOf;r&Sda=umif;xif&Sm;onf? xdk@jyif vrf;wHwm;aqmufvkyfjcif;rsm;/ ausmufxkpcef;
25

rsm;/ ay:wmqGJjcif;rsm;/ tp&Sdaom tvkyfrsm;wGif tusOf;om;rsm; vkyfief;cGifwGif temw&
jzpfjcif;rsm;onf omrefjzpfavhjzpfx &SdaomudPrsm; jzpfaeonf? trsm;pkonf rdrdwdk@.
rdom;pkrsm;udkyif today;ta=umif;=um;cGifhr&yJ aoqHk;oGm;cJh=u&onf?

tydkif;(5) aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm;
zrf;qD;cH&jyD;aemufaysmufqHk;oGm;aom tusOf;om;rsm;.jzpf&yfonf oufaojy&ef tvGefcufcJ
aomudP jzpfonf? ,ae@umvwGif aysmufqHk;oGm;ol (15) OD;om oufaojyEdkifcJhjzpfonf?
aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm;. jzpf&yfonf EdkifiHwumOya'udk csdK;azgufjcif;jzpf+yD; tcsdK@jzpf&yfonf
n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_udk xif&Sm;ay:vGifaponf? jzpf&yftrsm;pkwGif aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm;onf n‡Of;
yrf;ESdyfpufcH&I aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf owif;wdwdusus rod&Sd&jcif;onf aysmufqHk;
oGm;olrsm;.rdom;pktwGif; a0a00g;0g;ESifh ar#mfvifh&vdrfhedk;edk; jzpfaponf? jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd aysmuf
qHk;oGm;olrsm;.tr_udk us,fus,fjyef@jyef@ od&Sd&ef qufvufpHkprf;aeqJjzpfonf?

tydkif;(6) axmifrSvGwf_yD;tajctae
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; axmifrSvGwfvm+yD;aomtcg tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGm &ifqdkifñuHawG@&
onf? t"du tcuftcJwckrSm axmifwGif;rS cHpm;&&Sdvmaom a&m*gb,twGuf jynfhpHkvHk
avmufaumif;rGefaom aq;0g;ukor_ cH,l&ef rwwfEdkifjcif;yifjzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;
a[mif;rsm;onf olwdk@usef;rma&;twGuf pdwfcs&aom tajctaexd a&mufatmif ukor_
cH,l&ef aiGa=u;rwwfEdkif=uay? xdk@tjyif jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd usef;rma&; ukoapmifha&Smufr_pepft&
EdSyfpufn‡Of;yef;r_a=umifh&vmaom a&m*ga0'emtjzpf axmufjy&eff rjzpfEdkifay?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf axmifusaepOf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_ESifhvnf; &ifqdkif
=u&onf? axmifrv
S w
G af omtcg olw@kd . wOD;csi;f tajctaet& jyefvnfjyKpkysKd ;axmif&ef
óu;pm;&onf? rsm;aomtm;jzifh olwdk@onf ausmif;rsm;/ wUodkvfrsm;/ tvkyfcGifrsm;rS xkwf
y,fcHxm;=u&onf? tvkyf&Smaom tcgwGifvnf; ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. apmifh=unfhaESmufh
,Sufjcif; cH=u&onf? xdkenf;wlyif olwdk@. rdom;pkrsm;/ rdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;vnf; apmifh
=unfhcH&+yD; aygif;oif;qufqHa&;udkvnf; jzwfawmufcH&onf? vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGif; jyefvnf
o[Zmwjzpfatmif vkyf&jcif; tcuftcJonfvnf; pdwfydkif;qdkif&m'kQudk ydkrdkcHpm;&aponf?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif jyefvnfjyKpkysdK;axmifa&;ESifh jyefvnfukpm;a&;twGuf t=uH^m%fay;jcif; tpD
tpOfrsm;r&So
d nft
h jyif xdo
k @kd pdwaf &m*gwckck cHpm;ae&jcif;u ol@ut
kd &Su&f aponf?f xd@k a=umifh
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf olwdk@cHpm;ae&aom pdwf'kQudk ajymavhajymxr&Sday? tcsdK@rSm
rdrdudk,fudk,f tqHk;pD&ifonftxdjzpfoGm;=uonf? tenf;qHk; EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (10) OD; rSm
axmifrSvGwfajrmuf+yD; r=umrDumvwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJh=uonf?
26

tydkif;(7) aoqHk;jcif;
rsm;aomtm;jzifh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf tdrfaxmifOD;pD;rsm;jzpf=uonf? olwdk@aoqHk;oGm;
=uaomtcg usef&pfolrdom;pkonf pD;yGm;a&;t=uyftwnf;aygif;pHk ñuHawG@&+yD; pdwfzdpD;r_
rsm;vnf; cHpm;=u&onf? usef&pfolrdom;pkonf ae@pOf&Sifoefvnfywf&ef &SdpkrJhpkrsm; xkcGJ
a&mif;cs&+yD; tvkyf&SmazG=u&onf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; aoqHk;aomtcg rdom;pkrsm;taeESifh csufcsif;odcGifh&&ef cufcJvSonf?
tcsdK@jzpf&yfrsm;wGif tm%mydkifrsm;onf rdom;pkudkta=umif;r=um;yJ tavmif;udkcGJpdwfppfaq;
jcif;/ oç*[fypfjcif; wdk@vkyf=uonf? tavmif;udkcGJpdwfppfaq;jcif;onf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;
aoqHk;&jcif;Zpfjrpfudk azsmufzsuf&ef t"du jzpfonf? ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u q&m0efrsm;udk
aoqHk;olEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;ESifhywfoufI aoqHk;&jcif;ta=umif;udk tjzpfrSefESifh v$Ja&;&ef
+cdrf; ajcmufavh&Sdonf? rdom;pktaeESifh aoqHk;olEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;twGuf tm%mydkifrsm;.
ta=umif;jycsuf/ qHk;jzwfcsufudk apm'uwufvdkaomtcg taESmiftzGJ@uif;aom rsufjrifouf
ao&&ef rvG,fulay? aoqHk;ol.cGJpdwfppfaq;+yD;rSwfwrf;udk tjcm;olrsm;tm;rajym&efvnf;
tm%mydkifrsm;u rdom;pkrsm;udk +cdrf;ajcmufxm;avh&Sdonf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;. &kyftavmif;udk tm%mydkifrsm;u rD;&_d@oç*[fypf&ef n$ef=um;avh&Sdonf?
xd@k a=umifh n‡O;f yef;ESyd pf ufra_ =umifh &xm;aom'%f&mrsm;udk rjrifEikd af wmhay? rdom;pkrsm; taeESihf
vnf; rD;&_d@oç*[fjcif;rSvGJI tjcm;a&G;cs,fcGifhr&ay? rD;&_d@oç*[f+yD; ºuif;usef&pfaomt&kd;jympk
udk axmif0if;twGif;wGifaomf‚/ ocsõKif;ajrwGifaomf‚ rdom;pkudk ta=umif;r=um;yJ ðryfESHypf
avh&Sdonf? rdom;pku ºuif;usef&pfaom t&kd;jympkudk awmif;qdkaomtcgwGifvnf; r&&Sday?
aoqHk;olEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;.rdom;pkudk xdkta=umif;ESifhywfoufI a&iHkE_wfydwfae&efvnf;
tm%mydkifrsm;u aiGa=u;ESifh}udK;yrf;wwfonf? tu,fI rdom;pkrsm;u aoqHk;ol.tjzpfrSefESifh
ywfoufI jyifyodk@ ajymvsif 'kQa&mufrnf[kvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u +cdrf;ajcmufavh&Sdonf?
rdom;pkrsm;u aoqHk;ol.&kyftavmif;udk &&SdaomtcgwGifvnf; psmyeudPt00udk tm%m
ydkifrsm;u olwdk@zmom pDpOf=uonf? xdkodk@ psmyeudPudkyif tm%mydkifrsm;. 0ifa&mufpGufzuf
csKyfudkifjcif; cH&onf? psmye udPudkowfrSwfxm;onfhtcsdefY aemufqHk;=unfhcGifhay;onfh
taeESifh rdom;pkrsm;om =unf&_cGifh&Sdonf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u ajymavh&Sdonf? xkd@tjyif
psmyetcrf;tem;odk@ rnfolrnf0g vma&mufonfudk rSwfom;&ef axmufvSrf;a&;t&m&Sdrsm;
a&mufvmwwfonf? xkdpsmyetcrf;tem;odk@vmonfh vlyk~dKvfrsm;taejzifhvnf; aemufydkif;
wGif axmufvSrf;a&;. ppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;ESifh zrf;qD;xdrf;odrf;jcif; cH&Edkifonf? xdk@a=umifh ao
qHk;+yD;onfhtcsdefxdatmif ppftpdk;&. zdESdyfr_&Sdavonf?
27

ed*Hk;
TtpD&ifcHpmonf tusOf;axmifwGif;zdEdSyfr_rsdK;pHka=umifh aoqHk;oGm;aom 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf
&Sm;ol 127 OD;. jzpf&yfrSefrsm;jzpfonf? zdESdyfr_rsm;onf &kyfydkif;qdkif&m/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&mESifh vdifydkif;
qdkif&mapmfum;r_rsm;yif yg0ifonf? xdk@jyif tusOf;axmifwGif; twdkif;tqrJh 'kQrsm;ESifh r=um
c% aoqHk;ae&aom qdk;&Gm;vSonfh usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_ tajctaersm;onfvnf; ESdyf
pufn‡Of;yef;r_rsm;yifjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;aoqHk;onfhtcg tm%mydkifrsm;. &kdif;pdkif;,kwfrmr_rsm;a=umifh aoqHk;
ol. rdom;pk0ifrsm;onf tcuftcJaygif;rsm;pGm awG@ñuH=u&onf? aoqHk;&jcif;ESifh ywfoufI
rnfonfhta&;,lr_rS r&Sdatmif vkyfonfh aoqHk;csdef cGJpdwfrSwfwrf;twkrsm;onfvnf;
jzpf&yfrSefrsm;udk xdef0Sufazsmufzsufjcif;jzpfonf? aoqHk;r_tay: rdom;pku az:xkwf&ef óu;yrf;
v#ifvnf; uef@owfcsKyfcs,fcH&+yD; tm%mydkifrsm;. ta&;,lr_yif cH&onf?
txufaz:jyyg udPrsm;onf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; tusOf;xmifwGif;aoqHk;&jcif; ta=umif;
w&m;rsm; jzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; tusOf;xmifwGif;aoqHk;&jcif; twGufwm0ef&Sd
olrsm;udk azmfxkwfjyoaomfvnf; xkdolrsm;udk ta&;,laqmif&Gufjcif; r&Sday? xdkolrsm;udk
axmiftkyfcsKyfa&;yHkpHtwGif;rSmyif Ïmetajymif;tvJvkyfvdkufonf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@onf
tusOf;usolrsm;udk qufvufI n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpuf aeEdkifavonf? xdk@a=umifh tusOf;axmifwGif;
aoqHk;oGm;aom 'Drdkua&pDa&;aqmif&Gufol edkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 127 OD; twGuf wm0ef&Sdaom
usL;vGefolrsm;udk pHkprf;ppfaq;azmfxkwf&efESifh w&m;pGJqdkta&;,l&efudPonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif
EdkifiHom;wdkif;. vl@tcGifhta&;ESifh w&m;r#wr_udk a&S;\_onfh tvdktyfqHk; udPw&yfyif
jzpfygonf? ?

28

apmpwef;zdk'f@

rdk[mruftdvD,ufpf

OD;armifudk (c) OD;rif;opf

OD;armifudk (c)
OD;armifav;

udkaX;vGif

OD;atmifrif;

udkatmifvd_if0if;

trnf

19

-

68

52

64

-

53

30

touf

12/ 4/ 1991

7/ 7/ 2005

13 / 6/ 1992

23/ 10/ 1990

10/ 12/ 1990

3/ 10/ 2005

6/ 9/ 1998

1/ 5/ 2005

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

16/ 4/ 1991

Zlvdkif 2005

19/ 6/ 1992

9/ 11/ 1990

11/ 12/ 1990

3/ 10/ 2005

21/ 10/ 1998

7/ 5/ 2005

aoqHk;onfhae‹

teft,fvf'D

-

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

&Jpcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

ppfa=uma&;pcef;

aoqHk;onfhae&m

&efukef

tdrfrJ / {&m0wD

armif;awm / &cdkifjynfe,f

yckUL / rauG;

EGm;xdk;}uD; / rœav;

atmifajromZH/ rœav;

rœav;

r&rf;ukef; / &efukef

ae&yfvdyfpm

aemufqufwGJ (u)
(1) ppfa-uma&;pcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;pm&if;

udkpdk;aX;

29

(2) ppfa-uma&;pcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf;
udkatmifvd_if0if;
r&rf;ukef;òr@e,f/ &efukefwGifaexdkifonf?
2005 ckESpf/ arv (1) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ arv (7) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefcJhonf?
touf (30) t&G,fwGif uG,fvGefchJjcif;jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;armifarmif. om;jzpfol udak tmifvid_ 0f if;onf &efuek w
f ikd ;f / r&rf;uke;f
òr@e,fwiG f aexdik cf o
Jh nf? r&rf;ukef;òr@e,f trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ vli,fvkyfief;tzJG@wGif
tzGJ@0ifwOD; jzpfonf? a,mQrjzpfol OD;a&$*sKd;ESifh wGJbufI tzGJ@csKyf. pnf;\Hk;a&;/ EdkifiHa&;vkyf
ief;pOfrsm;udk ulnDvkyfaqmifay;cJhonf?
2005 ckESpf arv (1) &ufae@Y aetdrfteD;\Sd vyfuD; (lucky) pm;aomufqdkifwGif pm;aomufaepOf
trnfrod vl (4) OD;u zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? rnfonfhae&modk@ ac:aqmifoGm;onfudk
rnfolr# odcGifhr&cJhay?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 2005 ckESpf arv (10) &ufae@wGif &efukefòr@/ trSwf(1)ppfa=uma&;pcef;t&m&dS/
'kwd,Adkvfrª;}uD; rif;vd_ifqdkolu udkatmifvd_if0if;. aetdrfokd@ oGm;a&mufchJonf? ‚u
ukdatmifvd_if0if;onf arv (7) &ufae@Y ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif ppfa=umcHae&pOf ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh
aoqHk;oGm;a=umif;/ xkd@a=umifh aemufwae@wGif rD;oç*[fchJa=umif; ajym=um;cJhonf? xkd@aemuf
ema&;tulaiG usyf (1)odef; ay;aomfvnf; rdom;pku vufcHjcif;rðychJyg?
arv (18)&ufae@wGif ZeD;jzpfol rESif;pümu r&rf;ukef;&Jpcef;wGif tr_zGihf wkdif=um;chJonf?
Tokd@jzihf ukdatmifvd_if0if;aoqkH;r_onf r&rf;ukef;òr@e,fw&m;\kH;okd@ a&muf&dSoGm;onf?
ZGefv(10)&ufae@wGif òr@e,fw&m;\kH;u omreftajctaejzihf aoqkH;oGm;jcif;jzpfonf[k qkdum
tr_ukd yvyfchJonf? ZeD;jzpfolu ukdatmifvd_if0if; zrf;qD;cHxm;&pOf aoqkH;chJ&r_ESihfywfouf+yD;
w&m;\kH;tqihfqifhwufI rSwfwrf;wif&ef óu;pm;chJonf? jyifqifcsuf av#mufv$mukd &efukef
wkdif;w&m;\kH;okd@ wifoGif;chJ&m pufwifbm (9)&ufae@wGif wkdif;w&m;\kH;u xkdtr_ukd yvyf
vkdufjyefonf?
atmufwkdbm (11) &ufae@wGif A[kdw&m;\kH;okd@ wifoGif;chJonf? odk@aomfvnf; ,ae@txd
w&m;\Hk;tqifhqifhu yvyfjcif; cHcJh&onf?
30

ppfaq;awG@\cdS su?f ? ZGev
f (7)ae@wiG f ajrmufOUvmyaq;\Hrk S a'guw
f maZmfaZmfO;D u r&rf;uke;f
òr@e,fw&m;\Hk;wGif atmufygtwdkif; xGufqdkcJhonf?
1) udkatmifv_dif0if;onf aq;\kHodk@ra&mufcifuwnf;u aoqHk;cJh+yD;jzpfonf/ tm%mykdif
rsm;u tavmif;ukd aq;\kHodk@vmydk@oGm;jcif;omjzpfonf/
2) rdrdESihf yg&*l (4) OD;. aq;ppfcsuf rSwfwrf;t&/ aool. cýmudk,fjyifywGif t!dktrnf;/
'%f&m'%fcsufaygif; (24) ckawG@\SdcJhonf/
3) twGif;ydkif;eH\kd; (3) acsmif; usKd;ae+yD;/ eHygwf (4) eH\kd;rSmvnf; ESpfydkif;jywfaeum/ ESvHk;wGif
aoG;ajcOaeonf/
4) vnfacsmif;\kd; a&mif,rf;ae+yD; av¹yefvnf; a&mifudkif;aea=umif;/ tpmtdrfESifh tlr}uD;
wGif ykyfaeaom vQ%mawG@\Sd&onf?
a'gufwmaZmfaZmfOD;u udkatmifvd_if0if;. \kyftavmif;udk ppfaq;&mwGifyg0ifcJhonfh ajrmuf
OUvmy aq;\Hk}uD;. wm0efcHq&m0ef (4) OD;. udk,fpm; xGufqkdchJjcif;jzpfonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? rdom;pku ukdatmifvd_if0if;twGuf qGrf;uyfw&m;emzdwf=um;pmwGif &kwfw&uf
uG,fvGef oGm;jcif;jzpfa=umif;[k azmfjy&dkufESdyf&ef pDpOfchJonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u pmyHkESdyfpuf
ydkif&Sifukd zdwfpmwGif (96) yg;a&m*gjzifh uGefvGefoGm;onf[k jyifqif\dkufESdyf&ef zdtm;ay;
+cdrf;ajcmufcJhonf?
tm%mykdifwkd@onf udkatmifvd_if0if;ukd rnfonfh zrf;0&rf;rSrygbJ vrf;ay:wGif zrf;qD;cJhonf?
rdom;pkukdvnf; ukdatmifvd_if0if;tm; rnfonfhtwGuf zrf;qD;chJ+yD; rnfonfhae&mwGif csKyf
aESmifxm;onfukd ta=umif;=um;jcif; r\SdchJyg? tm%mykdifrsm;ukd,fwkdif Oya'ukd csKd;azmufchJjcif;
jzpfonf?
xkd@jyif trdef@tm%moHk;I ema&;zdwfpmudk jyifqif&dkufESdyfcdkif;jcif;/ rdom;pktm; aiGusyfwpfodef;
ay;I tr_ayghap&ef jzm;a,mif;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyfchJ&m tpdk;&udk,fwdkifu vlowfr_/ tavmif;azsmuf
zsufr_ ponfh&mZ0wfr_rsm; usK;vGefchJa=umif; ay:vGifxif\Sm;aeayonf?
“olwdk@u ajym&r,fqdk&if olwdk@bmom olwdk@ppfw,f? udk,fvnf; bmrSrod&bl;aygh? w&m;\Hk;

a&mufawmhvJ orD;u bmrSajymydkifcGifhqdkydkifcGifh r\Sdbl;? olwdk@ajymwJh[mudk em;axmifykdifcGifhyJ
&Sdw,f? rSm;wm odvsufeJ@vnf; odod}uD;eJ@ bmrS xajymydkfifcGifhr\Sdbl;? orD;&J@ av#mufvJcsuf
udkvnf; y,fcsw,f? em;yJ axmif&wmaygh? ar;ydkfifcGifhvnf; r\Sdbl;? olwdk@ ajymor# qdkor#udk
em;axmif+yD; tdrfjyefvm&ovdk jzpfaew,f? ”
31

“t&rf;cHpm;&wmayghaemf? tckvdk vlwa,mufrSm tjypfr&SdbJeJ@ 'DvdkrsKd;jzpfoGm;wmqkdawmh

t&rf;cHpm;&w,f? tjypf&Sdw,fqdkvnf; 'DvdkrsKd;vkyfydkfifcGifhr&Sdbl;? w&m;Oya't& ta&;,lvdk@
aqmif&Gufvdk@ &wmaygh? tck[mu oufouf}uD;udk vlwa,mufvHk;udk qHk;\_H;vdkuf&wm
t&rf;0rf;enf;w,f? usrwdk@u vlwa,mufvHk; qHk;\_H;oGm;+yDqdkwJhtwGuf w&m;Oya't&
rSefrSefuefuef aqmif&Gufygapvdk@yJ qkawmif;&awmhrSmaygh? ”
— rESif;püm (udkatmifvd_if0if;. ZeD;) 9 ZGef/ 2005 ckESpf 'DAGDbD?

OD;atmifrif;
rœav;òr@wGifaexdkifonf?
1998 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (21) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (53) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;atmifrif;onf trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf tzJG@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? tzJG@
csKyfwGif rœav;wkdif;&kH; &kH;tzGJ@r;/ ta&S@ajrmuf+rdK@e,f wGJbuftwGif;a&;rª;/ arm&*D0g&yfuGuf
OUX wm0eftoD;oD; ay;tyfjcif; cHchJ&oljzpfonf? tzJG@csKyf. 1998 ckESpf atmufwkdbmv 30
&ufae@xkwf a=unmcsufwGif “tzGJ@csKyftay:wGif oPm&Sd&Sd/ ZGJoWd&Sd&Sdjzifh wm0efaus¹yefpGm
xrf;aqmifcJhol jzpfonf” [k azmfjyxm;onf?
1998 ckESpfwGif jrefrmjynftESH@tjym;&dS tzJG@csKyftzJG@0ifrsm; &mESihfcsDI zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? ppftpkd;&
url ‚wk@d tm; “tpk;d &{nhaf *[mrsm;wGif xm;&d+S yD; aqG;aEG;aeonf” [kqo
dk nf? ZGev
f 23 &uf
ae@wGif tzJG@csKyfu ppftpkd;&tm; &ufaygif; (60)twGif; jynfol@v$wfawmf ac:,lay;&ef awmif;
qkdchJ+yD;aemufwGif zrf;qD;r_rsm; ykdrkdwkd;yGm;vmonf? 979 OD; zrf;qD;cHae&a=umif; atmufwkdbm
15 &ufae@xkwf tzJG@csKyf. a=unmcsufwGif azmfjyxm;onf? axmif/ &Jpcef;tcsKyfaqmif/
wyfpcef;wkd@wGif xdef;odrf;chJonf?
pufwifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif OD;atmifrif; zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? rœav;wkdif;twGif;&dS/ wyf&if;
trSwf (109) wGif xdef;odrf;cHchJ&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;atmifrif;onf zrf;qD; xdef;odrf; cHae&pOf emrusef;jzpfvmonf? atmufwdkbm
v (21) &ufae@wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
32

rSwcf su?f ? OD;atmifrif;onf zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f jcif; rcH&rDu rnfonfah &m*g a0'emr# r&daS }umif;
‚.rdom;pkxHrS od&Sd&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (23) &ufae@ &ufae@u OD;atmifrif;. psmyeukd =umeDuefokomefodk@
ykd@aqmifIo+*õK[fcJh&m tzGJ@csKyf tzGJ@0ifw&mcef@u wlnD0wfpkH0wfI vkdufvHykd@aqmifcJhonf?
1998 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (30) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefaom trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf
a=unmcsuftrSwf 96 (10§98) wGif ,ckuJhodk@ OD;atmifrif;zrf;qD;cH&+yD; “(45) &uf twGif;
&kwfw&uf aoqkH;oGm;&jcif;rSm vGefpGmrSyif ,kHrSm;oHo, jzpfzG,f&Sdaeonf”[k az:jycJhonf?

udkaX;vGif
rœav;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf
2005 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 3 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 3 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (30) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
rœav;wkdif; atmifajromZH+rKd@e,f/ anmifuGJ&yfuGufwGif aexdkifaom ukdaX;vGifonf 'Drdkua&
pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tm; tm;ay;cJholwOD;jzpfonf? o&ufwyifqdyfurf;teD; ig;zrf;aepOf zrf;qD;jcif;
cH&onf? anmifuJG&yf o&ufwyifqdyfurf;teD; aysmufqkH;oGm;onfh a&pkyfpufESifh ywfouf+yD;
oHo,&Sdr_ESifh 2005 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv 3 &ufae@ nae 4 em&DwGif&,u tzGJ@0ifOD;bwifhESifh
}uHhzGH@tzGJ@0ifrsm;. zrf;qD;cH&jcif;jzpfonf?
xdkaemuf ukdaX;vGifukd &,u\Hk;cef;twGif; xnfh+yD; OD;bwifh/ }uHhzGwftzGJ@0if csJxD'kdifwOD;jzpfol
OD;xGef;rif;vwfeJ@ trnfrod &JwyfzGJ@0ifawGu 0kdif;0ef;\kdufeSuf ppfaq;cJhonf? n (10) em&Dcef@
rSmawmh '%f&mtjyif;txef&xm;
udkaX;vGif. \kyftavmif;
onfh ukdaX;vGifukd trSwf (4) &Jpcef;
qD ykd@cJhonf? xdkowif;=um;&onfh
ukdaX;vGif&J@ZeD;onf rat;at;ckdifu
n (11) em&DcefwGif &Jpcef;qDa&muf
vm+yD; ol@trsK;d om;eJ@ay;awG@z@dk / xrif;
yk d @ cG i f h a y;zk d @ awmif ; qk d c J h a omf v nf ;
pcef;rª;u cGifhrðycJhay? tJ'Dae@ n
(12) em&Dcef@rSmawmh }uhHzGH@tzGJ@u
33

OD;pD;zGifhxm;onfh u\k%m&Sifema&;toif;u um;jzifh ukdaX;vGif&J@tavmif;ukd rœav;aq;\Hk
}uD;odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhonf? (4) &uffae@ reufykdif;wGif aq;\Hktkyf}uD;rS rat;at;ckdifukdac:,l+yD;
ukdaX;vGif. tavmif;ukd tjrefqkH;oç*[f&ef ta=umif;=um;cJhonf? }uHhzGH@twGif;a&;rª;
OD;wifarmif0if;ESifh &Jrª;}uD;wkd@u aiGusyf oHk;odef; ay;cJhaomfvnf; 4if;rdom;pku vufrcHcJhyJ
tavmif;udkom jyefay;&ef awmif;cJhonf?
udkaÏ;vGif. ZeD; rat;at;ckdifonf &efukef&Sd &JcsKyfcif&DqD wkdif=um;pmykd@cJh+yD; jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Ïme
odk@vnf; wdkif=um;xm;w,fvkd@ rœav;òr@cHawG&J@ ajym=um;csuft& od&ygw,f//

OD;armifudk (c) OD;armifav;
rœav;wdkif;/ EGm;xdk;}uD;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
tzrf;cH&+yD;aemufwae@ 'DZifbmv (11) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (64) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;odef;/ a':aiGoJh wdk@.om;jzpfonf? 1926 ckESpfY rœav;wdkif;/ EGm;xdk;}uD;òr@
e,fwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf?
1949 ckESpfwGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD (Auy) odk@ awmcdkcJhonf? 1955 ckESpfwGif ausmufqnf/
wHwm;OD;/ jrif;+cH/ EGm;xdk;}uD;òr@e,fwdk@udk txl;c&dkif zGJ@pnf;aomtcg/ txl;c&dkifwyf. EdkifiHa&;rª;
tjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf?
1959 ckESpfY jrif;rlòr@e,fwGif tzrf;cH&+yD; axmif'%f (2) ESpf csrSwfcH&onf?
1976 ckESpfwGif rœav;rS vli,frsm; awmcdkjcif;ESifh ywfoufI ac:,lppfaq;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1987 wGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ajratmufawmfvSefa&;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifaepOf ppf
axmufvSrf;a&;u vdkufvHzrf;qD;jcif;a=umifh ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDÏmecsKyf&Sd&m rHk;udk; odk@
wdrf;a&SmifcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif (4828) a'oaumfrwD. twGif;a&;rª;wm0efjzihf jynfwGif;odk@
jyefvnf0ifa&mufcJh+yD; ajratmufv_yf\Sm;r_rsm;udk wm0ef,lcJhonf? 1990 jynhfESpf 'DZifbmv
(10) &ufae@wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
34

aoqHk;yHk? ? zrf;qD;cH&+yD; rœav;òr@ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; trSwf (1) ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif
jyif;xefpGm ESdyfpuf n‡Of;yef; cH&onf? xkd@a=umifh zrf;qD;cH&+yD; w&uft=umY xdkae&mwGifyif
aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tm%mydkifrsm;url OD;armifukdonf rœav;aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ a&muf&dS+yD;r=umrSD aoqHk;
chJjcif; jzpfonf[k xkwfjyefcJhonf?

OD;armifudk (ac:) rif;opf
rauG;wdkif;/ yckULòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbmv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1990 jynhfESpf Edk0ifbmv (9) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (52) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1936 ckESpf rauG;wdkif;/ yckULòr@Y arG;zGm;cJhonf? rdbrsm;rSm OD;wif/
a':apm&if wdk@jzpfonf? 1968 ckESpfwGif vkyfom;rsm;aumvdyf (&efukef)rS 0d…mbGJ@&&SdcJhonf?
qdyfurf;OD;pD;ÏmewGif refae*smtjzpf 1986 ckESpftxd tr_xrf;cJhonf? t*Fvef/ *smr%D/
aemfa0;/ qGD'ifEdkifiHrsm;odk@ ynmawmfoif oGm;a&mufcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m qdyfurf;vkyfom;rsm;or~
wGif taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; wm0ef,lI v_yf&Sm;cJhonf? 1988 ckESpf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pD tzGJ@
csKyf pwifxlaxmifcsdefwGif ygwD0ifjzpfvmcJhonf? aemufydkif; A[dkvlr_taxmuftulðytzGJ@0if
tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ weoFm&Dwdkif; pnf;\Hk;a&;aumfrwD0iftjzpfvnf;aumif; wm0efay;tyf
cHchJ&onf?
1990 atmufwdkbmv (23) &ufae@wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u OD;armifukdtm; zrf;qD;cJh
onf? 1990 pufwifbmv (29) &ufae@Y tr&yl&òr@e,f jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f.
aetdrfwGif ðyvkyfaom ,m,Dtpdk;& zGJ@pnf;a&; tpnf;ta0;odk@ wufa&mufcJhonfhtwGuf
xkdokd@zrf;qD;jcif; jzpfonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? zrf;qD;csdefrSpI &efukefwdkif;/ r*Fvm'Hkòr@e,f&Sd a&=unftdkif ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif
csKyfaESmifcHchJ&onf? Edk0ifbmv (9) &ufae@wGif n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_'%fa=umifh aoqHk;cJh&onf?
aoqHk;+yD;aemuf OD;armifukd.&kyftavmif;tm; &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;odk@ydk@vdkufonf? aq;\Hk0efxrf;
tcsKd@u OD;armifudktm; rSwfrdod&SdoGm;I tdrfodk@ta=umif;=um;cJhonf? xkd@a=umihf rdom;pk/
35

rdwfaqGrsm;u tokbydk@aqmifcGifh&cJhonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? rsufjrifoufaorsm;u OD;armifudk. ajcovHk;wGif pD;u&ufrD;jzihf wkd@xm;
[ef&Sdaom '%f&mrsm;/ cýmukd,fwGif '%f&m'%fcsufrsm;&dSonf[k ajymjy=uonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ukvor~vl@tcGifhta&;aumfr&Sifu apv$wfvdkufaom
&efukefòr@odk@ a&muf&SdaecsdefwGif OD;armifudk aoqHk;chJjcif; jzpfonf?

Ms. Sadako Ogata

&efukefaq;\Hk}uD;a&cJwkdufwGifawG@&aom

ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif pD;u&ufrD;jzihfwkd@xm;cH&onf[k

OD;armifukd. \kyftavmif;

,lq&aom b,fzufajcaxmuf

ppftpkd;&acgif;aqmif AkdvfcsKyfapmarmifu OD;armifukd aoqkH;&jcif;ESihfywfoufI rœav;òr@wGif
ajymqkdaom rdef@cGef;wckwGif xnhfoGif;ajym=um;chJonf? “u|efawmfwdk@rSm n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpuf+yD;

ppfaq;w,fqdkwm r&Sdygbl;? tJ'Dvlu olwdk@ bmvkyfcJhw,f/ bmtpDtpOfawG&Sdw,f qdkwmudk
0efcHoGm;+yD; ol@udkay;xm;wJh apmifeJ@ ol@udk,fol qGJóu;csaooGm;w,f? u|efawmfwdk@a=umifh
aowm r[kkwfygbl; ”[k qkdonf?
ppftm%m&Sifpepf atmufrSmae&wJh b0[m &Sifv#ufeJ@ aoqHk;ae=u&wmyg? vllwpfa,muf&J@
touf&Sif &yfwnfcGifh/ rdom;pkwpfpk&J@b0wdk@[m b,fvkdrS tmrcHcsufr&SdwJh tajctaersdK; jzpfyg
w,f? OD;armifudk uG,fvGefcsdefrSm touf 52 ESpfom &Sdygao;w,f? t&G,faumif;wkef;tcsdef
jzpfygw,f? ZeD;jzpfol a':cifjrifh[m vrf;ckvwffrSm cifyGef;jzpfol&J@ vufwGJjzKwfjcif;udk cHpm;&+yD?
om;orD;wdk@rSmvnf; aumif;uif}uD;wr# tjyef@us,fwJh zcif&J@ at;jrwJht&dyf uG,faysmuf
cJh&+yD? 'gawG[m jrefrmjynf ppftm%m&Sifpepfqdk;atmufu rdom;pk wpfpk&J@ b0yHk&dyf jzpfw,f?
‘OD;armifudk’ rdom;pkvkdyJ rdom;pkaygif;rsm;pGmwdk@[m aouGJ uGJ=u/ &SifuGJ uGJ=ueJ@ =uHKawG@
ae=u&ygw,f? jrefrmjynfrSm b0tmrcHcsuf uif;rJhvkd@aeygw,f?

36

rdk[mruf tDvf,wfpf
&cdkifjynfe,f/ armif;awmòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1992 ckESpf/ ZGefv (13) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ ZGefv (19) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (68) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
Edik if aH &;aemufc?H ? rd[
k mruftv
D ,
f wfpo
f nf tPvmrfbmom0ifwOD;jzpfonf? armif;awmòr@
e,f/ trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ òr@e,fpnf;&kH;a&;tzJG@wGif twGif;a&;rª;tjzpf wm0ef,lchJonf?
1992 ckESpf/ ZGefvtwGif; armif;awmòr@e,fwGif AHk;aygufuGJr_wck jzpfyGm;chJonf? ppfaxmufvSrf;
a&;rsm;u rdk[mruftDvf,wfpftm; xkdaygufuJGr_wGif yg0ifywfoufonf[k pGyfpGJum zrf;qD;chJ
onf? xkd@aemuf axmufvSrf;a&;pcef;&dS/ tvHkydwftcef;xJwGif ydwfavSmifum tjyif;txef
ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;chJonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? xkdokd@ jyif;xefpGm ESdyfpuf!SOf;yef;cH&aoma=umihf tzrf;cH&+yD; &ufydkif;twGif;wGif
armif;awmòr@e,f jynfol@aq;\Hkodk@ a&muf&dSchJonf? aq;&kHokd@a&muf+yD; (3) &uft=um 1992
ckESpf/ ZGefv (22) &ufae@wGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u rdk[mruftDvf,wfpfonf tpmtdrfa&m*gjzifh aoqHk;onf[k a=unmchJonf?
okd@aomf‚onf tzrf;cH&pOfu usef;rma&;aumif;rGefoljzpfonf[k od&onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ppfa=uma&;umvwGif axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u rdk[mruftDvf,wfpf. yg;pyfwGif;okd@
0ufqDrsm; twif;t=uyf avmif;xnfhchJonf?

apmpwJefzdk@
{&m0wDwdkif;/ tdrfrJòr@e,fwGif aexdkifonf?
2005 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 7 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 16 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (40) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? u&ifvlrsdK;wOD;jzpfaom apmpwJefzdk@onf tv,fwef;jyausmif;q&mwOD;
jzpfonf? 2005 ckESpf Zlvdkifv 7 &ufae@wGif tokwfòr@e,fESifh tdrfrJòr@e,f w*lqdyfaus;&Gm wdk@
wGif &Gmom;rsm; ta,muf 30 ausmf zrf;qD;cH&onfhtxJwGif apmpwJefzdk@vnf; yg0ifcJhonf?
37

ajrmif;jr tajcpdkuf ajcjrefwyf&if; 93 rS xdk&Gmom;rsm;onf w*lqdyf&Gm&Sd bk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;ESifh
aetdrfrsm;wGif u&ifvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmfrS vufeufrsm;tm; odkavSmifxm;onf[k
,lqojzifh zrf;qD;cJhjcif;jzpfonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ppfa=uma&;umvtwGif; ppfom;rsm;. n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;trsdK;rsdK;cH&+yD; usifpuf
jzifh wdk@jcif;udkvnf; cHcJh&onf? aemufqHk; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;'%f rcHEdkifawmhojzifh Zlvdkifv 16
&ufae@ ykodrfòr@ axmufvSrf;a&;pcef;wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? apmpwJefzdk@ aoqHk;+yD;aemuf tpdk;&rS ol@rdom;pktm; aiGusyf 300˜000 ay;+yD;
bma=umifh aoqHk;a=umif; rnfol@udkr#rajym&ef wm;jrpfcJhonf? rdom;pkrS xdkaiGtm;,l&ef
jiif;qefcJhonf?

udkpdk;aÏ;
1991 ckESpf/ {+yDv (12) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ {+yDv (16) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (19) ESpfom&Sdao;onf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? ukdpkd;aX;onf &efukefòr@wGifaexdkif+yD; trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf tzGJ@0if
wOD;jzpfonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? udkpdk;aÏ;onf 1991 ckESpf {+yDv (12) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? xkd@aemuf
&efukefòr@/ axmufvSrf;a&; trSwf (6) ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif ppfa=umar;jref;cHchJ&onf? tzrf;
cH&+yD; (4) &uft=um aoqHk;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? tvGeftu|H ESdyfpufcH&onhf'%fa=umihf aoqkH;chJ&
jcif;jzpfrnf[k ,lq&onf?

38

31

35

38

61

37

-

38

21

30

65

OD;tmp&

udkatmifausmfrdk;

OD;atmifarok

udkatmifjrifhodef;

udkatmifEdkif

udkat;vGif

rat;rl

udkatmifaZmfvwf

armifaomfu
(c) OD;baomf

5(u)/ 5(c)

5(n)/ 17(1)
5/ 10/ 1989

Zlvdkif/ 1999

16/ 9/ 1997

atmufwdkbm/ 1988

122(1)/
302(2)/ 149

17(1)

-

Zlvdkif/ 2005

=o*kwf/ 1989

20/ 7/ 1989

Zefe0g&D/ 1991

atmufwkdbm/ 1990

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

7 ESpf

tcsKyf

20 ESpf

20 ESpf

10 ESpf

8 ESpf

usESpf

uav;

tif;pdef

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

om,m0wD

o&uf

o&uf

axmif

11/ 6/ 1991

15/ 12/ 2005

ar/ 1998

20 ESpf

25 ESpf

5 ESpf

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

tif;pdef

xm;0,f

'DZifbm/ 1992 woufwusGef; tif;pdef

1998

5/ 11/ 2005

17/ 9/ 2002

13 / 5/ 1998

15/ 3/ 1996

13/ 10/ 1993

aoqHk;onfhae‹

aemufqufwGJ (c)
(1) tusOf;axmifwGif; aoqHk;oGm;olrsm;pm&if;

-

5(n)/ 17(1)

5(n)/ 10(u)

5(n)/ 17(1)

5(n)/ 17(1)

5(n)/ 17(1)

touf yk'fr

udktdkufukd

trnf

39

teft,fvf'D

ausmufwHwm;/
&efukef

yJcl;jrdk@/ yJcl;wdkif;

o&ufacsmif;/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

jrdwf/xm;0,f
nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;
ausmif;om;

ouFef;u|ef;/ &efukef

&efukef

a&$aygufuH/ &efukef

rif;vS/ yJcl;

urm&Gwf/ &efukef

vrf;rawmf/ &efukef

vd_if/ &efukef

ae&yfvdyfpm

-

ausmif;om;

'D/+idrf;

teft,fvf'D

ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD

oHCm

ausmif;om;

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

-

70

-

50

38

20

21

43

-

49

23

37

57

38

bdkoHwkH;

bdkomcl;

OD;cspfaxmif

OD;csdK}uD;

udkacgif;a&S

udk[mepf

OD;vScif

OD;vSa&$

OD;vSoef;

qD&SD;

udkaX;atmif

OD;cifarmifat;

udkcifarmifvGif

ar/ 1996
5/ 1/ 1998

124 (u)/
17(20)

-

1989

23/ 10/ 1990

1991

=o*kwf/ 1998

'DZifbm/ 1988

1991

Zlvdkif/ 1990

1989

1982

1983

1999

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

5(n)

5(n)

17(1)

122(1)

17(1)

-

17(1)

17(1)

17(1)

122(1)

122(1)

-

touf yk'fr

OD;bdk

trnf

40

3 ESpf

-

-

ao'%f

ao'%f

-

usESpf

11/ 1/ 2006

2002

1995

18/ 10/ 1990

2/ 8/ 1996

1996

31/ 5/ 1999

10 ESpf

7 ESpf

7 ESpf

7 ESpf

25 ESpf

10 ESpf

tcsKyf

'DZifbm/ 1988 ao'%f

1992

1993

19/ 12/ 1990

1998

rwf/ 1997

1999

aoqHk;onfhae‹

ylwmtdk

rœav;

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

jrif;jcH

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

jrdwf

rœav;

jrif;jcH

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

axmif

-

-

a&S@ae

autdkifat

teft,f'DtrfyD

-

teft,fvf'D

ausmif;om;

a'gykH/ &efukef

rœav;

-

ucsifjynfe,f

=unfhjrifwdkif/ &efukef

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

a&$jynfom/ &efukef

-

jrdwf/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

rœav;

trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;
wyfaygif;pk
autef,l

zm;aqmif;/ u,m;

-

anmifav;yif/ &efukef

-

ae&yfvdyfpm

teft,fvf'D

autef,l

autef,l

t&yfom;

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

42

-

63

68

53

50

64

-

58

27

22

-

60

-

OD;cifarmifjrifh

OD;cifarmifjrifh

OD;cifarmifjrifh

OD;cifarmif(c)
Adkvfpufa&mif

OD;cifpdef

udkav;

udkOD;

usm;}uD;

OD;ausmf'if

udkausmfrsdK;oef@

udkausmfpdk;

OD;=unf

OD;=unfaqmif

udkwifarmifav;

41

5(n)

5(n)

17(20)

17(1)

5(n)

505(c)

-

363/ 505(c)

5(n)

17(1)

17/1/2

17(1)

17(1)/ 122(1)

17(1)

-

21/ 12/ 1995

1992

Zefe0g&D/ 1988

Zlvdkif/ 1989

20/ 10/ 1997

1989

{jyD/ 2000

rwf/ 1990

Zefe0g&D/ 1991

2/ 11/ 1989

6/ 11/ 1989

1991

28/ 10/ 1997

20/ 6/ 2001

ar/ 1996

7 ESpf

tcsKyf

6 ESpf

-

azaz:0g&D/
1989

2 ESpf

10 ESpf

9 ESpf

7 ESpf

8 ESpf

20 ESpf

20 ESpf

18 v

1994

uav;

rœav;

ajrmif;jr

om,m0wD

tif;pdef

rtlyif

0g;c,fr

jrif;jcH

o&uf

rœav;

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

woufwusGef; jrif;jcH

8 ESpf

20/ 5/ 1990

24/ 7/ 1999

1992

23/ 3/ 2006

1992

16 /1/ 1995

7/ 3/ 1990

16/ 2/ 1993

2001

21/ 6/ 2004

-

teft,fvf'D

-

rW&m/ rœav;

ajrmif;jr/ {&m0wD

om,m0wD/ &efukef

tif;pdef/ &efukef

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

vl@abmifopf
'Drdku&ufwpfygwD
ausmif;om;

0g;c,fr/ {&m0wD

-

o&uf/ rauG;wdkif;

teft,fvf'D

-

teft,fvf'D

Aef;armf/ ucsif

jynf/ yJcl;

jynfol@
wdk;wufa&;ygwD
teft,fvf'D

A[ef;/ &efukef

a';'&J/ {&m0wD

jynfol@
wdk;wufa&;ygwD
Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwD

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

vom/ &efukef

autef,l

teft,fvf'D

-

65

58

40

58

24

59

50

42

54

48

65

32

-

vD,dk eDudk;vf

ref;'g0dwf

rdkif;tdkufyef;

OD;armifudk

udkarmifarmifat;

OD;armifarmifat;

OD;rif;ol

OD;rif;xGef;a0

OD;jra&G

OD;jrwfol

OD;jrifharmif

udkjrifhaqG

udkrsdK;0if;

17(1)/ 17(2)

122(1)

5(n)

333

5(n)

-

5(n)

505 (c)

5(n)

5(n)/ 17(1)

17(1)

17(1)

17(20)

-

touf yk'fr

vacgif

trnf

42
-

24/ 10/ 1988

24/ 8/ 1991

azaz:0g&D/ 1997

'DZifbm/ 1996

26/ 5/ 2005

28/ 4/ 1998

pufwifbm/ 1999

4/ 8/ 1989

1996

2/ 10/ 2001

1989

{jyD/ 1996

-

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

1990

8/ 6/ 1996

Edk0ifbm/ 1995

ar/ 1997

27/ 4/ 1999

29/ 5/ 2005

13/ 6/ 2004

21/ 6/ 2002

5/ 7/ 1991

15/ 11/ 2002

31/ 7/ 2002

12/ 7/ 1992

22/ 6/ 1996

2001

aoqHk;onfhae‹

-

20 ESpf

5 ESpf

2v

7 ESpf

5 &uf

7 ESpf

4 ESpf

5 ESpf

14 ESpf

7 ESpf

8 ESpf

3 ESpf

-

usESpf

yJcl;

o&uf

yJcl;

awmifil

om,m0wD

armfvjrdKif

tif;pdefaq;&kH

ykodrf

om,m0wD

tif;pdefaq;&kH

armfvjrdKif

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

rœav;

axmif

-

-

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

pDyDtufzf

yDtufpft,fvftufzf

atbDautdk

oHwref

-

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

a'gykH/ &efukef

'v/ &efukef

ausmufwHcg;/ &efukef

awmifil/ yJcl;

teft,fvf'D

usdKufra&mjrdK@e,f

&efukef

vyGWm/ {&m0wD

urm&Gwf/ &efukef

ausmufyef;awmif;/
rœav;

erfhqrf/ &Srf;jynfe,f

0g;c,fr/ {&m0wD

aemfa0;

-

ae&yfvdyfpm

45

27

59

35

82

64

EdkifatmifvGef;

raemfoif;pk

OD;ndK0if;

udknGef@aZmf

OD;omxGef;

OD;pdkif;zoef;

58

50

-

56

57

50

-

53

apma';Apf

apm'l;apm (c)
apmoef;

apmt,fo

apm[ma&;

apmvScspf

apmausmfvGif

apmzdk;aX;

apmqm'dkapm

43

122(u)

-

17(1)

17(1)

17(1)

17(1)

17(1)(2)

5(n)

-

5(n)

5(n)/ 17(1)

10 (A)

17(1)

122(u)/
386(1)

1982

ZGef/ 2005

10/1991

31/ 3/ 1992

2000

atmufwdkbm/ 1991

rwf/ 1997

ZGef/ 2005

11/ 9/ 2002

7/ 3/ 1990

=o*kwf/ 1991

18/ 6/ 1989

16/ 9/ 1997

Zlvdkif/ 2003

12/ 12/ 2003

1994

=o*kwf/ 1992

13/ 3/ 1997

2001

ar/ 1998

10/ 10/ 2003

2/ 8/ 1992

11/ 10/ 2002

14/ 8/ 1990

1 / 1/ 2000

8/ 3/ 1991

10/ 2/ 1998

28/ 9/ 2005

ao'%f

ao'%f

10 ESpf

8 ESpf

10 ESpf

10 ESpf

20 ESpf

4 ESpf

tcsKyf

okH;v

7š7 ESpf

-

5 ESpf

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

jrif;jcH

tif;pdef

ajrmif;jr

jrif;jcH

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

-

usdKif;wHk

ppfawG

om,m0wD

tif;pdefaq;&kH

xm;0,f

woufwu|ef; &efukefaq;&kH}uD;

autef,l

autef,l

-

-

-

-

autef,l

-

teft,fvf'D

vufyHwef;/ {&m0wD

-

iykawm/ {&m0wD

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

vyGWm/ {&m0wD

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

u&ifjynfe,f

u&if

&Srf;jynfe,f

ajrmufOD;/
&cdkifjynfe,f

&cdkiftrsdK;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf

a&$usif/ u&if

jynfol@
wdk;wufa&;ygwD

[oFmw/ {&m0wD

o&ufacsmif;/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

jrdwf/xm;0,f
nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;

atbDtufpf'Dtufzf

rGefjynfe,f

rGefjynfopfygwD

48

61

35

75

54

68

OD;apm0if;(c)
OD;ausmfaZmvif;

apm&ifopf

OD;pdefvS

OD;pdef0if;

OD;&Sdefwif

35

74

30

82

25

27

-

udkpnfol (c)
udk&JEdkif

OD;pdk;0if;

pGyfy&m ref;eD;

OD;omxGef;

udkoef;axG; (c)
bb

udkoef;xGef;

udkoef;0if;

azaz:0g&D/ 1994

atmufwdkbm/ 1988

Edk0ifbm/ 1990

atmufwdkbm/ 1991

23/ 4/ 1991

1982

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

-

122(1)

17(1)

5(n)

122(1)/
21 (u)

17(1)(2)

-

ZGef/ 2005

1989

ar/ 1990

ZGef/ 2005

Zlvdkif/ 1990

10 (u)/ 5(n) ZGef/ 1991

5(n)/ 17(1)

10 (u)

17(1)

122(u)

5(n)/ 6(1)

122(u)

touf yk'fr

apmwifjrifh

trnf

44
-

1997

1990

19/ 8/ 1990

1992

3/ 5/ 1992

12/ 7/ 2001

28/ 1/ 2004

8/ 1/ 1991

1992

Zefe0g&D/ 1996

7/ 8/ 1998

1/ 8/ 2001

aoqHk;onfhae‹

-

10 ESpf

tcsKyf

3 ESpf

14 ESpf

20 ESpf

10 ESpf

7š3 ESpf

-

10 ESpf

20 ESpf

11 ESpf

ao'%f

usESpf

tif;pdef

awmifil

xm;0,faq;&kH

tif;pdef

awmifil

tif;pdef

om,m0wD

awmifilaq;&kH

tif;pdefaq;&kH

tif;pdef

jrif;jcH

om,m0wDaq;&kH

o&uf

axmif

vufyHwef;/ {&m0wD

ae&yfvdyfpm

teft,fvf'D

-

Auo (xm;0,f)

atteft,fvf'D

-

jynfol@&JabmfygwD

rtlyif/ {&m0wD

ouFef;u|ef;/ &efukef

xm;0,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

&efukef

ajrmufOUvm/
&efukef

r&rf;ukef;/ &efukef

prf;acsmif;/ &efukef

ouFef;usGef;/ &efukef

jynfol@
wdk;wufa&;ygwD
ausmif;om;

oHk;*G/ &efukef

&efuif;/ &efukef

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

-

ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD

-

teft,fvf'D (jynfol@
xD;vif;/ rauG;
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f)

autef,l

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

56

50

-

51

67

52

58

OD;odef;wif

OD;wifatmif

OD;wifv_dif(c)
OD;wifa[mif

OD;wifarmif0if;

OD;wifa&$ (rkH&Gm )

OD;xGef;atmifausmf

OD;xGef;pdef

39

28

60

-

udk0if;bdk

udkaZmfrsd;xuf(c)
udkaZmfaZmf

OD;aZmwdu

Zl;ydkuf

45

23/ 10/ 1990

'DZifbm/ 1991

-

18/ 3/ 1996

17(1)

5(n)

122(1)/
386(1)

5(n)

5(n)

-

-

22/ 10/ 1990

16/ 7/ 2003

1997

ZGef/ 1992

-

5(n)/ (u)(c)/ Edk0ifbm/ 1990

-

5(n)

5(n)

10(u)

2 ESpf

21 ESpf

10 ESpf

-

18 ESpf

25 eSpf

-

-

-

1996

10 ESpf

'DZifbm/ 1992 3 eSpf

19/ 10/ 2004

26/ 8/ 2000

19/ 2/ 1996

-

8/ 6/ 1997

18/ 1/ 1991

1994

1998

azaz:0g&D/
1998

jrif;jcH

tif;pdef

&efukefaq;&kH}uD;

armfvjrdKif

tif;pdef

-

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

tif;pdef

ykodrf

tif;pdef

-

OD;Zif;

-

-

-

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

bdkuav;/ {&m0wD

ykZGefawmif/ &efukef

rif;vS/ rœav;

armfvjrdkifusGef;/
{&m0wD

v_dkif/ &efukef

rœav;

rkH&Gm/ ppfudkif;

c&rf;/ &efukef

ajrmufOUvm/
&efukef

0g;c,fr/ {&m0wD

awmifOUvm/
&efukef

(2) tusOf;axmifwGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf;
udktdkufudk
&efukefwdkif;/ v_difòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1990 atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf?
1993 atmufwdkbmv 13 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (31) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udktdkufudkonf tz OD;cifarmifat;/ trd a':cifarwdk@. om;jzpf+yD; &efukefòr@
wGif arG;zGm;onf? 1988 ckESpfwGif tvkyfvkyf&if; vkyfom;aumvdyf &efukefòr@wGif ynmoif=um;
aeoljzpfonf? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif vlxktm; &dQmaxmufyHha0iSa&;
vkyfief;rsm;udk wpdkufrwfrwf vkyfaqmifcJhonf? &efukef vkyfom;aumvdyfor~wGif pnf;\Hk;a&;
rª;tjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf? xdk@tjyif r*Fvm'Hk wyfrawmftxnfcsKyfpuf\Hk/ r*Fvm'Hk tvkyform;
or~wdk@wGifvnf; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
1990 atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? xkd@aemuf 1950 jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_ tuf
Oya'yk'fr 5(n)/ rw&m;toif; tufOya' yk'fr 17§1 t& axmif'%f 7 ESpf csrSwfcHcJh&onf?
1991 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 23 &ufae@wGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmifrS o&ufaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@
cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1993 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif yxrt}udrf emrusef;jzpfcJhonf? aemufydkif;wGif r=um
c% tjyif;txef zsm;emchJonf? xdkodk@jzpf+yD;aemuf axmiftm%mydkifrsm;tm; axmifaq;\Hkodk@
wufa&mufukocGifhay;&ef awmif;qkdaomfvnf; cGihfðycsuf r&chJyg? 1993 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv
wGifrS axmifaq;\Hkodk@ wufcGihf&chJonf?
1993 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv 13 &ufwGif aq;rª; 'kwyf=uyf ausmfjrifhu tjyif;txeftzsm;wufae
onhf ukdtkdufukdtm; ADwmrif bDuGef; yvyf(pf) tm;aq;udk *vludk@(pf)ESifha&m+yD; ta=umxJ
oGif;cJhonf? aq;oGif;+yD; em&Dydkif;t=umwGif ukdtkdufukdonf ta=umrsm;qGJI aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;+yD;aemufydkif; &kyftavmif;tm; cGJpdwf&mwGif iSufzsm;ydk;ESifh tla&mifief;zsm;a&m*g jzpfyGm;
chJa=umif; awG@&SdcJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? iSufzsm;a&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;jcif;jzpfaomfvnf; iSufzsm;aq;wdkufjcif;/ aoG;ppfjcif;
rsm; vHk;0rðyvkyfchJa=umif; q&m0efESifh aq;rª;rSwfwrf;rsm;t& od&onf?
46

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;aomif;nGef@
OD;ausmfqef;OD;

OD;tmp&
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ rwfv (15) &ufae@wGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf?
ysHvGefawmfrlcsdefwGif oufawmf (35) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;tmp&onf &efukefòr@ o&ufawmausmif;wdkufwGif oDwif;oHk;chJonf?
1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvY o&ufawmausmif;wdkuf&dS &[ef;ysdKor~wGif wufºupGm
yg0ifcJhonf? ppfwyfu tm%modrf;+yD;aemuf OD;tmp&tm; vdkufvHzrf;qD;cJhojzifh e,fpyfa'o
odk@ wdrf;a&SmifcJhonf?
1989 arvwGif &efukefòr@odk@ jyefvnfoGm;a&mufcJhonf? 1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbmv (3)
&ufae@wGif &efukefwdkif; ig;xyf}uD;ausmif;rS a&$wd*Hkbk&m;odk@ csDwufqüjy&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (23) &ufae@wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. zrf;qD;jcif;udk cHcJh&onf?
1950 jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOa' yk'fr 5 (n) jzifh axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1991 ckESpf Edk0ifbmvwGif tif;pdefaxmifrS o&ufaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif; cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1996 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif tonf;a&miftom;0g a&m*gjzpfyGm;+yD; tjyif;zsm;cJhonf?
jyifyaq;\Hkodk@ wufa&mufuko&eftwGuf axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u cGihfrðychJyg? OD;tmp& aovk
arsmyg;jzpfaecsdefwGifrS 1996 ckESpf rwfv (12) &ufae@wGif o&ufaxmif/ axmifwGif;aq;\Hkodk@
wufa&mufukocGifh ay;cJhonf? rnfokd@r# roufomojzihf rwfv (14) &ufae@wGif o&ufòr@
jynfol@aq;\Hkodk@ ajymif;a&$@ukocJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; aemufwae@ rwfv (15) &ufae@wGif
ysHvGefawmfrlcJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;A&Sif
OD;cifarmifaqG

47

udkatmifausmfrdk;
rœav;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ arv (13) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (38) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;armifarmif/ a':rlrlatmif wdk@. om;jzpf+yD; &efukefwdkif; urm&Gwfòr@e,f
trSwf (3) &yfuGufwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1980 jynhfESpfwGif &efukefòr@ tif;pdefpufr_vufr_od`H (GTI ) rS 'Dyvdkrm&&SdcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGmyg0ifcJhonf? xdk@aemuf jynfaxmifpk
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDygwDodk@ 0ifa&mufcJh+yD;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ vl@tcGifhta&;wdk@twGuf qufvuf
wdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf? xdkodk@v_yf&Sm;aepOf ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u ukdatmifausmfrkd;tm; Armjynf
uGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufoG,fonf[kqdkum/ 1989 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;cJhonf?
1989 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (3) &ufae@wGif txl;ppfw&m;\kH; trSwf(5)u ukdatmifausmfrkd;tm;
1950 jynhfESpf/ ta&;ay:pDrHr_tuf Oya'yk'fr 5 (n)/ rw&m;toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1
ponhf yk'frrsm;jzihf tvkyf=urf;ESifhaxmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfcJhonf?
axmifuscsdefrSpI tif;pdefaxmifwGif aecJh&+yD; 1991 ckESpf Edk0ifbm (28) ae@wGif om,m0wD
tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif;cHcJh&onf?
udkatmifausmfrdk;onf axmifxJwGifaepOfumvwav#muf &dk;om;jcif;/ rSefuefjcif;/ apwem
aumif;jcif;/ pGef@v$wftepfemcHwwfjcif; ponhf *k%fyk'frsm;ESifhjynhf0+yD; vlr_qufqHa&;tvGef
aumif;rGefoltjzpf vlodrsm;cJhonf?
1993 ckESpfwGif udkatmifausmfrdk;onf vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifhtrdef@udk cHpm;cGifh&&SdcJhojzihf ‚.
axmif'%frSm tESpf (20) rS (10) ESpfodk@ajymif;vJcJhonf?
tusOf;axmifvufpGJOya'/ tusOf;om;rsm;av#mh&ufcHpm;cGifh ponfwkd@t& udkatmifausmfrdk;
onf 1997 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif vGwf&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u qufvufcsKyfaESmif
xm;cJhonf? rnfonfh twGufa=umifh qufvufcsKyfaESmifxm;onfudkvnf; ta=umif;=um;
cJhjcif;r&Sday?
48

vaygif;rsm;pGm =umvmonfhtcg om,m0wDtusOf;axmif&dS EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tcsKd@onf
wzufowfzdESdyfr_rsm;tm; wGef;vSefvdkjcif;/ trSefw&m; azmfxkwfvdkjcif;wkd@twGuf/ vGwf&ufaph
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm; rvGwfajrmufrjcif; wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;rnf[laom qHk;jzwfcsufwckudk
cdkifrmpGm csrSwfcJhonf?
1998 ckESpf arv (8) &ufae@wGif vGwf&ufaph EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;jzpfonfh udkatmifausmfrdk;/
udkcifarmif=unf/ udkodef;xl;/ udkjrifh&D/ udkausmfOD;!dk/ udkodef;aZmfESifh OD;atmifoef;wdk@ (7) OD;onf
axmifydkifvSnfhvnfppfaq;onhftcsdefwGif
“rdrdwdk@ (7) OD;u vGwf&ufausmfEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm;vHk;udk csufcsif;jyefvGwfay;&ef
awmif;qkdonf/ jyefrv$wfay;ygu ,ae@rSpI jyefrv$wfray;rjcif; tpmiwfcH qüjyoGm;rnf ”
[k ajym=um;cJhonf? xdkae@wGifyif udkatmifausmfrdk;wkd@ (7) OD;onf tpmiwfcHqüjyI wdkufyGJ0if
cJh=uonf?
axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u ‚wdk@. awmif;qdkcsufrsm;udk rvdkufavsmonfhtjyif/ jypf'%frsm;
csrSwfchJonf? oHajcusOf;/ a'gufrsm;cwfum wdkufydwfxm;cJhonf? wqufwnf;wGif aomufa&
oHk;a&rsm;ukdvnf; jzwfawmufcJhonf? aemuf&ufrsm;wGif tm%mydkifrsm;u oydwfjyefvSef&ef
twGuf qüjyolrsm;ukd acsmhwcg ajcmufwvSnfhjzifh enf;rsKd;pHkoHk;I pnf;\Hk;cJh=uonf? odk@aomf
vnf; ‚wdk@u qufvufI tpmiwfcHwdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf?
&uftenf;i,ftwGif;wGif udkatmifausmfrdk;rSty usef (6) OD;udk axmifaq;\kHodk@ a&$@ajymif;
vkdufonf? udkatmifausmfrdk; wOD;wnf;udkom wdkufxJwGif qufvufydwfxm;chJonf? aomufa&
okH;a&ukd qufvufjzwfxm;chJonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u ukdatmifausmfrkd;xH ae@pOfoGm;a&mufI
em&Daygif;rsm;pGm yHkpHxdkifcdkif;jcif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufajymqkdjcif;rsm;udk ðyvkyfI/ oydwfjyefvSef&ef zdtm;
ay;cJhaomfvnf;/ udkatmifausmfrdk;u tav#mhray;bJ qufvuf wdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1998ckESpf arv (12) &ufae@wGif tm%mydkifrsm;u udkatmifausmfrdk;tcef;odk@
oGm;a&mufI oydwfvSef&ef/ odk@r[kwfygu jyif;xefpGm ta&;,lrnf[k aemufqHk;t}udrf owd
ay;cJhonf? udkatmifausmfrdk;uvnf; aoonftxd wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;rnf[k jyefvnfta=umif;
=um;cJhonf? xdk@a=umifh tm%mydkifrsm;u udkatmifausmfrdk;tm; tcef;tjyifodk@xkwfI
arhajrmonftxd jyif;xefpGm&dkufESufcJh=uonf? aq;ukor_vHk;0ray;bJ wdkufcef;xJ ypfxnfh
xm;cJh=uonf? aemufwae@ arv (13) &ufae@wGif &dkufESufcHxm;&onf@ '%f&mrsm;/ tiftm;
csnfhe@Jr_rsm;a=umifh aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? tm%mydkifrsm;u udkatmifausmfrdk;. &kyftavmif;ukd "mwfykH&kduful;xm;
49

onf? xkd"mwfykHukd jrifawG@chJonhf rdom;pk0ifrsm;. ajymjycsuft& rsufESmwGif '%f&mrsm;ESifh
jynfhESufaeonf[k od&onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tm%mydkifrsm;u udkatmifausmfrdk; aoqHk;onfhowif;udk rdom;pkrsm;tm; t
a=umif;=um;jcif;r&SdcJhay? rdom;pku owif;&aoma=umifh axmifodk@vdkufoGm;onfhtcg/ axmif
tm%mydkifrsm;u udkatmifausmfrkd;onf a&m*gjzifh \kwfw&ufuG,fvGef oGm;onfhtwGuf
rdom;pkxH ta=umif;r=um;EdkifawmhbJ ajrjrKyfvdkuf&onf[k ajym=um;chJ+yD;/ aoqHk;+yD;csdefwGif
&dkuf,lxm;aom "mwfyHkudkom jyocJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifq&m0ef

OD;0if;jrifh
OD;atmifarmfOD;
a'gufwmatmifoef;

OD;atmifarok
tkwfzdkòr@/ om,m0wDc&dkif/ yJcl;wdkif;wGifarG;zGm;onf?
1989 ckESpf =o*kwfv (24) &ufwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
2002 ckESpf pufwifbmv (17) &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (61) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? rlvwef;ausmif;om;b0rSpI ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm;or~
(Auo) odk@ 0ifa&mufcJhonf? (1960-62) wGif om,m0wDc&dkif pnf;\Hk;a&;rª; (&uo) nDvmcH
udk,fpm;vS,f/ tkwfzdkòr@e,f OUXtjzpf xrf;aqmifcJhonf?
1963 ckESpf jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif (6) c&dkif (&efukef/ tif;pdef/ om,m0wD/ yJcl;/
[Hom0wD/ rtlyif) +idrf;csrf;pGm qüjyyGJudk acgif;aqmif+yD;/ rif;vSrS &efukefòr@ uefawmfrifyef;+cHodk@
csDwufcJhonf?
xkdpOfu tpkd;&ESihf vufeufukdiftzJG@tpnf;rsm;. +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJysuf+yD;aemuf 1963
ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (30) &ufwGif ausmif;om;or~taqmuftODtwGif; tzrf;cHcJh&+yD;/ tif;pdef
axmifwGif tusOf;cscHchJ&onf? 1968 ckESpfwGif ukdudk;u|ef;odk@ ydk@cH&onf?
1968 ckESpfY uíef;pepfzsufodrf;a&; tpmiwfcHwdkufyGJwGif yg0ifcJhonf? tpmiwfcHwkdufyJG
50

atmifjrifpGm +yD;qHk;I tif;pdefaxmifodk@ jyefvnfa&mufcJhonf?
- 1972 ckESpf/ {+yDv (12) &ufwGif tusOf;axmifrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufonf?
- 1976 =o*kwfvwGif 'kwd,t}udrf acWxdrf;odrf;cHcJh&onf?
- 1984 ckESpf/ {+yDv (6) &ufae@wGif wwd,t}udrf acWxdrf;odrf;cHcJh&onf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif rif;vS
+rdK@e,f taxGaxGoydwfaumfrDwD OUXtjzpf wm0ef
,lcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pD
tzGJ@csKyfodk@ 0ifa&mufcJh+yD;/ rif;vSòr@e,f tzJG@csKyf OUX
wm0efudk xrf;aqmifcJhonf?

OD;atmifarok. \kyftavmif;

1989 =o*kwfv (24) &ufwGif pwkˆt}udrf xdrf;odrf;cHcJh&onf? edk0ifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif/
tif;pdeftusOf;axmif&dS txl;ppfcHk\Hk; trSwf(5)u OD;atmifaroktm; 1950-jynhfESpf/ ta&;ay:
pDrHr_ tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n) jzifh tvkyf=urf;ESifh axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
1991 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv (28) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaxmifrS om,m0wD tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a\$@
cHcJh&onf?
1999 ckESpf Edk0ifv (5) &ufae@wGif OD;atmifarok. tusOf;usumv (10) ESpfjynfhcJhonf? okd@aomf
yk'fr 10(u)jzifh om,m0wDaxmifY qufvuftusOf;csjcif;cHcJh&onf?

a&a0;tPvmrfok±ef&dS psmyewGif
awG@&aom a':atmifqef;pk=unfESihf
OD;atmifarok.rdom;pk

51

aoqHk;yHk? ? 2002 ckESpf pufwifbmv (15) &ufae@wGif/ tjyif;txefzsm;+yD; om,m0wDtusOf;
axmifaq;\Hk/ om,m0wDòr@e,f jynfol@aq;\kHokd@ a&muf&dSchJonf? xdk@aemuf &efukeftaxGaxG
a&m*gukaq;\kH}uD;odk@ a&muf&dSchJonf? (2) &uft=um pufwifbmv (17) &ufae@wGif &efukef
taxGtaxGa&m*gukaq;\kH}uD;wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;atmifarokonf ‚.b0wav#mufvHk; wdkif;jynfaumif;&maumif;usdK;twGuf
wdkufyGJ0if&if; (4) }udrfwdkifwdkif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh+yD;/ tusOf;axmifrsm;twGif; (25) ESpfausmf
tusOf;uscHcJh&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;azatmif
OD;odef;vGif
a'gufwm atmifoef;

52

53

om,m0wDaxmiftwGif; OD;atmifarok wvjynfhtxdrf;trSwf xkwfa0aompmtkyfrS uAsmwyk'f

54

udkatmifjrifhodef;
&efukefwkdif; a&$aygufuHòr@e,fwGif aexkdifchJonf?
2005 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv 5 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (37) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkatmifjrifhodef;onf a&$aygufuHòr@e,f/ trSwf (12) &yfuGufwGif aexdkifol
jzpf+yD; vl@tcGihfta&; owif;tcsuftvufrsm; pkaqmif;aeolwOD;jzpfonf? 1988 ckESpf ta&;
awmfyHkumvwGif 'Drdkua&pDESifh +idrf;csrf;a&;ygwDwGif 0ifa&muf+yD; jrefrmjynf 'Drdkua&pD&&dSa&;
twGuf v_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
2005 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv 2 &ufae@wGif zcifjzpfolESihftwl zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? jynfytajcpdkuf
w&m;r0iftzGJ@tpnf;wckjzpfonfh tvkyform;or~ (jrefrmEdkifiH) ESifh qufoG,fonf[k
pGyfpJGcH&onf? xkd@a=umihf yk'fr 16 (3)/ rw&m;toif; tufOya' yk'fr 17§1/ 1950-jynhfESpf
ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (i)/ 5(n) wkd@jzifh w&m;pGJqdkchJonf?
jrefrmppftpkd;&u =o*kwfv 28 &ufae@ owif;pm&Sif;vif;yJGwGif ukdatmifjrihfodef;/ zcifjzpfol
OD;odef;vGifOD; tygt0if pkpkaygif; 10 OD;ukd zrf;qD;xm;a=umif; xkwfazmfajymqkdchJonf? xkd@jyif
ukdatmifjrihfodef;onf trSwf(1) pufr_0ef}uD;XmerS 0efxrf;a[mif;wOD;jzpf+yD; 2003 ckESpf
'DZifbmvwGif xkdif;EkdifiHokd@oGm;a&mufchJonf/ xkdif;EkdifiH/ rJaqmufòr@wGif “uBmhtvkyform;
yÉdyQ/ tvkyf&Siftvkyform;udP ESihf vlxkpnf;&kH;a&;oifwef;rsm;”ukd wufa&mufchJonf
[kvnf; xkwfaz: ajymqkdcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? udkatmifjrifhodef;onf tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif; 4 vt=um csKyfaESmifcHxm;&+yD;/
w&m;pJGqkdcHxm;&pOf \kwfw&ufaoqkH;chJonf? udkatmifjrifhodef;onf ppfa=uma&;umvwGif
n‡Of;yef; ESdyfpufcH&onf/ tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; usef;rma&; apmifha&Smufr_rSm tvGefw&m
nHhzsif;qJjzpfonf[k od&onf? 2005 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv 5 &ufae@ ae@vnf (2;00)em&DwGif
aoqHk;chJjcif;jzpfonf? nae (6;00)em&DwGif a&$aygufuHòr@e,f &Jpcef;u udkatmifjrifhodef;onf
tif;pdefaxmifwGif 0rf;a&m*gjzihfaoqkH;a=umif; rdom;pkokd@ ta=umif;=um;chJonf?
aemufwae@ eHeuf (5;00)em&DwGif udkatmifjrifhodef;. nDtpfukdarmifESr (5) OD;u tif;pdeftusOf;
axmifokd@ oGm;a&mufchJonf? axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u (3) OD;ukdom udkatmifjrifhodef;. \kyft
avmif;tm; =unhf&SKcGihf ðychJonf? rdom;pku udkatmifjrifhodef;.psmyeukd aemufwae@wGif
ðyvkyfrnf[k tm%mykdifrsm;ukd ajym=um;chJonf? okd@aomfvnf; tm%mykdifwkd@u vufrcHbJ xkdae@
eHeuf (11;30) em&DwGif \kyftavmif;ukd a&a0;ok±efwGif rD;o+*Kõ[f&ef twif;tusyf pDpOfchJonf?
55

rSwfcsuf? ? ukdatmifjrihfodef;.zcifjzpfol OD;odef;vGifOD; (touf 70) onf tif;pdeftusOf;axmif
wGif tusOf;uscHae&qJ jzpfonf?

udkat;vGif
&efukefwkdif;/ oCFef;u|ef;òr@e,fwGifaexdkifchJonf?
1988 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (38) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? &efukefwdkif; oCFef;u|ef;òr@e,fwGif aexdkifaom udkat;vGifonf 1988 ckESpf
'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGm yg0ifcJhonf? ta&;awmfykHt+yD;wGif zrf;qD;cH&+yD;
oCFef;u|ef;òr@e,f&Jpcef;tm; jynfolrsm;u pD;eif;odrf;ydkufpOfu yg0ifcJhonf[k pGyfpGJcHchJ&onf?
1989 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (19) &ufae@wGif EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr 122(1)/ tygt0if yk'fr
302(2)/ 122(1)/ 149 wdk@jzifh ao'%fcsrSwfjcif; cHcJh&onf?
1989/ 1993 ckESpfrsm;wGif tm%mykdifrsm;u tusOf;om;rsm;tm; vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifhrsm;
ay;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf ukdat;vGifonf ao'%fusae&mrS axmif'%ftESpf (20) odk@ uscH&ef
jyifqif owfrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1990 jynhfESpf pufwifbmv tif;pdefaxmifwGif; tpmiwfcHqüjyr_wGif yg0ifcJhojzifh tjyif;
txef&dkufESufjcif;udk cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1992 ckESpfwGif axmifrª;ESifh tacstwif pum;rsm;+yD;aemuf wdkufydwfjcif;/ &dkufESuf
ESdyfpufjcif; cHcJh&onf? aoG;tef+yD; '%f&mjyif;xefpGm&cJhonf? wdkufydwfcHxm;&onfhtwGuf ol.
usef;rma&; tajctaerSm tvGefqdk;&Gm;vmcJhonf? axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u aq;0g;ukor_ vHk;0
ray;bJ ypfxm;cJhojzifh 1992 ckESpf 'DZifbmvtwGif; wkdufydwfcHxm;&pOf aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;ESpfOD;u axmiftm%mydkifrsm;ukd udkat;vGiftm; rw&m;
&dkufESuf !‡Of;yef;chJaoma=umihf uef@uGufcJhonf? ‚wdk@ ESpfOD;vnf; tjyif;txef \kdufESuf
cHcJh&onf?

56

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

rat;rl
weoFm&Dwkdif;/ o&ufacsmif;òr@e,f/ Aswf0dom;aus;&GmZmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (16) &ufae@wGif tzrf;cH&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ arv 'kwd,ywftwGif; uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (21) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? rat;rlonf OD;armifpdef/ a':at;wifwkd@.orD;jzpf+yD; weoFm&Dwkdif;/
o&ufacsmif;òr@e,f/ Aswf0dom;aus;&GmwGif arG;zGm;onf?
weoFm&Dwkdif;wGif tajcpkdufv_yf&Sm;aom +rdwf-xm;0,fnDnGwfa&;wyfOD;. tzJG@0ifwOD;
jzpfonf? 1997 ckESpf pufwifbmv (16) &ufae@/ eHeuf (6;00)em&Dcef@wGif rat;rl/ vkyfazmf
ukdifzuf trsKd;orD; (3) OD;/ wvom;t&G,fuav;i,f (1) OD; wkd@onf o&ufacsmif;òr@e,f/
a&yl&GmteD;wGif ppftpkd;&wyfrS ppfa=umif;wckESihf &ifqkdifwkd;chJ&onf? xkdppfa=umif;onf
trSwf (267) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ wyfcJG(2)rS wyfcJGrª; Akdvf}uD;ausmfolOD;pD;aom ppfa=umif;jzpf+yD;
rat;rlwkd@ukd zrf;qD;chJonf?
nae (4;00) em&Dcef@wGif ppfa=umif;onf zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;ukdac:aqmif+yD; qufvuf xGufcGm
chJ&m u|J+cH&Gmokd@ n (6;00) em&Dcef@wGif a&muf&dS+yD; acWpcef;cs=uonf? Akdvf}uD;ausmfolu
u|J+cH&Gm aus;&Gm+idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@ (&0w) OUX OD;armifvGif.tdrfwGifvnf;
aumif;/ tjcm;ppfom;rsm;u &GmtwGif;&dS tdrf (7) vkH;wGifvnf;aumif; toD;oD; pcef;csaexkdif
=uonf? zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;ukd OD;tkef;nGef@ qkdol.tdrfwGif csKyfaESmifxm;onf?
n (9;00) em&Dcef@wGif wyfcJGrª; Akdvf}uD;ausmfolu rat;rlukd ppfaq;rnf[kqkdum ac:,loGm;
onf? ppfaq;onhfae&mrSm ‚wnf;ckdaexkdifonhf tdrfwGifjzpfonf? xkd@aemuf w}udrf rk'drf;
usihf+yD; n (10;00) em&Dcef@wGif csKyfaESmifxm;onhftdrfokd@ jyefvnfykd@aqmifchJonf?
aemufwae@ n (9;00) em&Dcef@wGif xyfrHac:,l+yD; w}udrfrk'drf;usihfum n (10;00) em&Dcef@
wGif jyefvnfykd@aqmifchJonf? (zrf;qD;cH&olwOD;jzpfaom aemfoif;pkonfvnf; rk'drf;usihfcHchJ&+yD;
aemufqkH;wGif tusOf;axmiftwGif;wGifyif aoqkH;chJonf?
57

aemufqkH;wGif rat;rlwkd@onf xm;0,ftusOf;axmifokd@ ykd@aqmifcsKyfaESmifcHchJ&onf? axmif'%f
(5) ESpfpD csrSwfjcif; cHchJ&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? zrf;qD;ppfaq;cH&onhftcsdefwGifomru xm;0,ftusOf;axmifwGifvnf; enf;
trsKd;rsKd;jzihf ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef; cHchJ&onf? xkd@a=umihf usef;rma&; csKd@,Gif;vmonf? xm;0,ftusOf;
axmifwGif usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_rSm r&dSoavmuf enf;yg;onf?
rat;rlESihf twl zrf;qD;cH&onhf aemfoif;pkonfvnf; usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;vm+yD; 1998 ckESpf
azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufae@wGif xm;0,ftusOf;axmifwGif aoqkH;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf tm%m
ykdifrsm;u rat;rl. usef;rma&; touftœ&m,fxdckdufEkdifonhftajctaeokd@a&mufatmif
qkd;&Gm;vmonhftcg xm;0,faq;\kHokd@ ykd@aqmifchJonf? okd@aomfvnf; rat;rlonf 1998 ckESpf
arv 'kwd,ywftwGif; aq;\kHY uG,fvGefchJonf?
rSwfcsuf? ?
1) tusOf;axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u rat;rluG,fvGefonhfta=umif;ukd rdom;pkokd@
today; ta=umif;=um;jcif; r&dSchJyg?
2) wyfcJGrª; Akdvf}uD;ausmfolonf ,cktcg 'kAkdvfrª;tqihfjzihf wyfr (44) wGif wm0efus
aeonf?

OD;baomf (pma&;q&m armifaomfu)
a&$bkdòr@ ppfukdif;wkdif; Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (5) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (65) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? jrefrmhwyfrawmf(a&)wGif Akdvfrª;tqifhxd wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? xkd@
a=umifh Akdvfrª;baomf[k vlodrsm;onf? ar,k wkdufoabmFukd t*Fvdyftpkd;&xHrS AkdvfcsKyf
atmifqef; ukd,fwkdif v$J,lcJhpOfu OD;baomfonf oabmFay:wGif tvHwifonfh *k%fðywyfzGJ@
ukd OD;aqmifcJholjzpfonf?
armifaomfutrnfjzifh pmaye,fokd@0ifa&mufcJhonf? txl;ojzifh oa&mfpma&;&mwGif emrnf
}uD;olwOD;jzpfonf? rqvacwfwav#muf acwf/ pHepfESifh vlxkb0ukdxif[yfI xdxdrdrd
zGifhcsa&;om;cJholjzpfonf? EkdifiHwumpmaytcsKd@ukd bmomjyefcJhonf? 1988 ckESpf rwkdifrDu
58

a&;om;cJh onfh “wkdufa&,mOf 103” trnf&dS 0ˆK[ef ukd,fawG@rSwfwrf;rSm vl}udKufrsm;
xif&Sm;onf?
&Spfav;vkH;'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykHwGif a&S@wef;rSyg0ifcJhonf? 1988 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv 17 &ufae@
wGif pmaytEkynm&Sifrsm;u jrefrmhwyfawmfukd “vlxktm; &uf&ufpufpuf ypfcwfaer_
rsm;tm; &yfqkdif;&ef ” uef@uGufawmif;qkdonhftcgu yg0ifvufrSwfa&;xkd;cJhonf? xkd@aemuf
pme,fZif;or~wGif OUXtjzpf a&G;cs,fcH&onf? ppfwyftm%modrf;+yD; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; zGJ@pnf;
csdefwGif trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfY qufvufyg0ifonf? A[kdOD;pD;tzGJ@0ifESifh ppfukdif;wkdif;
pnf;\kH;a&; wm0efcHtjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonf?
1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wyfrawmf(a&)ukd jynfol@bufu&yfwnf&ef a&wyf
t&m&Sdrsm;xH t&m&Sda[mif;wOD;taejzihf pmrsm;a&;om;ay;ykd@cJhonf? xkd@twGuf 1989 ckESpfwGif
zrf;qD;cH&aomtcg wyfrawmf+zdKcGJr_jzifh pGJcsufwifcH&onf? 1989 ckESpf atmuffwdkbmv (5)
&ufae@wGif 1950-jynhfESpf/ ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (u)/ 5 (c)wkd@ jzifh axmif'%f
tESpf (20) csrSwfcH &onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? tzrf;rcH&cifuwnf;u ‚wGif ukoIr&aom ta=umaoa&m*g&Sdonf? 1990
jynhfESpf/ pufwifbmv (25)ae@ tif;pdefaxmifwGif; tpmiwfcHqüjypOf \dkufESufcH&+yD;aemuf
orHwvif;ay:wGif rnfonfhtcif;rSrygyJ tdyfcJh&ojzifh avjzwfoGm;onf? axmifq&m0ef.
omrefukor_udk tenf;i,f&&SdchJonf? txl;ukq&m0efrsm;jzifh uko&efwifjyaomfvnf;
tm%mykdifrsm;u cGifhrðycJhyg? 1991 ckESpf ZGefv (8) &ufae@wGif ESvHk;a&m*gazgufvmojzifh
tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;baomftm; &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;odk@ydk@chJonf? oHk;&uf t=um/ ZGefv (11) &uf
ae@wGif &efukefaq;\kH}uD; tcsKyfcef;twGif;Y aoqkH;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfwGif OD;baomf wm0ef,laecsdefYvnf;aumif;/ tusOf;
usaepOfwGifvnf;aumif; ppftpkd;&u pme,fZif;rsm;wGif OD;baomf. pmayvuf&m rsm;ukd
ydwfyifchJonf? uavmiftrnfukdyif ykHESdyfaz:jycGifhrðycJhyg? 1998 ckESpfwGifrS ol.vuf&mwpfck
jzpfaom uAsmhblaz; qkdonfhpmtkyfukd xkwfa0cGifhðychJonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifq&m0ef

OD;bdk=unf
OD;+yHK;csdK
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

59

rD;jcpfwqH
tESpf 20 qdkygvm;a[hæ?
tjrifuyfavmufatmif
udk,fhudkudk,f wyfrufpdwf&Sdolrsm;u
a=umifolawmf aomueJ@avæ?
tESpf 20 qdkygvm;a[hæ?
aumufuspfaom
tjrifwdkaom
udk,fusdK;iJh &efvdkpdwfeJ@
vlvm;ajrmufvmwJh
tm%myg;uGufom;wdk@u
udk,fhudkudk,f av;pm;jcif;iSm
rwwfpGrf;EdkifwJh
aumuf\dk;r#if Oya'eJ@avæ?
tESpf 20 qdkygvm;a[hæ?
taumif;tqdk;tay:rSm
&SufzG,fvdvd OayQmðyEdkifolrsm;u
,kwfnhHodrfzsif;r_eJ@
roef@pifaomt&m rSefor#'Jh
rkom;yk'freJ@avæ?
tESpf 20 qdkygvm;a[hæ?
\kyfrSmtm%meJ@ usnfqef
emrfrSm zufqpf
ratmifjrifwJh ol&Jaumif;rsm;&J@
tmCmwwxuf tqdyftawmufjyif;wJh
cHk\Hk;trdef@eJ@avæ?
rD;yGm;uav;u ae+yD;
rD;awmuf}uD; jzpfvmwJhtcgrSm
uBmajray:rSm &SdwJh
tnpfta=u;[lor#eJ@
60

vlavvlvGifh *sydk;awavawGudk
avmifpm;oGm;vdrfhr,f (a*:uD)
armifaomfu&J@ rD;jcpfwqH[m
aemifæ tESpf 20 =umaomtcgrSm
avmifpmrsm;&Jh jymeJ@xkqpf
ordkif;0ifausmufwdkif jzpfvmr,f? ?
— armifaomfu (tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif;wGif a&;pyfonf)

AdkvfoHwkH;
yJcl;wdkif;/ anmifav;yifc&dkifwGif arG;zGm;onf?
1983 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (70) &Sd+yDfjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? AdkvfoHwHk;onf anmifav;yifc&dkifZmwdjzpfonf? u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;
t\Hk; (autifef,l). u&iftrsKd;om;wyfrawmfwGif wyfpkrª;wOD;jzpfonf?
1982 ckESpfwGif yJcl;&dk;r jyefvnfpdk;rdk;a&;pDrHudef;twGuf pnf;\Hk;v_yf&Sm;pOf zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf?
1983 ckESpfwGif EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr 122 (1) jzifh ao'%fcsrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1989 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (21) &ufae@wGif ppftpdk;&u vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifh xkwfjyefcsuf trSwf
(4§89) ukd xkwfjyefchJonf? xkd@a=umihf tm%mykdifrsm;u AkdvfoHwkH;tm; ao'%frS woufwu|ef;
odk@ ajymif;cJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; uscH&rnhfESpfta&twGufudk twnfrðychJay?
tusOf;axmiftwGif; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmaexdkifcJh&ojzifh tm[m&csKd@wJhjcif;/ touft&G,f }uD;&ifh
jcif;wdk@a=umifh a&m*grsm; wck+yD;wck pGJuyfvmcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1997 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif ausmufuyfa&m*grSm tvGefqdk;&Gm;vmojzihf tif;pdef
axmifaq;\Hkokd@ wufa&mufukocGihf&chJonf? qD;roGm;Edkifonfh tajctaea&mufonhftcg
&efukef taxGaxGa&m*gukaq;\Hk}uD; ajymif;a&$@ukocGihf&cJhonf? xkdtcsdefwGif rSwf^m%f
ysufpD;jcif;/ pum;rajymEdkifjcif;/ wudk,fvHk; ta=umrsm; qdkif;oGm;jcif;rsm; jzpfaycJhonf? 1997
ckESpf rwfv wwd,ywftwGif; aq;\Hk}uD;tcsKyfcef;Yyif uG,fvGefcJhonf?
61

rSwfcsuf? ? u&iftrsKd;om; tusOf;om;trsm;pkrSm rdom;pkESifh vGefpGma0;vHaomae&mwGif
tusOf;cscHxm;&jcif;/ rdom;pkESihftquftoG,f r&jcif;a=umifh axmif0ifpm r&dSjcif;/ xdk@tjyif
tusOf;axmifrSau|;arG;aom tpm;tpmrSmvnf; tvGeftrif; nhHzsif;jcif; ponfwdk@a=umifh
tm[m&csKd@wJhum tusOf;axmiftwGif; trsm;tjym; aoqkH;chJ=uonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;a&$ausmf
OD;apmZifjr
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

a0[ifrS jrifawG@&aom
tif;pdeftusOf;axmif
("mwfykH www.nccu.edu)

udkcsdK}uD; (eef;a&S@ )
rœav;òr@ Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1993 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (38) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif rœav; eef;a&S@ppfa=umif;wGif
ppfa=umif;rª;tjzpf wufºupGm yg0ifOD;aqmifcJhonf? xdk@aemuf trsKd;om;EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk
(rew) zGJ@pnf; wnfaxmifonfhtcg A[dkaumfrwDtzGJ@0ifwpfOD;jzpfvmcJhonf? ukdcsKd}uD;onf
yef;csDq&mwpfOD; jzpfaoma=umihf rewtwGuf &HyHkaiG&Smonhftcg tokH;ðy&ef q&m}uD;ocif
udk,fawmfrdSKif;. yHkwlyef;csDum;udk a&;qGJay;cJhonf?
62

1989 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif/ ppftkyfpku trsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;wyfaygif;pkudk rw&m;toif;a=unm
chJ+yD;aemuf trsKd;om; tusdK;pD;yGm; umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&; aumfrwD (NISC) ay:aygufvm
onf? ukdcsKd}uD;onf aumfrwDzGJ@pnf;wnfaxmif&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf?
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. vdkufvHzrf;qD;jcif;udk a&Smifwdrf;um aumfrwD.vkyfief;pOfrsm;udk
wm0ef,laqmif&GufchJonf? 1990 jynfhESpf ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? ukdcsKd}uD;onf
usef;rma&; vGefpGmcsKd@whJaeaomfvnf; rœav;tusOf;axmifwGiftusOf;uscHae&onhfumvw
av#mufvkH; wkdufydwfcsKyfaESmifjcif; cHchJ&onf?
aemufykdif;wGif jrpf}uD;em;tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif; cHcJh&onf? xkdrSwqihf &moDOwk tvGef
qdk;&Gm;aom pGrfy&mbGrf &Jbufpcef;odk@ ydk@aqmifjcif; cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1993 ckESpfwGif &Jbufpcef;rS tm%mykdifrsm;u usef;rma&;tajctaetvGef
qdk;&Gm;vmaom ukdcsKd}uD;tm; jrpf}uD;em;axmifxdkrSwqifh rœav;tusOf;axmifodk@ jyefvnfykd@
aqmifchJonf? 1993 ckESpfwGifyif rœav;axmifaq;\HkY aoqHk;cJhonf[k ajymqdk=uaomfvnf;
tm%mydkifrsm;u ukdcsdK}uD;onf xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifpOf 0rf;udkufa&m*g jzpfyGm;chJa=umif;/ 1990
jynhfESpf =o*kwfv (7) &ufae@Y rœav; aq;\Hk}uD;wGif aoqHk;a=umif; xkwfjyefa=unmcJhonf?
rœav;axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;0if;jrihf
OD;cspf

“yef;awGraºu&bl;av

yef;cspfolawG ridk&bl;av
yef;awGyGifhrS vSr,fh'Dajr
(aºuqJ a0qJ yGifhqJ yJav) ”
rœav;tusOf;axmifxJ&Sd EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;
udkcsdK}uD;twGuf a&;pyfcJhaom oDcsif;rS wydk'f

63

OD;cspfaxmif
u,m;jynfe,f/ zm;aqmif;òr@wGif aexdkifchJonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1990 jynhfESpf 'DZifbmv (19) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? vGwfvyfa&;r&rD *syefacwf rdˆDvmtajrmufwyfwGif/ wyf=uyf}uD;tjzpf
wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonhf vGwfvyfa&;wkdufyGJ0if &Jabmfa[mif;wOD;jzpfonf? zqyv tpkd;&
vufxufwGif u,m;jynfe,f0ef}uD; pyf0À. ukd,fa&;t&m&Sdtjzpf tr_xrf;&GufcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf/ 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykHwGif u,m;jynfe,f zm;aqmif;òr@e,f 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_ukd
OD;aqmifcJhonf? ppfwyftm%modrf;+yD;aemuf trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ zm;aqmif;òr@e,f
tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG@wGif tzGJ@0iftjzpf wufºupGm yg0ifaqmif&GufcJhonf? tzGJ@csKyfu OD;cspf
axmiftm; 1990 jynhfESpf ygwDpkH'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyGJwGif 0iffa&mufta&G;cs,fcHrnhf ukd,fpm;
vS,favmif;wOD;tjzpf vsmxm;chJonf? a&G;aumufyJGrwkdifrDwGif ppftpkd;&u OD;cspfaxmifukd
tm%mzDqefr_jzifh zrf;qD;chJonf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? vGKdifaumftusOf;axmif/ rdˆDvmtusOf;axmif/ jrif;+cHtusOf;axmifrsm;wGif
tusOf;cscHcJh&onf? jrif;+cHaxmifokd@ta&mufwGif/ &ifusyfyef;ema0'em pGJuyfaeonf? tusOf;
axmiftwGif; aq;0g;rvkHavmufr_a=umifh vkdtyfaomaq;0g;rsm;ukd jyifyrS rSm,l okH;pJG&onf?
u,m;jynfe,f/ zm;aqmif;òr@&dS rdom;pkonf rauG;wkdif;/ jrif;+cHaxmif&dS OD;cspfaxmiftm; oGm;
a&mufawG@qkH&ef c&D;a0;uGmvGef;onfh twGuf okH;vv#if w}udrfom oGm;a&mufawG@qkHEkdifonf?
OD;cspfaxmifonf vkdtyfonhfaq;0g;rsm; ykHrSefr&&dSojzihf usef;rma&;ykdrdkqdk;&Gm;cJhonf? 1990
jynhfESpf 'DZifbm (18) &ufae@wGif a&m*gonf;xefvmonf? axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u vkH+cHKa&;t&
axmufvSrf;a&;tzJG@ tqifhqifhukd wifjy&ef vkdtyfa=umif;/ xkd@a=umifh OD;cspfaxmiftm;axmif
jyify&dS aq;\ko
H @dk xw
k I
f uko&efrjzpfEidk af =umif; ajymqkcd o
hJ nf? ok@d aomf Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;rsm;u
twif;t=uyf awmif;qkdaoma=umifh axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u OD;cspfaxmiftm; aq;\kHokd@wifykd@
cJhonf? 'DZifbmv (19) &ufae@wGif jrif;jcHaxmifaq;\kHY aoqkH;onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ukdaZmfqkdif; (wkdif;rª;Adkvfrª;csKyf t,fcGefzefukdvkyf}uHr_jzifh ao'%fuscHae&ol)/
u,m;jynfe,f/ vGKdifaumfòr@rS ukdatmifoef;wkd@onf OD;cspfaxmifESifhtwl jrif;+cHaxmifokd@ pwif
a&muf&dSonfhtcsdefrS aq;\kHwifonftxd aexkdifcJh=uonf? ‚wkd@rSwqifh jyefvnf=um;od
cJh&aom OD;cspfaxmif ajym=um;chJaom atmufygpum;wcGef;rSm rSwfom;zG,faumif;onf?

64

“---&Spfq,fh&Spfckta&;awmfykH}uD;rSm 'DaumifawG uBmhtv,frSm awmfawmf t&Suf&cJh=u

w,f? tJ'DtwGuf 'DaumifawGu usaemfwkd@udk tòi;}uD;}uD;eJ@ pepfwus trSnfha¹c a¹c+yD;
owfjzwfaewmAs/ 'gukd usaemfwkd@u cHEkdif&nfpGrf;tm;eJ@ axmifjyifukd touf&Sif&uf jyefa&muf
Ekdif+yDqkd&if usaemfwkd@Ekdif+yDvkd@om rSwfayawmh? ---”

acgif;&Snf
weoFm&Dwkdif; +rdwfòr@/ ujyifaus;&GmZmwd jzpfonf?
1991 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf?
1992 ESpfqef;ykdif;wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (20) cef@jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? acgif;&Snfonf u&ifwkdif;&if;om;wpfa,mufjzpf+yD;/ ajratmufawmfvSef
a&;orm; wpfa,mufjzpfonf? 1991 wGif 0gukef;&Gm&dS tdrfwtdrfwGif tm%mykdifwkd@. zrf;qD;
jcif;cHchJ&onf? ‚ESihftwl tdrf&Sifjzpfol apma*smfeD/ autifef,lwyf&if; trSwf (10) axmufvSrf;
a&;rª; bkdeD (ac:) apm[m;a' wkd@vnf;zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? acgif;&Snfonf yk'fr 17§1 jzihf tvkyf
=urf;ESihf axmif (3) ESpf csrSwfjcif; cHchJ&onf? +rdwfòr@tusOf;axmifwGif tusOf;cscHchJ&onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ?
1) xkdpOfu +rdwfòr@tusOf;axmifwGif wywfv#ifw}udrf tom;ig;au|;onhftpDtpOf
vkH;0r&dSjcif;?
2) xrif; 0vifpGm rpm;&jcif;?
3) aomufokH;a& vkHavmufpGmr&&dSjcif;? tusOf;om;rsm; a&aomufvkdygu aeylxJwGif
wOD;csif;wef;pDI aomuf&jcif;? wpfvv#if ESpf}udrfom a&csKd;&jcif;?
4) tdyfaqmiftwGif; =uyfwnf;pGm aexkdif tdyfpuf&jcif;? (vl 50 cef@ twGufom
oihfavsmfonhftcef;wGif vl 100 ausmf aexkdif tdyfpuf=u&onf?)
txufygta=umif;&if;rsm;a=umihf acgif;&Snfonf tm;tifcsnfhe@Jjcif;/ azma,mifjcif;/ 0rf;av#m
jcif;rsm; jzpfay:+yD; aoqkH;chJ&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª;

OD;atmifqef;
OD;bifpkdif/ OD;0if;qef;/ OD;nGef@[ef

65

ukdvScif
&efukefwkdif;/ a&$jynfom+rdK@e,fwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1997 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (26) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif; cH&onf?
1999 ckESpf/ arv (31) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (43) ESpf jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? &efukefwkdif;/ a&$jynfom+rdK@e,f trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyfwGif wm0ef
xrf;aqmifchJonf?
1998 ckESpf =o*kwfv 12 &ufae@wGif tzGJ@csKyfacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf {&m0wD
wkdif;/ ykodrfòr@okd@ c&D;xGufchJonf? tm%mykdifrsm;u a':atmifqef;pk=unf c&D;rqufEkdifap&ef
&efukefwkdif;/ xef;wyifòr@teD;wGif =o*kwfv 24 &ufae@txd wm;jrpfchJonf? xkdumvwGif
ukdvScifonf wm;qD;xdef;odrf;cHae&aom a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; oGm;a&muf=unhf\_&m
zrf;qD; cHchJ&onf?
tm%mykdifrsm;u ukdvSciftm; &efukefwkdif;/ v_difom,mòr@e,f/ vkHxdef;wyf&if; trSwf ( 9 ) wGif
csKyfaESmifchJonf? pufwifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif &JrGefwyfòr@ cv& (219)okd@ ajymif;a&$@csKyfaESmif
chJonf? aemufykdif;wGif ukdvSciftm; tif;pdeftusOf;axmifodk@ ydk@aqmifcJhonf? “1975 ckESpf/
EdkifiHawmfudk aESmifh,SufzsufqD;olrsm;. ab;tœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&SmufonfhOya'” jzihf
ta&;,lchJonf?
ukdvScifonf tm%mykdifrsm;ESihf qufqHa&;wif;rmchJonf? XmecsKyf\kH;okd@ wcgw&HoGm;a&muf
pOfu ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;ESifh pum;tacstwif rsm;cJhzl;onf? &JrGefwGif tcsKyfcHae&pOfu
vnf; axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;ESifh qufqHa&; r=umc% wif;rmchJonf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? ukdvScifonf tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;cscHae&pOf &kwfw&uf aoqkH;chJonf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u ukdvScifonf ao&nfao&ufudk tvGeftu|Haomufpm;chJjcif;a=umihf pdwf
ua,mifajcmufjcm;jzpfum rdrdukd,frdrd aoa=umif;}uHpnfoGm;jcif;jzpfa=umif; a=unmcJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tzGJ@csKyf. a=unmcsufwGif atmufygtwkdif; az:jyxm;onf?
“---ua,mufu,ufjzpfI rdrdukd,frdrd vkyf=uHI uG,fvGefa=umif;qkdonfrSm pOf;pm;zG,f&m

udPjzpfaeygonf? ‚onf tusOf;cscHae&onhf (9) vtcsdefumvtwGif; rnfokd@r# ao&nf
ao&uf &&dSEkdifp&mta=umif; r&dSyg? tm%mykdifwkd@.pGyfpJGxm;csufrsm;t& OD;vSciftm; ao&nf
ao&uf aomufpm;jcif;a&m*g trSefwu,faysmufuif;oGm;&ef ukoay;onf/ ray;onfrSm
66

vnf; r&Sif;vif;yg/ Ta&m*g trSefwu,faysmufuif;oGm;&ef ukoay;jcif;onf cJ,Of;jcif;r&dS[k
od&ygonf? ”
“‚tjyif OD;vScifuG,fvGefonhfudPESihfywfoufI ‚rdom;pkrsm;xHokd@ tzJG@csKyf tzJG@0iftcsKd@

oGm;a&muf ar;jref;pkHprf;ap&mwGifvnf; rdom;pkrsm;rSm tvGef@tvGef a=umufvef@ae=u+yD;
rnfonfukdr# ar;jref;I r&yg? wpfOD;wpfa,mufu okd@r[kwf tzJG@wpfzJG@u +cdrf;ajcmufxm;
[efwlygonf? OD;vScif uG,fvGef+yD;aemuf \kyfuvmyfukd jrif&rjrif&/ rdom;pktm; oç*[fcGihf
ay;ray; ponfwkd@ukdyif ar;jref;Ir&yg? --- ”
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;vlvS
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

OD;vSoef;
&efukefwdkif;/ =unfhjrifwdkifòr@e,f/ &wemykHvrf;wGif aexdkifchJonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ atmufwkdbmv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif; cH&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (2) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (49) ESpf jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1947 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif arG;zGm;onf? rdbrsm;rSm OD;odef;az/ a':!Gef@
wkd@jzpfonf?
1965 rS 1967 ckESpftwGif; wyfrawmf(a&)wGif wyf=uyf}uD;tqihftxd wm0ef,lchJonf? xkd@
aemuf w&m;\kH;csKyfa&S@aewOD;tjzpf toufarG;aexkdifonf? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_
}uD;wGif OD;vSoef;onf &efukefa&S@aersm;toif;rS wufºupGm v_yf&Sm;cJhonf? =unfhjrifwdkifòr@e,f
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf OUÏtjzpf wm0ef,lchJonf?
1990 a&G;aumufyJGwGif &efukefwkdif;/ ukd;ukd;u|ef;òr@e,f rJqüe,fajr&dSjynfolvlxku OD;vSoef;
tm; jynfol@v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufchJonf? ppftpkd;&u jynfol@
ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; tm%mvJ$tyfjcif;rðyojzihf pif+ydKiftpkd;&zGJ@pnf;&ef óu;yrf;r_rsm;wGif
yg0ifcJhonf? 1990 jynhfESpf/ atmufwdkbm (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;cH&onf? 1991 ckESpf/ arv
wGif yk'fr 122 (1) jzifh tvkyf=urf;ESifh axmif'%f (25) ESpf csrSwfcH&onf?
67

axmifus+yD;aemuf ukvor~txl; udk,fpm;vS,f ,kdZkd,kdukdwmxHokd@ axmifwGif;rS pma&;om;
ay;ykd@r_jzifh 1996 ckESpfwGif axmif'%f (7) ESpf xyfrHcsrSwfjcif; cH&onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? 1996 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif tif;pdefaxmiftm%mykdifrsm;u tjyif;zsm;aeaom OD;vSoef;
tm; &efukefaq;\kH}uD; ajratmufcef;&Sd tcsKyfaqmifokd@ ykd@aqmifI ukoay;cJhonf? 1996 ckESpf
=o*kwfv (2) &ufae@wGif xkdae&mY aoqkH;cJhonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? q&m0efrsm;. aq;ppfcsufrSwfwrf;t& OD;vSoef;wGif (HIV) ykd; ul;puf
aea=umif; od&Sd&onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tusOf;axmifrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmolrsm;. ajymjycsufrsm;t& tusOf;axmif
twGif; aq;0g;ukoonhftcg aq;xkd;tyfwacsmif;wnf;ukd tokH;ðyI tusOf;om;tajrmuf
trsm;ukd aq;xkd;ay;avh&dSa=umif; od&onf? xkd@a=umihf jrefrmEkdifiH&SdtusOf;axmifrsm;onf
attkdif'Dtufpf (AIDS)ESihf tjcm;a&m*grsm; jzef@jzL;&mXme}uD;rsm; jzpfaea=umif; aumufcsufcs
=uonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;a&$ausmf
OD;apmZifjr
a'gufwmoif;az

qD&Sd;
ucsifjynfe,fwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbmv (18) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (23) ESpfom &Sdao;onf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? qD&Sd;onf ucsifvGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmf (autkdifat) wGif tvSnfhus
wm0efxrf;aqmifchJaom wyfom;wOD;jzpfonf? 1989 ckESpfwGif e0w ppfwyfu ‚wdk@ wyfpdwf
wckvHk;tm; zrf;qD;&rdchJonf? aemufykdif;wGif ‚wdk@ tm;vHk;udk axmif'%f (7) ESpf pDcsrSwfcJhonf?
jrpf}uD;em;axmifrS tif;pdefaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@cHcJh&onf? ‚wkd@tm;vkH; rdom;pkrsm;ESihf tquf
jywfchJaoma=umihf axmif0ifpm awG@qHkol r&SdcJh[k od&onf?
68

aoqHk;yHk? ? qD&Sd;onf 1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbm vqef;ydkif;wGif tif;pdefaxmif taqmif
(1) Y iSufzsm;a&m*g tjyif;txefjzpfyGm;cJhonf? qD&Sd;u tm%mykdifrsm;tm; axmifaq;\Hkodk@
wifydk@I ukoay;&ef t}udrf}udrf awmif;cHcJhaomfvnf; r&chJyg?
xdkpOfu axmifq&m0efonf &ufoWwywfv#if w}udrfom tusOf;axmifwGif; vSnfhvnf=unfh
&_avh&dSonf? xkd@a=umihf axmifq&m0ef vSnhfvnf=unhf&SKvmrnfh atmufwdkbmv (16) &uf
ae@ukd tm;ukd;w}uD; apmihfqkdif;chJonf?
okd@aomfvnf; xkdae@wGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmiftwGif;okd@ tusOf;OD;pD;Ïme n$ef=um;a&;rª;csKyf
0ifa&muf=unfh&_chJonf? eHeuf (9) em&DwGif axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u tvGeftrif;zsm;aeaom
qD;&Sd;tm; ae&majymif;a&$@&ef pDpOfchJonf? tusOf;om;ESpfa,mufu qD&Sd;tm; wGJI taqmif
tdrfomaemuf&Sd ae&mwpfae&modk@ ydk@xm;cJhonf? n$efcsKyfjyefoGm;onfh ae@vnf (12) em&D
ausmfrS qD;&Sd;tm; taqmifwGif;odk@ jyefac:vmcJhonf? xdktcsdefwGif qD;&Sd;onf tat;rdonfh
'%fa=umifh owd&wcsuf r&wcsuf jzpfaecJhonf? odk@aomf axmifaq;\Hkodk@ ydk@aqmifjcif; rðychJyg?
n (9) em&DausmfwGif qD&Sd;onf vHk;0 owdarharsmoGm;cJhonf? xkd@a=umihf axmiftm%mydkif
rsm;u qD;&Sd;ukd axmifaq;\Hkodk@ ydk@cJhonf? aemuf (2) &uft=um atmufwdkbmv (18) &ufae@
wGif xdkae&mYyif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? 1993 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (1) &ufae@wGif ppftpkd;&onf autkdifatESihf typf
tcwf&yfpJ+yD; +idrf;csrf;a&;&,lchJ+yD;jzpfonf? okd@aomfvnf; qD&SD;ESihftwlzrf;qD;axmifcsjcif;cH&
onfh autkdifatrS &Jabmfrsm;onf tusOf;usumv ukefqkH;csdeftxd tif;pdefaxmiftwGif;
aeoGm;cJh=u&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;bdk=unf
OD;xGef;pdk;
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

69

OD;cifarmifat;
rœav;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1996 ckESpf/ arvwGifzrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2002 ckESpf ESpfvnfydkif;wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (57) ESpfcef@ &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;cifarmifat;onf *sif;&Syf. t=urf;rzuf EdkifiHa&;tHwkr_ pmtkyf vuf
0,fxm;&Sdr_jzifh ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;. zrf;qD;jcif;cH&+yD; ta&;ay:pDrHcsuf yk'fr 5 (n) jzifh
axmif'%f 7 ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;axmifwGif; tpmtdrfa&m*g cHpm;cJh&+yD; rœav;tusOf;axmifaq;\HkwGif
ESpfESpfr# aexdkifcJh&onf? 2002 ckESpfwGif a&m*grSm ydkrdk qdk;&Gm;vmum yg;pyfrS aoG;rsm; tefxGuf
cJh+yD; aemufw&ufwGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tjynfjynfqdkif&m=uufajceDaumfrwD (ICRC) rS OD;cifarmifat;tm; 4 }udrfr#awG@
qHkcJh+yD; tjrefqHk; jyefv$wfay;oifhonfh oltjzpf rSwfcsufay;cJhonf? odk@aomftm%mydkifrsm;u
rv$wfay;bJxm;cJh+yD; aoqHk;csdefwGif omrefvGwf&ufrSm vydkif;r#om vdkawmhonfh tcsdefjzpfonf?
axmift&m&Sdrsm;? ?
axmifydkif}uD;
axmifrª;

OD;atmifZif
OD;aZmf0if;

cifarmifvGif (c) aerif;atmif
&efukefwdkif;/ a'gyHkòr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1998 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv 5 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2006 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv 11 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (38) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;atmif=unf (uG,fvGef) a':oef;at; (70 ESpf)wdk@. om;jzpfol udkcif
armifvGifonf a'gyHkòr@e,f/ AdkvfxGef;ZH&yfuGuf arWmvrf;wGif aexdkifoljzpfonf? udkcifarmif
vGifonf 1988 ckESpf ta&;awmfyHk umvwGif ppftm%m&Sif qef@usifa&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;wdk@
twGuf wufºupGm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhol wOD;jzpfonf? &efukefjynfol@aq;\Hk}uD;a&S@wGif ausmif;om;
rsm; oydwfpcef;zGifhI oydwfarSmuf&mwGif yg0ifcJh+yD; =u,fpdrf;vli,frsm;wyfOD;wGif OD;aqmifv_yf
70

&Sm;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf 'Drdkua&pDygwDwGif yg0ifcJh+yD; 1990 jynfh a&G;aumufyGJwGif 'Drdkua&pDygwD
udk,fpm; uGrf;+cHukef;òr@e,f rJqüe,frS jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpmvS,favmif;tjzpf 0ifa&muf
,SOf+ydKif ta&G;cHcJhonf? jynfcspfvli,ftpnf;t\Hk;tm;vnf; rsm;pGmulnDay;cJholwOD;jzpfonf?
1995 ckESpfwGif rdef;uav;wOD; t"RðyusifhcH&jcif;ESifhywfoufI xdktrsdK;orD;zufrS oufao
vdkufcJh&m ppftkyfpkrS rSm;,Gif;pGm oufaoxGufqdkonf[kqdkum axmif'%f 1 ESpfcGJ csrSwfjcif;cHcJh
&onf? 1996 ckESpfwGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
Zefe0g&Dv 5 &ufae@ 1998 ckESpfwGif “u,fawmfrl=uyg ” qdkonfh acgif;pOfjzifh oHCmhr[me,u
tzGJ@/ etzppfAdkvfcsKyfrsm; ESifh a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@xHodk@ pkpkaygif; ay;pm 38 apmif ay;ydk@cJh
onf? xdkpmwGif jynfolrsm; 'kQa&mufae=u+yD/ EdkifiHawmft}uD;tuJrsm;rS yHhydk;ay;ygqdkonfh
pmom;rsm;/ ,ciffu q&mawmf}uD;rsm;rS EdkifiHawmfodk@ arWm&yfcHr_rsm; &SdcJhonf ,ckvnf; xdkodk@
vkyfaqmifay;ygqdkonfh pmom;rsm; yg0ifcJhygonf? xdkpmESifhywfoufI ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;.
zrf;qD;jcif;cH&+yD; 1998 ckESpf/ rwfv 4 &ufae@wGif w&m;r0if yHkESdyfOya' yk'fr 17§20/ EdkifiHawmf
tpdk;&tm; t=unfndKysufapr_ yk'fr 124 (u) wdk@jzifh axmif'%f 10ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1998 ckESpf arv 17 &ufae@wGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmifrS uav;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif;cHcJh&
onf? 2002 ckESpf arv 5 &uf ae@wGif uav;axmifrS vGdKifaumfaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif;xyfrH
cHcJh&onf? xdkrSwqifh 2002 ckESpf 'DZifbmv 20 &ufae@wGif ylwmtdkaxmifodk@ xyfrHajymif;a&$@
jcif; cHcJh&jyefonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ylwmtdktusOf;axmiftwGif; aoG;wdk;/ ESvHk;/ vdyfacgif;/ iSufzsm;ESifh qD;vrf;a=umif;
usOf;jcif; a&m*grsm;udk awmufav#muf cHpm;cJh&onf?
udkcifarmifvGifESifh ‚. rdom;pkrS axmiftm%mydkifrsm;/ tjynfjynfqdkif&m =uufajceDtzGJ@ESifh
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;xHodk@ jyifywGif aq;ukcGifh&&ef t}udrf}udrfawmif;cHcJhonf? ylwmtdk
axmifydkifrS 5 }udrfwdkifwdkif tjyifaq;\Hkodk@ wifydk@ ukocGifh ay;&ef txuftm%mydkifrsm;odk@
awmif;cHcJhonf? axmifq&m0efrSvnf; tjyifaq;\HkwGif ukocGifhðy&ef axmufcHcsuft}udrf}udrf
ay;cJhaomfvnf; udkcifarmifvGifrSm jyifyaq;\HkwGif ukocGifhr&cJhay? 2006 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv 10
&ufae@wGifowdarharsmcJh+yD; 2006 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv 11 &ufae@ eHeuf 9 em&DcGJwGif ylwmtdk
tusOf;axmiftwGif; aoqHk;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;xGef;jrifhodef;
71

72

udkcifarmifjrifh
&efukefwdkif;/ vomòr@e,fwGifaexdkifchJonf?
1997 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (28) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2001 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (21) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (42) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkcifarmifjrifhonf OD;cifarmifwdk;/ a':jrifhjrifhwdk@. om;jzpfonf? &efukefwdkif;/
vomòr@e,fwGif aexdkifcJh+yD; 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif wufºupGmyg0ifcJhonf?
trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf/ vomòr@e,f pnf;&kH;a&;tzJG@. twGif;a&;rª;/ vomòr@e,f vli,f
vkyfief;tzJG@ wm0efcH ponhfwm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifchJonf?
vomòr@e,f tzGJ@csKyf\Hk;udk udkcifarmifjrifhaetdrfwGif zGifhvSpfxm;onf/ tzJG@csKyfqdkif;bkwfESifh
tvHvnf; ol@tdrfwGif v$ifhxlxm;cJhonf?
1995 ckESpfwGif zJG@pnf;cJhaom &efukefwkdif; qufoG,fzdwf=um;a&;vli,ftzJG@wGif tzJG@0ifjzpf
vmonf? wkdif;tqihf vli,ftzJG@ay:vm&ef òr@e,frsm;udk vkdufvHqufoG,fjcif;/ zJG@pnf;jcif;
ponfh wm0efrsm;,lcJhonf?
xdk@aemuf 1995 ckESpfwGif A[kdvli,fvkyfief;tzJG@ taxmuftulðytzJG@. tzJG@0if (5) OD;xJrS
wOD;jzpfcJhonf?
1996 arvwGif tif;pdefaxmifwGif wv=um csKyfaESmifjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1997 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (28) &ufae@wGif tzGJ@csKyfacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unfonf
r&rf;ukef;òr@e,f tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifh awG@qHk&efoGm;onhftcg tm%mydkifrsm;u wm;qD;r_rsm;ðyvkyfcJh
onf? nbufwGif tm%mykdifrsm;u udkcifarmifjrifh/ a'gufwma':ar0if;jrifh/ a'gufwmoef;+idrf;/
tygt0if tzGJ@csKyf tzGJ@0iftcsdK@ vkdufvHzrf;qD;chJonf?
udkcifarmifjrifhonf 'DZifbmv (10) &ufae@wGif 1950-jynhfESpf/ ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr
5(n)/ avmif;upm;r_ yk'fr 15(u)wkd@jzifh axmif'%f (8) ESpf csrSwfcHchJ&onf? tif;pdefaxmif/
uav;òr@tusOf;axmifwkd@wGif tusOf;cscHchJ&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? udkcifarmifjrifhonf uav;òr@tusOf;axmifodk@ a&muf&dScsdefrSpI iSufzsm;a&m*g
cHpm;cJh&onf? xdk@a=umifh tm%mydkifrsm;xH aq;0g;ukoay;&ef t}udrf}udrf awmif;cHcJhaomfvnf;
tm%mykdifrsm;u vspfvsL&SK tcsdefqJGcJhonf?
73

2001 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (21) &ufae@/ rGef;wnfh (12) em&DwGif tm%mykdifrsm;u ukdcifarmifjrihftm;
uav;òr@ jynfol@aq;\Hkodk@ ykd@aqmifcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; xkdae@nae (4) em&DtcsdefwGif
iSufzsm;a&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? ukdcifarmifjrihf.psmyeukd uav;òr@wGif ðyvkyf&m òr@cHvlxk
trsm;tjym;u vkdufvHykd@aqmifchJ=uonf?

ukdcifarmifjrihf.aetdrfwGif
0rf;enf;jcif;txdrf;trSwf
csdwfqJGxm;aom "mwfykHESihfyef;csDum;

rSwfcsuf? ? ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u udkcifarmifjrifh. aetdrfodk@ oGm;a&muf&SmazG&mwGif
w&m;r0if xDvufrSwf awG@&Sdonf[k vkyf}uHpGJqdkchJonf? xkd@aemuf EkdifiHa&;orm;wOD;tm;
*k%fodQm usap&ef &nf&G,fI avmif;upm;r_jzifh yl;wGJum axmif'%fcsrSwfjcif;jzpfonf?
uav;òr@tusOf;axmifwGifvnf; a&m*gu|rf;aeonfh aemufqHk;tcsdefa&mufrS aq;\Hkokd@ ykd@aqmif
ojzihf aoqkH;chJ&jcif;jzpfonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
wm0efcHaxmifq&m0ef

OD;jrifhatmif
OD;0if;Edkif
r&Sd

74

OD;cifarmifjrifh
a';'&Jòr@ {&m0wDwdkif;wGif arG;zGm;onf?
1989 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1993 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (16) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (63) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?

zrf;qD;cH&+yD;aemuf ppfa=umar;jref;onhfumvwGif
\kduful;xm;aomykH ("mwfykH jyef=um;a&;0ef}uD;Xme)

EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;cifarmifjrifhonf touf (14) ESpft&G,f 1945 ckESpf zufqpf*syefawmfvSef
a&;umvwGif ocifpdk;ESifh Adkvfae0if; t=um; qufom;tjzpf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGuf
óu;yrf;cJhol jzpfonf?
(1953-54) wGif ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf (Auo) tr_aqmif wpfOD;
tjzpf ausmif;om;xk.ta&;/ ppfrSefonfh 'Drdkua&pDynma&;twGuf a&S@wef;rS yg0ifcJhonf? tpOf
tvm}uD;rm;vSonfh ausmif;om;or~acgif;aqmifrsm;. pm&if;wGif wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfcJhonf?
1959 ckESpf/ jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwD ay:xGef;onfhtcg  A[dkaumfrwD0if/ twGif;a&;rª; ponhf
wm0efrsm;,lcJhonf? wdk;wufonfh EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;pkpnf;I/ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH trsKd;om;
nD!Gwfa&;wyfaygif;pk (yrnw) zGJ@&mwGif obmywdtzGJ@0if tjzpfwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf?
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; (6) c&dkif qüjyyGJwGif yJcl;ppfa=umif;rª;csKyftjzpf jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf wufºuonfh tcef;rS yg0ifcJhonf?
1965 ckESpfwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu trdsK;om;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfa&;udk umuG,fonfh Oya'
xkwjf yef+yD; wjynfv;Hk &dS Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ oma&;ema&;toif;tzG@J rsm;/ pma&;q&mtoif;ponfh
toif;tzGJ@tm;vHk; zsufodrf;cJhonf? zsufodrf;+yD;pD;a=umif; tzGJ@tpnf;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk,f
wdkif vufrSwfa&;xkd;ap+yD; tzGJ@. qdkif;bkwf/ wHqdyfwkH;/ tvHrsm;ygrusef vma&muftyfESH=u&ef
trdef@xkwfcJhonf?
jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwDu ygwDzsufodrf;a=umif; a=unmjcif;rðyojzifh acgif;aqmiftm;vkH;
tzrf;cHcJh&onf? 1969 ckESpfwGif udkudk;u|ef;okd@ydk@aqmifcHcJh&onf? OD;cifarmifjrifhonf u|ef;
zsufodrf;a&;wdkufyGJ[k xif&Sm;onfh udkudk;u|ef;tusOf;axmifpepfqef@usifa&; tpmiwfcH qüjyyJG
wGif yg0ifcJhonf?
75

OD;ae0if;. jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD tpkd;&uay;aom EdkifihH*k%f&nfbGJ@udk jiif;qdkcJhonf?
&Spfav;vkH; 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;wGif ausmif;om;or~tzJG@0ifa[mif;}uD;rsm; taejzifhyg0if
cJhonf? 1988 ckESpf pufwifbmv (18) &ufae@wGif ppfwyfu tm%modrf;+yD;aemufydkif;
jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwD zGJ@pnf;onfhtcg/ OUÏtjzpfwm0ef,lum txufjrefrmjynfw0Srf;wGif
ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&;w&m;rsm; a[mcJhonf?
ygwDaxmif+yD; (7) vr#t=um 1989 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif tzrf;cHcJh&onf? edk0ifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif
w&m;r0if tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh axmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;cifarmifjrifhonf 1991 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;rSpI 0rf;udkufa&m*g &&dSchJonf? 1992
ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif tif;pdefaxmifaq;\HkwGif aq;ukor_ cH,lcJhonf? 0rf;udkufa&m*gudk wESpfausmf
cHpm;cJh&+yD; 1993 ckESpf azazmf0g&Dv (16) &ufae@wGif xdk0rf;udkufa&m*gjzifhyif tif;pdefaxmifwGif;
aoqHk;cJh&onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;cifarmifjrifhonf touf (14) ESpfom;t&G,frS uG,fvGefcsdeftxd vGwfvyfa&;
óu;yrff;r_umv/ ygvDref'Drdkua&pDumv/ rqv ppftm%m&Sifumv/ e0w ppftm%m&Sifumv
wav#mufvHk; jynfolvlxktwGuf udk,fusdK;pGef@tepfemcHI/ jynfol@a&S@rS rm;rm;rwfrwf&yfum
wdkufyGJ0ifoGm;cJholjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; tm%m&Sifacwftqufquf tusOf;axmifwdk@wGif
t}udrf}udrftcgcg xdef;odrf;jcif; cHcJh&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;bdk=unf
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

“'Daq;\kHrSm 'Dae&mudkxGufvm+yD;aq;uk=uwJh udkpdef0if;/ udkndK0if;/ OD;pkd;0if; olwkd@tm;vHk;
aooGm;=u+yD? axmifxJudk jyefroGm;EkdifcJh=ubl;/ odw,fr[kwfvm; æ ”
“ig æ/ cifarmifjrifh 'Dae&mrSm raobl;/ axmifxJudka&mufatmif jyef0ifr,f ”
“ig wckrSmcJhr,f æ/ igaowJhtcg ightavmif;udk ‘jynfol@kwdk;wufa&;ygwDtvH’eJ@ zHk;v$rf;ay;yg ”
“ightaeeJ@ aemufqHk;tcsdefaowJhtxd ppftm%m&Siftpdk;&udk qef@usifwkdufyGJ0ifoGm;w,fqdk
wJh t"d`g,fygyJ æ ajymvkdufyg æ tm;vHk;udkajymvkdufyg æ? ”
— OD;cifarmifjrifh (tif;pdefaq;\Hk/ azaz:0g&D/ 1993)

76

tav;`yK~uygpdkdU
(1)
Ù OD;cifarmifjrifh
&J&ifheDjr/ *k%fajymifvSonfh
b0oef@pif/ tdk=u,fpif--=u,fpifonfum;/ tarSmif=um;Y
arG;zGm;vm&/ ay:cJh&vnf;
ntm;cGif;azguf/ wrdk;aomufa&;
b0ay;+yD;/ aoG;ESifhn$efjy
tvif;iScJh
us&mae&m/ a&muf&mt&yf
yJhwifxyfatmif/ tm;rmefaqmif&if;
tarSmifudk+zdK/ tarSmifqdkwdkuf
trdkufwdrfv$m/ wdrfwumudk
ausnm ppfqif/ c&D;ESifcJh
=u,fpifwm0ef a=ucJhygay+yD---

(2)
Ù rdk;raomufao;/ a&mifeDa0;qJ
aoG;eJ@vdrf;usH/ onfn,H.
aw;oHokOf;qdwf/ tarSmif&dyf0,f
rarS;rSdwfcsif/ vif;vdkufcsifvnf;
=u,fpifwyGifh/ '%f&mqifhcJh
&ifeifhp&m/ aºu&yg+yD
b,fcgajzodrfh/ &EdkifcsdrfhtHh
rqef@&ifrSm/ a0'emjzifh
cgcg*k%fðy/ tav;ðyvdkuf
OD;!$wfvdkufonf
aomif;wdkufuBmwnfygap---

(3)
Ù a=omf--=u,fpifwyGifh
&ifeifhp&m/ aºu&&Sm+yD
77

r[majrjyif/ uÿnf;wifvsuf
=uifemvSpGm/ axG;ydkufygavmh
Zmenfom;aumif;/ ol&Jaumif;.
tavmif;udk,fay:/ aoG;pufay:Y
pdkufxlodrf;xkyf/ tvHtkyf&if;
uBmcsOf;wdkif/ ol@rSwfwdkifudk
qkyfudkifpHðy/ tav;ðy=u
OD;!$wf=uavmh
nudk cGif;azmuf/ qufvufav#muf&if;
raysmuf=u,fpif/ jrwf0dnmOfudk
tpOfxm0& *k%fðy=uygpdk@?
tpOfxm0& *k%fðy=uygpdk@? ?
— 0if;wifhxGef; (1993) a&;zGJ@onf?

OD;uif;pdef
yJcl;wkdif;/ jynfòr@wGifaexdkifchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
1995 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (16) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (53) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;uif;pdefonf jynfòr@Zmwdjzpfonf? tbtrnfrSm OD;aiGpHjzpfonf?
oGm;pdkufq&mb0jzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;ðyaepOf ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. ajratmuf
awmfvSefa&; vkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmifay;cJhonf?
1988 ckESpfwGif EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;zGJ@pnf;cGifh&vmaomtcg jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwDokd@ 0ifa&muf
cJh+yD;/ jynfc&dkif 'kwd, OUÏtjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u OD;uif;pdeftm; ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh
qufoG,fr_jzihf zrf;qD;chJ+yD;/ arv (30) &ufae@wGif rw&m;toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1 jzifh
axmif'%f (8) ESpf csrSwfchJonf?
78

aoqHk;yHk? ? 1994 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif tjyif;zsm;I owdvpfcJhonf? xdkodk@ t}udrf}udrf
owdvpf+yD; wjznf;jznf;/ tiftm;csnfhe@JvmI tif;pdefaxmifaq;\Hkodk@ wufa&mufukocGifh&cJh
onf? okd@aomfvnf; axmifq&m0efrsm;u OD;uif;pdeftm; qufvufukojcif;rðybJ vufav#mh
vdkufonf?
'DZifbmv (6) &ufae@wGif tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;uif;pdeftm; &efukeftaxGaxGukaq;\Hk tcsKyf
aqmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@ukocJhonf?
aoqHk;cgeD; (2) &uftvdkwGifrS tcsKyfaqmifrS aq;\kHtay:xyfodk@ ajymif;a&$@ay;cJhonf? 1995
ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (16) &ufae@wGif xdkae&mYyifuG,fvGefonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? q&m0efppfcsuft& (AIDS) a&m*gjzifhuG,fvGefa=umif; od&Sd&onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u OD;uif;pdefonf wDbDa&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefcJha=umif; rdom;pkokd@
ajym=um;chJonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;omOD;
OD;pdk;jrifh
a'gufwmoif;az

OD;cifarmif (ac:) Adkvfpufa&mif
yJcl;wdkif;/ ZD;ukef;òrd@ Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (2) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ rwfv (7) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (68) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? Akdvfpufa&mifonf *syefacwf Adkvfoifwef; trSwfpOf (3) oifwef;qif;
wOD;jzpfonf? jrefrmEdkifiH vGwfvyfa&;twGuf AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifaom zufqpfawmf
vSefa&;wGif wyfrª;tjzpf &Gyf&Gyfc|efc|ef yg0ifcJholjzpfonf? OD;ae0if;. rqvtpdk;&vufxufu
ay;tyfaom EdkifiHh*k%f&nfbGJ@udk vufrcHbJ jiif;qefcJhol wOD;vnf;jzpfonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&+yD;/ a&=unftdkif
79

ppfa=uma&;pcef;wGif umv=umjrifhpGm n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif; cHcJh&onf? 1989 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv
(2) &ufae@wGif txl;ppfcHk\kH;trSwf (5)u 1950-jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_ tufOya' yk'fr 5(n)/
rw&m;toif;tufOya'yk'fr 17§1 wdk@jzifh w&m;pJGchJonf? Akdvfpufa&mifonf axmif'%f (5)
ESpf csrSwfcH&um tif;pdefaxmifwGif qufvuftusOf;csjcif; cHcJh&onf?
Adkvfpufa&mif. ZeD;onf axmif'%f (5) ESpf/ orD;t}uD;onf axmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfjcif;
cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ppfa=uma&;umvtwGif; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ tusOf;axmif wdkufcef;twGif;
orHwvif;ay:wGif (2) ESpfausmfaexkdif&jcif;/ touft&G,f}uD;&ifhjcif;/ usef;rma&; tajctae
tvGef qdk;&Gm;vmonhftcgrSom axmifaq;\kHodk@ wufcGihf&jcif;wkd@a=umifh 1992 ckESpf/ rwfv
(7) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaxmifaq;\HkY aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u Adkvfpufa&mifonf ESvHk;a&m*gjzihf aoqkH;chJa=umif;/ ESvHk;a&m*g&Sdjcif;ukd
Adkvfpufa&mif ukd,fwkdifyif rod&SdchJa=umif; ajymqkdchJonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

OD;udkav;
ucsifjynfe,f/ Aef;armfòr@ Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ ESpfvnfydkif;wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (50) 0ef;usif&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;udkav;onf trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf Aef;armfòr@e,f tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpf
onf? 1990 ckESpf rwfvwGif udkzkef;armfusqHk;jcif; 2 ESpfjynfh ESpfywfvnf tcrf;tem; ðyvkyfjcif;
ESifh ywfouf+yD; ta&;ay:pDrHcsufyk'fr 5 (n) jzifh axmif'%f 7 ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? 1990
ckESpf {+yDvwGif Aef;armftusOf;axmifrS rœav; tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;ukdav;onf tzrf;rcH&cif tcsdefuwnf;u ESvHk;a&m*g&SdfolwOD; jzpfonf?
ESpf}udrf wdwd ESvHk;cGJpdwfukor_ cH,l+yD; jzpfonf? tzrf;cH&cgeD;tcsdefwGif q&m0efrS aemufw}udrf
80

xyfcGJ&ef vdktyfonf[k !$ef=um;xm;+yD;jzpfonf? rœav;axmifydkifxHodk@ xdkta=umif;t&mudk
wifjycJhaomfvnf; rnfonfh ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_ ray;onfhtjyif aq;0g;ukor_vnf; r&cJhay/
aoqHk;cgeD;tcsdefrS rœav; aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ ydk@aqmifukocJhaomfvnf; &ufydkif;twGif; aoqHk;oGm;
cJhonf?
axmift&m&Sdrsm;? ?
axmifydkif}uD;
axmifrª;}uD;
axmifq&m0ef

OD;xGef;atmifausmf
OD;cspf
a'gufwmat;csdK

OD;udkOD;
o&ufòr@Zmwd jzpfonf?
2000 jynfhESpf ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2006 ckESpf rwfv 23 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (64) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;udkOD;onf trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf pwifxlaxmifpOfuwnf;u wuf
wufºuºu yg0ifaqmif&GufcJholjzpf+yD; ‚.aetdrfwGif o&uf+rdK@e,f tzGJ@csKyf\Hk;tjzpf zGifhvSpfxm;
&SdcJhonf? aemufydkif;wGif trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf o&uf+rdK@e,f twGif;a&;rª; jzpfvmcJhonf?
1998 ckESpf jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;ðyaumfrwD zGJ@pnf;+yD;aemufydkif;Y ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u
aetdrf&Sd tzGJ@csKyfqkdif;bkwfðzwfcs&efESifh tzGJ@csKyfrSE_wfxGuf&ef zdtm;ay;r_udk jiif;qefcJhojzifh
o&ufòr@ {nhf&dyfom (etz.tac:)wGif acWzrf;qD;csKyfaESmif cHcJh&onf? ‚.om; jzpfolonf
vnf; tjypf&Smzrf;qD;axmifcscHcJh&onf?
OD;udkOD;onf 2000 ckESpf/ {+yDvu ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;. rw&m;tr_qifzrf;qD;jcif;udk cHcJh&+yD;
uav;oli,frsm;tm; aoG;aqmifpnf;\Hk;onf[k tjypf&SmpGyfpGJ+yD;aemuf o&ufc\kdifw&m;\Hk;u
&mZowf}uD;Oya' yk'fr 363 ESifh yk'fr 505 (c) wkd@jzifh axmif'%f 2 ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
tusOf;cscH&+yD;aemuf axmif'%f 7 ESpf xyfrHcsrSwfcHcJh&+yD; pkpkaygif; axmif'%f 9 ESpf uscHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;usaepOftwGif; OD;udkOD;onf tqpftjrpfudkfufonfha&m*gESifh tpmtdrf
a&m*gwkd@ tjyif;txef cHpm;cJh&aomfvnf; vHkavmufonfh axmifwGif; aq;0g;ukor_ r&&SdchaJ y? xkd@
jyif aoqHk;cgeD; tcsdefwGifrS ‚tm; tusOf;axmiftjyifodk@xkwfum aq;\HkwifcJhjcif; jzpfa=umif;/
81

axmifwGif; tpm;taomufroef@&Sif;jcif;ESifh aq;0g;ukor_nhHzsif;jcif;wkd@a=umifh tonf;udk
qkd;qkd;&Gm;&Gm;xdckdufum aoqHk;;&jcif;jzpfonf?

OD;ausmf'if
{&m0wDwdkif; Zmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (24) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (20) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (58) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;ausmf'ifonf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? 1996
'DZifbm 11 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefchJaom {&m0wDwdkif; 0g;c,fròr@e,f pnf;&kH;a&;tzJG@rS OD;0if;
armif. psmyewGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? psmyewGif OD;ausmf'iftygt0if 0g;c,fròr@e,f pnf;&kH;a&;
tzJG@0if (11) OD;u yifeDwkdufykH/ tzJG@csKyf&ifxkd;wHqdyfwkd@ukd 0wfqifxm;ojzihf zrf;qD;cHchJ&jcif;
jzpfonf? ta&;ay:pDrHr_ tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n) jzihf w&m;pJGqkdcHchJ&onf?
=o*kwfv 25 &ufae@wGif 0g;c,fròr@e,f Oya't&m&dSu ,if;yk'frjzihf +idpGef;a=umif; oufao
taxmuftxm; rckdifvkH[k qkdum tr_ukd \kyfodrf;ojzihf jyefvnfv$wfajrmufvmchJ=uonf?
okd@aomfvnf; ‚wkd@onf csufjcif;yif jyefvnf zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? jypfr_qkdif&mOya' yk'fr 505 (c)
jzihf w&m;pJGqkdcHchJ&onf? w&m;vkdbufu ‚wkd@tm; jypfr_usL;vGefa=umif; xif&Sm;pGm oufao
rjyEkdifchJaomfvnf; ‚wkd@onf axmif'%f (2) ESpfpD uscHchJ&onf? xdk@aemuf ajrmif;jròr@ tusOf;
axmifokd@ ykd@aqmifcHchJ&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;ausmf'ifonf tqkwfa&mifjcif;/ ausmufuyfa&m*g/ aoG;wdk;a&m*grsm;udk w+ydKif
eufcHpm;chJ&onf? a&m*gonf;vmonhftwGuf 1997 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (19) &ufae@wGif
tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;ausmf'iftm; 0g;c,fr wdkufe,faq;\Hkodk@ wifydk@ukocJhonf? aq;\Hka&muf+yD;
aemufwae@ nae (5) em&DcGJwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? aoqkH;+yD;aemufwae@wGif tm%mykdifrsm;
u OD;ausmf'if. \kyfuvmyfukd rD;oç*[fchJonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;ausmf'ifaoqkH;&jcif;ESihfywfoufI tzJG@csKyfu (26-12-97) &ufae@ ae@pJGjzihf
tzJG@0ifrsm;okd@ ay;ykd@aompmwGif atmufygtwkdif; azmfjyxm;onf?
“rnfonhfae@&ufup+yD; rrmrusef;jzpfchJonfukd rod&aomfvnf; 19-10-97 &ufae@wGif
82

touf&Sif&ef tajctaer&dSawmhrS ajrmif;jraq;\kHokd@ ykd@chJonf[k =um;od&ygonf? raumif;
aomtpm;tpmrsm;ukd pm;&I 0rf;avsmum 20-10-97 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGeftedPa&mufoGm;
onf[k od&ygonf? xkH;wrf;pOfvmrsm;t& tokbukd (3) &ufxm;&ef rdom;pku tm%mykdifrsm;
ukd ta=umif;=um;ygaomfvnf; cGihfrðybJ 21-10-97 &ufae@rSmyif ajrmif;jr tusOf;OD;pD;Xmeu
rD;oç*[fvkdufonf[k od&ygonf? rdom;pkrsm;u t\kd;aumufcGihfðy&ef awmif;qkdonfukdyif
cGihfrðychJyg? rD;oç*[f+yD;v#if+yD;csif; rdom;pkrsm;ukdvnf; 0g;c,frokd@ jyefykd@chJygonf? ”

udkausmfrsdK;oef@ (ac:) *syef}uD;
{&m0wDwdkif;/ bdkuav;òr@e,fwGif arG;zGm;onf?
1989 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1990 ckESpf/ arv (20) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (27) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGm yg0ifcJhonf? xkdtcsdefu
ukdausmfrsKd;oef@onf ordkif;aemufqHk;ESpf ausmif;om;wOD;jzpfonf?
1988 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmvwGif ausmif;om;vli,frsm;jzihf zJG@pnf;xm;aom vl@abmifopf 'Drdk
u&ufwpfygwDokd@ 0ifa&mufchJonf? ygwD. bdkuav;òr@e,f tvkyftr_aqmiftzJG@wGif twGif;a&;
rª;wm0efudk xrf;aqmifchJonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif bdkuav;òr@e,frS vl@abmifopfygwD0ifrsm; zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? xkdzrf;qD;r_rsm;ESihf
ywfoufI òr@e,f+idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ OUÏxH pma&;om;ay;ykd@cJhojzifh 1989
ckESpf ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? e0w . trdef@trSwf 2§88 ta&;ay:a=ujimcsufOya'
udk csdK;azmufonf[k qkdum yk'fr 505 (c) jzifhaxmif'%f (12) v csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
tusOf;axmifodk@ ydk@aomtcg ol@tm; ta=umif;jycsufr&SdbJ rw&m;ojzifh zrf;qD;jcif;jzpfa=umif;/
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpf owfrSwf qufqH&rnfjzpfa=umif; ajymqdk&m/ tm%mydkifrsm;u
tjyif;txef &dkufESuf n‡Of;yef;/ ESdyfpufcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? udkausmfrsdK;oef@onf &dkufESufcH&onfh'%f&mrsm;a=umifh tpm;taomuf aumif;pGm
rpm;Edkifjcif;/ tpmracsEdkifjcif;wdk@a=umifh usef;rma&;qdk;&Gm;vmcJhonf? vdktyfaom aq;0g;ukor_
vnf; r&cJhonfhtwGuf wae@wjcm; ydkI qdk;&Gm;chJonf? 1990 jynhfESpf/ arvwGif owdvpfoGm;cJh
onf? bdkuav;aq;&Hk&dSq&m0efrsm;u ukdausmfrsKd;oef@tm; prf;oyf=unhf+yD;aemuf vlemonf
83

twGif;'%f&mrsm;a=umifh tpmacsEdkifjcif; vHk;0r&Sdawmha=umif; xkwfazmfajym=um;chJonf?
ta=umaq; oGif;ay;aomfvnf; &ufydkif;om touf&SifchJonf? 1990 jynhfESpf arv (20) &uf
ae@wGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ppftpkd;&onf tm%modrf;+yD;csdefrSpI jrefrmjynftESH@&dS v,form;rsm;xHrS tEkdif
usihfI pyg;0,f,ljcif;/ pyg; tcsdefrDra&mif;v#if &kdufESufjcif;/ enf;rsKd;pkH n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/
zrf;qD;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyfavh&dSonf?
1989 wGif vl@abmifopfygwDXmecsKyfu yJcl;wkdif;/ a0gòr@e,f&dSv,form;rsm; tEkdifusihfcHae&jcif;
ukd ta&;,l&ef ppftpkd;&xH pma&;om;awmif;qkdchJonf?
bkduav;òr@e,f&dSv,form;rsm;onfvnf; xkdokd@aomtajctaeqkd;rsm;ESihf &ifqkdifchJ&onf?
xkd@a=umihf bkduav;òr@ vl@abmifopfygwD0ifrsm;u tqkdygpmtm; rdWLul;I jzef@csdchJonf?
aemufykdif;wGif zrf;qD;cHxm;&aom bkduav;òr@e,frS v,form;rsm; vGwfajrmufvmonf?
1989 azazmf0g&DvwGif òr@e,ftm%mykdiftzJG@u bkduav;òr@&dS EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;rS ukd,fpm;
vS,frsm;ukd tpnf;ta0; zdwf=um;chJonf? tpnf;ta0;wGif òr@e,f+idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmuf
a&;tzJG@ OUX Akdvfrª;pdefoef;u pm&Gufpmwef;jzef@csdjcif;rðy&ef owday;chJonf? tpnf;ta0;
t+yD;wGif vl@abmifopfygwDrS ukd,fpm;vS,f (4) OD;ukd zrf;qD;vkdufonf?
bkduav;òr@ay:&dS atmufazmfjyyg EkdifiHa&;ygwD 3 cku ‚wkd@vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf tm%mykdif
wkd@tm; okH;}udrfwdwd pma&;om;awmif;qkdchJonf?
- vl@abmifopf'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD
- jynfol@wkd;wufa&;ygwD
- trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf
tm%mykdifrsm;u zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;ukd vGwfay;jcif;rðyonhftjyif uef@uGufpm &&dSonhftcgwkdif;
pmwGifvufrSwfa&;xkd;olrsm;ukd vkdufvHzrf;qD;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf pkpkaygif; (17) OD; zrf;qD;tusOf;
cscHchJ&onf?
ukdausmfrsKd;oef@. \kyfuvmyfab;wGif atmufygtwkdif; a&;om;xm;onf--“&JabmfausmfrsKd;oef@ (c) *syef}uD;/ touf (27) ESpf (orkdif;aemufqkH;ESpf) twGif;a&;rª;/ vl@abmif

opf 'Drkdu&ufwpfygwD (bkduav;òr@) onf tusOf;uscHae&pOf aq;\kHY uG,fvGefoGm;ygojzihf
‚. \kyfuvmyftm; (22-5-90) (t*F gae@) ae@vnf (1)em&DwGif aq;\kHrS rtlyifok±efokd@
84

ykd@aqmifoç*[frnfjzpfygojzihf vkdufygykd@aqmif=uyg&ef av;pm;pGmjzihf zdwf=um;tyfygonf? ”

ukdausmfrsKd;oef@.
psmyewGif trdef@pmzwf
tav;ðyae=uaom
vkyfazmfukdifzuf &Jabmfrsm;

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
aq;rª;

OD;wif0if;
OD;jrifhxl;
'k-wyf=uyfwif0if;

85

OD;=unf
yJcl;wkdif;/ om,m0wDòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1992 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1994 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 25 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (62) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;=unfonf om,m0wDòr@e,f trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfwGif tzGJ@0if
wOD; taejzifh wufºupGm v_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
1992 ckESpfwGif om,m0wDe,frS vl@abmifopf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD0ifrsm;onf tusOf;axmifrS
jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmchJonf? tusOf;axmifwGif; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;ESifh ywfoufI ‚wdk@.
tawG@t}uHKrsm;tm; jyefvnfa&;om;xm;onfh “om,m0wDaxmifrS i&Jcef;rsm;” pmwrf;i,f
tm; a&;om;jzef@csdchJ=uonf?
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u OD;=unftm; pmwrf;jzef@csd&mwGif ulnDay;cJhonhftwGuf zrf;qD;cho
J nf?
xkd@aemuf axmif'%f 6 ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? om,m0wDtusOf;axmiftwGif; 1994 ckESpfwGif emrusef;jzpfcJh+yD; vydkif;twGif;
aoqHk;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;jrifhodef
OD;wifxGef;
a'gufwmòz;a0atmif

OD;=unfaqmif
{&m0wDwdkif; Zmwdjzpfonf?
1995 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (21) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ arvwGif ajrmif;jròr@ tusOf;axmifwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (60) ausmf+yD jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;=unfaqmifonf 1988 ta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGm yg0ifcJhonf?
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. {&m0wDwdkif;/ ajrmif;jròr@e,f pnf;&kH;a&;tzJG@wGif wGJbuf twGif;
86

a&;rª;tjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf?
OD;=unfaqmifonf 1995 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (21) &ufae@wGif ajrmif;jròr@e,f/ 0g;jyaus;&GmY
usif;yonfh u&ifESpfopful;yGJawmfudk wufa&mufcJh+yD;/ trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfrS ay;ydk@aom
u&ifESpfopful;o0%fv$mudk zwf=um;cJhonf? xdkodk@ wufa&mufzwf=um;jcif;udk jynfaxmifpk
=uHhcdkifa&;ESifhzGH@òz;a&;toif;. toif;0iftcsdK@u òr@e,f +idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@/ a'o
qdkif&m axmufvSrf;a&;tzGJ@okd@ owif;ykd@chJonf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u rnfonfhta=umif;jycsufr#r&SdbJ OD;=unfaqmiftm; zrf;qD;chJonf? 1950
jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufyk'fr 5 (n) jzihf ajrmif;jrtusOf;axmifwGif csKyfaESmifxm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? touft&G,f}uD;ae+yDjzpfonfh OD;=unfaqmifonf ppfa=umpOfumvwGif usef;rm
a&;rSm v#ifjrefpGm qkwf,kwfusqif;vmcJhonf? tzrf;cH&+yD; (5) vt=um 1996 ckESpf arvwGif
ajrmif;jrtusOf;axmifwGif;Yyif aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;=unfaqmifaoqkH;&jcif;ESihfywfoufI tzJG@csKyfu (26-12-97) &ufae@ ae@pJGjzihf
tzJG@0ifrsm;okd@ ay;ykd@aompmwGif atmufygtwkdif; azmfjyxm;onf?
“---usef;rma&;tvGefqkd;&Gm;chJjcif;/ \kH;csdef;&ufwGif OD;=unfaqmifukd w&m;cGifokd@ ayG@xkwf&jcif;

wkd@a=umihf tmrcHav#mufxm;aomfvnf; tmrcHray;chJyg? tr_ukd ppfaq;jcif;vnf; vkH;0r&dSbJ
aoqkH;chJ&jcif; jzpfygonf? --- ”

rPwm vD,dkeDudk;vf
=opaw;vsEdkifiHom;jzpfonf?
1996 ckESpf/ {+yDv (5) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ ZGefv (22) &ufae@wGifuG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (65) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1945 ckESpfrS 1962 ckESpftxd EdkifiHjcm;oabFmukþ%D. udk,fpm;vS,f
wpfOD;tjzpf aqmif&GufchJonf? 1969 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHqdkif&m aemfa0;EdkifiH aumifppf0eftjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ 1978 ckESpfwGif 'def;rwfEdkifiH aumifppf0eftjzpf‚ wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf?
1993 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEkdifiHqkdif&m aemfa0;/ 'def;rwf/ zifvef/ qGpfZmvef EdkifiHwdk@. *k%fxl;aqmif
87

aumifppf0eftjzpf cef@tyfjcif;cHcJh&onf? aemufydkif;wGif a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifh tvGef&if;ESD;ol
jzpfvmojzihf ppftpkd;&u rsufrkef;usKd;chJonf?
1996 ckESpf/ {+yDv (5) &ufae@wGif oufqdkif&mtm%mydkifwdk@. cGifhðycsuf r&,lbJ w,fvDzkef;
ESifh a=u;eef;puf xm;&Sdonf[k pGyfpGJcsufjzifh &efukefòr@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ arv (20) &ufae@wGif axmif'%f (3) ESpfESifh aiG'%f tar&duefa':vm (5000)
ay;aqmif&ef trdef@cscHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf tm%mykdifrsm;u rPwmvD,dkeDudk;vftm; tif;pdef
axmif tdyfaqmiftrSwf (3)/ tcef;(1)okd@ ykd@aqmif csKyfaESmifxm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? npOfvkdvkdyif axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;onf vD,dkeDudk;vftm; ac:,lI ppfa=umcJh=u
onf? ppfa=uma&;rS jyefvmonfhtcgwdkif;wGif ‚. usef;rma&;rSm wae@xufwae@ ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;
vmonf[k tcef;ywf0ef;usif&Sd EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;u qkdonf? vD,dkeDudk;vfonf qD;csKd/
aoG;wdk;a&m*grsm; &Sdolvnf;jzpfonf? tusOf;uscH&+yD; wpfvt=um 1996 ckESpf/ ZGefv (22)
&uf ae@wGif tif;pdefaxmifwGif;Y aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? e0w EdkifiHjcm;a&;0ef}uD; OD;tkef;a*smfu vD,dkeDukd;vfonf &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;wGif
tpmpm;aepOf aoqHk;cJhonf[k ajymqdkcJhonf? rsufjrifoufaorsm;url aoqHk;+yD;rS &efukef
aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhjcif; jzpfonf[kqdkonf?
vD,dkeDukd;vf. psmyeudk ol. rdom;pku vdkufygydk@aqmifcGifh r&cJhay? tusOf;axmifwGif;Y *k%fxl;
aqmif aumifppf0ef vD,dkeDukd;vf aoqHk;oGm;cJh&jcif;. t"duusonhf tcsuftvufrsm;udk
od&SdEdkif&ef oHwreftodkif;t0dkif;u óu;pm;cJh=uaomfvnf; atmifjrifr_ r&ao;ay?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;a&$ausmf
OD;oif;az

ref;'g0dwf
{&m0wDwdkif;/ 0g;c,fròr@ Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (12) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefcJhonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (58) ESpf&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
88

EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1950 jynhfESpf jynfwGif;ppfrD; awmufavmifaepOf AdkvfcsKyfae0if;. ppfwyf
u {&m0wDwdkif; 0g;c,fròr@twGif; 0ifa&mufpD;eif;um w&GmvHk;tm;rD;&_H@jcif;/ rk'def;usifhjcif;/
owfjzwfjcif;rsm; ðyvkyfcJhonf? ref;'g0dwf. tpfrESpfOD;onfvnf; owfjzwfcH&um rdef;rt*F g
wGif 0g;c|efwef;vef;ESifh aoqHk;cJh&onf?
aemufydkif;wGif ref;'g0dwfonf EdkifiHa&;e,fy,fxJodk@ 0ifa&mufvmcJhonf? 1963 ckESpf Edk0ifbmv
(6) c&dkif jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; qüjyyGJwGif yg0ifchJonf? ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;
t\Hk; OUÏtjzpf qüjyyGJwGif OD;aqmifcJhonfh jynfol@aumfrwDwGif wm0ef,lcJhonf?
AdkvfcsKyfae0if;. awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJtm; wzufowf&yfpJvdkuf+yD;
twdkuftcHrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;chJonf? xkdtcg ref;'g0dwfvnf; tzrf;
qD;cH&+yD; tusOf;axmifxJwGif 7 ESpfr# \Hk;wifppfaq;jcif;r\SdbJ csKyfaESmifcHcJh&onf?
jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmonfhtcg ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ u&iftrsdK;om;a&;
wdk@twGuf v#dK@0SufpGm v_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
1978 ckESpfwGif EdkifiHawmfvkyf}uHr_jzifh ref;aiGatmifESifhtwl ao'%fcsrSwfjcif; cHcJh&onf? 1980
jynhfESpfwGif taxGaxGvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh trdef@jzifh axmifrS jyefvGwfvmcJhonf?
1982 ckESpfwGif ref;aiGatmifOD;pD;I &efukefòr@ jrefrmhtoHtm;0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufchJonf? ref;'g
0dwfonf rouFmr_jzifh zrf;qD;ESdyfpufjcif;cHcJh&jyefonf?
1988 ckEpS f 'Dru
kd a&pDta&;awmfyu
kH mvtwGi;f jrpf0u|e;f ay:a'owGif wufºupGmyg0ifco
hJ nf?
1989 ckESpfwGif u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;t\Hk;e,fajrodk@ wdwfwqdwf oGm;a&mufqufoG,fr_jzifh
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u ref;'g0dwftm; zrf;qD;+yD;/ axmif'%f (8) ESpfcsrSwfcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ref;'g0dwfonf tif;pdefaxmif (5) wdkuftwGif;/ oHrHwvif;ay:wGif umv=umjrifhpGm
aexdkifcJh&onf? xkd@a=umifh 1992 ckESpfwGif avjzwfoGm;cJhonf? odk@aomf tm%mykdifrsm;u
vHkavmufaom aq;0g;ukor_ray;bJ wdkufcef;xJwGif qufvufxdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf?
1992 ckESpf/ ZGefv (29) &ufae@wGifrS &efukefjynfol@aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf;
usef;rma&;rSm tvGefqdk;&Gm;aeojzihf (13) &uft=umwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;
u ref;'g0dwfonf tqkwfuifqmjzifh aoqHk;a=umif; ajym=um;cJhonf?
89

rSwfcsuf? ? raoqHk;rDwGif usef;rma&;qkd;&Gm;aeaom ref;'g0dwfonf ajcusOf;/ vufxdyf wkd@
jzihf cwfxm;jcif;cHchJ&onf/ xkd@a=umihf wudk,fvHk; v_yf&Sm;I r&cJhay?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

rdkiftdkufyef;
&Srf;jynfe,fajrmufydkif;/ erfhqefòr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
2001 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (2) &ufae@wGifzrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2002 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (31) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (40) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? rdkiftdkufyef;onf tz tdkuf[Gef;/ trd at;,Gef;wdk@. om;jzpf+yD; &Srf;jynfe,f
ajrmufydkif;/ erfhqefòr@e,f bk&m;}uD;aus;&Gmtkyfpk/ Z,fbefaumufaus;&GmwGif arG;zGm;onf?
1984 ckESpfwGif yavmifjynfe,f vGwfajrmufa&;ygwD. tzGJ@0ifwpfOD;jzpffvmcJhonf? 1986
ckESpfwGif trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk (r'w) A[dkXmecsKyf\Hk;odk@ ygwD. udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf
apv$wfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (12) &ufae@wGif yavmifjynfe,fvGwfajrmufa&;wyfOD;udk zGJ@pnf;&mwGif
yg0ifcJh+yD; A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzJG@0iftjzpf wm0efay;cH&onf? 2000 jynfhESpf ZlvdkifvwGif
ðyvkyfaom wyfOD;. yxrt}udrfnDvmcHwGif wGJbuftwGif;a&;rª;tjzpf wm0efay;cH&onf?
wJGbuftwGif;a&;rª; wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf wyfOD; tiftm;awmifhwif;a&;twGuf yavmifa'orS
rsKd;cspfvli,frsm;pGmudk wyfOD;&Jabmfrsm;tjzpf pnf;\Hk;um r[mrdwfrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;vufwJGcJhonf?
xdkif;-jrefrme,fpyfwGif yavmifvli,fvkyfief;uGef,uftzGJ@/ yavmiftrsKd;orD;tpnf;t\Hk;
ponfwkd@ ay:aygufa&;twGuf t"du OD;aqmifóu;yrf;cJholjzpfonf? yavmifvli,f vkyfief;
uGef,uftzGJ@. t}uHay;yk~dKvfwOD;vnf; jzpfonf?
rdkiftdkufyef;onf ajratmufvkyfief;rsm;ukd v#Kd@0Sufxrf;aqmifaepOf 2001 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv
(2) &ufae@Y xdkif;jrefrme,fpyfteD;wGif zrf;qD;cH&onf? xdk@aemuf armfv+rdKif tusOf;axmifokd@
ykd@aqmifcHchJ&+yD; rw&m;toif;tufOya'yk'fr 17§1/ 13(1) wkd@jzifh axmif'%f (7) ESpf csrSwf
cH&onf? zrf;qD;cH&csdefwGif rdkiftdkufyef;onf usef;rma&;aumif;rGefol wOD;jzpfonf?
90

aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;cscHxm;&pOf a&zsOf;a&m*g pJGuyfvmonf? 2002 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (22)
&ufae@wGif usef;rma&;qdk;&Gm;vmojzifh axmifaq;\Hkodk@ a&muf&dScJhonf// Zlvkdif (26) &ufae@
wGif axmifq&m0efu tjyifaq;\Hkodk@ xkwfIuko&ef axmifydkifodk@ pma&;om;ta=umif;=um;
chJonf? (31) &ufae@ ae@vnf (1;30) em&Dcef@wGif tjyifaq;\Hkodk@ ydk@aqmifcJh&m ae@vnf (3;15)
em&Dcef@wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tm%mydkifrsm;u rkdiftkdufyef; &kwfw&ufuG,fvGefoGm;a=umif; rdom;pkxHokd@
ta=umif;=um; cJhonf? rkdiftkdufyef;. yavmifjynfe,f vGwfajrmufa&;wyfOD;onf jrefrm
ppftpdk;&ESifh typftcwf &yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsufudk qef@usif&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf?
axmift&m&Sdrsm;? ?
axmifydkif}uD;
axmifrª;}uD;
axmifq&m0ef

OD;ouf&Snf
OD;ausmfoef;jrifh
a'gufwmpdk;0if;

aet0ifapmwJhnaecg;cg;wpfck&JhaemufrSm
Ú

Ú

Ú

nawGrSm va&mif rJhoGm;avmuftmif
ightwGufawmh æ
na&mif[m arSmif arSmifEdkifvGef;w,f
tJ'DnawGaygh
emusifr_awG
cg;oD;r_awG
tvGrf;awG weifhwydk;eJ@ rsuf&nfrdk;awG?
wu,fhudk oef;acgif,HwpfckygyJ
atmufwdkbmudk vufjyE_wfqufwJhae@u
ESif;qDeDwpfyGifh&J@tjzpf
ocF g&jrpfxJrSm æ
pdrf;jrwJhawmifwef;}uD;awGudk cspfwJh
pdrf;jrwJhawmifwef;}uD;awGu cspfwJh 'gifyef;
tJ'Dawmifwef;}uD;awGudk pGef@cGmoGm;+yDqdkwJhta=umif;
*kwfxdyfacsmif;a&awGuawmif acgif;rndwf&uf=ubl; æ wJh?
91

Ú

Ú

rEGrf;cif aºuvGifh&wJh yef;wpfyGifhtwGuf
pdrf;vef;cGifhudk &SmazGaewJh
opfwpfyif&J@wefzdk;udk 'Dvdk &ufpuf oifhygovm;?
wu,fqdk
ol[m jzLpif&Sif;oef@vGef;wJh tjrifhysHcsdK;iSufjzL
prf;w0g;0g; c&D;oGm;wdk@twGuf
vif;vufawmufyvGef;wJh vrf;jy=u,fpif
ae0ifapmoGm;wJh naecg;cg;wpfckrSmawmh æ
olcspfwJh awmifwef;}uD;awGu ta&mifajymif;oGm;+yD;
tJ'Dnup æ
nawG[m va&mif r&Sd=uawmhbl;? ?

usqHk;oGm;wJh &Jabmf'gifyef;tm;OD;n$wftav;ðyvsuf — vdknf;aEGaESmif; (19/ 1/ 2006)

OD;armifudk
rœav;wdkif;/ ausmufyef;awmif;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1996 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2002 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (15) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
touf (58) ESpfwGif uG,fvGefonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;armifudkonf 1979 ckESpfwGif vuf0Jpmay avhvma&;tpktzGJ@/ zGJ@pnf;
cJhr_jzifh zrf;qD;cH&+yD; rœav;axmifwGif tusOf;cscHchJ&onf? 1980 jynhfESpfwGif trdef@a=unmpm
trSwf (2§80) taxGaxG vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhjzifh vGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
1990 taxGaxGygwDpHka&G;aumufyu
GJ mvtwGif; ausmufyef;awmif;òr@e,f/ trsKd;om; 'Drdkua&pD
tzGJ@csKyf/ a&G;aumufyGJatmifEdkifa&;aumfrwDwGif wm0ef,lchJonf?
OD;armifukdonf ol.Zmwd rœav;wkdif;/ ausmufyef;awmif;òr@wGifaexkdifpOf 1996 ckESpfY zrf;qD;
cHcJh&onf? ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESihf tquftoG,f&dSonf[k pGyfpJGcH&+yD;aemuf 1950 jynhfESpf
92

ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n)/ rw&m;toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1 wdk@jzihf w&m;pJGqkd
cH&um/ axmif'%f (14) ESpf csrSwfjcif; cHchJ&onf?
1997 ckESpfwGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmif rS om,m0wDtusOf;axmifokd@ ajymif;a&$@cHc&hJ onf? tusOf;
axmiftwGif;wGif r=umc% n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk ? ? 2002 ckESpf ESpfpykdif;wGif ESvHk;a&m*g&dSaom OD;armifudkonf om,m0wDtusOf;axmif
twGif; r=umc% usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;vmcJhonf? rusef;rrmjzpfaecsdefwGif tm%mykdifrsm;u
aq;ukocGifh csufcsif;ray;chJojzifh OD;armifudk.ESvHk;a&m*grSm ydkI qdk;&Gm;vmonf? ykdIqkd;&Gm;vm
onhftcsdefa&mufrS axmifaq;&kHokd@ ykd@chJonf?
a&m*gtajctae roufomojzihf tif;pdefaxmifokd@ ykd@+yD;/ tif;pdeftusOf;axmifaq;\HkwGif
ukor_ cH,laponf/ tenf;i,foufomvmaomtcg/ axmifaq;&kHrS taqmifokd@ ykd@aqmifcsKyf
aESmifchJonf?
aemufwpf}udrf a&m*gydkrdkqdk;&Gm;vmonfhtcg tif;pdefaxmifrS tif;pdefòr@e,f jynfol@aq;\Hkodk@
ydk@aqmif ukocJhonf? 2002 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (15) &ufae@Y aq;\HkwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?

OD;armifarmifat;
{&m0wDwdkif;/ vyGWmòr@ Zmwdjzpfonf
1999 ckESpf/ pufwifbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2002 ckESpf/ ZGefv (21) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
touf (59) ESpft&G,fwGif uG,fvGefchJjcif;jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;armifarmifat;onf OD;ausmfpdef/ a':tHk;&Sifwdk@.om;jzpf+yD; vyGWmòr@
wGif arG;zGm;cJhonf? pufr_od`H (G.T.I) 'DyvdkrmESifh Oya'bGJ@rsm; &cJhonf?
1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif vyGWmòr@ taxGaxGoydwfacgif;aqmifwpfOD; jzpfonf?
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf zGJ@pnf;+yD;onfhtcg tzGJ@0ifjzpfvmcJhonf? vyGWmòr@e,f/ tzGJ@csKyf
pnf;\kH;a&;aumfrwDwGif twGif;a&;rª;tjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf?
1999 pufwifbmvwGif (9) av;vHk; 'Drkdua&pDta&;v_yf&Sm;r_jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? xdk@
aemuf tpdk;&tm; t,Hk=unfysufatmif aumvm[vxkwfv$ifhonf[k pGyfpJGcH&um yk'fr 505
93

(c) jzifh w&m;pJGqkdcH&onf? axmif'%f (4) ESpf csrSwfjcif; cHcJh&+yD; ajrmif;jrtusOf;axmifwGif
tusOf;cscHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;armifarmifat;onf ajrmif;jrtusOf;axmifwGif usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;vmonf?
2002 ckESpf/ ZGefv (4) &ufae@wGif tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;armifarmifat;tm; ykodrfaxmifodk@
ajymif;a&$@vkdufonf?
ykord t
f usO;f axmifq&m0efu qufvufuo
k &ef vufav#mv
h u
kd o
f jzifh ZGev
f (21) &uf ykord òf r@&dS
wdkif;jynfol@aq;&kH=uD;odk@ wifydk@cJh&onf? 2002 ZGefv (25) &ufae@/ ae@vnf (2;15) em&DwGif
aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? uG,fvGefcsdefY trSwf (9) EG,feD (4) vrf; vyGWmòr@ aetdrfwGif ZeD; a':oef;oef;/
orD; rESif;tdjzLwdk@ usef&pfcJhonf?

udkarmifarmifat;
&efukefwdkif;/ urm&Gwfòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (5) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (24) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkarmifarmifat;onf urm&Gwfòr@e,f/ vSnf;wef;vrf;r/ òz;a0vufbuf
&nfqdkifwGif aexdkifchJonf? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDygwD. tzJG@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? (xkdygwD.OUXrSm
a'gufwmpdef0if;/ ,ck jynfya&muf jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEkdifiHtrsKd;om;nGef@aygif;tpkd;&0ef}uD;csKyf
jzpfonf?)
1989 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? EdkifiHawmfvHk+cHKa&;tm; xdyg;aponfh pm&Gufpmwrf;
jzef@csdonf[k pGyfpJGcHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf 1950-jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n) jzifh
pGJcsufwifcH&onf? 1989 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (4) &ufae@wGif axmif'%f (5) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cH&onf?
1989 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif tif;pdefaxmifrS om,m0wD tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&G@cH&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? udkarmifarmifat;onf 1993 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif tjyif;txefzsm;emcJhonf? Zlvdkifv
(23) &ufae@wGif axmifaq;\Hkokd@ a&muf&dScJhaomfvnf; xdkae@Yyif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? om,m0wD
94

tusOf;axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u ukdarmifarmifat;onf tonf;a&m*gjzifh aoqHk;chJjcif;
jzpfonf[k qdkonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;jrifhodef;
a'gufwmcifarmifodef;

OD;rif;ol
vm;\d_;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1998 ckESpf/ {+yDv (28) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
2004 ckESpf/ ZGefv (13) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (50) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? tztrnf OD;ausmf&Sdefjzpf+yD; a&S@aewOD;jzpfonf? trSwf 28 atmifarWm
vrf; 29 &yfuGuf/ '*Hkajrmufydkif;wGif aexdkifonf? trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf tzGJ@0ifwOD;
jzpfonf?
1998 ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;[k trnf&aom pmtkyfwtkyf xGufay:
vmonf? pmtkyfðypk a&;om;&mwGif yg0ifywfoufonf[k ,lq&aom EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;/
ausmif;om;or~ acgif;aqmifa[mif;rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;tm; vdkufvH zrf;qD;cH&onf? 1998
{+yDv (28) &ufae@wGif OD;rif;olvnf; zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? 1950jynfh ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya'
yk'fr (5) (n) jzifh axmif'%f (7) ESpf csrSwfcH&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? zrf;qD;cH&pOfu t\dk;usnf;aygif;wufa&m*g/ ESvHk;a&m*g/ aoG;wdk;a&m*grsm; &Sdae+yD;/
r=umc% tif;pdefaxmifaq;\Hkokd@ wufa&muf ukochJ&onf? 2004 ckESpf ZGefv yxrywftwGif;
usef;rma&;tajctae tvGefqdk;&Gm;vmonhftcgrSom tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;rif;oltm; tif;pdef
òr@e,f jynfol@aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ wifykd@cJhonf? aq;\Hk a&muf+yD; &ufydkif;twGif; aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;rif;ol. ema&;a=umfjimudk owif;pmxJ xnfhoGif;cGifh r&[k ‚.rdom;pkxHrS
od&Sd&onf?

95

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (aq;&kH)
wm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;vS=unf
OD;pef;0if;
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

rif;xGef;a0
rGefjynfe,f/ usdKufra&mòr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
2005 ckESpf/ arv 26 &ufae@wGif axmif'%f 5 ESpf csrSwfcHcJh&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ arv 29 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (42) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? rGefjynfe,f usdKufra&mòr@e,f/ cdkifpy,fvrf;wGif aexdkif+yD; tzOD;&dkif. om;
jzpfonf? trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzG@J csKyf/ usdKufra&mòr@e,ftzG@J 0ifwOD;jzpfonf? udkrif;xGef;a0tm;
rl,pf&rf;um;r_jzihf w&m;pGJqdkcJh+yD; 2005 ckESpf/ arv (26) &ufae@wGif usdKufra&mòr@e,f w&m;
\Hk;rS axmif'%f (5) &ufcsrSwfcJhygonf? xdk@aemuf xdkae@wGifyif usdKufra&m &Jpcef;rS armfv+rdKif
axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? armfv+rdKifaxmifodk@a&muf+yD;aemuf trSwf (1) tdyfaqmifatmufxyfwGif
xm;ygonf? arv (28) &ufae@n (10) em&Dcef@wGif pwifIpdwfazgufjyef vmygonf? xdkodk@
jzpfpOf tm%mydkifrsm;u ol@tm;arSmufcdkif;+yD; ajcESif@vufwdk@tm; óu;jzifhwkyfIxm;cJhonf?
udrk if;xGe;f a0u &ke;f uefatmf[pfonfukd wef;pD;rsKd ;0if;ESihf bm,mrsm;jzpfonfh ^m%fxeG ;f atmif/
xGef;udk/ atmifxGef; wdk@u rif;xGef;a0tm;qJqdk}udrf;armif;I/ jyif;jyif;xefxef 0dkif;0ef;xdk;ESuf
uefausmufcJh=uonf? txl;ojzifh rsufESmESifh&ifbwfydkif;udk xyfjyefwvJvJ vufoD;jzifhxdk;jcif;
ajcaxmufjzifh uefjcif;wd@k ðyvkycf =hJ uonf? xd;k }udw&f u
kd Ef u
S cf &H jcif;a=umifh udrk if;xGe;f a0rSm E_wf
crf;rsm; zl;a,mifaeonfhuGJxGufI aoG;rsm;xGufvmcJh+yD; owdvpfarharsmoGm;cJhonf?
xdkodk@owdvpfaecsdefwGif t&dkufc%em;+yD; owdjyefvnfvmcsdefwGif xyfrH&dkufESuf=ujyefonf?
wnvHk; owdvpfvdkuf &dkufESufvdkuf vkyfcJh&m (29) &ufae@ eHeuf (4) em&Dcef@wGif aoqHk;oGm;
cJhonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? xdk@aemufarmfv+rdKifaxmifydkifu tavmif;tm; cGJpdwfppfaq;&ef tavmif;
udk axmifq&m0efxH tyfESHcJhaomfvnf; q&m0efuvufrcHcJhyg? xdk@a=umifh tavmif;tm; tjyif
aq;\HkxkwfI tavmif;cGJpdwfppfaq;r_ ðyvkyfcJhygonf? tqdkyg ppfaq;csuft& wudk,fvHk;wGif
96

'%f&m'%fcsufrsm;awG@&a=umif;/ vufwzufusdK;ae onfudkawG@&a=umif; az:jyxm;ygonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u udkrif;xGef;a0onf bm,mwef;udk ausmfI xGufajy;&ef
óu;pm;&mrSm ðywfus+yD; aoqHk;jcif;jzpfa=umif; '%f&mrsm;rSmvnf; xdkjzpf&yfa=umifh &cJhjcif;jzpf
a=umif; xGufqdkcJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;xGef;xGef;/ OD;wifarmiftkef;

OD;jra&$
&efukefwdkif;/ prf;acsmif;òr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1996 'DZifbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1999 ckESpf/ {+yDv (27) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (54) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;jra&$onf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf wnfaxmifonhf 1988 ckESpfrSpI
tzJG@csKyfwGif wufºupGmv_yf&Sm;cJhonf? &efukefwdkif;/ prf;acsmif;òr@e,fwGif tzJG@csKyftzJG@0ifwOD;
tjzpf wm0ef,lchJonf?
1995-96 ckESpf/ a':atmifqef;pk=unf.+cHa&S@wGif ðyvkyfonhf a[majymyGJrsm;odk@ rysufruGuf
wufa&mufcJhonf? ppftpkd;&u a[majymyGJrsm;ukd ydwfyifvkdufaomfvnf; a':atmifqef;pk=unf
. aetdrfokd@ ykHrSef0ifxGufcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;. rsufrkef;usdK;cH&olwOD;jzpf
vmcJhonf?
1996 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif &efukefwUokdvfwGif ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_w&yf ay:aygufchJonf?
OD;jra&$onf xkdv_yf&Sm;r_ukd wufºupGm tm;ay;ulnDcJhonf?
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u xdkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif yg0ifchJolrsm;udk vdkufvHzrf;qD;&mwGif OD;jra&$vnf;
zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf &efukefwkdif; ajrmufydkif;c&dkifw&m;\Hk;wGif axmif'%f (7) ESpf csrSwfcH
&+yD;/ tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;cscH&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (15) &ufae@wGif om,m0wDaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@cHcJh&onf?
97

aoqHk;yHk? ? 1998 ESpfukefydkif;wGif axmifydkifOD;0if;jrifhonf om,m0wDaxmiftwGif; vSnfhvnf
=unfh&_chJonf? xkdtcsdefwGif OD;jra&$onf oGm;udkufa&m*gudk tjyif;txefcHpm;ae&ojzif@/
ykHpHrxkdifbJ vSJavsmif;aeonf? axmifykdifu ol@tm; rav;rpm; qufqHonf[k qdkum
OD;jra&$tm; wdkufcef;tjyifbufxkwfI/ vlrqefpGm tjyif;txef &dkufESufcJhonf? xkd@aemuf
a'gufajcusOf;cwfjcif;/ tjcm;tusOf;om;rsm;ESihfoD;jcm;cGJxkwfI wdkufydwfjcif; ponhfjypf'%frsm;
ay;cJhonf?
wdkufydwfjypf'%f+yD;qHk;onfh umvwGif EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm; csKyfaESmifxm;onhf ae&mokd@
jyefrydk@bJ/ tjcm;&mZ0wfom;rsm;t=um;okd@ ykd@aqmifchJonf? xdktcsdefrSpI OD;jra&$. usef;rma&;
rSm ododomom ydkrdk qdk;&Gm;vmcJhonf?
aemufydkif;wGif wudk,fvHk; tzktydef@rsm;xGufvmjcif;/ 0rf;av#m0rf;ysufjcif;rsm;jzpfay:cJhonf?
xkd@jyif udk,ftav;csdefusjcif;/ aoG;aygifusqif;jcif;/ tm[m&csKd@wJhjcif;wdk@a=umifh axmifwGif;
aq;\Hkodk@ r=umc%wufa&muf ukocJh&onf?
tm%mydkifrsm;u xda&mufaom aq;ukor_rsm;ray;jcif;a=umifh 1999 ckESpfwGif OD;jra&$.
usef;rma&;tajctaerSm qkd;onfxuf qkd;&Gm;vmonf? touftœ&m,f pdk;&drf&aom tcsdef
a&mufrS om,m0wDòr@e,faq;\Hkodk@ wifydk@cJhonf? aq;&kHa&muf+yD; &ufydkif;t=um 1999 ckESpf
{+yDv (27) &ufae@wGif xdkae&mYyif aoqHk;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;0if;jrifh
OD;atmifarmfOD;
a'gufwmatmifoef;

OD;jrwfol
yJcl;wdkif;/ awmifilòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 21 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ arvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (48) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;jrwfolonf awmifilòr@e,f/ uMDaus;&Gmtkyfpk/ anmifpcef;aus;&GmwGif
arG;zGm;onf? rdbrsm;rSm OD;zdk;zl;/ a':=unfwdk@jzpfonf? armfv+rdKifaumvdyfwGifynmoif,l
98

chJonf? 1970 jynhfESpf wUodkvfa&$&wktcgor,wGif ausmif;om;tcGifhta&;awmif;qkdonhf
v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif yg0ifcJhojzihf ynmoifcGifh (4) ESpfcef@ &yfqdkif;cHcJh&onf? 1973 ckESpfwGif
aemufqHk;ESpftwGuf qufvufynmoifcGifh&&Sd+yD; B.Sc bGJ@&&dScJhonf?
1988 ta&;awmfyHkY awmifiljrdK@e,fwGif udk,fwdkifOD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;chJonf? awmifilwGif yxrOD;
qHk; csDwufqüjycJholjzpfaoma=umihf &Jpcef;wGif xdef;odrf;jcif;cHcJh&onf/ aemufwae@wGif jyef
vGwfvmum ta&;awmfyHkwGif qufvuf yg0ifcJhonf?
1988 ckESpf ESpfukefykdif; trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf. awmifilòr@e,f pnf;&kH;a&;aumfrwD pwif
zJG@pnf;&mwGif yg0ifcJhonf? a&G;aumufyJGtwGuf jynfol@v$wfudk,fpm;vS,ftrnfpm&if;
ay;oGif;&onfhtcsdefY zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? tm%mykdifwkd@u ukdjrwfoltm; w&m;r0ifopfvkyfief;
wGif yg0ifywfoufonf[k ta=umif;jy+yD; xdef;odrf;chJjcif;jzpfonf? udk,fpm;vS,favmif; pm&if;
ydwfonfh tcsdefusrSom jyefv$wfay;cJhojzifh trnfpm&if; ray;oGif;cJh&yg?
awmifiòl r@e,f tzG@J csKyf. OUXtjzpf wm0ef,al epOf 1991 ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mvwGif axmufvrS ;f
a&; trSwf (3) . acWzrf;qD;ppfaq;jcif; cHcJh&onf?
1997 azazmf0g&Dv 21 &ufae@wGif &J/ ppfwyf/ axmufvSrf;a&;wyfzJG@0ifrsm;u OD;jrwfoltygt0if
òr@e,fpnf;&kH;a&;tzJG@ tzJG@0iftm;vkH;udk zrf;qD;I/ trSwf (39) ajcvsifwyf&if;wGif csKyfaESmifxm;
chJonf? xkd@aemuf ‚wkd@tm; u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t\kH; (autifef,l). wyfzJG@rsm;tm; wkduf
ckdufonhfppfqifa&;rsm;wGif txrf;orm; (ay:wm) tjzpf tokH;ðychJonf? xkdokd@ ay:wmtjzpf
vkdufygchJ&olrsm;rSm atmufygtwkdif;jzpfonf?
OD;jrwfol
ukdrdk;rc
OD;apmxGef;EG,f
OD;armifarmif
OD;wifarmif0if;
OD;jrihfodef;
OD;oufxGef;
OD;ausmf0if;
OD;wifaomif;
OD;ausmfjrihf
OD;wif0if;ukd
OD;xGef;wif

OUX
(OD;jrwfol.om;)
'k-OUX
'k-OUX
wJGbuftwGif;a&;rª;
b¾ma&;rª;
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
99

OD;wifpkd;
OD;az0if;
OD;ausmfausmf0if;
OD;wifjrihfaxG;
OD;ausmfausmfvGif
OD;rif;ol

tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
tzJG@0if
'k-OUXjzpfol OD;apmxGef;EG,f (touf 75 ESpfcef@ )/
OD;rif;ol wkd@ESpfOD;onf xkdokd@ ay:wmtjzpf ckdif;apcH&pOf
aoqkH;chJ=uonf?
&ufaygif;rsm;pGm=umonhftcg OD;jrwfolonfzrf;qD;
ckdif;apcH&&mrS jyefvGwfcJhonf? xkd@aemuf usef;rma&;
csKd@wJhaeonfhtwGuf *\kwpkduf aq;0g;ukocHchJ&onf?

xkdtcsdefwGif tm%mydkifrsm;u awmifilòr@twGif;wGif
qufa=u; (ay:wma=u;) vkdufvHaumufcHchJonf? ay:
ppftpkd;&wyfrsm;twGuf vufeufcJ,rf;/ &dQm
wma=u;ay;&ef ysufuGufygu ay:wmtjzpfzrf;qD; ydk@
rsm;ukd &ufaygif;rsm;pGm xrf;ykd;&ojzihf yckH;wGif
aqmifjcif; cH&rnfjzpfa=umif;ukdvnf; toHcsJ@pufjzihf
'%f&m&xm;olwOD; ("mwfykH Burma Issue)
a=unmchJonf? xkdokd@ +cdrf;ajcmuf aumufcHvmonf
udk r=umrDurS ay:wmtjzpf jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvm OD;jrwfolu vGefpGm a'goxGufchJonf?
a'goudk rxdef;Ekdifaoma=umifh ‚wdk@tokH;ðyaeonhf toHcsJ@pufudk &dkufcsKd;zsufqD;ypfcJhonf?
xdktcg OD;jrwfolonf zrf;qD;cH&+yD;/ 0W&m;aESmifh,Sufr_/ tm%mzDqefr_ wdk@jzifh axmif'%f(2)eSSpf
csrSwfcHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? awmifilaxmifwGif tusOf;uscHae&pOf orHwvif;ay:wGif aexdkiftdyfpuf&jcif;
a=umihfvnf;aumif;/ ay:wmtjzpftokH;ðycH&pOfu &&SdcJhaom twGif;'%f&mrsm;a=umihf vnf;
aumif; usef;rma&; csKd@,Gif;vmonf? tonf;a&miftom;0ga&m*gvnf; &&dSvmonf? axmif
wGif;aq;0g;ukor_ nHhzsif;jcif;a=umifh usef;rma&;tajctae wae@wjcm; qkd;&Gm;vmonf? aemuf
qkH;wGif awmifilòr@e,faq;\Hkodk@ tcsdefaESmif;rS a&muf&dSoGm;+yD; 1997 ckESpf/ arvwGif aoqHk;
cJh&onf?

100

awmifiltusOf;axmif

udkjrifhaqG
&efukefwkdif;/ 'vòr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1988 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm (24) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ ZGefv (8) wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (32) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJh
olwOD;jzpfonf? 1988 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (24) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? tm%mykdif
rsm;u ukdjrihfaqGtm; ta&;awmfyHkumvtwGif; 'vòr@e,f&Jpcef;pD;eif;&mwGifyg0ifchJonf[k
pGyfpJGchJonf? 1989 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (24) &ufae@wGif axmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&
onf? xdk@aemuf 1989 ckESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif tif;pdefaxmifrS o&ufaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&G@jcif;
cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1996 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif axmifrSL;OD;cifarmifaqGESifh uawmufuqjzpfchJonf? xkd@
a=umihf tm%mykdifrsm;u ukdjrihfaqGtm; o&ufaxmif/ wdkuftrSwf (4) wGif pdwfa&m*g&aeaom
tusOf;om;wOD;.tcef;wGif xnhfoGif;csKyfaESmifvkdufonf?
ukdjrihfaqGu tm%mykdifrsm;tm; ‚.tcef;azmfonf pdwfa&m*gonfwOD;jzpfa=umif;/ ‚tm;
&efðywku
d cf u
dk rf nfudk pk;d &dr&f a=umif;/ xko
d El iS t
fh wlae&ojzihf ‚.touftœ&m,f pd;k &dr&f a=umif;
pojzihf axmiftm%mydkifrsm;xH t}udrf}udrfwifjycJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; tm%mykdifrsm;u
101

vspfvsL&SKchJonf? r=umrD wcef;wnf; tusOf;usaeol pdwfa&m*gonfu ukdjrihfaqG. OD;acgif;udk
xrf;ydk;jzifh raorcsif;&dkufowfcJhojzihf ukdjrihfaqGonf xdkae&mYyif yGJcsif;+yD; aoqHk;cJh&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;A&Sif
OD;cifarmifaqG

EdkifatmifvGef;
2003 ckESpf/ ZlvkdifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2009 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 28 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (45) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? EkdifatmifvGef;onf OD;bkd}uD;. om;jzpfonf? rGefjynfopfygwDwGif wm0efxrf;
aqmifchJonf? (1995 ckESpfrSpI rGefjynfopfygwDonf ppftkyfpkESifh typftcwf&yfpJxm;onf?)
2003 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif EdkifatmifvGef;tygt0if 9 OD;onf &efukefòr@Y zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf? ‚wkd@
onf ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmifrsm;udk vkyf}uH&ef}uHpnfchJonf/ wdkif;jynfqlyl&ef vkyfaqmifonf[k
pGyfpGJcH&onf?
2003 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv 28 &ufae@wGif EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr 122(1)/ 386(1) wkd@jzifh ao'%fcsrSwf
jcif;cHcJh&onf? 4if;wdk@tm;csrSwfxm;onfh ao'%fpD&ifcsufrsm;rSm rSm;,Gif;aeonf[k a&S@aeESifh
t,lcH0ifojzifh arv 14 &ufae@wGif ao'%frS axmif'%fwoufwu|ef;odk@ ajymif;vJcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? EdkifatmifvGef;onf tif;pdeftusOf;axmiftwGif; usef;rma&;wjznf;jznf;qkwf
,kwfvmojzihf axmifaq;\kH/ tif;pdefòr@e,faq;\kHwkd@wGif aq;ukor_cH,lchJ&onf? 2005 ckESpf
pufwifbmvqef;wGif tjyif;txef zsm;emchJojzifh &efukefjynfol@aq;\Hk}uD;odk@ a&muf&dSchJonf?
pufwifbm 14 &ufae@wGif 'Drkdu&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH ('DADGbD) u EkdifatmifvGef;wGif tdwfcsftkdifADGykd;
awG@&dS&a=umif; tif;pdeftusOf;axmif owif;&yfuGufukdukd;um;I a=unmchJonf?
pufwifbmv 28 &ufae@/ eHeuf (9;00) em&Dcef@wGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u
rGefjynfopfygwDukd EdkifatmifvGef;aoqkH;onhfta=umif; today;chJonf?

102

rSwfcsuf? ? EdkifatmifvGef;. tr_wGJwOD;jzpfol udkaZmfrsdK;xufonfvnf; tif;pdefaxmifwGif;Y
aoqHk;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)

OD;pdk;wif

aemfoif;pk
weoFm&Dwkdif;/ o&ufacsmif;òr@e,f/ awmifajymufaus;&GmZmwd jzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf pufwifbmv (16) &ufae@wGif tzrf;cH&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (27) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? u&ifwkdif;&if;olwOD;jzpfaom aemfoif;pkonf weoFm&Dwkdif;/ o&ufacsmif;
òr@e,f/ awmifajymufaus;&Gm Zmwdjzpfonf? rdbrsm;rSm apmoD;aqG/ aemfwifpDwkd@jzpfonf?
weoFm&Dwkdif;wGif tajcpkdufv_yf&Sm;aom +rdwf-xm;0,f nDnGwfa&;wyfOD;. tzJG@0ifwOD;
jzpfonf? 1997 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (16) &ufae@/ eHeuf (6;00) em&Dcef@wGif aemfoif;pk/ vkyf
azmfukdifzuf trsKd;orD; (3) OD;/ wvom;t&G,fuav;i,f (1) OD; wkd@onf o&ufacsmif;òr@e,f/
a&yl&GmteD;wGif ppftpkd;&wyfrS ppfa=umif;wckESihf &ifqkdifwkd;chJ&onf? xkdppfa=umif;onf
trSwf (267) ajcvsifwyf&if;/ wyfcJG (2) rS wyfcJGrª; Akdvf}uD;ausmfol OD;pD;aom ppfa=umif;jzpf+yD;
aemfoif;pkwkd@ukd zrf;qD;chJonf?
nae (4;00) em&Dcef@wGif ppfa=umif;onf zrf;qD;xm;olrsm;ukdac:aqmif+yD; qufvuf xGufcGm
chJ&m u|J+cH&Gmokd@ n (6;00) em&Dcef@wGif a&muf&dS+yD; acWpcef;cs=uonf? Akdvf}uD;ausmfolu
u|J+cH&Gm aus;&Gm+idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzJG@ (&0w) OUX OD;armifvGif.tdrfwGif
vnf;aumif;/ tjcm;ppfom;rsm;u &GmtwGif;&dS tdrf (7) vkH;wGifvnf;aumif; toD;oD; pcef;cs
aexkdif=uonf? zrf;qD;cH&olrsm;ukd OD;tkef;nGef@ qkdol.tdrfwGif csKyfaESmifxm;onf?
n (9;00) em&Dcef@wGif 'kAkdvfcifarmifaZmfu aemfoif;pkukd ppfaq;rnf[kqkdum ac:,loGm;onf?
xkd@aemuf ESpf}udrfwdwd rk'drf;usihf+yD; eHeuf (3;00) em&Dcef@wGif csKyfaESmifxm;onhf tdrfokd@ jyefvnf
ykd@aqmifchJonf? ppfaq;ar;jref;/ rk'drf;usihfonhfae&mrSm &0wtzJG@0if OD;odef;a&$.aetdrfwGif
jzpfonf?
103

aemufwae@ n (10;00) em&Dcef@wGif xyfrHac:,l+yD; w}udrfrk'drf;usihfum n (11;00) em&Dcef@
wGif jyefvnfykd@aqmifchJonf? (zrf;qD;cH&olwOD;jzpfaom rat;rlonfvnf; rk'drf;usihfcHchJ&+yD;
aemufqkH;wGif tusOf;axmiftwGif; aoqkH;chJonf?)
aemufqkH;wGif aemfoif;pkwkd@onf xm;0,ftusOf;axmifokd@ ykd@aqmifcsKyfaESmifcHchJ&onf?
axmif'%f (5) ESpfpD csrSwfjcif; cHchJ&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? zrf;qD;ppfaq;cH&onhftcsdefwGifomru xm;0,ftusOf;axmifwGifvnf; enf;
trsKd;rsKd;jzihf ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef; cHchJ&onf? xkd@a=umihf 1998 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv (10) &ufae@wGif
aoqkH;oGm;chJonf?
tm%mykid rf sm;u aemfoif;pkonf use;f rma&;raumif;ojzihf aoqk;H ch&J onf[k owif;v$icfh o
Jh nf?
rSwfcsuf? ?
1) tusOf;axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u aemfoif;pkuG,fvGefonhfta=umif;ukd rdom;pkokd@
today; ta=umif;=um;jcif; r&dSchJyg?
2) wyfcJGrª; Akdvf}uD;ausmfolonf ,cktcg 'kAkdvfrª;}uD;tqihfjzihf wyfr (44) wGif wm0ef
usaeonf?
3) 'kAkdvfcifarmifaZmfonf ,cktcg trSwf (104) ajcvsifwyf&if;wGif Akdvfrª;tqihfjzihf
'kwyf&if;rª;tjzpf wm0efusaeonf?

OD;ndK0if;
u&ifjynfe,f/ a&$usifòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ ZGefv (18) &ufwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ rwfv (8) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (59) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;ndK0if;onf OD;usifpGrf/ a':pef;&ifwdk@.om;jzpfonf? 1932 ckESpfY u&if
jynfe,f/ a&$usifòr@wGif arG;zGm;chJonf? 1953 ckESpf &efukefwUodkvf ‘tif;0’ausmif;aqmif
‘o[m,ESifhpmzwftoif;’ tr_aqmiftjzpf aqmif&GufcJhonf?
udkvdkeDynma&;pepf qef@usifa&;/ uarmufur ynma&;pepf zsufodrf;a&;/ trsKd;om;ynma&;
pepf ay:xGef;a&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;/ jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&; ponhf ausmif;om;xk. wcJeuf
104

awmif;qkdv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif OD;aqmifyg0ifcJhonf?
1954 ckESpfrS 1960 ckESpftxd ArmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;or~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf (Auo) wGif
tr_aqmifwOD;jzpfonf? &efukefwUokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or~ (wuo) taxGaxGtwGif;a&;
rª;/ ausmif;om;nDnGwfa&;wyfOD; OUX ponhfwm0efrsm;vnf; ay;tyfcHcJh&onf?
1963 ckESpfwGif vufeufudkifawmfvSefa&;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umihf zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&+yD; (2) ESpfcef@ tusOf;
uscHcJh&onf? 1968 ckESpfwGif xyfrH zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;jcif;cHcJh&+yD; (1) ESpfausmf=umatmif tusOf;
cscHchJ&onf?
1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif ‘ppf+yD;acwfESifh vGwfvyfa&;acwf ausmif;om;a[mif;
rsm;’ tzGJ@rS yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf? e,fa'otcsKd@wGif ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; w&m;yGJrsm;
vSnhfvnfa[majymcJhonf? EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; wnfaxmifcGifh&onfhtcgwGif jynfol@wdk;wufa&;
ygwD. wGJbuftwGif;a&;rª;/ 'Drdkua&pDr[mrdwfrsm;tzGJ@csKyf ('rz) . taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª;
wm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifcJhonf?
1989 ckESpf/ ZGefv (18) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf 1975 ckESpf/ edkifiHawmftm;
aESmifh,Suf zsufqD;vdkolrsm;. ab;tœ&m,frS umuG,fapmifha&Smufonfh Oya' yk'fr 10 (u)
jzifh tif;pdefaxmifwGif xdef;odrf;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1991 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dvukefydkif;wGif vnfacsmif;em+yD; yg;apmifwGif tusdwfjzpf
cJhonf? a&vHkavmufpGm roHk;&/ rcsKd;&ojzifh tylatmif;+yD; temrsm;aygufcJhonf? aq;0g;ukor_
vnf; r&Sdojzifh temwGif jynfwnfvmcJhonf? tpmrpm;Edkif/ a&raomufEdkifawmhonhftcsdef
wGif axmiftm%mykdifrsm;u axmifjyify&dSaq;&kHokd@ wufa&mufukocGihfay;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf
1991 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaq;\Hkodk@ a&mufchJonf? xdktcsdefwGif a&m*grSm tawmf
u|rf;ae+yDjzpfonf? aq;\Hka&muf+yD; wpfywft=um rwfv (8) &ufae@wGif OD;ndK0if; aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ppftpdk;&onf OD;ndK0if; tygt0if jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwDrS acgif;aqmifrsm;tm;
t+idK;w}uD;xm;I qufqHcJhonf? A[dktvkyftr_aqmif tzJG@0ifrsm;jzpfonfh OD;cifarmifjrifh/
OD;uif;pdefwdk@vnf; tusOf;axmifwGif;yif aoqHk;cJh=u&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
OD;+yHK;csdK
a'gufwmpdk;=unf
105

‘ OD;yef;cif;’

wpfyGifhac|vnf; ESpfyGifha0jrJ
wpfzl;ac|vnf; ESpfzl;a0jrJ
zl;yGihfiHka0 b,fvdkac|vnf;
aºuysufrukef æ
yGifhvef;xHkoif; wdk@yef;cif;onf æ
uBmwnfoa&G@ ar$;vdrfhrnf? ?
— nHZH (tvGrf;pm tvGrf;uAsm 5 )

udknGef@aZmf
{&m0wDwdkif;/ [oFmwòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif tzrf;cH&onf?
2000 jynhfESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (35) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1965 ckESpfY {&m0wDwdkif;/ [oFmwòr@e,f yWjrm;&yfuGufwGif arG;zGm;
onf? rdbrsm;rSm OD;av;nGef@/ a':wif=unfwdk@jzpfonf? ykodrf'D*&DaumvdyfwGif wufa&mufchJ+yD;/
1987 ckESpfwGif od`HbGJ@udk ocsFmbmomjzifh &&dScJhonf?
1988 ckESpf ppftm%modrf;+yD;csdefwGif e,fpyfa'oodk@xGufcGmcJhonf? jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;
om;rsm; 'Drdku&ufwpfwyfOD; (ABSDF) pwifzGJ@pnf;pOfu yg0ifcJhonf?
1990 jynhfESpfwGif jynfwGif;qufoG,fa&;wm0efjzifh jrefrmEdkifiHwGif; odk@jyefvnf0ifa&mufchJonf?
ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf. [oFmwc&dkif pnf;\Hk;a&;wm0efcHtjzpf yg0if
v_yf&Sm;cJhonf? [oFmwòr@e,f vl@abmifopf'Drdku&ufwpfygwD/ pnf;\Hk;a&;aumfrwDwGifvnf;
wm0ef,lchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u ukdnGef@aZmftm; zrf;qD;chJonf? w&m;r0iftoif;
tyif;rsm;ESifh qufoG,fr_ yk'fr (17§1) jzifh axmif'%f (7) ESpfcsrSwfjcif; cHcJh&onf?
1996 ckESpfwGif tif;pdefaxmiftwGif;rS EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;. tajctaeudk ukvor~odk@
wifjy&efóu;pm;jcif;/ &efukefwUodkvf a&$&wkr~Zif; xkwfa0jcif;wkd@a=umihf ukdnGef@aZmftyg
106

t0if EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (22) OD;tm; tm%mykdifwkd@u ta&;,lchJonf? ukdnGef@aZmfonf
yk'fr (5)(i) jzifh axmif'%f (7) ESpf xyfrH uscHcJh&onf? 1997 Edk0ifbmv (15) &ufae@wGif
om,m0wDaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif; cHcJh&onf?
ppftpkd;&rsm; rtkyfcsKyfrDu
jrefrmEkdifiH&dS tusOf;om;rsm;onf
pmayzwf\_a&;om;cGihfrsm;
tjynhft0 &&dSchJ =uonf?

aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;axmifrsm;wGif aomufoHk;a& roef@&Sif;r_a=umifh 1999 ckESpf ZlvdkifvwGif
tonf;a&m*gjzpfcJhonf? 0rf;udkufa&m*gvnf; tjyif;txef cHpm;cJh&onf? xdk@aemuf aoG;0rf;
oGm;vmcJhojzifh aq;ajymif;vJI wdkufchJonf?
axmifq&m0efa'gufwmatmifoef;u tqkwfa&m*g (wDbD) [kqdkum aq;ajymif;vJ+yD; wdkufcJh
jyefonf? pufwifbmvcef@wGif 0rf;Adkufnmzufydkif;atmifhvmonf/ 0rf;AdkufwjyifvHk; azmif;wuf
vmcJhonf?
xdktajctaewGif q&m0efu ukdnGef@aZmfwGif uifqma&m*gjzpfyGm;aeonf [kqdkum uifqm
a&m*gESifh ywfoufonhfaq;rsm; wdkufcJhjyefonf? xkdodk@ uifqmaq;rsm;wdkuf+yD; (2) v cef@
t=um 2000 jynhfESpf Zefe0g&Dv (1) &ufae@wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?

ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? udknGef@aZmf uG,fvGef+yD;aemuf &ifcGJppfaq;&mwGif axmifq&m0ef rSwf
csufay;ouhJokd@ uifqma&m*gr[kwfbJ tonf;ajcmufa&m*g jzpfa=umif; od&Sd&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
wm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;0if;jrifh
OD;wifxGef;
a'gufwmatmifoef;

107

OD;OD;omxGef;
&cdkifjynfe,f/ ajrmufOD;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ rwfv (7) &ufae@wGif tzrf;cH&onf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ =o*kwfv (14) wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (82) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? &ckdifjynfe,f/ ajrmufOD;òr@Zmwdjzpfaom OD;OD;omxGef;onf 1917 Ekd0ifbm
23 &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf? &cdkif-jrefrm y¾dwfwOD;jzpf+yD;/ ordkif;okawoD q&m}uD;vnf;
jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif Ak<bmomESifhywfoufI txl;avhvmvdkufpm;cJholwpfOD;vnf; jzpfonf?
1988 ckESpfaemufydkif; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; xlaxmifcGifh&aomtcg &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfwGif wm0ef
,lcJhonf? 1990 jynfhESpf ygwDpHktaxGaxG a&G;aumufyGJwGif &cdkifjynfe,f/ ausmufawmfòr@
rJqüe,f trSwf(1) rS jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,favmif;wOD;jzpfonf?
rif;jym;òr@e,f/ jym;acsmif;aus;&GmwGif a[majymyJGðyvkyfc+hJ yD; r=umrDwGif tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;OD;om
xGef;tm; zrf;qD;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf a&G;aumufyJGwGif yg0if,SOf+ydKifcGihf r&chJyg?
xkd@aemuf 1950-jynhfESpf/ ta&;ay:pDrHr_tuf Oya' yk'fr 5 (n) jzifh axmif'%f (3) ESpf csrSwf
vkdufonf? xkd@aemuf ppfawGtusOf;axmifokd@ ykd@aqmifchJonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;OD;omxGef;onf touft&G,f}uD;&ifhjcif;/ ppfawGaxmifwGif tpm;tpmnHhzsif;
jcif;/ aq;0g;ukor_ rvkHavmufjcif;wkd@a=umihf usef;rma&; csKd@,Gif;vmonf? zrf;qD;cH&+yD; (5)
v=um 1990 jynfhESpf =o*kwfv (14) &ufae@Y ppfawGtusOf;axmifwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? 1994 rwfvwGif jynfytajcpkduf {&m0wDowif;Xmeu t*Fvdyfbmomjzihfxkwf
a0aom “Death in Custody” (tusOf;axmifxJrS tmZmenfrsm;) pmtkyfwGif OD;OD;omxGef;
aoqkH; &jcif;rSm axmifxJwGif vkHavmufaom aq;0g;ESihf *\kpkdufr_ukd r&&dSjcif;a=umihfjzpfonf
[k azmfjychJonf?
ppftpkd;&u xkdpmtkyfygtcsufrsm;ESihfywfoufI The truth trnf&dS aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;xkwf
jyefI atmufygtwkdif; wkef@jyefchJonf?
æ OD;OD;omxGef;onf ppfawGaxmifwGif tusOf;uscHae&pOf OD;acgif;wGif aoG;rwdwfonhf a&m*g

(cerebral haemorrhage) jzihf tusOf;axmifaq;\kHwGif aoqkH;chJjcif;jzpfa=umif;/ axmifaq;\kHwGif
ukor_ay;chJojzihf vkHavmufonhfaq;ukor_r&ojzihf aoqkH;chJonf[laom pGyfpJGcsufrSm rSm;,Gif;
108

aea=umif;/ okd@aomfvnf; xkda&m*grSm \kwfw&uf aoqkH;wwfa=umif; æ pojzihf jyefvnfacsy
chJonf?

OD;pdkif;zwfoef;
&Srf;jynfe,fZmwdjzpfonf?
2002 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (11) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
tzrf;cH&+yD; (1) vt=umwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (64) ESpf jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDa&;vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_umvY &Srf;jynfe,fwGif OD;aqmif
yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf zGJ@pnf;&mY/ &Srf;jynfe,f pnf;\Hk;a&;tzJG@ tzGJ@0iftjzpf yg0ifcJhonf?
1997 ckESpfwGif tzJG@csKyf. &Srf;jynfe,fpnf;\Hk;a&;tzGJ@ OUX wm0ef ay;tyfcJh&onf?
usKdif;wkHa'o&Sd &Srf;v,form;rsm;ESihf awG@qkH+yD; wm0efauspyg;udPrsm;ukd aqG;aEG;chJonf? xkd@
a=umihf ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u OD;pkdif;zwfoef;tm; t}udrf}udrf ac:,lppfaq;/ +cdrf;ajcmufchJonf?
okd@aomfvnf; OD;pkdif;zwfoef;u usKdif;wkHa'o&dS jynfolvlxkESihfxdawG@jcif;/ tzJG@csKyf. pnf;\Hk;
a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk aqmif&Gufjcif;wkd@ukd tqufrjywf ðyvkyfcJhonf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? 2002 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv (11) &ufae@/ n (10)em&Dcef@wGif trSwf (22) axmuf
vSrf;a&;wyfrS Adkvf}uD; rif;olatmif/ wyf=uyf}uD;armifausmf/ owif;wyfzGJ@ tzJG@0ifrsm;/ &JwyfzGJ@
0ifrsm;/ &,utzJG@0ifrsm;u OD;pkdif;zwfoef;tm; 4if;.aetdrfwGif oGm;a&mufzrf;qD;chJonf?
usKdif;wkHòr@e,f tzJG@csKyf OUX apmeüDvnf; xkdtcsdefu tzrf;cHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf tm%mykdif
rsm;u ‚wkd@ukd trSwf (22) ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;pcef;Y csKyfaESmif+yD; ppfaq;ar;jref;=uonf?
pufwifbm (25) &ufae@wGif OD;pkdif;zwfoef;. rdcifuG,fvGefchJonf? pufwifbm (26) &ufae@
wGif OD;pkdif;zwfoef;onf rdcif.psmyeokd@ oGm;a&mufcGifh&chJonf? xkdtcsdefwGif usef;rma&;
tajctae aumif;rGefvsuf&Sdonf? xkdaemuf OD;pkdif;zwfoef;onf usKdif;wkHòr@ tusOf;axmifokd@
ykd@aqmifcH&onf?
axmifokd@a&muf+yD;r=umrDwGif OD;pkdif;zwfoef;.usef;rma&; csKd@,Gif;vmonf? atmufwkdbmv
(10) &ufae@wGif tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;pkdif;zwfoef;tm; aq;\kHokd@ ykd@aqmifchJonf? vrf;ravsmuf
109

Ekdifawmhonhf OD;pkdif;zwfoef;tm; xrf;pifjzifho,f,l&onf?
xkdae@ nae (5) em&DwGif OD;pkdif;zwfoef;. usef;rma&;tajcukd aetdrfokd@ ta=umif;=um;ojzifh
rdom;pku oGm;a&muf=unfh\_cGihf &chJonf? okd@aomfvnf; OD;pkdif;zwfoef;onf pum;ajymqkdEkdif
jcif; r\Sdawmhay?
xkdnwnvkH; rdom;pku vkdtyfaomaq;0g;rsm;&SmazGI *\kwpkduf ukochJonf? aemufwae@
(2002 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv (11) &ufae@) eHeuf (7;38) em&DwGif usdKif;wHkòr@jynfol@aq;\kHwGif
uG,fvGefonf?
ppfaq;awG@&Sdcsuf? ? OD;pdkif;zwfoef;. nmbufeHapmif;wGif tjyif;txef zdcHxm;&onhf
'%f&mrsm;ukd awG@&onf? OD;aESmuftwGif; a&rsm;a&mufaejcif;/ tonf;ajcmufvsuf&dSjcif;/
tlrsm;0gxdefaejcif; ponfwkd@udk cGJpdwfppfaq;awG@&dS&onf? q&m0ef. aq;pmY OD;aESmufwGif;
okd@ iSufzsm;ydk;a&mufaeonf/ tonf;a&miftom;0ga&m*g jzpfonf pojzihf rSwfcsufa&;om;
xm;onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? 2005 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (14) &ufae@wGif apmeüD (OD;pkdif;zwfoef;ESihftwl zrf;qD;tusOf;
cscHchJ&ol/ usKdif;wkHòr@e,f tzJG@csKyfOUX) u 'Drkdu&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH ('DADGbDtoHv$ihfXme)ukd
atmufygtwkdif; ajymjychJonf?
“æ ntcsdefrSm axmufvSrf;a&;trSwf (22) u usaemfeJ@ OD;pkdif;zwfukd aetdrfuae vmac:oGm;yg
w,f? olwkd@ wyfpcef;rSm (1) &uf twlae&+yD; aemufw&ufrSmawmh usaemfwdk@ ESpfa,mufukd
oD;jcm;pD cJGxm;vkdufygw,f? tJ'DrSmxm;wkef;u usaemfwkd@ukd tpm;taomuf aumif;aumif;
au|;ygw,f? reufrSm vufzuf&nfeJ@ xrif;a=umf/ ae@vnfrSm xrif;eJ@ [if;ayghAsm?

'DvdkeJ@ axmifukd oGm;ykd@r,fhae@usawmh usaemfwkd@ukd au|;aeusae@vnfpm ykd@rvmawmhbJ
vufzuf&nf vmwkdufygw,f? usaemfh pdwfxJrSmawmh au|;ae=utwkdif; r[kwfawmh 'gu
xl;jcm;aew,fqkd+yD; usaemf raomufbJ oGefypfvdkufygw,f? tJ'Dtcg usaemfh&J@pdwfrSm OD;pkdif;
zwftwGuf csufcsif; pdwfylrdw,f? tJ nae axmifukdvnf;a&mufa&m usaemfwkd@ESpfa,muf
jyefqkH=uygw,f? tJ'DrSm usaemfu olwkd@wkdfufwJh vufzuf&nfukd aomufvm;vdk@ OD;pkdif;zwfukd
ar;jzpfcJhygw,f? oluvnf; xrif;pm;csdefa&mufawmh qmvGef;awmh aomufw,fvkd@ ajzygw,f?
tJ'DrSmrS olodvkdufygw,f/ axmufvSrf;a&;wyfrSmwkdufwJh vufzuf&nfrSm aq;cwfxm;w,f
qkdwmukdaygh//
'DvkdeJ@ twlae+yD; wywfavmuft=umrSm OD;pkdif;zwf wu,faeraumif; jzpfvmygw,f?
110

axmifwm0ef&SdolawGuvJ aq;uk/ aq;vm xkd;ay;ygw,f? usaemfvnf; ol@ukd awmfawmfukd
ðypkcJh&ygw,f? aemuf wywfavmuf=umawmh ol pum;rajymEkdifavmufatmifukd tajctae
qkd;cJhygw,f? usaemfu aq;&kHukd ykd@ay;zkd@ajymawmh axmifykdifawGu usaemfwkd@rSm apmifhay;wJh
wm0efyJ &Sdwmyg? axmufvSrf;a&;tzJG@u vm,loGm;rS &rSmygvkd@ ajzygw,f?
'DvkdeJ@ axmufvSrf;a&;awG a&mufvm+yD; ol@ukd aq;&kH ,loGm;vkduf+yD;aemufykdif; ol qkH;oGm;+yDvkd@
om pdwfraumif;pGmeJ@ usaemf =um;cJh&ygw,f? æ ”

usdKif;wHk tusOf;axmift0if0 jrifuGif;

apmt,fom;
{&m0wDwdkif;/ bdkuav;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ arvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? apmt,fom;onf apm&ifopfuJhodk@yif 1991 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv
bdkuav;ta&;tcif;wGif zrf;qD;jcif; cHcJh&aom aus;vufa'orS u&ifwkdif;&if;om; vli,fwOD;
jzpfonf? rw&m;toif;tufOya'yk'fr 17§1 jzifh axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cH&+yD;/ jrif;jcH
axmifodk@ ydk@aqmifcHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? rdom;pku tpm;tpm aq;0g;rsm;ay;tyf&ef axmif0ifpm oGm;a&mufawG@qkHr_
rðyEdkifjcif;/ tusOf;axmiftwGif;au|;arG;aom tpm;tpmrsm;wGif tm[m&rjynfh0jcif;/ aq;0g;
111

ukor_r&jcif; wdk@a=umifh wjznf;jznf; tm;tifcsKd@whJcJhonf? 1998 ckESpf arvY jrif;+cHaxmifwGif
aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? jrif;+cHaxmifwckwnf;rSmyif apmt,fom;/ apm&ifopf wkd@uhJokd@ rw&m;zrf;qD;/
tusOf;csjcif; cHcJh&+yD; aoqkH;oGm;aom u&ifwkdif;&if;om; ta&twGufrSm (60) cef@&dSonf[k
xkdtcsdefu jrif;+cHaxmifwGif&dSchJaom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;rsm;u ajymqdkcJhonf? odk@aomf
tusOf;om;tcsif;csif; qufoG,fI r&ojzifh aoqkH;olrsm;ESihfywfoufI twdtus owif;
r&EdkifcJhyg?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª;}uD;

OD;vlvS
OD;aqGwifh

apmqm'l;apm
yJcl;wkdif;/ vufyHwef;òr@e,f/ o&ufacsmif;aus;&GmZmwdjzpfonf?
1982 ckESpfwGif tzrf;cH&onf?
2003 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (12) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf ( 52) ESpfjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t&kH; (autifef,l) . tzJG@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? ppfudkif;/
&Gmopf}uD; zGH@òz;a&;od`H tywfpOf (4) ausmif;qif;jzpfonf? ausmif;q&mtjzpf vkyfukdifcJhzl;onf?
1982 ckESpfwGif u&iftrsdK;om;wyfrawmfu yJcl;&dk;r jyefvnfpdk;rdk;a&; pDrHcsufjzifh yJcl;\kd;rodk@
jyefvnf0ifa&mufchJonf? ppftpkd;&wyfrsm;ESihf wdkufyGJrsm;jzpfyGm;cJh+yD;aemuf apmqm'l;apmonf
yJcl;\kd;rY zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1983 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (24) &ufae@wGif EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr 122(1) t& ao'%fcsrSwfjcif;
cH&onf?
1989/ 1992/ 1993/ 1997 ckESpfrsm;wGif ppftpkd;&u vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifhrsm; t}udrf}udrfxkwf
jyefcJhonf? qm'l;apmonf 1989 ckESpfwGifom vGwf+idrf;oufomcGihf cHpm;chJ&onf? ao'%frS
axmifwpfoufwpfu|ef;odk@ ajymif;vJowfrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? odk@aomf tm%mykdifrsm;u tusOf;
usESpfaygif; rnfr#uscH&rnfudk twnfðyray;cJhacs?
112

xkdtrdef@xkwfjyefcsufrsm;a=umihf tm%mykdifrsm;u &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;tm; jyefv$wfay;
jcif;/ axmif'%frS avsmhayghay;jcif;rsm; ðycJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; xl;jcm;jzpfpOfwpf&yftaejzifh
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u axmiftm%mykdifrsm;ukd EkdifiHa&;ESifhqufEG,fonfh tusOf;om;rsm;tm;
qufvufcsKyfaESmif xdrf;odrf;xm;&ef !$ef=um;cJhonf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? qm'l;apmonf 2003 ckESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv (24) &ufwGif usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;ojzifh
tif;pdefaq;\kH}uD; tcsKyfcef;okd@ a&muf&dScJhonf? 'DZifbmv (12) &ufae@ n (11) em&DESifh rdepf
(30) wGif aoqkH;onf? aemuf wae@ 'DZifbmv (13) &ufae@wGif a&a0;okomefY 0wfðy
qkawmif;+yD; rD;oç*[fcJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tusOf;axmiftkyfcsKyfa&;wGif axmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u 0ifa&mufpGufzufaeonf?
xkd@a=umihf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf tjcm;tusOf;om;rsm;uJhokd@/ tusOf;axmiftkyfcsKyfa&;
Oya'ESifhtnD tusKd;cHpm;cGifhr&cJh=uyg? 1983 ckESpfrS 2003 ckESpftxd ESpfaygif; (20) ausmf
tusOf;axmiftwGif;aexkdifcJh&jcif;/ rnfonfhtcsdefwGif jyefvGwfrnfukd rodEkdifjcif; ponhftajc
taersm;u apmqm'l;apm. pdwfykdif;/ \kyfykdif;qkdif&mrsm;ukd csKd@,Gif;xdckdufapcJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;vS=unf
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

OD;apm0if; (pma&;q&m/ t,f'Dwm ausmfaZmvif;)
rauG;wdkif;/ xD;vif;òr@e,fwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ {+yDv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (7) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (61) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;ausmfnGef@/ a':at;vSwkd@.om;jzpfonf? 1938 ckESpf/ arv (14) &ufae@
wGif arG;zGm;chJonf?
wUodkvfausmif;om;b0wGif ausmif;om;rsm; o[m,ESifh pmzwftoif;/ wUodkvfausmif;
om;rsm;or~ (wuo)/ ausmif;om;wyfOD;wdk@wGif wufºupGm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
OD;apm0if;onf &efukefwUodkvfrS bGJ@&&Sd+yD;aemuf/ Adkvfwaxmifowif;pmwGif tm;upm;
113

owif;axmuf tjzpfvnf;aumif;/ vufaxmuft,f'Dwmtjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&Guf
cJhonf? wUodkvfausmfaZmvif; uavmiftrnfjzifh Adkvfwaxmifowif;pm/ a&S@odk@pmapmif/
aiGwm&Dr~Zif;wkd@wGif tm;upm; aqmif;yg;rsm;/ vlxktusdK;ðypmayrsm;/ bmomjyefpmayrsm;
a&;om;cJhonf? xif&Sm;aomaqmif;yg;rSm ‘csdefcgem&D’/ ‘csif;-jrefrmcspf=unfa&;’aqmif;yg;wdk@
jzpfonf?
pmayAdrmefrS E_wfxGuf+yD;aemufykdif;wGif jyifypD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfukdif+yD; rdom;pkb0 &yfwnf
a&;twGuf &kef;uefcJhpOfu tm%mydkifrsm;. ac:,lppfaq;jcif;rsm;udk r=umc% cHcJh&onf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDa&;taxGaxG v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;twGif; vli,fausmif;om;rsm;tm; vrf;n$ef
xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufjcif;/ tm;ay;ulnjD cif;rsm; aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf? xk@d aemuf trsK;d om; 'Dru
kd a&pD
tzGJ@csKyfokd@ 0ifa&mufchJonf? 1990 arv a&G;aumufyGJwGif rauG;wdkif;/ xD;vif;òr@e,f jynfolvlxk
u OD;apm0if;ukd jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;cs,f wifajr‡mufchJonf?
a&G;aumufyJGusif;y+yD;pD;chJaomfvnf; ppftpkd;&onf jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;okd@ tm%mtyfESif;
jcif; r&dSchJonhftjyif jynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tm; zrf;qD;chJonf? OD;apm0if;vnf; zrf;qD;cHchJ&
onf? 1991 ckESpf {+yDv (23) &ufae@wGif OD;apm0if;onf jynfolydkifyPnf; tvGJoHk;pm;ðyr_/ yk'fr
6 (1)/ ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n) wkd@jzifh axmif'%f (11) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;apm0if;onf tif;pdefaxmif/ om,m0wDaxmifwkd@wGif csKyfaESmifcHchJ&onf?
om,m0wDwGif 1995 ckESpf ZlvdkifvrSpI yef;em&ifusyfa&m*g pwifjzpfyGm;cJhonf? 1998 ckESpf
wGif yef;em&ifusyf/ aoG;wdk; a&m*grsm;qkd;qdk;&Gm;&Gm; jzpfay:vmonf? =o*kwfv (5) &ufae@wGif
om,m0wDc&dkifaq;\Hkodk@ wufa&muf ukocGifh &cJhaomfvnf; aq;\Hkwuf+yD; (2 ) &uft=um
=o*kwfv ( 7 ) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefcJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? ppftpdk;&u OD;apm0if;tm; v$wfay;rnf[k 1992 ckESpfwGifw}udrf/ 1995 ckESpf
wGifw}udrf ajymqdk urf;vSrf;cJhaomfvnf; v$wfay;cJhjcif; r&Sdyg?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;0if;jrifh
OD;wifxGef;
a'gufwmatmifoef;

“---usaemf rarhEdkifwJhtcsufuawmh taz[m usaemfwdk@ nDtudk armifESrawGudk ordkif;ESifh

rdwfqufay;jcif; jzpfygw,f? txl;ojzifhausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ordkif;rsm;udk rdwfqufay;cJhjcif;
114

jzpfygw,f? awmawmif obm0&_cif;rsm;jzifh om,mvSywJh usaemfwdk@wdkif;jynf[m EdSyfpufnif;
yef;r_awGa=umifh atmf[pfnOf;nLoHawG/ emusnf;awmufacgufoHawG/ om;aysmuf vifaysmuf/
tudkaysmuf armifaysmuf/ nD nDraysmuf &SmazGatmfoH/ idkoHawG? rdrdvifom; taz/
nDtudk armifESrawGudk oç*[fjrKyfESHcGifhr&/ aemufqHk;tcsdefrSmawmif jrifcGifhr&vdk@ yl;aqG;
aomua&mufolawG&JhtoHawG tylrsm;jzifh zHk;v$rf;aeygw,f? xdktyltoHrsm; jcKyf+idrf;+yD;/
rdrdwdk@. ,kH=unfcsufjzifh jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pD&&Sda&;twGuf azaz tygt0if wdkufyGJ0if&if;
ppftm%m&Sifwdk@&J@vlrqefpGm EdSyfpufowfjzwfr_a=umifhusqHk;oGm;olrsm; tm;vHk; aumif;&m
ok*wdvm;ygapvdk@ qkawmif;vdkufygw,f? ---”
— qvdkif;a,matmif (ru'w)/ 25/ 01/ 2006

apm&ifopf
{&m0wDwdkif;/ bdkuav;+rdK@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&+yD; axmif'%f 10ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif jrif;+cHaxmiftwGif aoqHk;onf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? apm&ifopfonf omreft&yfom;jzpfonf? 1991 ckESpf {&m0wDwdkif;
bdkuav;+rdK@e,f axmfydkif/ OD;eDpkaus;&Gm teD;w0dkufwGif u&ifvufeufudkifwyfzGJ@rS vufeufrsm;
odkavSmif&m ae&mudk e0w ppfwyfrS 0ifa&mufzrf;qD;&mwGif ppfwyfESifh vufeufudkif u&ifvlrsdK;
rsm; ypfcwfr_rsm; jzpfyGm;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf e0w ppfwyfonf vufeuf}uD;/ vufeufi,frsm;/
&[wf,mOfrsm;oHk;um xdk&GmeD;ywf0ef;usif&Sd u&if&Gmrsm;udk 0ifa&mufpD;eif;I ypfcwfjcif;/ rD;&d_@
jcif;/ &maygif;rsm;pGmaom rouFmolrsm;udk ypfowfjcif;rsm; jyKvkyfcJhonf? xdk@tjyif usef&Sdae
aom &Gmom;rsm;udk zrf;qD;I ppfa=umcJhonf? xdkppfa=umpOfumvwGifvnf; &mESifhcsDonfh
&Gmom;rsm; aoqHk;cJh&jyefonf? toufraoyJ usef&Sdonfh &Gmom;rsm;udk axmif'%f tESpf 10
ESpfrS woufwu|ef;xd csrSwfum jrefrmjynftESH@tjym;&Sd tusOf;toD;oD;odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhonf?
xdktxJwGif apm&ifopfonf w&m;r0iftoif; ESifh qufoG,fr_ yk'fr 17§1 jzifh axmif'%f 10
ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHxm;&olwOD;jzpfonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? axmif0ifpmrvmEdkifjcif;/ jrif;+cHaxmif. au|;arG;aom tpm;tpmrsm;rSm tm[m&
rjynfh0jcif;/ aq;0g;ukor_ r&jcif;wdk@a=umifh tvGefoefrmaom apm&ifopfonf wajz;ajz;
tm[m&csdK@wJh+yD; tm;jywfum 1996 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvtwGif;wGif jrif;+cHaxmifwGif;Yf aoqHk;oGm;
cJhonf?
115

rSwfcsuf? ? jrif;+cHaxmif&Sd EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@ rdom;pkrSay;wJh pm;p&muvGJ+yD;
wjcm;b,fol@qDurS vufcHvdk@r&cJhyg? tcsif;csif; ay;urf; au|;arG;onfudk axmiftm%mydkifrsm;
od&Sdygu aoavmufatmif &dkufESufjcif;/ wdkufydwf jypf'%fay;jcif;udk cH=u&onf?

apmvScspf
{&m0wDwdkif;/ bdkuav;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1992 ckESpf/ rwfv (31) &ufae@wGif axmifcscHcJh&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ rwfv (13) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (57) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? apmvScspfonf u&ifwkdif;&if;om;/ c&pf,mefbkef;awmf}uD;wyg;jzpfonf?
u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t\Hk; (autifef,l)ESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? rw&m;
toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17 (1) jzifh axmif'%f (8) ESpfcsrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? tif;pdeftusOf;
axmifwGif tusOf;cscHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tif;pdefaxmifwGif r=umc% rusef;rrmjzpfcJhonf? 1997 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif
tm%mykdifrsm;u apmvScspftm; &efukeftaxGaxGa&m*gukaq;\Hkopfodk@ wifydk@cJhonf? aq;\Hk
odk@a&muf+yD; &ufydkif;twGif; xdkae&mYyifaoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tm%mydkifrsm;u apmvScspfaoqHk;&jcif;rSm aoG;tm;enf;jcif;a=umihfjzpfa=umif;
ajym=um;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;a&$ausmf
apmZifjr
a'gufwmpdk;Edkif

116

apmxl;apm (c) OD;apmoef;
1997 rwfvwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
2003 ckESpf/ atmufwkdbmv (10) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (50) cef@&Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? apmxl;apmonf u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t\kH;0if (autifef,l) tzJG@0ifwOD;
jzpfonf? 1996 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm (10) &ufwGif oxHkòr@ay:wdkufyGJY nmzufaygifwGif usnfxd
rSefI tzrf;cHcJh&onf? 1997 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif armfv+rdKifòr@/ ppfcHk\Hk;u apmxl;apmtm; rw&m;
toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1/ 17 (2) wkd@jzifh pGJcsufwifI axmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfchJonf?
1997 ckESpf/ {+yDv (23) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaxmifodk@a&muf&SdcJhonf? tif;pdefaxmif&dS (1)aqmif/
(2) aqmif/ (4) wdkuf/ (5) wdkuf rsm;wGif aexdkifcJh&onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? 2003 ckESpf/ {+yDv (20) &ufae@
wGif apmxl;apmonf uifqm/ &if=uyfyef;em
a&m*grsm;a=umifh &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;odk@ wuf
a&mufcJh&onf?
2003 ZGefESifh Zlvdkifvrsm;wGif "mwfuifuko
cJhonf? =o*kwfvwGif cGJpdwfuko&ef oabm
wlcJhonf? uBmh=uufajceDtoif; (tkdifpDtm
pD) u vkdtyfaomaq;0g;rsm;ukd ulnDay;tyf
chJonf?

apmxl;apmonf &efukefaq;\kH}uD;wGif uG,fvGefchJonf?

atmufwdkbmv (2) &ufae@wGif pdef@aygvfbk&m;ausmif;rSzmomb&lEdk;u aq;\kH}uD; tcsKyfcef;
odk@ oGm;a&mufI/ c&pf,mefxHk;wrf;pOfvmESifhtnD qkawmif;ay;jcif;/ tm;ay;pum;ajymjcif;
ðyvkyfchJonf?
(8) &ufae@wGif aq;\Hktay:xyfokd@ ykd@aqmifchJonf?
(9) &ufae@ eHeuf (9;00) em&DwGif cGJpdwfukocHcJhonf? ae@vnf (2;00) em&DausmfwGif
cJGpdwfr_rsm; +yD;qkH;onf? wnvHk;tdyfr&cJh?
(10) &ufae@wGif zmom b&lEdk; xyfrHoGm;a&muf+yD; tm;ay;pum;ajymonf?
axmufvSrf;a&; trSwf (14) rS Akdvf}uD; rsKd;xGef;wifhu zmomb\lEdktm; racsriH ajymqkdchJonf?
xkdae@ nae (3;27) em&DwGif aoqkH;onf?
117

rSwfcsuf? ? apmxl;apm.psmyetm; rdom;pk0if (1) OD;/ c&pf,mefbk&m;ausmif;rS (4) OD;/ aq;\Hk
vkyfom; (3) OD;/ &J (3) OD;/ axmufvSrf;a&; (1) OD;/ pkpkaygif; (12) OD; vdkufygydk@aqmifcJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;vS=unf
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

apmausmfvGif (c) OD;ausmfvGif
{&m0wDwdkif;/ iykawmòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1993 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (50) ausmf+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? u&ifawmfvSefa&;wGif yg0ifxrf;aqmifcJhzl;oljzpfonf? 1991 ckESpf/ atmuf
wdkbmv bdkuav; ta&;tcif;wGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? rw&m;toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1
jzifh axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
xdk@aemuf 1993 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif tm%mykdifrsm;u apmausmfvGiftygt0if bdkuav;ta&;
tcif;wGif yg0ifywfoufcJhr_jzifh axmifcscHxm;&aom u&ifwkdif;&if;om;rsm;udk jrif;+cHaxmifodk@
ajymif;a&$@cJhonf?
jrif;+cHaxmif axmifydkif OD;vlvSu ‚tusOf;om;rsm;a&muf&dSvmygu wa,mufcsif;pDtm;
acgif;wGif apmiftkyfI tjyif;txef &dkufESuf&ef axmif0efxrf;rsm;tm; trdef@ay;chJonf? 0efxrf;
rsm;uvnf; twdtus vkdufemchJonf? xkd@aemuf ‚wkd@ukd wdkufcef;rsm;twGif;odk@ oGif;um
wdkufydwfcsKyfaESmifxm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? axmifwGif;Y au|;aom tpm;tpmrsm;rSm tm[m&rjynfh0onfhtjyif/ 0vifatmif
au|;arG;jcif;r&SdbJ/ yHkpHjzifhom au|;aoma=umifh apmausmfvGif. usef;rma&;rSm ododomom
qdk;&Gm;vmcJhonf?
1993 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif/ xrif;qmonfh'%f rcHEdkifojzifh nzufwGif axmiftm%mydkifrsm;xH
atmf[pfI xrif;xyfrHay;&ef awmif;qkdcJhonf? tm%mydkifrsm;u xrif;ray;onfhtjyif
wdkufcef;zGifhI/ tjyif;txef&dkufESufcJh=uojzihf apmausmfvGifonf owdvpfoGm;chJonf? tm%m
118

ykdifrsm;u apmausmfvGiftm; jrif;jcHaxmifaq;\Hkodk@ nwGif;csif;ydk@cJhaomfvnf;/ aq;\Hka&muf+yD;
em&Dydkif;t=umwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª;}uD;

OD;vlvS
OD;aqGwifh

apmwifjrifh
{&m0wDwdkif; Zmwdjzpfonf?
1982 ckESpfwGif yJcl;\kd;rY zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2001 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (62) ESpfjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t&kH; (autifef,l) tzJG@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? 1982
ckESpfwGif u&iftrsdK;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wyfrawmfonf yJcl;&dk;r jyefvnfpdk;rdk;a&; pDrHcsufjzifh
yJcl;\kd;rodk@jyefvnf0ifa&muf&mwGif ppftpkd;&wyfrsm;ESihfwdkufyGJrsm;jzpfyGm;cJhonf? xkdwkdufyJGwGif
apmwifjrihf zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? 1983 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (24) &ufae@wGif EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr
122 (1) jzihf ao'%fcsrSwfjcif;cH&onf?
1989 ckESpfwGif ppftpkd;&onf vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifh xkwfjyefa=unmjcif;jzihf wEkdifiHvkH;&dStusOf;
om;rsm;. axmif'%frsm;tm; av#mhcsay;chJonf? apmwifjrifh&&dSxm;aom pD&ifcsufonfvnf;
ao'%frS woufwu|ef;'%fokd@ ajymif;vJchJonf? okd@aomfvnf; tESpf 20/ 25/ 30 pojzihf
ESpfaygif;rnfr#uscH&rnfukd rodchJ&yg?
1992/ 1993/ 1997 ckESpfrsm;wGif ppftpkd;&u vGwf+idrf;oufomcGifhrsm; t}udrf}udrfxkwfjyefcJh
onf? okd@aomfvnf; apmwifjrifhtwGuf rnfonhfvGwf+idrf;oufomcGihfrS r&&dSchJyg?
xkdtrdef@xkwfjyefcsufrsm;t&qkdv#if &mZ0wftusOf;om;rsm;tm; jyefv$wfay;jcif;/ axmifusESpf
rsm;ukd avsmhayghay;jcif;rsm; jzpfay:cJhonf? okd@aomfvnf; axmufvSrf;a&;u axmiftm%mykdif
rsm;tm; EkdifiHa&;ESifhqufEG,fonfhtusOf;om;rsm;tm; vGwf+idrf;oufomcGihfray;bJ qufvuf
csKyfaESmifxdrf;odrf;xm;&ef !$ef=um;cJhjcif;rSm xl;jcm;jzpfpOfwpf&yfjzpfonf?
aoqkH;ykH?

? tusOf;axmifwGif; tESpf (20) eD;yg; aexdkifvmcJh&jcif;/ tusOf;axmifwGif;rS
119

au|;arG;aom tpm;tpmrsm;rSm vkHavmufonhftm[m&"mwfr&Sdjcif;/ rdom;pkuaxmif0ifpm
oGm;a&mufrawG@Edkifjcif;wdk@a=umifh apmwifjrifh. usef;rma&;rSm wae@wjcm; qkwf,kwfvmcJh
onf? tm[m&csdK@wJhr_'%fa=umifh tenf;i,f zsm;em\Hkjzifh usef;rma&; v#ifjrefpGm qkwf,kwfus
qif;cJhonf? 2001 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (1) &ufae@wGif o&uftusOf;axmifwGif;Y aoqHk;cJhonf?
tjyif;txefzsm;em+yD; wvtwGif; aoqkH;chJjcif;jzpfonf?

OD;pdefvS (c) oHr%d OD;pdefvS
{&m0wDwdkif;/ a';'&Jòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif uG,fvGefonf?
touf (75) ESpft&G,fwGif uG,fvGefchJjcif;jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1946 ckESpf tvHeDuGefjrLepfygwDzGJ@pnf;csdefwGif yg0ifcJhonf? 1946 ckESpf
pULjzLpDrHudef;tm; uef@uGufqüjyonfh taxGaxGoydwf}uD;wGif ykvdyfoydwfudk OD;aqmifcJhol
jzpfonf? xdkwdkufyGJwGifyg0ifcJh=uaom wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;onf rdrdwkd@. trnfrsm;a&S@wGif oHr%drsm;
wyfum oHr%dwyf Adkvfrsm;tjzpf cH=uojzifh oHr%dOD;pdefvS[k trnfwGifcJhonf? tvHeDuGefjrLepf
ygwD awmcdk&mwGif yg0ifcJh+yD;aemuf A[dkaumfrwD0ifjzpfvmcJhonf? 1972 ckESpf tvHeDuGefjrLepf
ygwD. +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf tzrf;cH aqG;aEG;a&;rl0g't& ajray:odk@ wufa&mufcJhonf? xdk@a=umifh
tzrf;cHcJh&onf?
ESpftenf;i,ft=umwGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf? 1980 jynhfESpf ocifpdk; jyefvnf vGwf
ajrmufvm+yD;onfhaemufydkif; ocifpdk;tdrfwGifðyvkyfaom EdkifiHa&;oabmw&m; avhvma&;0dkif;
rsm;wGif yg0ifcJhonf?
1990 jynhfESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkifausmif;om;rsm;'Drdku&ufwyfOD; (ABSDF) ESifh qufoG,f+yD;
jynfwGif;vkyfief;rsm; vkyfaqmif&ef jyef0ifvmonfh ausmif;om;vli,fwOD;ESifh qufoG,faqmif
&Gufr_rsm; &dSchJonf? xkd@a=umifh zrf;qD;cHcJh&+yD; axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1992 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;Y tif;pdefaxmifaq;\HkwGif aoqHk;cJhonf? OD;pdefvS aoqkH;chJ&
jcif;rSm tm[m&csKd@whJjcif;/ tif;pdefaxmifaq;\kH.aq;0g;ukor_nhHzsif;jcif;wkd@onf touf 75
ESpft&G,f OD;pdefvStwGuf =uhH=uhHcH&yfwnf&ef twm;tqD;rsm;jzpfchJonf?

120

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
OD;odef;jrifh
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

OD;pddef0if;
&efukefwdkif;/ oHk;cGòr@e,fwGif arG;zGm;onf?
1988 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (8) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (54) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? &efukefwdkif;/ oHk;cGòr@e,f/ &ef}uD;atmifa'owGif arG;zGm;onfhtwGuf
&ef}uD;atmif[kvnf; ac:=uonf?
OD;pdef0if;onf (1959-60) ckESpf wUokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or~ (wuo) . tr_aqmifwOD;
jzpfonf? xkd@aemuf wuowGif 'kOUÏtjzpf wm0efay;tyfcHchJ&onf?
ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifb0wGif OD;pdef0if;. OD;aqmifr_/ wkdufyGJ0ifv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; tajrmuftrsm;
&SdcJhonf? wufºujcif;/ &J&ifhjcif;/ jywfom;jcif;wdk@a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;. tm;xm;jcif; cHcJh&
onf? 1961 wGif ðyvkyfonfh e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_qüjyyGJwGif ‘yxp’ tpkd;& ykvdyfrsm;.
wkwf&kdufcsuf cHcJh&I cg;wGif xdckdufcJhonf? cg; roefpGrf;olb0 a&mufcJh&onf?
1962 ckESpf/ Zlvkdif (7) &uf ausmif;om;ta&;awmfyHk acgif;aqmifwOD;vnf; jzpfonf? 1963
jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; awG@qHkaqG;aEG;yGJumvwGif +idrf;csrf;a&;wyfom;wOD;jzpfcJhonf? aqG;aEG;yGJ
ysuf+yD;aemuf ‘rqv’ tpkd;&. zrfqD;jcif;cHcJh&+yD; udkukd;u|ef;odk@ ydk@cHcJhonf? u|ef;zsufodrf;a&;
tpmiwfcHqüjy oydwfwkdufyGJwGif yg0ifqifEGJcJhonf?
1988 ckESpfwGif ausmufwef;/ c&rf;/ oHk;cG (3) òr@e,f yl;wGJoydwfaumfrwDtm; OD;aqmifr_ay;cJh
onf? OD;pdef0if;onf ausmif;q&mwOD;jzpfI ol.e,fwGif =oZm&Sd+yD; vlcspfvlcifaygol jzpfonf?
xdk@a=umifh 1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif oydwfacgif;aqmif jzpfcJhonf? a'ocH&Jwyf
zJG@0ifrsm;u ol@xHodk@ vufeufrsm; oGm;a&mufyHktyf=uonf? ppfwyfu tm%modrf;+yD;aemufwGif
xdkvufeufrsm;ESihfywfoufI OD;pdef0if;tm; zrf;qD;I w&m;pJGqkdcJhonf? odk@aomf trdef@csrSwf
jcif;r&SdbJ \Hk;csdef;trsm;tjym; a&$@qkdif;chJonf? tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif csKyfaESmifchJonf?
121

aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;axmifwGif tpm;taomufqkd;&Gm;nhHzsif;r_/ ywf0ef;usifnpfnrf;r_/ a&roef@
&Sif;r_wdk@a=umifh OD;pdef0if;onf tlr}uD;/ tonf;wkd@wGif a&m*grsm; jzpfay:vmcJhonf? okd@aomfvnf;
tm%mykdifrsm;xHrS aq;ukor_ r&&dSchJyg? aemufqkH;wGif tpm;tpmESifh a&wkd@ pm;aomufEkdifjcif;
r&dSawmhay? xkdokd@ a&m*gu|rf;onhftcsdefa&mufrS tm%mykdifrsm;u aq;ukoay;&ef oabm
wlchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (8) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaq;\Hkodk@ wufa&mufcGJpdwfcGifhðycJhonf? OD;pdef0if;
onf ajcaxmufwGif ajcusOf;cwfvsufwef;vef;ESifh cGJpdwfukor_cHcJh&onf? cGJpdwfr_ratmifjrifbJ
xdkae@n (8) em&Dcef@wGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? 1972 ckESpf OD;ae0if;. rqvtpkd;&vufxuf tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om;rsm;udk v$wfay;onfh tcrf;tem;wck usif;ycJhonf? xdktcrf;tem;wGif tm%mydkif
rsm;u tusOf;om;rsm;udk vufqGJE_wfqufchJonf? OD;pdef0if;u vufqGJE_wfrqufbJ vufudk
aemufypfxm;vkduf+yD;aemuf ‘usKyf &efoleJ@ b,fawmhrS vufrqGJbl; ’ [k jywfjywfom;om;
ajymqkdjiif;y,fcJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
OD;jrodef;
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

“opömpum;”
tkd æ
oli,fcsif;rsm; æ
rdwfaqGrsm; æ
&Jabmfrsm; æ
ig æ yef;yGifhESvHk;om;
jyHK;xm;rsufESm
E_wfv$mcsKdjr
‘prf;v’ yrmES,f
=uifemEkouf
=umrHkvufESihf
E_wfqufygonf æ xm0&?
122

a[h æ
t"Rorm;
0HykavGrsm; æ
oifwkd@twGuf
ausmufom;rsufESm
toJrSm oHr%d
trkef;yef;twdjynfh
xdf=unhfprf; æ ‘rD;vkd aevkd’
qkdrnf æ oPm
r}udKighvuf æ E_wfrqufbl; xm0&? ?
— nHZH (8/ 1/ 1991 ae@wGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmifY uG,fvGefoGm;ol
udkpdef0if; (oHk;cG) twGuf trSwfw&)

OD;&SSdefwif
jynfol@wkd;wufa&;ygwD
1994 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&DvwGif tzrf;cH&onf?
2004 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (28) &ufwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (68) jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? tif;wdkif (COD) wyfwGif zqyvacwfrS 1967 ckESpf txd wm0efxrf;aqmif
cJhonf? 1967 ckESpfwGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh xdef;odrf;cHcJh&onf? 1970
jynhfESpfwGif tif;pdefaxmifrS jyefvnf vGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
1988 ckESpfwGif zJG@pnf;chJaom jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwDwGif v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhonf? 1989 ckESpf
wGif jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwDonf w&m;0ifrSwfyHkwifjcif;rS &kyfodrf;cHcJh&onf? okd@aomf ygwD0if
rsm;onf EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif qufvufyg0ifchJ=uonf?
1994 ckESpfwGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwDESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh axmufvSrf;a&;u xyfrHzrf;qD;chJonf?
azaz:0g&DvwGif 1950-jynfh ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5(n) jzihf axmif (7) ESpf/ rw&m;
toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1 jzifh axmif'%f (3) ESpf pkpkaygif; (10) ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? 1997 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif tif;pdefaxmifrS/ awmifilaxmifodk@ a&muf&dSoGm;onf?
123

tusOf;om;wOD;. Oya't& &&dSrnhfav#mh&ufrsm;t&qkdv#if OD;&dSefwifonf 2001 ckESpf
uwnf;u v$wf&ufaphrnfjzpfonf? okd@aomfvnf; tm%mykdifrsm;u OD;&dSefwiftm; av#mh&uf
rsm;cHpm;cGihf vkH;0rðychJyg?
tusOf;usumv 10 ESpfjynhf&ef (2) vcef@omvkdonhf 2004 ckESpf Zef0g&DvwGif OD;&dSefwifonf
usef;rma&; tvGefqdk;&Gm;vmonfhtwGuf awmifilaq;\Hkodk@ a&mufchJonf? cHpm;&aom a0'em
rSmjyif;xefvGef;I atmf[pfae&onf? okd@aomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u OD;&dSefwiftm; awmifil
axmiftwGif;okd@ jyefvnfykd@aqmifchJonf?
aemufykdif;wGif &uftenf;i,ftwGif; aoqHk;awmhrnfh tajctaeokd@ a&mufvmaoma=umifh/
awmifilaq;\Hkodk@ jyefvnfwifydk@cJhonf? a&m*gtajctae ykdrkdqkd;&Gm;vmonf? xdktcg &efukefòr@/
tif;pdefaxmifodk@ ydk@aqmif&eftwGuf jyifqifaepOf Zefe0g&Dv (28) &ufae@Y tqkwfuifqmjzifh
aoqkH;onf?
rSwfcsuf? ? uG,fvGefcsdefwGif w&m;0ifvGwfajrmuf&rnffjzpfonfh axmif'%fumv (10) ESpf
jynfh&ef &ufydkif;r#omvdkonf? tusOf;axmiftwGif;wGif oifhavsmfaomaq;0g;ukor_rsm;&dSygu
OD;&dSefwifonf Tokd@aomtjzpfESihf }uKHawG@chJ&rnfr[kwfyg?

udkpnfol (ac:) &JEdkif
&efukefwdkif;/ prf;acsmif;òr@e,fwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2001 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (12) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (35) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1966 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmv (8) &ufae@Y prf;acsmif;òr@e,f/ &efukefwdkif;wGif
arG;zGm;onf? udkpnfolonf 1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif &efukefwUodkvf (=unhf
jrifwdkife,fajr)Y 'kwd,ESpf (&kQaA') ausmif;om;wOD;jzpfonf?
1988 rwfv (16) &ufae@ wHwm;eDta&;tcif;/ rwfv (17) &ufae@ &efukefwUokdvf ausmif;om;
v_yf&Sm;r_wdk@wGifyg0ifcJhonf? xkd@aemuf jrefrmEdkifiH'Drdkua&pDa&;/ vl@tcGifhta&;wkd@twGuf v_H@
aqmfwdkufyGJ0ifum &Spfav;vHk;vlxkta&;awmfyHkwGif yg0ifcJhonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm; 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_tpnf;t\Hk;(ru') A[dktvkyftr_
124

aqmif tzJG@0if/ jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;or~zGJ@pnf;a&;aumfrwD (ruoz)zGJ@pnf;a&;
aumfrwDtzJG@0if ponhfwm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifchJonf? EkdifiHa&;tzJG@tpnf;rsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,f
(116) OD; vufrSwfa&;xdk;aom trsdK;om;=um;jzwftpdk;& zGJ@pnf;a&;twGuf wufºupGm yg0if
aqmif&GufcJhonf?
1988 pufwifbmv (18) &uf ppfwyfutm%modrf;+yD;aemuf jrefrmEdkifiHvHk;qdkifausmif;om;
rsm; 'Drdku&ufwyfOD; (ru'w)ESifhwGJzufI 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ +idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf wdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf?
1988 rœav; v#yfppf\Hk; AHk;aygufuGJr_/ 1989 &efukefwkdif; prf;acsmif;òr@e,ftwGif;AHk;aygufuGJr_wkd@
ESifh ywfoufonf[k pGyfpJGcH&+yD; 1991 ckESpf ZGefvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? 1991 ckESpf 'DZifbm
(30) &ufae@wGif txl;ppfcHk\Hk;u ukdpnfoltm; axmif'%f (12) ESpfcsrSwfcJhonf?
1995 =o*kwfv wGif tif;pdefaxmifrS om,m0wD
tusOf;axmifodk@a&muf&dScJhonf? 1991 {+yDv
(2) &ufae@wiG f vGw&f ufaphco
Jh nf? ok@d aomfvnf;
xdpk Ofu jrefrmEdik if v
H @l tcGit
hf a&;aumfr&Sif OUÏ
jzpfol jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; OD;wifvd_if vufrSwfxkd;
xm;aom “qef@usifbufEdkifiHa&;pdwf"mwfjyif;
xefaeqJjzpfonf ” [laom rSwfcsufa=umihf
EdkifiHawmfvHk+cHKa&;tm; xdyg;aESmifh,Sufvdkolwdk@
.ab;tœ&m,frS umuG,fonfh Oya' yk'fr 10
(u) jzifh ta&;,lcHcJh&onf?
xkd@a=umihf udkpnfolonf tusOf;axmif twGif;
jypfr_usK;vGefjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; vGwf&ufr&Sd/ t
uef@towfrJh qufvuftusOf;cs cHchJ&onf?
tusOf;axmiftwGif; (10) ESpfausmf jzwfoef; udkpnfol. axmifwGif;a&;pyfxm;aom uAsmwyk'f
aexdkifcJh&+yD; &&dSchJaom zddpD;r_ '%frsm;a=umifh vnf;aumif;/ a&m*gydk;r$m;rsm;jzifhjynfhESufae+yD;
oef@&Sif;r_r&dSaom axmifwGif;wdkufcef;rsm;twGif; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexdkifcJh&jcif;a=umihfhvnf;
aumif; usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;chJonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 2001 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif udkpnfolonf iSufzsm;a&m*g tjyif;txefcHchJ&+yD;
om,m0wDaxmifaq;&kHokd@ a&muf&dSchJonf? iSufzsm;a&m*gjzpfyGm;+yD;aemuf tla&mifief;zsm;
a&m*g (Para-typhoid) jzpfyGm;cJhonf?
125

Zlvdkifv (6) &ufae@wGif om,m0wDc\dkifaq;\kHrS q&m0ef=uD;/ txl;ukorm;awmfwpfOD;
ukdpnfoltm; oGm;a&muf=unfh&_cJhonf? ‚wkd@u axmifq&m0ef a'gufwmatmifoef;.
(machingun thrapy) ac: aq;twGJvkdufwkdufjcif;tm; &yfqdkif;apcJh+yD;/ vlemonf tqkwfa&mif
aejyD; toJ}uD;aeonf[k twnfðyum (Septrim) ESifh (Cefomtral Inj:) udkom oHk;pGJ&ef
n$ef=um;cJhonf?
xkdtcsdefwGif ukdpnfol.a&m*gtajctae ykdrkdqdk;&Gm;vm+yD;/ touftœ&m,f pdk;&dfrf&aom tajc
tae odk@ a&muf&dSvmonf? xkd@a=umihf Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae@wGif tm%mykdifwkd@u udkpnfoltm;
om,m0wDc\dkif jynfol@aq;\Hk}uD;&Sd tcsKyfcef;odk@ ajymif;a&$@vdkufonf? xkdae&mokd@a&muf+yD; 5
&uft=um (2001) ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (12) &ufae@wGif xkdaq;\kHYyif aoqHk;cJhonf?
raoqkH;rD tao;pdwftajctae? ? 2001 ckESpf/ ZGefvwGif ukdpnfolonf tat;rdjcif;
tzsm;0ifjcif; acsmif;qdk;jcif;wkd@ jzpfvmonf? axmifq&m0efu prf;oyfppfaq;r_/ a&m*gtajc
taear;jref;r_ vHk;0rðyvkyfbJ (Paracetamol) udkom aomufoHk; apcJhonf?
xkd@aemuf (4) &uf=umr# tylcsdef 100 rS 103 'D*&D zm&if[dkuftxd tzsm;wufaecJhonf? touf
&SK&cufI armyef;jcif;/ jyif;xefpGmacsmif;qdk;jcif;wkd@ &uf&SnfjzpfyGm;chJ+yD;aemuf axmifq&m0efxH
xyfrHjyoaomfvnf;/ (Amoxycillin) (Benedry) ponhf aq;rsm;ukdomoHk;pGJ&ef n$ef=um;cJhonf?
*&kwpdkuf ppfaq;prf;oyfjcif; r&SdcJhay?
2001 ckESpf/ ZGefv (25) &ufae@wGif 105 'D*&Dzm&if[dkuftxd tzsm;wufchJonf? touf&SL&ef
cufcJaejcif;/ armyef;jcif;/ tqufrjywfacsmif;qdk;jcif;rsm; qufvufjzpfyGm;aeaomfvnf;
axmifq&m0efu udkpnfoltm; *&kwpdkufprf;oyfppfaq;jcif;/ a&m*gtajctaear;jref;jcif;/
xda&mufonfh ukoa&;enf;vrf;rsm; &SmazGjcif; rðychJyg? (Amoxycillin, Benedry, Septrim) wkd@
ukd aomuf&efom n$ef=um;cJhonf?
2001 ckESpf/ ZGefv (29) wGifrl tzsm;tvGefwufchJ+yD; tylcsdef (107) 'D*&Dzm&if[dkuftxd
a&muf&Sdaeonf? vlemonf rnfodk@r# cHEdkif&nfr&Sdaom tajctaeodk@a&mufae+yDjzpfa=umif;
odomxif&Sm;onhftcg axmifq&m0efu udkpnfoltm; om,m0wDaxmifaq;\Hkodk@ wifydk@&ef
pDpOfcJhonf?
2001 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (4) &ufae@wGif udkpnfol.a&m*ga0'emrSm ,cif (5) &ufuxuf ydkrkdqdk;&Gm;
vmjyD; touf&SL&efukdyif tvGeftrif; tm;xkwfae&onf? wrdepfvSsif t}udrf (80) ESKef;jzifh
touf&LS ae&onf? tpmpm;aomufEidk rf _ r&Sad wmhay? uk,
d cf ýmwGif a&"mwfcrf;ajcmufvmonf?
xdk&ufrsm;wGif axmifq&m0efu udkpnfoltm; (machingun thrapy ) ac: aq;twGJvkduf
126

wkdufonfh ukxkH;jzihf ukochJonf?
xkdtajctaea&mufonftxd axmifq&m0efu udkpnfol.a&m*gtrnfukdyif xkwfazmfajymqdk
Edkifjcif; r&SdchJyg? tla&mifief;zsm;/ iSufzsm;wkd@ jzpfEdkifonf[kom raorcsm ajymqdkcJhonf? tpm
rpm;Ekdifaomvlemtm; tpm;taomufukd tpmydkufjzihf au|;arG;jcif;r&dSchJyg?
om,m0wDc\kdifaq;\kH}uD;wGifvnf; atmufpD*sifAl;ponhf aq;ukor_taxmuftulyPnf;rsm;
r&dSojzihf &efukefaq;\kH}uD;okd@ ykd@aqmifI uko&ef tpDtpOf ysufoGm;chJonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? 1991 ckESpf/ 'DZifbm (30) &ufae@u txl;ppfcHk\Hk;wGif trdef@csrSwfonfh w&m;ol}uD;
u tjypf&Sd/ r&Sd ar;cJh&m udkpnfolu atmufygtwdkif; ajzqdkcJhonf?
“--- tjypf&o
dS vm;/ r&Sb
d ;l vm;qdw
k m ar;raeyge@J / rw&m;olawG&@J w&m;pD&ifwmukd
usaemfw@kd todtrSwrf ðyEdik b
f ;l / óuufovdk pD&ifv@kd &w,f/ 'gayr,f-h --'g[mrw&m;r_yJ ---”

ukdpnfoluG,fvGef+yD; (7)&ufjynhfcsdefwGif &ufvnfqGrf;oGyfaeaomrdom;pk

axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;wifxGwf
OD;odef;vGif
a'gufwmatmifoef;

127

OD;pdk;0if;
&efukefòr@ Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynfhESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
1992 ckESpf/ arv (3) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (74) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;cspfarmif/ a':pdef'dkifwdk@.om;jzpf+yD; &efukefòr@wGif arG;zGm;onf? &JabmfoHk;
usdyf0if AdkvfaZ,s. nDjzpfonf?
AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifonfh jynfol@&JabmftzGJ@wGif tzGJ@0if wOD;jzpfcJhonf? 1956 ckESpfwGif
&efukefòr@ (10) rdkifukef;=uufjcHwGif refae*smtjzpf vkyfudkifcJhonf? 1958 ckESpfwGif tvkyfrS E_wf
xGufI jynfol@&JabmfygwDodk@ 0ifa&mufcJhonf? 1963 ckESpf OD;ae0if;.ppftpkd;&ESihf vufeufukdif
tzJG@rsm;. +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm; ysufjym;oGm;+yD;aemuf zrf;qD;tusOf;cscHchJ&onf? 1970
jynhfESpfwGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufcJhonf?
1987 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD ESifhqufoG,fcJh+yD; ajratmufvkyfief;rsm;udk
vkyfaqmifcJhonf? 1988 ckESpf vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_umvaemufykdif; EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm; wnfaxmifcGifh&
aomtcg jynfol@&JabmftzGJ@csKyf (Armjynf)udk wnfaxmifcJh+yD; taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rª; wm0ef
xrf;aqmifcJhonf? 1990 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;. zrf;qD;jcif; cHcJh&onf?
rw&m;toif;tufOya' yk'fr 17§1/ 2 wkd@jzifh axmif'%f tESpf (20) csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;cscHae&pOf 1992 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif 0rf;av#ma&m*g/
0rf;udkufa&m*gjzpfyGm;chJonf? tif;pdefaq;\Hkokd@a&muf+yD;r=umrD 1992 ckESpf arv (3) &ufae@
wGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

“usaemf raocsifao;bl;? ao&rSm a=umufvdk@r[kwfbl;? ordkif;jzpf&yfrSefawGudk azmfxkwfcsif

ao;w,f? ordkif;udk vdrfnmae=uw,f? ordkif;jzpf&yfrSefawGudk azsmufzsuf zHk;uG,fae=uw,f?
jynfolawGodatmif azmfxkwf&OD;r,f? ”
“ordkif;rSefazmfxkwfa&; wm0efudk u|efawmf,lcsifao;w,f ”
— OD;pdk;0if; (tif;pdefòr@e,faq;\Hk tcsKyfaqmifwGif 8/ 4/ 1991 u ajymcJhonfhpum;)

128

ukdoef;axG; (ac:) bb
weoFm&Dwkdif;/ xm;0,fòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1989 ckESpf/ ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1990 jynfhESpfwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (25) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? ukdoef;axG;onf weoFm&Dwkdif;/ xm;0,fòr@/ ajrmif;ykvJ&yfuGufwGif arG;zGm;
onf? xm;0,fòr@e,f trSwf (1) tajccHynmtxufwef;ausmif;wGif (10) wef;wufaepOf
1988 vlxktkHºur_}uD;jzpfyGm;chJonf?
ukdoef;axG;onf xm;0,fòr@wGif OD;aqmifqüjyolwOD;jzpf+yD;/ xm;0,fe,fvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;
om;or~. aZ,s0wDtrmcHausmif;om;tzJG@wGif yg0if v_yf&Sm;chJonf? ppfwyfu tm%modrf;
+yD;aemufwae@wGif ausmif;om;or~wzJG@vkH;ESihftwl u&iftrsKd;om;tpnf;t\kH; (autifef,l)
wyf&if; trSwf (10) wnf&dS&m rif;orD;pcef;okd@ awmckdchJonf?
1989 ESpfqef;ykdif;Y xm;0,fòr@wGif;okd@ jyefvnf0ifa&muf+yD; ajratmufv_yf&Sm;r_rsm; ðyvkyfaepOf
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u zrf;qD;chJonf? xm;0,faxmifwGif 17§1 jzihf w&m;pJGcHae&pOf uG,fvGef
chJonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? xkdpOfu xm;0,faxmifwGif vlowfr_jzihfusvmaom ppfom;wOD;ukd wef;pD;cef@I
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ukd ESdyfuGyfaeonf? ukdoef;axG;u xkdESdyfuGyfr_ukd qef@usifqüjy&m
wkdufydwfcHchJ&onf? ukdoef;axG;u 4if;wGif tpmtdrfa&m*g&dSa=umif; wifjyonf? xkdtcg
axmifrª;}uD; OD;wifa&$ ukd,fwkdif eHywfwkwfjzihf tcsufaygif;rsm;pGm &kdufESufchJonf? ukdoef;axG;
tjyif;txef '%f&m&jyD;/ aoG;tefchJaomfvnf; aemuf 5 &uf=umrS xm;0,fjynfol@aq;&kH}uD;
okd@ ykd@aqmifukochJonf? aemufwae@wGif a&m*gu|rf;aeaom ukdoef;axG;onf aq;&kHtcsKyfcef;
twGif; uG,fvGefchJonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifydkif
axmifrª;}uD;
axmifrª;

OD;pHodef;
OD;wifa&$ (rkdufu,f)
OD;xGef;0if;

129

OD;odef;wif
awmifOUvmyòr@e,f/ &efukefwGifaexdkifchJonf?
1996 ckESpf/ rwfv (18) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1998 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (18) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (56) ESpfjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1962-1963 ckESpfumvwGif xif&Sm;onfh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifwOD;jzpf
onf? wifodef;armif/ yx0Darmifwif ponfh uavmiftrnfrsm;jzifh vpOfxkwfr~Zif;rsm;wGif
aqmif;yg;rsm;a&;om;cJhonf? &efukefwkdif;/ awmifOUvmyòr@e,f/ tif;0vrf;wGif aexdkifchJonf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvtwGif; wufwufºuºu yg0ifchJonf? trsKd;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf ay:aygufvmonhftcg +rdKŒe,fpnf;\Hk;a&;rª; cef@tyfv$m &&dScJhonf? pnf;\Hk;a&;
wm0efrsm;udk tm;oGefcGefpdkuf xrf;aqmifcJhonf? awmifOUvmy+rdKŒe,f/ pnf;\Hk;a&;aumfrwD.
yxrqkH; tzJG@0ifwOD; jzpfonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif &efukefwdkif;pnf;\Hk;a&;aumfrwD tzJG@0if jzpfvmonf? OD;wifarmif0if; (c&rf;òr@
e,f/ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f)ESifh wGJzufI wm0efrsm; xrf;aqmifcJhonf?
1995 ckESpfwGif ppftpdk;&u tzJG@csKyfacgif;aqmif a':atmifqef;pk=unftm; csKyfaESmifxm;&mrS
vGwfay;chJonf? xkdaemuf ‘a':atmifqef;pk=unfESifhtzGJ@csKyfudk acgif;omusefap+yD; ajcvuft*F g
tm;vHk; csdK;jzwfypfa&;’[lonhf rl0g'jzifh tzGJ@csKyf tzJG@0ifrsm;tm; ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh zrf;qD;
xdef;odrf;chJonf? OD;odef;wifonfvnf; 1996 ckESpf rwfv (18) &ufwGif yk'fr 10 ( u ) jzifh
zrf;qD;xdrf;odrf;jcif;cH&onf?
OD;odef;wifonf usef;rma&;txl;vkdufpm;oljzpf+yD;/ w\kyf"mwftyfpkduf ynm&SifwOD;vnf;jzpf
onf? aq;qkdifzGifhI toufarG;cJholjzpfojzifh tdrfokH;aq;0g;rsm;ESifhywfoufI u|rf;usif ES@Hpyf
olvnf;jzpfonf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? yk'fr 10 (u) jzifh xdrf;odrf;cH&aomtcg rdom;pkESifh awG@qkHcGifhr&cJhay? xdrf;odrf;cH
umv (7) v=um jrifh+yD;rS rdom;pkESihf tquftoG,f&chJonf? rdom;pku OD;odef;wifxH
tpm;tpmykd@cGihf (2) ywfv#if (1) }udrf &&dSchJonf? okd@aomfvnf; awG@cGihfr&ojzihf rdom;pku
OD;odef;wif.usef;rma&;tajctaeukd rod&Sd&ay?
1997 ckESpf 'DZifbm (3) &ufae@wGif OD;odef;wifonf &efukefaq;\kH}uD; ta&;ay:Xmeokd@
a&mufvmcJhonf? aemufwae@wGif rdom;pku OD;odef;wifESihf awG@qkHcGifh&onf? OD;odef;wif.
130

ajymjycsuft& axmifxJwGif (4) v=um aoG;0rf;rsm;oGm;cJha=umif;/ qefðywfukdyif ykHrSefr&cJh
a=umif;/ oihfavsmfonhf aq;0g;ukocGifh r&jcif;/ t[m&rjynfh0jcif;wkd@a=umifh a&m*gtajctae
ykdIqkd;&Gm;vmcJha=umif; od&onf?
a&m*gtwGufvkdtyfaom tonf;aq;udkawmif;aomfvnf; tif;pdefaxmif&dS aq;rª;u tpmtdrf
aq;rsm;om ay;ojzifh temwjcm; aq;wjcm;jzpfcJha=umif;/ a&m*gtajctae tvGefqkd;rS
tjyifaq;\Hkokd@ xkwfcJha=umif; od&onf? rdom;pku ESpfvcGJr# óu;pm;ukocJhonf? aq;tvkHk;
(20) ausmf/ aoG; (4) ykvif;oGif;I ukocJhaomfvnf; tcsdefrrDawmh? toufru,fEkdifcJhyg?
1998 azazmf0g&Dv (15) &ufae@wGif &efukefaq;\Hk}uD; tonf;a&m*gXme ygarmQ a'gufwm
cifarmif0if;u oufqkdif&mrdom;pk/ tm%mykdifwkd@tm; vlemonf &ufydkif;r#om touf&Sif
awmhrnfhta=umif; today;cJhonf?
xkdtcg jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;trdef@t&[kqkdum tm%mykdifwkd@u OD;odef;wiftm; xdef;odrf;xm;&mrS
v$wfay;vkdufa=umif; a=unmchJonf? v$wfay;onfh azazmf0g&D (15) &ufae@wGif OD;odef;wifonf
tonf;ukoonhfÏmeokd@ a&mufoGm;onf? (1998) azazmf0g&D (18) &ufae@ n (8;35) em&DY
aoqkH;onff? q&m0efwkd@u tonf;uifqmjzifh aoqkH;onf[k rSwfcsufðyonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? tusOf;axmiftwGif; tusOf;om;rsm; xm;&Sdonfhpepf/ ae&mywf0ef;usif/ rd†mpepf/
aomufa&okH;a& tp&Sdonfrsm; roef@&Sif;r_a=umifh aoG;0rf;oGm;jcif;/ 0rf;udkufa&m*gykd;rsm; ysHESH@
ul;puffavh&dSonf? tusOf;axmiftwGif; aq;0g;r&Sdjcif;/ a&m*gykdqkd;vm+yD; tcsdefvGefrS jyify
aq;\Hkokd@ykd@aqmifjcif;wkd@a=umihf aoqkH;=u&onf?
EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;jzpfonhf OD;pdef0if;/ OD;wifarmif0if; wkd@vnf; xkdenf;twkdif; }uHK=u&/
cHpm;cJh=u&/ aoqHk;cJh=u&onf? xkd@aemuf tonf;uifqm[k a&m*gwHqdyf uyfvkduf=uawmh
onf? xkduifqma&m*gjzifh ppftpdk;& tusOf;axmifxJY EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;trsm;pk aoqkH;=u
&onf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;a&$ausmf
OD;cspfarmif
a'gufwmpdk;cdkif

131

OD;wifarmif0if;
&efukefwdkif;/ c&rf;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (18) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (51) ESpf &Sd+yD jzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? Ekd0ifbm 20/ 1939 wGif arG;zGm;onf? OD;òr@/ a':oef;&Sifwkd@.om;jzpfonf?
txufwef;ausmif;/ wUodkvfaumvdyfwdk@wGif bmom&yfqdkif&mtoif;rsm;/ ausmif;om;
a[mif;toif;rsm;/ òr@e,ftoif;ESifh c&dkiftoif;rsm;/ vufa0S@toif;/ uavmiftoif;/ ae@
ausmif;om;toif;/ ausmif;aqmifo[m,ESifh pmzwftoif;rsm;/ ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;
om;or~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf (Auo)/ &efukef wUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or~ (wuo)/ &efukef
wUodkvf ausmif;om;nD!$wfa&;wyf OD;wdk@wGif wufºupGm yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtpdk;&u ausmif;om;tcGifhta&;/ 'Drdkua&pDa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;v_yf
&Sm;r_rsm;wGif wufºupGmyg0if v_yf&Sm;aom OD;wifarmif0if;tm; 1963 ckESpf 'DZifbmvrS 1970
ckESpf pufwifbmvtxd (7) ESpf =um zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;chJonf?
1988 vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_umvtwGif; “ppf+yD;acwfausmif;om;acgif;aqmifa[mif;rsm;tzGJ@”wGif
yg0ifv_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhonf?
trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf pwifzGJ@pnf;csdefrSpI tzJG@csKyf. &efukefwdkif;pnf;\Hk;a&;aumfrwDwGif
wm0efay;tyfjcif; cHcJh&onf?
1990 jynfhESpf a&G;aumufyGJwGifc&rf;òr@e,f/ rJqüe,ftrSwf (2)rS a&G;aumufcHchJ&aom jynfol@
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fjzpfonf? *üDcef;rwGifðyvkyfonfh v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;pHknD
tpnf;ta0; atmifjrifpGm usif;yEdkifa&;twGuf pGrf;pGrf;wrHaqmif&GufcJhonf?
1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbmv (23) &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? 1991ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv
twGif; OD;wifarmif0if;tm; trdef@csrSwfcsdefwGif tvGefemrusef;jzpfaeonfhtwGuf cHk\Hk;odk@
rwufa&mufEdkifcJhay?
zrf;qD;cH&onhftcsdefrS uG,fvGefonfhtcsdeftxd rdom;pkESifhvnf;aumif;/ vkyfazmfudkifzuf
&Jabmfrsm;ESifh vnf;aumif; qufoG,fcGifh r&cJh?
aoqkH;ykH?

? OD;wifarmif0if;onf tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif 0rf;udkufa&m*g cHpm;ae&onf?
132

xkdta=umif;ukd rdom;pku pkHprf;od&dS&aomtcg aq;0g;rsm; ay;ykd@&ef óu;yrf;qufoG,fchJaomf
vnf;/ tm%mykdifrsm;u cGifhrðycJhyg?
1991 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&D (18) &ufae@wGif tif;pdeftusOf;axmifY uG,fvGefonf? uG,fvGef+yD;
aemufwae@wiG f tm%mykid rf sm;u rdom;pktm; ta=umif;=um;cho
J nf? rdom;pku &kyt
f avmif;udk
}uHawmok±eftat;wdkufwGif oGm;a&muf=unfh\_cGifh&onf? axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u rdom;pk
tm; OD;wifarmif0if;onf aoG;uifqma&m*gjzifh uG,fvGefa=umif; ajym=um;cJhonf?

A[ef;òrd@e,f tzJG@csKyf\kH;a&S@uOD;wifarmif0if;

rSwfcsuf? ? 0rf;udkufa&m*gjzpfaepOf aq;0g;ukocGifhr&cJh[k ,kH=unf&onf? tm[m&jywfvyf
jcif;a=umifh uG,fvGefchJjcif;a=umihf OD;wifarmif0if;. &kyftavmif;rSm t&dk;+ydKif;+ydKif; jzpfaeonfukd
rdom;pku a=uuGJpGm awG@jrifchJ&onf? rsufcHk;ESpfck=um;wGifvnf; tom;ESpfckuGJaeonfh '%f&m
ukdawG@&onf? OD;wifarmif0if;onf ausmufuyfa&m*g jzpfcJhzl;aoma=umifh vpOf qD;/ aoG;
ppfaq;ae&oljzpfonf? aoG;ppfcsuftajzrsm; aumif;rGefaeolwOD;onf (3) vrjynfhrDumv
twGif; ‘aoG;uifqm’ jzifhaoqkH;&onfqkdaom tm%mykdifrsm;. ajym=um;csufrSm oHo,
&SdzG,fjzpfonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifwm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;tkef;az
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

133

“ =u,faºuwm
uifqmwJhvm;
uifqmudk wdkufzsuf=u ”
— OD;wifarmif0if; psmye yef;acGwGif a&;xdk;xm;aom uAsmwyk'f

OD;wifa&$ (pma&;q&m rkH&Gmwifa&$)
ppfudkif;wdkif;/ rHk&Gmòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ Ekd0ifbmv (29) &ufae@Y tzrf;cH&onf?
1997 ckeSpf/ ZGefv (8) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (67) ESpfjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? 1930 jynhfESpf/ {+yD (5) &ufae@Y rkH&Gmòr@wGif arG;zGm;onf? 1952 ckESpfrS 1960
jynhfESpftxd &efukefwUokdvf/ rœav;wUokdvfwkd@wGif ynmoif=um;chJonf? wUokdvf
ausmif;om;or~v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;Y wufºupGmacgif;aqmifcJhonf?
ausmif;om;b0vGefajrmuf+yD;aemuf q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;. jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;tzGJ@
okd@ 0ifa&mufaqmif&GufchJonf? jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif
a&SŒwef;rS yg0ifcJhonf?
xkd@aemuf a&S@aewOD;tjzpf vkyfukdiftoufarG;cJhonf? Oya'ynm&yf tygt0if pmaya&;om;
ðypk&mwGif rkH&Gmwifa&$trnfjzifh a&;om;cJhonf?
1988 ckESpf 'Drkdua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHa&S@aersm;or~ 'kwd,OUÏtjzpfvnf;
aumif;/ tif;pdefjrdK@e,f oydwfaumfrwD OUÏtjzpfvnf;aumif; aqmif&GufcJhonf? OD;wifa&$
onf trsKd;om; 'Drkdua&pDtzGJ@csKyf pwifwnfaxmif&mwGif yg0ifcJholwOD;jzpf+yD;/ tzGJ@csKyf.
A[kdOD;pD; tzGJ@0ifwOD;jzpfonf? rœav;wkdif;pnf;\kH;a&;wm0ef ay;tyfcHchJ&onf?
1989 ckESpfwGif ppftpdk;&u a':atmifqef;pk=unf tygt0if tzJG@csKyfacgif;aqmiftrsm;tjym;
ukd xdef;odrf;chJ&m OD;wifa&$onf wm0efusonhf rœav;wdkif;twGif;Y wdrf;a&Smif+yD; tzJG@csKyf.
wm0efrsm;ukd qufvufxrf;aqmifcJhonf?
a&G;aumufcHjynfol@ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;ukd ppftpkd;&u tm%mv$Jay;jcif;rðyonfhtwGuf tzGJ@csKyf
134

acgif;aqmiftcsKd@/ v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f tcsKd@wkd@ESifhtwl pif+ydiftpkd;&zGJ@pnf;a&;ukd v#Kd@0Suf
aqmif&GufcJhonf? 1990 jynfhESpf Ekd0ifbmv (29) &ufae@wGif OD;wifa&$onf tzrf;cH&onf?
yk'fr 5 (u)/ (i)/ (n) wkd@jzihf axmif (18) ESpf csrSwfcH&onf?
aoqkH;ykH? ? tif;pdefaxmiftwGif; aexkdifpm;aomufa&;tajctaersm;a=umihf OD;wifa&$.
usef;rma&; tajctae ,kd,Gif;usqif;vmcJhonf? ESvkH;a&m*gzdpD;r_a=umifh 1997 ckESpf {jyDv
twGif; tif;pdefaxmifwGif;aq;\kHokd@ ESpf}udrfwufa&mufcJh&onf? rdom;pku OD;wifa&$tm;
jyifyrS txl;ukq&m0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh ukocGifhðy&ef t}udrf}udrf óu;pm;chJ=uonf? okd@aomfvnf;
tm%mykdifrsm;xHrS cGifhðycsufr&chJyg?
xkd@a=umihf OD;wifa&$onf 1997 ckESpf/ ZGefv (8) &uf/ we*FaEGae@eHeufwGif ESvkH;a&m*gjzifh
aoqkH;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? {+yDvtwGif; ESpf}udrfwdwd usef;rma&;tajctaeqdk;&Gm;cJhaomfvnf; tm%mykdif
rsm;u jyifyrS txl;ukq&m0ef}uD;rsm;ESifh uko&ef cGifhrðycJhjcif;a=umifh OD;wifa&$aoqkH;chJ&jcif;
jzpfonf[k ,lqEkdifonf?
xkd@jyif ruG,fvGefrD w&uftvkdwGif OD;wifa&$u ‚.usef;rma&;tajctaea=umihf vlemapmihf
wOD; xm;ay;&ef tm%mykdifrsm;ukd awmif;qkdchJaomfvnf; tm%mykdifrsm;u vspfvsL&SKchJonf?
“u|efawmfonf tif;pdeftusOf;axmif óu;wdkuf (&ifcGJwdkuf-2wdkuf) xJY óu;orm; ao'%fcscH

olrsm;ESifh eD;eD;uyfuyf aexdkifcJh&zl;ygonf? jypfr_ &mZ0wfr_jzifh ao'%fcscH&olwdk@. &mE_ef;
awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm trSefwu,ftm;jzifh ao'%fpD&ifcHxdkufjcif; r&Sdyg? ao'%fruscH&bJ
wenf;enf;jzifh ao'%frS ajymif;vJcHolu rsm;ygonf? q&mOD;wifa&$um; ao'%fcscH&ol
r[kwfyg? &mZ0wfom; r[kwfyg? odk@aomf e0w . axmifxJY w&m;rJhr_rsm;. atmufY trSefyif
aoqHk;oGm;cJh&ygonf? ao'%fuscHoGm;&ygonf? ”

— 0if;wifhxGef;

135

OD;xGef;pdef
&efukefòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1996 ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv (19)&ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
touf (60) t&G,fwGif uG,fvGefchJjcif;jzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? &efukefwdkif;/ vd_ifòr@e,f/ *HkeDpuf\HkwGif vkyfudkifpOf EdkifiHa&;ukdavhvmcJhonf?
ocifav;armif. wynfh&if;jzpfonf? jynfaxmifpktrsKd;om;nDnGwfa&;wyfaygif;pk (yrnw)/
tvkyform;or~wkd@wGif tzGJ@0ifjzpfcJhonf? 1963 ckESpf +idrf;csrf;a&;aqG;aEG;yGJ ysufjym;oGm;onhf
tcsdefwGif ppftpkd;&u EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;olrsm;ukd zrf;qD;chJ&m/ OD;xGef;pdefvnf; zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&+yD;
tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;cscHchJ&onf?
aemufykdif;wGif udkudk;u|ef;tusOf;pcef;okd@ykd@aqmifcsKyfaESmifcHcJh&onf? 1971 ckESpfwGifusef;rm
a&; csKd@,Gif;onhf EkdifiHa&;tusOf;rsm;tm; jynfrodk@ jyefydk@&ef qüjyawmif;qkdwkdufyJG0ifr_rsm;ay:
aygufchJonf? xkdwdkufyGJt+yD; jynfrodk@ jyefydk@cH&onfh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;rsm;txJwGif OD;xGef;pdef
yg0ifcJhonf?
1973 ckESpfwGif tusOf;axmifwGif;rS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJh+yD;aemuf *HkeDpuf\HkwGif jynfvnf
tvkyfvkyfcGihf&cJhonf?
1974 ckESpf tvkyform;oydwfwGif yg0ifcJhojzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&jyefonf? 1980 jynfhESpf taxGaxG
vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhjzifh jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
1988 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif “1970 jynhfESpfausmfumvtusOf;uscHrsm;or~”ukd
zGJ@pnf;+yD; yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf? ppftm%modrf;r_jzpfyGm;+yD;csdefwGif EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; wnfaxmif zGJ@
pnf;=uaom vkyfazmfudkifzufrsm;tm; qufoG,fulnDcJhonf? xdkodk@ v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufpOf 1991
ckESpfwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;u OD;xGef;pdeftm; zrf;qD;+yD; axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif tm[m& jynfh0r_r&Sdaom tpm;taomufrsm;om
&&dSjcif;/ rdom;pku axmif0ifpmoGm;a&mufawG@qkH+yD; vkdtyfonhf tpm;tpm aq;0g;axmufyhHr_
rðyEkdifjcif; wkd@a=umihf tm;tifukefcrf;vmum usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;vmonf? 1996 ckESpf azaz:
0g&Dv (19) &ufae@wGif axmifaq;\HkY aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?

136

OD;xGef;atmifausmf (c) ocifrD;yGm;
rœav;òr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
2003 ckESpfwGif uGefvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (50) cef@ &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;xGef;atmifausmfonf 1988 ta&;awmfyHkumvwGif rœav;taemuf òr@
e,f atmifajromZHppfa=umif;. twGif;a&;rª;jzpfonf? ta&;awmfyHkumvwGif xkwfa0aom
rD;yGm;owif;pm. t,f'Dwmtjzpf aqmif&GufcJhaoma=umifh ocifrD;yGm;[k ac:a0:cJh=uonf?
jynfol@'Drdku&ufwpfygwD. rœav;wdkfif;wm0efcHtjzpfaqmif&GufcJh&if; zrf;qD;axmifcsjcif; cH&cJh
&onf? 1994 ckESpfwGif rœav;axmifrSvGwfajrmufcJh+yD; 1997 ckESpfwGif t=urf;rzufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_
(*sif;&Syf) pmtkyfvuf0,fxm;&dSr_ESifh axmif'%f 7 ESpfcsrSwfjcif; cHcJh&jyefonf? rœav;axmifrS
jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 2003 ckESpf a':atmifqef;pk=unf. txufjrefrmjynf pnf;\Hk;a&;c&D;pOfwGif
vdkufyg&if; 'DyJ&if;vlowfyGJwGif '%f&m&&Sdum rHk&Gmaq;\HkwGif xdk'%f&mjzifh aoqHk;cJhonf?

udk0if;bdk
{&m0wDwdkif; armfv+rdKifu|ef;òr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&+yD; axmif'%f 21 ESpf csrSwfcHcJh&onf?
2000 jynhfESpf/ =o*kwfv 26 &ufae@wGif armfv+rdKiftusOf;axmifY uG,fvGefcJhonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (39) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udk0if;bdkonf jrefrmhwyfrawmfwGif Akdvf}uD;tqihftxd wm0efxrf;chJzl;onf?
1990 jynhfESpfwGif emrnfausmf e0wyWjrm;w&m;r0if a&mif;cs&mwGif yg0ifywfoufr_jzifh
axmifuscJhonf? 1997 ckESpfwGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufcJh+yD;aemuf udk0if;bdkonf bmoma&;ukd
wpdkufrwfrwf vdkufpm;cJhonf?
2000 jynhfESpfwGif rœav;òr@ r[m*ým\Hkausmif;/ a&$usif q&mawmf bk&m;}uD;/ oHCmtyg;
(1000) wdk@ vufrSwfa&;xkd;xm;aompmwapmifudk q&mawmf. cGifhðycsufjzifh ,laqmifI
&efukefòr@okd@ oGm;a&mufchJonf? ‚pmtm; uBmat; wdydÉuq&mawmf OD;okr*FvxHokd@
ay;tyfchJ+yD; AkdvfcsLyfrª;=uD;oef;a&$/ OD;ae0if;/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfwdk@xHodk@ ay;ykd@&ef tultnD
awmif;chJonf? q&mawmf OD;okr*Fv.ausmif;rS jyefxGufonhftcsdefwGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf?
137

pmwGif jrefrmEkdifiH. vwfwavm EdkifiHa&;jzpfpOfrsm;/ ukefaps;E_ef; }uD;jrifhjcif;a=umifh jynfol
tm;vHk; pm;0wfaea&; =uyfwnf;um qif;&J'kQrsKd;pHk&ifqkdifae&a=umif;/ odk@jzpfI wkdif;jynf
aumif;usKd;udka&S›\_+yD; OD;ae0if;/ OD;oef;a&$/ a':atmifqef;pk=unfwkd@ wOD;ESifhwOD; trkef;ryGm;/
tmCmwrxm;bJ arWmw&m; vufudkifxm;I aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;a&;/ tusOf;axmiftoD;oD;&dS
'kQcHpm;ae=u&aom EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;tm;vHk;udk oU&mZf (2000) wGif vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifh
ay;a&;wkd@twGuf arWm&yfcHvkda=umif; pojzihf a&;om;xm;onf?
ukd0if;bkdonf xkday;pma=umihf axmif'%f 21 ESpf csrSwfcHcJh&onf? tif;pdefaxmifokd@ a&muf&dSchJ
onf? 2000 jynhfESpf Zlvdkif 6 &ufae@wGif armfv+rdKifaxmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@jcif;cHcJh&onf?

ykHpHxkdifae=u&aom tusOf;om;rsm;

aoqHk;yHk? ? 15-8-2000 &ufae@ naeykdif; axmifydwfcsdef vlppfwef;pDonhftcg udk0if;bkdonf
wm0efus0efxrf; wyf=uyf}uD; cspfausmfESifh wef;pDxdkifjcif;ESihf ywfoufI tacstwifpum;rsm;cJh
=uonf?
18-8-2000 &ufae@wGif pnf;urf;xdef; (wef;pD;) wm0ef&xm;aom tusOf;om;a[mif; armif
at;qkdolu tusOf;om;opfwOD;tm; +cdrf;ajcmuft=uyfukdifI vdifqufqHchJonf? 20-82000 &ufae@wGif udk0if;bkdu xkdjzpf&yfukd axmifydkif}uD;OD;aÏ;0if;xH wdkif=um;uef@uGufcJhonf?
xdkta=umif;t&mrsm;a=umifh axmiftr_xrf;rsm;u udk0if;bdktm; t+idK;xm;chJonf? xkd@a=umihf
tr_xrf;tcsKd@u EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;jzpfaom ukd0if;bkd/ ukdrdk;ausmfol/ olykef}uD;(c) aZmfrif;
rif;vwfwdk@okH;OD;onf vGefcJhaom 15 &ufae@u axmifazmuf xGufajy;oGm;aomolrsm;ESifh
tqufoG,f&Sda=umif;/ axmifwGif; qlylr_jzpfyGm;&efvnf; =uHpnfae=ua=umif; axmifydkif}uD;okd@
138

wifjycJha=umif; od&onf?
26-8-2000 &ufae@ nae (6;00) em&DwGif axmif0efxrf;rsm;u wkduf (4) &dS uddk0if;bdk/
udkrdk;ausmfol/ aZmfrif;rif;vwfwdk@ okH;OD;tm; aemufjyefvufxdyfcwfI ac:xkwfoGm;+yD; jypf'%f
wdkufwGif oD;jcm;pD cGJxm;vkdufonf?
0efxrf; (22) OD;u 4if;wkd@tm; arSmufckHtdyfcdkif;um/ vkHcsnf tusôrsm;qGJc|wfjyD; usyfvkH;cef@&Sd
ysOf;uwdk; eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh jyif;xefpGm&dkufESuf=uonf? 0efxrf;rsm;u ‚wkd@t+iKd;xm;aom
udk0if;bdktm; ydkrdk &kdufESufcJh=uonf? ufkd0if;bdk. eH&kd;rsm; usKd;a=ucJhonf/ eH&kd;rsm;u toJtm;
xdk;rdxdrdojzifh rcHEdkifonfhtqHk; udk0if;bdkonf tm%mydkifrsm;xH atmf[pftultnDawmif;chJ
onf? okd@aomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u ta&;w,l aqmif&Gufay;jcif;r&kdyg/ n (11;00) em&Dcef@
wGif udk0if;bdkxHrS nnf;nLoHrsm; atmf[pfoHrsm; wdwfqdwfoGm;jyD; aoqkH;cJhonf?
ukd0if;bkd jyif;xefpGm&dkufESuf cH&+yD; aoqkH;chJ&m armfv+rdKiftusOf;axmif

rSwfcsuf? ? xkdtr_tm; rGefjynfe,f &JwyfzGJ@u wdkuf&kdufudkifwG,f ppfaq;aepOf jynfxJa&;
0ef=uD;. “aojyD;vlwpfa,muftwGufa=umifh usef0efxrf;rsm;udk 'kQray;ygeJ@” [laom
n$ef=um;pma=umifh xdktr_tm; ta&;,ljcif; r&SdawmhbJ &yfqdkif;cJh=uonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifykdifav; (OD;pD;t&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)

OD;aX;0if;
OD;cspfarmif
OD;wifarmifcsKd

139

aZmfrsKd;xuf (ac: ) aZmfaZmf
yJcl;wdkif;/ rif;vSòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
2003 ckESpf/ Zlvdkif (16) &uf ae@wGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
2004 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbmv (19) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (28) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkaZmfrsKd;xufonf tzOD;wifarmifOD;.om;jzpf+yD;/ yJcl;wdkif;/ rif;vSòr@e,f
jynfawmfom (4)vrf;wGif aexdkifchJonf? wUodkvfausmif;om; wOD;jzpfonf?
2003 ckESpf ZlvdkifvwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? ppftpdk;&acgif;aqmifrsm;udk vkyf}uH&ef}uHpnfonf/
wdkif;jynfqlyl&ef vkyfaqmifonf[k pGyfpJGcHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf udkaZmfrsKd;xuftygt0if pkpkaygif;
(9) OD;onf EdkifiHawmfykefuefr_ yk'fr 122 (1)/ 386 (1) wdk@jzifh ao'%f csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf?
‚wdk@tm;csrSwfxm;onfh pD&ifcsufrsm;rSm w&m;r#wr_vkH;0r&dSojzihf a&S@aeiSm;I t,lcH0ifchJ
onf? xkd@a=umihf 2004 ckESpf arv (14) &ufae@wGif ppftpkd;&u ao'%frS axmif'%f(3) ESpfodk@
ajymif;vJay;cJhonf? t,lcHv$m xyfrHwifoGif;onhftcg atmufwdkbmv (14) &ufae@wGif
axmif'%f (2) ESpfodk@ av#mhcsay;cJhonf? tm%mykdifrsm;u ao'%f/ axmif'%fwoufwu|ef;
wkd@ukd rw&m;csrSwfchJa=umif; xif&Sm;aeonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? aZmfrsKd;xufonf tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif tajctaeqkd;rsm;ESihf }uKHawG@&ojzihf
tonf;a&miftom;0ga&m*g jyif;xefpGm jzpfay:chJonf? aoG;aygifusjcif;/ tpmrpm;Edkifonhf
twGuf tm;tifcsnfhe@Jvmjcif;wkd@ jzpfay:chJonf?
xkd@a=umifh tif;pdefòr@e,f jynfol@aq;\Hkodk@ a&mufcJhonf? xdkrSwqihf 2004 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv
(5) &ufae@wGif &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;odk@ a&mufchJonf? aq;\kH}uD;wGif ta&;ay:ukoonhftcg
rdom;pku aq;ukor_p&dwf/ tjcm;taxGaxGukefusp&dwfrsm;ukd uscHchJ&onf?
2004 ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (19) &ufae@ nae (3) em&DwGif xdkae&mYyif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? atmufwkdbm (30) &ufae@wGif ukdaZmfrsKd;xuf.zcif OD;wifarmifOD;u 'Drkdu&uf
wpfjrefrmhtoH ('DADGbDtoHv$ihfXme)okd@ atmufygtwkdif; ajymjychJonf?
“[kwfuJh / usaemfyg / aZmfrsKd;xuf&J@ tazyg/ ---olu bma&m*gvJqkdawmh rsufvkH;awG 0gw,f

Asm? tonf;a&mifw,fayghAsm? tonf;aq;wkd@/ *vl;ukd@pfwkd@ bmwkd@ oGif;&w,fAs? tJvkdoGif;vJ
uav;ub,fvkdjzpfvJqkdawmh tpmvJ rrSefwJhtcgusawmh tm;tifcsnfhe@J vmwmayghAsm?
140

aoG;aygifvJ usw,fcifAs? aemuf+yD;awmh tonf;rSm xdckdufw,fvkd@vJ aocgrSyJ odw,fAsm?
tonf; odyftvkyf rvkyfbl;ayghAsm? qkH;wJhae@uawmh (19) &ufae@ nae (3)em&DavmufrSm
qkH;oGm;w,fcifAs? --aq;awG bmawG vmay;wmvJ r&Sdbl;? usaemfwkd@zmom 0,f&ygw,f? usaemfwkd@ &SdwJhtiftm;
av;eJ@ e,fjyef+yD;awmh acs;&,f iSm;&,fvkyf+yD;awmhrS 'Daq;av;awG 0,f+yD;awmhrS uko&wm
ayghAsm? tkdifpDtmpD wkd@ukdvJ usaemfoGm;+yD; ta=umif;r=um;awmhbl;Asm? usaemfvJ ylxl+yD;awmh
tkdifpDtmpD ukd oGm; ta=umif;r=um;rdawmhbl;? --usaemfwkd@uvJ e,fuvmwJhtcgusawmh tultnD odyfvkdcsifwJhoabmeJ@ a&a0;wkd@ bmwkd@
ykd@vkd@&wJh ausmfolwkd@ tzJG@ukd vSrf;qufw,f? axmifu olwdk@axmifeJ@ qufoG,fygOD;wJh?
axmifu olwkd@yJ oç*[fay;vkd@ &r,fwJh? tjyifu oç*[fvkd@ r&bl;wJh? usaemfwkd@ tzJG@
tpnf;awG &Sdaeygao;w,fqkd+yD; usaemfhukd uav;aooGm;w,fqkdwJh trdef@jyefpmawG
bmawG ay;w,fAs? tJ'g+yD;awmh e,fjyefa&mufawmh usaemfwkd@u (21) &ufae@ayghAsm? tck
+yD;cJhwJh wevFmae@u aetdrfrSmyJaygh? rif;vS jynfawmfom&yfuGuf (4) vrf;ayghAsm? aetdrfrSmyJ
&ufvnf oydwfoGyfvkduf &w,f? --olu (3) ESpfukd aemufxyft,lcHwifawmh (1) ESpfEkdifoGm;w,fajymw,f? (1) ESpfEkdifoGm;awmh
usaemfhom;ukd usaemftm;ay;wmaygh? om; (2) ESpfyJusefawmhw,f? (2) ESpfrSm om; aevmwJh
ESpfu (1) ESpfausmf&SdwJhtwGuf om; usefvkd@&Sd&if av;vyJusefr,fvkd@ usaemf ajymvkdufw,fAs?
usaemfqkdvkd@&Sd&if usaemfhom;ukd t+rJwrf; jrifa,mifaewmayghAsm? tck cifAsm;qufvkdufwmu
usaemfhtcspfqkH;oli,fcsif;&J@ vufzuf&nfqkdifav;aygh? 'Doli,fcsif;awGeJ@yJ wae@wae@ rkd;csKyfwJh
txd ajymqkdae&wmayghAsm? usaemft+rJwrf; usaemfhom;u usaemfhvufay:rSmaooGm;wm
qkdawmh usaemf t+rJwrf; wo aewmayghAsm? tck cifAsm;ukd ajymaewJhtcsdefrSmawmif usaemf
pdwfxJrSm vkH;0 pdwfraumif;bl;? cHpm;ae&wmayghAsm? ---”

141

OD;aZmwdu (bkef;awmf}uD;)
&efukefwdkif;/ ykZGefawmifòr@e,f/ a&$bkef;yGifhausmif;wdkufwGif oDwif;oHk;chJonf?
1990 jynhfESpf/ atmufwdkbmv zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1991 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvwGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf?
ysHvGefawmfrlcsdefwGif oufawmf (60) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? q&mawmfOD;aZmwduonf &efukefwdkif;/ ykZGefawmifòr@e,f&Sd xif&Sm; ausmf
=um;vSonfh a&$bkef;yGifh ausmif;wdkufrS wdkuftkyfq&mawmfwyg; jzpfonf? 1990 jynhfESpf/
atmufwdkbmvwGif oHCmawmfrsm;u yWedUKPeuHaqmifoydwfarSmufjcif;jzihf ppftpkd;&tm;
qef@usifchJ=uonf? ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u xkdokd@ uHaqmif&mwGif yg0ifI vufrSwfxkd;chJonhf
q&mawmfOD;aZmwdu tygt0if a&$bkef;yGifhausmif;wdkufrS wdkuftkyfq&mawmf (6) yg;tm;
zrf;qD;chJonf? xdk@aemuf twif;t"R ouFef;c|wfum axmif'%f (3) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
q&mawmfonf ouFef;c|wfcH&aomfvnf; aoqHk;onftxd odQmrcsbJ 0denf;twkdif; aexdkif
oGm;cJhonf? q&mawmfonf ajcawmufwzuf oefpGrf;r_r&dSyg?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;uscH&pOf q&mawmf.usef;rma&; csKd@,Gif;vmonf?
1992 ckESpf 'DZifbmvwGif axmifaq;\Hkokd@ a&muf&dSchJonf? xdkaemuf tm%mykdifwkd@u
q&mawmftm; &efukefaq;\Hk}uD; tcsKyfaqmifodk@ ydk@chJonf? &efukefaq;\Hk}uD;okd@a&muf&dS+yD;
&uftenf;t=um 1992 ckESpf 'DZifbmtwGif;wGif ysHvGefawmfrloGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? q&mawmfysHvGefawmhrnftcsdefY tm%mykdifrsm;u ajcwzufroefaom q&m
awmftm; &efukefaq;\Hk}uD; tcsKyfaqmifwGif ajcusOf; tcsdefjynhfcwfxm;chJonf?
axmift&m&dSrsm;? ?
axmifykdif}uD; (wm0efcHt&m&dS)
axmifrª; (wm0efcH)
wm0efcHq&m0ef

OD;vSaz
OD;apmxGef;
a'gufwmpdk;=unf

142

OD;rif;ol

OD;armifarmifpef;

OD;udkav;

emrnf

75

-

59

50

touf

21/ 2/ 1998

-

21/ 2/ 1998

rwf/ 1990

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

azaz:0g&D / 1998

{jyD / 1997

1998

1992

aoqHk;onfhae‹

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

teft,fvf'D

tzGJ‹tpnf;

ay:wm

ay:wm

&Jbufpcef;

&Jbufpcef;

aoqHk;onfhae&m

awmifil/ yJcl;

awmifil/ yJcl;

 -

rœav;

vdyfpm

aemufqufwGJ (*)
(1) &Jbufpcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;pm&if;

OD;apmxGef;EG,f

143

(2) &Jbufpcef;wGifaoqkH;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf;
OD;rif;ol (c) OD;armif}uD;
awmifilòr@Zmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 21 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
1997 ckESpfxJwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (55) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;rif;olonf rœav;wUodkvfrS pdwfynm bGJ@&&SdcJhonf? 1988 ckESpf
ta&;awmfyHkumv a&$qHawmfbk&m;vlxktHkºuv_yf&Sm;r_wGif OD;aqmifyg0ifcJhonf? ppfwyfrS
tm%modr;f +yD;aemuf trsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pDtzG@J csKyf ay:ayguv
f m&m awmifiòl r@e,f. tzG@J 0ifwOD;
jzpfvmcJhonf? aemuf òr@e,f b¾ma&;rª;tjzpf wm0ef,lcJhonf?
1991 ckESpfwGif e,fpyftajcpdkuf vufeufudkifwyfzGJ@ wckjzpfonfh jynfol@vGwfajrmufa&;wyfOD;
(PLF) ESifh qufoG,fr_jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf?
xdk@aemuf 1992 ckESpf/ rwfv 13 &ufae@wGif tvkyf=urf;ESifh axmif'%f 3 ESpf csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&+yD;
1994 ckESpfwGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmcJhonf?
1997 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;rS rnfonfhta=umif;jycsufrS ray;bJ
OD;rif;oltm; 'kwd,t}udrf zrf;qD;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf &ufydkif;twGif a&S@wef;ppfajrjyifodk@ ay:wm
tjzpf ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;rif;olonf tvGefav;vHaom 0efrsm;udk xrf;&jcif;/ vrf;c&D;=urf;wrf;jcif;/
tpma&pm 0vifatmifrpm;&jcif; wdk@a=umifh vrf;yif rav#mufEdkifonfh tajctaeodk@ a&muf&Sd
cJhonf? touft&G,f}uD;jcif;/ jyif;xefaom&moDOwk'%fudk rcHEdkifjcif;a=umifh tiftm;ukefcrf;
aeaomfvnf; ppfom;rsm;u &dkufESufItwif;t=uyf xrf;ydk;I av#mufapcJhonf? aemufqHk;&uf
tenf;i,ft=umwGif tjyif;zsm;+yD; a&S@wef;ppfajrjyif awmwGif;wae&mwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;rif;ol. &kyftavmif;tm; ajrðryfoç*[fjcif; r&SdbJ awmxJwGifypfxm;cJh&onf?
olESifh twl ygvmaom OD;apmxGef;EG,f (tzGJ@csKyf òr@e,f 'kwd,OUÏ) onfvnf; xdkae&mYyif
aoqHk;chJ&onf? OD;rif;oluG,fvGefonfhtcsdefwGif ZeD;ESifh om;orD; 2 OD;usef&pfcJhonf?

144

OD;apmxGef;EG,f
yJcl;wdkif;/ awmifilòr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1997 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&Dv 21 &ufae@wGif zrf;qD;jcif; cH&onf?
1997 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (75) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;apmxGef;EG,fonf trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf awmifil+rdK@e,f. 'kwd,
OUÏ jzpfonf? 1997 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif awmifilppfaxmufvSrf;a&; (3) u trsdK;om;
'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfrS tzGJ@0iftrsm;tjym; udkzrf;qD;I cv& (39) wyf&if;wGifacWcsKyfxm;
cJhonf? OD;apmxGef;EG,f ESifhtwl OD;jrwfol OUÏ awmifil+rdK@e,f/ rdk;rc (yJcl;wdkif; tzGJ@csKyf vli,f)/
OD;rif;ol (c) OD;armif=uD; (b¾a&;r_;)wdk@vnf; yg0ifonf? xdk@aemuf u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;
t&Hk;e,fajrtwGif; etzwyfrS ppfqifa&;jyKvkyfonfhae&modk@ ay:wmtjzpf ac:aqmifjcif;cHcJh
&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? u&iftrsdK;om;tpnf;t&Hk;e,fajrtwGif; etzwyfrS ppfqifa&;jyKvkyf&m ay:wm
xrf;&mwGif ppfom;rsm;. txkwftydk;rsm;/ vufeufcJ,rf;rsm;udk rEdkif0ef xrf;ydk;cJh&onfh
twGuf‚/ qdk;&Gm;onfh &moDOwk'%fa=umifh‚/ tpm;taomufrsm; rao&Hkwr,f pm;aomuf
&onfhtwGuf‚/ touft&G,ftm;jzifhvnf; }uD;&ifh+yDjzpfonfhtwGuf‚ usef;rma&;rSm
&kwfjcnf; usqif;vmcJh+yD; 1997 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif a&S@wef;ppfrsufESm e,fajrwGif ay:wm
xrf;&if; aoqHk;cJhonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? OD;apmxGef;EG,f. tavmif;tm; OD;rif;ol (c) OD;armif}uD; enf;wl ajrjrKyfjcif;
r&SdbJ 'Dtwdkif; ypfxm;cJhonf[k ‚ESifh ay:wmxrf;&mwGif yg0ifolrsm;u ajymjycJhonf?

145

146

31

32

31

41

30

udkEdkifOD; (c)
udkatmifEdkif

udkausmfEdkif (c)
udkausmfvGif

udkoef;aZmf

udktkef;vGif

rcsdKvGif (c) rvGif

35

udka&$abmf

30

39

udkcifarmifcsdK

udkwifpef;

touf

trnf

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

25/ 3/ 2002

aysmufqHk;onfhae‹

azaz:0g&D/ 2002 Zlvdkif/ 2002

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

Edk0ifbm/ 1992

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

teft,fvf'D

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

tzGJ‹tpnf;

aumhaomif;

jrdwf

jrdwf

jrdwf

jrdwf

jrdwf

jrdwf

jrdwf

axmif

aemufqufwGJ (C)
(1) tusOf;uscHae&pOfwGifaysmufqHk;olrsm;pm&if;

ZD;wuf&Gm/ o&ufacsmif;/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

0if;uabmf&Gm/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

*Hknif;qdyf&Gm/ o&ufacsmif;/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

ydMJawm&yf/ xm;0,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

awmifjyef@&Gm/ o&ufacsmif;/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

acsmif;cGjyif&Gm/ xm;0,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

uif;&Snf&yf/ xm;0,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

uxD;&Gm/ o&ufacsmif;jrdK@e,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

ae&yfvdyfpm

147

21

26

-

-

-

30

27

udkausmfat;

udkausmfEdkifpdk;

udkwifxGef;

armifa&$ (c) Adkufyl

udkausmfjrifh

udkoif;az

udkbpdef

5/ 9/ 2002

5/ 9/ 2002

2002

2002

2002

2002

5/ 9/ 2002

5/ 9/ 2002

17/ 9/ 2002

17/ 9/ 2002

17/ 9/ 2002

17/ 9/ 2002

azaz:0g&D/ 2002 Zlvdkif/ 2002
aumhaomif;

aumhaomif;

-

-

trf'D,ltufzf

trf'D,ltufzf

xm;0,f/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

xm;0,f/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

xm;0,f/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

uíJjcH&Gm/ xm;0,f/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

ousufawm&Gm/ avmif;vHkjrdK@e,f/
weoFm&Dwdkif;

axmufvSrf;a&; 19 apmfzsm;&Gm/ jrdwf/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

axmufvSrf;a&; 19 0if;uabmf&Gm/ weoFm&Dwdkif;

aumhaomif;

aumhaomif;

atbDtufpf'Dtufzf aumhaomif;

trf'D,ltufzf

teft,fvf'D

(2) tusOf;uscHae&pOfwGifaysmufqHk;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf;
+rdwfòr@tusOf;axmifwGif;rS EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (7) OD; aysmufqHk;jcif;
1992 ckESpf/ Edk0ifbmvwGif xdkif;-jrefrm e,fpyfa'o tajcpdkuf +rdwf-xm;0,f nDnGwfa&;wyf
OD;rS tzGJ@0if 9 OD;onf jrefrmjynfawmifydkif;wGif owif;tcsuftvufrsm; &,l&eftwGuf
oGm;a&mufcJh&m bkwfjyif;òr@e,f/ a=u;eDawmifaus;&GmteD;wGif ajcjrefwyf&if; 423 rS Adkvfr_;
xGef;atmifausmf ESifh tzGJ@ . zrf;qD;jcif;udk cHcJh=u&onf? xdk@aemuf tqdkyg 9 OD;udk weoFm&Dwdkif;/
+rdwf tusOf;axmifwGif wyfcsKyfjzifh csKyfaESmifxm;cJhonf?
xdkolrsm;onf r=umc% tusOf;axmifrS tjyifodk@ ac:xkwfI n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif; wdk@udk cHcJh&
onf? em&Daygif;rsm;pGm &yfae&jcif;/ oHydkufvHk;rsm;jzifh ajcovHk;tay:odk@ vSdrfhjcif;wdk@udk cHcJh=u&
onf? xdk@tjyif 8 ay X 12 ay tcef;usOf;av;wGif ESpfESpfeD;yg;r# aecJh=u&onf? xkdolwdk@udk
xdef;odrf;xm;pOf 8 ESpfwmumvtwGif; pGJcsufwifjcif;/ w&m;pGJqdkjcif;/ yk'frwyfjcif;/ w&m;pD&if
jcif;wdk@udk vHk;0 rðyvkyfbJ xdef;odrf;xm;jcif;jzpfonf? xdk@tjyif rdom;pkESifhaomf‚/ tjynfjynf
qdkif&m=uufajceDaumfrwDESifhaomf‚ awG@qHkcGifhudkvnf; jiif;y,fjcif;cHcJh=u&onf?
2001 ckESpf/ {+yDvwGif txufyg 9 OD;xJrS ESpfOD;tm;jyefv$wfay;cJhonf? 2002 ckESpf/ rwfv wGif
usef 7 OD;udk ajcjrefwyf&if; 265 rS Adkvfrª; pdk;v_difOD;pD;aom tzGJ@u +rdwftusOf;axmifrS ac:xkwf
cJh+yD; weoFm&Dwdkif;/ u|ef;pkòr@e,f&Sd 'kef;u|ef;teD;odk@ ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? ,cktcsdeftxd
rnfonfhae&mwGif &Sdaeonfudk rnfolr#rod&SdcJhay?
jyefvGwfvmol ESpfOD;. ajymjycsuft& xdkolwdk@rSm +rdwftusOf;axmifwGif &SdaepOftwGif; usef;
rma&;tvGefqdk;&Gm;aea=umif;ESifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m/ &kyfydkif;qdkif&m n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm; cHae&
a=umif; od&SdcJh&onf?
rdrdwdk@ atatyDyDrS &&Sdxm;aom twnfrðyEdkifao;onfh owif;ay;ydk@csufrsm;t&rl xdk 7 OD;
pvHk;onf 'kef;u|ef;teD;&Sd u|ef;wu|ef;odk@ a&muf&SdpOfyif towfcHcJh&a=umif; owif;&&Sdfxm;
cJhonf?

148

+rdwfòr@tusOf;axmifxJrS aysmufqHk;oGm;aom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (7) OD;rSm –
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

udkcifarmifcsdK
udka&$abmf
udkwifpef;
udkEdkifOD; (c) udkatmifEdkif
udkausmfEkdif (c) udkausmfvGif
udkoef;aZmf
udktkef;vGif wdk@jzpfonf?

udkausmfEkdif (c)
udkausmfvGif

udktkef;vGif

aumhaomif;tusOf;axmifrS EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (2) OD; aysmufqHk;jcif;
2002 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf aumhaomif;òr@e,frS tzGJ@0if 7 OD;onf
EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_jzifh zrf;qD;jcif;cHcJh&onf? xdkolwdk@onf weoFm&Dwdkif;/ Zmwuf}uD;u|ef; t
aemufzuf&Sd iSufaysmfatmfaus;&GmwGif zrf;qD;cH&jcif;jzpfonf? xdkolwdk@tm; aumhaomif; tusOf;
axmifodk@ rydk@aqmifrD jyif;xefaom n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm; cHcJh=u&onf?
2002 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv yxrtywfwGif xdk 7 OD;xJrS rcsdKvGif (30) ESifh udkausmfat; (21) ESpfwdk@udk
trSwf 262 ESifh 267 ajcv#ifwyf&if;rS Adkvf}uD;wifarmif0if; OD;aqmifaomtzGJ@u aumhaomif;
tusOf;axmifwGif;rS xkwf,lcJh+yD; iSufaysmfatmf aus;&Gmodk@ jyefvnfac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf? ,ck
tcsdeftxd aysmufqHk;aeqJjzpf+yD; atatyDyD. twnfrðy&ao;aom rSwfwrf;rsm;t& rcsdKvGif
tm; ppfom;rsm;u t}udrf}udrf rk'def;usifhI txufyg ESpfOD;pvHk;udk owfypfcJha=umif; rSwfwrf;
&&Sdxm;ygonf?
1) rcsdKvGif (c) rvGif
2) udkausmfat;
rcsdKvGif (c) rvGif

aumhaomif;tusOf;axmifrS EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; (4) OD; aysmufqHk;jcif;
2002 ckESpf pufwifbmv 17 &ufae@wGif ajcv#ifwyf&if; 224 ESifh 262 rS ppfa=umif;rª; wyf=uyf
}uD; odef;jrifh OD;aqmifaomtzGJ@rS aumhaomif;tusOf;axmifxJ&Sd EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 4 OD;udk
ac:xkwfum vrf;ydu|ef;&Sd rusHKuvd aus;&Gmodk@ ac:xkwfoGm;cJhonf?
aumhaomif;axmif&Sd EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;xJrS udkwifxGef;/ udkausmfvGifESifh udkarmifa&$ac: Adkufyl
149

wdk@ oHk;OD;onf xdkif;EdkifiH &aemif;+rdK@teD; pufavSay:wGif xdkif;&Jwdk@. zrf;qD;jcif;cH&+yD; &aemif;tcsKyf
wGif zrf;qD;xm;+yD;aemuf xdkif;tm%mydkifrsm;u jrefrmppfwyf ajcv#ifwyf&if; 262 odk@ v$Jay;cHcJh
olrsm; jzpf=uonf? xdo
k w
l @kd onf twdu
k t
f cHtzG@J . tzG@J 0ifrsm;jzpf=uonf[k pGypf +JG yD; aumhah omif;
axmifodk@ ydk@I wyfcsKyftjzpfxm;aom olrsm;jzpfonf?
udpk ef;vGiEf iS hf ausmEf ikd pf ;kd wd@k EpS Of ;D onf &aemif;òr@wiG f zrf;qD;jcif;cH&+yD; &aemif;tcsKyfwiG f 6 &uf=um
zrf;qD;xm;+yD; xdkif;tm%mydkifrsm;u jrefrmppfwyf ajcv#ifwyf&if; 262 rS wyf=uyf}uD; wifapm
vufxJodk@ v$Jajymif;ay;jcif;jzpfonf? pef;vGif (c) pef;Edkifudk 2002 ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;wGif tif;pdef
tusOf;axmifodk@ ajymif;a&$@cJhonf?
vrf;ydu|ef;&Sd rusHKuvd aus;&Gmodk@ac:xkwfjcif;cH&aom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;. rdom;pkrsm;
onf aumhaomif;axmifrS xkwfoGm;+yD;onfhaemufydkif; xdkolwkd@ESifh rnfonfhtquftoG,frS
r&awmhay?
aumhaomif;axmifrS aysmufqHk;oGm;aom EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om; 4 OD;rSm
1) udkausmfEdkifpdk;
2) udkwifxGef;
3) udkarmifa&$ (c) Adkufyl
4) udkausmfjrifhwdk@ jzpfonf?
udkwifxGef;

axmufvSrf;a&;pcef;wGif aysmufqHk;oGm;ol 2 OD;

2002 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv 19 &ufae@wGif udkoif;azESifh udkbpdef wdk@ESpfOD;tm; weoFm&Dwdkif;/
+rdwf+rdK@/ uefi,f &yfwGif tajcpdkufaom ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;trSwf 19 rS zrf;qD;oGm;cJhonf?
xdkolwdk@ ESpfOD;onf w&m;r0iftwdkuftcHtzGJ@. tzGJ@0ifrsm;jzpf+yD; ajratmufv_yf&Sm;ol[k
rouFmjzpfum zrf;qD;jcif; jzpfonf? rdom;pkrsm;u ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; trSwf 19 odk@ oGm;a&muf
pHkprf;aomfvnf; tm%mydkifrsm;u rnfodk@r#ajz=um;jcif; rjyKyg? xdkolESpfOD;pvHk;onf ,ae@
txd jyefvnfvGwfajrmufjcif;r&Sdovdk/ rnfonfhae&mwGif &Sdaeonfudkvnf; rdom;pkrsm;u
rod&Sd=uawmhay?
ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;trSwf (19) rS
aysmufqHk;oGm;olrsm;rSm
1) udkoif;az
2) udkbpdefwdk@ jzpf=uonf?
udkoif;az

150

udkbpdef

trnf
 42

touf

5(n)

17(1)

yk'fr

Zlvdkif/ 1991

 1991

tzrf;cH&onfhae‹

1995

 12/ 6/ 2001

aoqHk;onfhae‹

4 ESpf

woufwu|ef; atbDtuf'Dtufzf

usESpf

atbDbDtDtuf,l

rœav;

wmarG/ &efukef

ae&yfvdyfpm

aemufqufwGJ (i)
(1) tusOf;axmifrSvGwfajrmuf_yD;r-umrDaoqHk;olrsm;pm&if;

OD;bdkeDatmif
25

yg0ifcJhaomtzGJ‹tpnf;

udkoGifZmOD; (c)
aumufauG;

vd_if/ &efukef

ykZGefawmif/ &efukef
teft,fvf'D

=unfhjrifwdkif

teft,fvf'D
(jynfolv$wfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,f)
10 ESpf

 -

a&;/ rGefjynfe,f

 24/ 7/ 2004

6 ESpf

teft,fvf'D

1/ 5/ 1999

1/ 3/ 1994

=o*kwf/ 1997

10 ESpf

rœav;

20/ 5/ 1996

5(n)/ 17(1)

31/ 12/ 1991

20/ 7/ 2004

&[ef;ysdKor~

5(n)

60
17(20)

1998

12 ESpf

66

OD;=unfwifOD;
31

5(n)/ 17(1)

29/ 1/ 1999

OD;ausmfrif;

udkokwatmif
45

=o*kwf/ 1990

OD;0aepdk; (c)
OD;ae0if;

omauw/ &efukef

52

ausmif;om;

OD;a&0w

 -

 -

30/ 12/ 1988

24

21/ 10/ 1988

udkaZmf0if;xGef;

2001

 -

ajrmufOD;/ &cdkifjynfe,f

17(1)

'DZifbm/ 1988

teft,fvf'D

 -

'DZifbm/ 1988

azaz:0g&D/ 2005 3 ESpf

OD;cifarmif}uD;

17(1)

arSmfbD/ &efukef

22

ausmif;om;

udkae0if;atmif

151

(2) tusOf;axmifrSvGwfajrmuf_yD;r-umrDaoqHk;olrsm;.ukd,fa&;tusOf;
udkbdkeDatmif
&efukefwdkif;/ A[ef;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1991 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2001 ckESpf/ ZGefv 6 &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (42) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkbdkeDatmifonf trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf A[ef;òr@e,f vli,fwm0efcH
wOD;jzpfonf? 1988 ckESpf ppfwyfrS tm%modrf;+yD;aemuf e,fpyfa'oodk@ xGufvmcJh+yD; jrefrm
EdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm; 'Drdku&ufwpfwyfOD; ESifhqufoG,fcJhonf? xdk@aemuf 1991 ckESpf
wGif jynfwGif;vkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmif&ef jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;odk@ v#Kd@0Suf0ifa&mufvmpOf armfvòrif
òr@wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; trSwf (5) rS zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf? axmufvSrf;a&;u &dkufESufar;
jref;I r&aomtcg aq;xdk;I ppfaq;cJhonf? axmufvSrf;a&;u ajzaq;jyefxkd;&ef aemufus
oGm;cJhonf? xdk@aemuf pDrHcsufOya' yk'fr 5 (n)/ w&m;r0iftoif;ESifh qufoG,fr_yk'fr
17§1 jzifh axmif'%f tESpf 20 csrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? 2001 ESpfwGifaxmifrSjyefvnfvGwf
ajrmufvmcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;axmifwGif;aecJhpOf ppfa=uma&;umvrS ajzaq;rxdk;onfh'%fa=umifh
ppfa=uma&;wGif n‡Of;yef;EdSyfpufrsm;udk jyefjrifa,mifI wudk,fvHk;&Sd ta=umrsm; axmifvm+yD;
vufrsm;aumufauG;um yg;pyfuvnf; “ighudkvGwf 0g,móu;awGðzwfay; ” ponfjzifh yg;pyfu
atmf[pfum a0'emcH pm;cJh&onf? axmifrS aq;rª;rsm;a&mufvm+yD; 'dkif,mZdyifef xkd;rS oufom
oGm;onf? 'Dxufa0'emydk;qdk;vmaomtcg axmifaq;\Hkodk@ wifcJh&onf? axmifaq;\HkwGif
aq;r_;tusOf;om;rsm;u wcgoHk;tyfrsm;roHk;pGJbJ tyfwpfacsmifwnf;udk vlemtrsm;udk
xdk;jcif; a=umifh attdkif'Dtpf a&m*gul;pufjcif; cHcJh&onf? tusOf;axmifrSvGwf+yD; 1 v
r#t=um 2001 ckESpf ZGefv 6 &ufae@wGif tusOf;axmifxJrS ul;pufvmaom AIDS a&m*gjzifh
aoqHk;cJhonf?
tpfudk – a&
uqkefvrSm
wdrfrpifayrJh
vSywJhnav;wpfnjzpfvdk@
0&HwmrSm tpfudk&Sdaeovm;
152

wHwm;ay:u – u|efawmf
v – udk=unfh&if; - aysmfaevdk@aygh?
tpfudk – a&
v – rSmqHkjzpfwJh
u|efawmfwdk@t=unfh
òyifeufjzpfayrJh
tawG;awGwlEdkifyghrvm;
&ifudkazguf
0ifa&mufr=unfhawmhbl;
ae&muGJ+yD; awG@ae&wJhv – [m
r&Sif;wcdsK@ vif;pdk@pdk@ - rdk@?
tpfudk – a&
jzpfEdkif&ifav
“ol&Jaumif;wpfa,muf&J@
vufeufeJ@yJ aocsifw,f?”
wrefawmf&Jh trSm;t,Gif;eJ@awmh
&SifoefcGifh rvdkcsifbl;?
tpfudk – a&
apmifh=unfh&wJh vjynfh[m
rvdk Todk@
vdk – Todk@wnf;?
— bdkeDatmif (tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif;wGif a&;pyfonf?)

OD;cifarmif}uD;
&ckdifjynfe,f/ ajrmufOD;òr@e,fwGif aexkdifchJonf?
2001 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;jcif;cH&onf?
2005 ckESpf/ azazmf0g&DvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;cifarmif}uD;onf &ckdif'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf tzJG@0ifwOD; jzpfonf? 2001
153

ckESpfwGif vkyfazmfukdifzuf (2) OD;ESihftwl zrf;qD;cH&onf? xkd@aemuf rw&m;toif; tufOya'
yk'fr 17 (1) jzifh axmif (3) ESpf csrSwfcH&onf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 2004 ckESpfukefykdif;wGif jyefvnfvGwfajrmufvmchJonf? tusOf;axmiftwGif; ESdyf
puf!‡if;yef;cH&jcif;/ ppfawGtusOf;axmiftwGif; tajctaeqkd;rsm;atmufwGif aexkdif&jcif;wkd@
a=umihf usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;vmonf? tusOf;axmiftwGif; &&dSvmaom usef;rma&;tajctae
qkd;rsm;a=umihf 2005 ckESpf azazmf0g&DvwGif uG,fvGefchJonf?

OD;ausmfrif;
&efukefwkdif;/ ykZGefawmifòr@e,fwGif aexdkifchJonf?
1996 ckESpf/ arv (21) &ufwGif zrf;qD;jcif; cH&onf?
1999 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (1) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (66) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;bausmf/ a':at;=unfwkd@. om;jzpfonf? 1933 ckESpf Ekd0ifbm (9)&ufae@
wGifarG;zGm;onf? OD;ausmfrif;tm; &efukefpufr_wUodkvfwGif AdokumOD;ausmfrif;[k vlodrsm;
onf? 1954 ckESpfwGif wwd,ESpf (tif*sifeD,m) ausmif;om;tjzpf ynmoif=um;aepOf tar&d
uefjynfaxmifpkodk@ oGm;a&mufcJh+yD;/ 1957 ckESpfwGif AdokumbGJ@&&SdcJhonf? 1958 ckESpfrS 1960
jynhfESpf txd &efukefpufr_wUokdvfwGif oif=um;ykd@cschJonf?
1988 ckESpf trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf zJG@pnf;onhftcg A[dktvkyftr_aqmiftzGJ@0if wOD;tjzpf
wm0efay;cH&onf? 1990 jynhfESpf a&G;aumufyJGwGif {&m0wDwkdif;/ ykodrftaemuf+rdK@e,f rJqü
e,ftrSwf (2) rS jynfolvlxku OD;ausmfrif;tm; v$wfawmfukd,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;aumufwif
ajrSmufchJonf?
1991 ckESpfwGif yxrt}udrf zrf;qD;cHcJh&+yD;/ 1950-jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHcsuf tufOya'yk'fr
5 (u)/ (c)/ (n)wdk@jzifh w&m;pGJqdkcHcJh&onf? 1992 ckESpf arv 20 &ufae@wGif jyefvnfvGwf
ajrmufcJhonf?
1996 ckESpf arv 21 &ufae@wGif xyfrH zrf;qD;cHcJh&jyefonf? 1998 ckESpf arvwGif tusOf;axmifrS
jyefvnfvGwfajrmufcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? 1996 ckESpfrS 1998 ckESpftxd tif;pdefaxmifwGif tusOf;usaepOf tonf;a&mif
154

tom;0ga&m*g ul;puf&&dSchJonf? 1999 ckESpf/ arv (1) &ufae@wGif xkda&m*gjzihfyif aoqHk;onf?

OD;=unfwifOD; (uAsmq&m)
{&m0wDwdkif;/ qum}uD; òr@e,f Zmwdjzpfonf?
1994 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@wGif axmifcsjcif;cHcJh&onf?
2004 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (24) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (60) &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? OD;=unfwifOD;onf 1944 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv 15 &ufae@wGif arG;zGm;onf?
OD;xGef;=unf/ a':wifpmwdk@.om;jzpf+yD; {&m0wDwdkif; qum}uD;+rdK@Zmwdjzpfonf?
rqv tpkd;&vufxuf (1962-1988) wGif EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_a=umifh yxrt}udrfwGif (3)
ESpf/ 'kwd,t}udrfwGif (4) ESpf pojzihf ESpf}udrfwkdifatmif tusOf;uscHcJh&onf? 1988 ckESpfwGif
ppfwyfu wausmhjyef tm%modrf;pOfumvwGif v tenf;i,f txdef;odrf;cHcJh&onf?
1994 ckESpf/ rwfv (1) &ufae@wGif OD;=unfwifOD; tygt0if 'Drkdua&pDta&;v_yf&Sm;ol(5) OD;onf
Armjynf uGefjrLepfygwDESihf qufoG,fonfqkdonfh pGyfpGJcsufjzifh zrf;qD;cHchJ&onf? xkd@aemuf
OD;=unfwifOD;onf ta&;ay:pDrHcsuf tufOya'yk'fr-5(n)/ rw&m;oif;tufOya'yk'fr17 (1) wkd@jzifh axmif'%f (10) ESpfcsrSwfjcif;cHcJh&onf? 2004 ckESpf/ rwfv (26) &ufae@wGif
tif;pdeftusOf;axmifrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmuf vmcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ‚onf tusOf;axmiftwGif; n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufr_rsm;a=umifh ESvHk;a&m*g/ aoG;wkd;
a&m*g/ qD;csKda&m*grsm; cHpm;cJh&oljzpfonf? zrf;qD;cH&pOftcsdefu ESdyfpufn‡Of;yef;cH&r_'%f/
qkd;&Gm;vSonfh tusOf;axmifwGif; tajctae ponfwkd@a=umifh tusOf;usaeonfh (10) ESpfwm
umvtwGif; usef;rma&;rSm tvGefcsKd@wJhvmcJhonf?
ppfa=uma&;umvwGif aygifjcHtm; 0g;c|efjzifh xdk;I ESdyfpufcHcJh&onf? xkd'%f&mrSm vGwfajrmuf
vmonftxd jynfrsm; ,dkpdrfhxGufaeqJyifjzpfonf?
tusOf;axmifrS vGwfajrmuf+yD;aemuf 2004 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (24) &ufae@ eHeuf (6;15) em&DwGif
ESvHk;a&m*gjzifh aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf?

155

---usaemfhtaz qHk;oGm;wJhtcsdefrSm “ightazqHk;wm b,fol@

a=umifhvJ/ bma=umifhvJ” qdkwm wrifacgif;pOfwyf w&m;cH
&Smwm r[kwfygbl;? w&m;cHu&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;jrifom aevdk@
yg? w&m;cH[m vlyk~dKvfr[kwfygbl;? pepfyg? [kwfw,f/
ppftm%m&Sifpepfyg? 'ga=umifhvJ yk~dKvfa&;cHpm;r_udk a&S@wef;
wif+yD;/ em=unf;rkef;wD;wmrsdK; oabmxm; usaemfhrSm
r&Sdyg bl;Asm? 'Dppftm%m&SifpepfatmufrSm paw;cJh&wJh
toufawG aoG;awG renf;ygbl;? ysufpD;cJh&wJh b0todkuf
tjrHKawGvJ renf;bl;? ightazwa,mufwnf; 'Dvdkjzpf&wmrS
r[kwfwmqdkwJh todeJ@ udk,fhpdwfudk,f}udK;pm;+yD; ajzodrfhaeyg
w,fAsm?
—udkausmfaZm (OD;=unfwifOD;.om;/ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;)

udkokw
&efukefwdkif;/ =unfhjrifwdkifòr@e,fwGif aexdkifonf?
1991 rwfvwGif zrf;qD;jcif; cH&onf?
1997 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (31) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? udkokwonf 1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfyHkumvwGif wufºupGmyg0if
cJhonf? xdk@aemuf &efukefc&dkif ausmif;om;rsm;or~wGif yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
1991 ckEpS f rwfvwGif ppftpk;d &u 3 ESp=f umydwx
f m;onfh wUodv
k af usmif;rsm;udk jyefvnfziG v
hf pS f
chJonf? xkdtcsdefwGif trSwf (14) axmufvSrf;a&;u ukdokwtm; &efukefwUodkvftwGif;
ynmoif=um;r_qdkif&m vGwfvyffcGifhESifh ywfoufI pm&Gufpmwrf;jzef@a0r_jzihf zrf;qD;chJonf?
156

1991 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmv (23) &ufae@wGif tif;pdefaxmif0if;twGif;&Sd ppfcHk\kH;u ukdokwtm;
axmif'%f (6) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf?
axmifxJwGif usef;rma&;csKd@,Gif;ojzihf axmifaq;&Hkokd@ a&mufchJonf? axmifq&m0efrsm;u
aq;xkd;uko&mwGif tyfwacsmif;wnf;ukd tokH;jyKI tusOf;om;rsm;ukd ukoavh&dSonf? xkd@
a=umihf a&m*grsm; tvG,fwul ul;pufavh&dSonf? ukdokwu axmifq&m0efrsm;tm; wcgoHk;
tyfESifh aq;xdk;&efawmif;qdkcJhonf? axmifq&m0efrsm;u ukdokw.awmif;qkdcsuftm; vspfvsL
&SKchJonf? xkd@jyif ukdokwtm; aq;ukor_ray;bJ ypfxm;cJhonf?
wywfcef@t=umwGif usef;rma&;rSm ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;vmojzifh ukdokwonf q&m0efrsm;tm; aq;uko
ay;&ef awmif;qkdchJonf? q&m0efrsm;u aq;xdk;I ukoay;chJonf? okd@aomfvnf; wcgokH;tyf
tokH;rjyKbJ roef@&Sif;onhf aq;xdk;tyfjzihf &ufaygif;rsm;pGm aq;tvHk;aygif; rsm;pGmukochJonf?
1993 ckESpf/ {+yDv (9) &ufae@wGif ‘EdkifiHawmfvGwf+idrf;oufomcGifh’ jzihf axmifrSjyefvGwf
vmcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? tusOf;axmifrS jyefvGwf+yD;aemuf usef;rma&;ppfaq;onfhtcgwGif HIV ydk;ul;puf
aea=umif; odcJh&onf? udk,fcHpGrf;tm;usvmojzihf 1996 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif r=umc%
zsm;emchJ+yD; &efukefaq;&Hk}uD;odk@ wufa&mufukochJonf? q&m0efrsm;u AIDS tqifhokd@
a&muf&dSaea=umif; twnfjyKchJonf? ukdokwtm; &efukeful;pufaq;&Hkodk@ ydk@aqmifcJhonf?
wvausmfausmf wufa&mufukocJhaomfvnf; udk,fcHpGrf;tm; usoxuf usvmojzifh aq;\kHrS
jyefqif;cJhonf? 1997 ckESpf/ =o*kwfvwGif aoqHk;cJhonf?
tzrf;cH&pOfumvu r[mod`H \lyaA'txl;ðy 'kwd,ESpf wufa&mufoif=um;aeaom ausmif;
om;jzpfonf? ocsFmESifh \lyaA' bmom&yfrsm; oif=um;ay;aeaom usL&Sifq&mwOD;vnf;
jzpfonf? taomuftpm; rl;,pfaq;0g; ESifh taysmftyg; uif;olwa,mufjzpfonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? udkokw aoqHk;+yD; &ufvnfqGrf;au|; w&m;awmfem zdwf=um;v$mwGif udkokw
touf (31) ESpf (1997 ckESpf/ =o*kwfv -- &uf)ae@wGif axmifwGif;rSygvmaomul;pufa&m*g
eSifh uG,fvGef tedPa&mufoGm;yga=umif; [k azmfjyxm;onf//

157

wrf;wjcif;
va&mifuJhodk@ tvif;pGrf;tifudk
ay;pGrf;Edkifaom
aea&mifuJhodk@ aEG;axG;r_udk ay;pGrf;Edkifaom
ESif;yGifhrsm;uJhodk@ at;jrjcif;udk
ay;pGrf;Edkifaom æ q&mok
aemifb0rSm
cspfwynfhrsm;ESifh qHkcJh=uv#if
v. tvif;a&mif
aea&mifjcnf. aEG;axG;r_
ESif;yGifhrsm;. at;jrjcif;
rsm;uJhodk@ ay;pGrf;ygtHk;
q&m æ

— vSrdk;

oGifZmOD; (c) aumufauG;
rœav;òr@wGifaexdkifchJonf?
1991 ckESpf/ ZlvkdifvwGif zrf;qD;cH&onf?
1995 ckESpfwGif uG,fvGefonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? ukdoGifZmOD;onf rœav;òr@ t x u (11) wGif wufa&mufchJonf? &Spfav;vkH;
vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_wGif tajccHynmausmif;om;rsm;or~ (tuo) rS yg0ifv_yf&Sm;cJhonf?
'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykHaemufykdif; rœav;wkdif; tajccHynmausmif;om;rsm;or~wGif yg0if
v_yf&Sm;cJhonf? xkdpOfu rœav;òr@'Drkdua&pDtiftm;pku v#Kd@0Sufxkwfa0aom OWr*sme,f/
&kd;r*sme,f wkd@wGif ppftpkd;&ukd oa&mfaomaqmif;yg;rsm; “aumufauG;odor#ajymyg&ap”
acgif;pOfjzifh a&;om;cJhonf?
(3) ESpf=um ydwfxm;aom wUokdvfausmif;rsm; jyefvnfzGifhvSpf+yD; r=umrD 1991 ckESpf Zlvkdifv
wGif ukdoGifZmOD; tzrf;cH&onf? ukdoGifZmOD;ESihftwl tzrf;cH&olrsm;rSm atmifatmif/ nDnD0if;
(ac:) a*s}uD; ausmfoif;atmif/ ukd+idrf;csrf; wkd@jzpfonf?
158

xkdpOfu ukdoGifZmOD;onf usef;rma&;csKd@wJhI/ aq;ukoae&aom tcsdefjzpfonf? ydefvSDazsmhawmh
I/ tom;rsm;0gum/ ukd,fvuftqpfrsm; a&mifaeonf? ukdoGifZmOD;u tm%mykdifrsm;tm;
usef;rma&; raumif;a=umif;/ rdom;pkxH qufoG,fI vkdtyfaom aq;0g;rsm; rSm,lvkda=umif;
ajymjychJonf? odk@aomfvnf; axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u cGifhrðycJhay?
tm%mykdifrsm;u ukdoGifZmOD;wkd@tm; axmif 3
ESpfpD csrSwfchJonf? rœav;axmif twGif;
tusOf;om;rsm; twGuf usef;rma&;apmifh
a&Smufr_vkyfief;rsm;rSm tjcm;axmifrsm;uhJokd@
yif rnfumrW tajctaewGif&dSonf? xkd@jyif
tusOf;axmiftwGif; qif;&Jyifyef;pGm aexkdif&
ojzihf ukdoGifZmOD;. usef;rma&; ykdrkdqkd;&Gm;
vmonf? 1994 ckESpfwGif rœav;axmifrS
jyefvnfvGwfajrmufcJhonf?

ukdoGifZmOD; tusOf;uscsKyfaESmifcHchJ&onhf rœav;axmif

aoqkH;ykH? ? axmifrSvGwfcsdefwGifvnf; ukdoGifZmOD;. usef;rma&;rSm qkd;&Gm;qJjzpfonf? rdom;pku
pD;yGm;a&;csKd@wJh vmojzifh ukdoGifZmOD;. usef;rma&;twGuf aiGukefa=u;us rcHEkdifchJyg? xkd@aemuf
usef;rma&;qkd;onfxuf qkd;vm+yD; vrf;rav#mufEkdifonfh tajctaeokd@yif qkdufa&mufcJhonf?
1995 ckESpfwGif aoqkH;onf?

OD;0aepdk; (ac:) OD;ae0if;
rGefjynfe,f/ a&;òr@e,fZmwdjzpfonf?
1998 ckESpf/ ESpfukefykdif;wGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf?
2004 ckESpf/ Zlvdkifv (20) &ufae@wGif uG,fvGefonf?
uG,fvGefcsdefwGif touf (45) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EdkifiHa&;aemufcH? ? i,femrnfrSm ae0if;jzpfonf? OD;0aepkd;onf &efukefòr@ yef;csDyef;ykausmif;
wGif ynmoif,lchJonf? 1975 ckESpfrS 1988 twGif; &efukefwUokdvfwGif uAsmpmtkyf 2 tkyf
a&;om;xkwfa0jzef@csdchJonf? jypfr_r~Zif;wGif t,f'Dwmtjzpf wm0ef,lchJonf? 1984 ckESpf
rGefjynfe,f/ a&;+rdK@e,f pmwwfajrmufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_umvwGif jyef=um;a&;qyfaumfrwD twGif;
a&;rSL;wm0efjzihf pmapmifrsm; oDcsif;rsm; xkwfa0chJonf? tpOfaus;&Gm bkef;awmf}uD;ausmif;wGif
ausmif;q&mtjzpf vkyfukdifchJonf?
159

1988 vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_umvwGif aus;&Gm. oydwfacgif;aqmifjzpfonf? xkd@aemuf tpOfaus;&Gm
trsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDtzJG@csKyf/ pnf;\kH;a&;aumfrwDwGif twGif;a&;rª;jzpfvmonf? 1996 ckESpfwGif
a&;+rdK@e,f/ tzJG@csKyf pnf;&kH;a&;aumfrwDwGif tzJG@0ifjzpfvmchJonf?
1989 ckESpfwGif zrf;qD;cHchJ&+yD;/ ppfcHk\Hk;u 1950 jynhfESpfta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5(n) jzifh
axmif'%f (2) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf? 1991 ckESpfwGif vGwfajrmufcJhonf?
1998 ckESpf/ ESpfukefykdif;wGif zrf;qD;cHcJh&jyefonf? axmufvSrf;a&;wkd@ ppfaq;ar;jref;r_umv
twGif; ESdyfpufcH&jcif;/ tif;pdeftusOf;axmifwGif; tajctaeqkd;rsm;atmufwGif aexkdifchJ&jcif;
wkd@a=umihf usef;rma&; pwifcsKd@,Gif;vmonf? vrf;av#mufonhftcg vlwJGav#muf&onftxd
tm;tifjywfvyf+yD; tm[m&csKd@whJvmonf? 1999 rwfvwGif axmifaq;&kHokd@a&mufchJonf?
xkdtcsdefwGif 1950-jynhfESpf ta&;ay:pDrHr_tufOya' yk'fr 5 (n)/ rw&m;toif;tufOya'yk'fr
17 (1) wkd@jzifh w&m;pJGcH&onf? 1999 ckESpf {+yDvwGif tif;pdefaxmif&dSw&m;\kH;u OD;0aepkd;tm;
axmif'%f (10) ESpf csrSwfcJhonf? pD&ifcsuf cscH&+yD;rS rdom;pku axmif0ifpmawG@cGihf &chJonf?
aemufykdif;wGif armfvòrifaxmifokd@ ajymif;a&$@cHchJ&onf? 2004 ckESpf/ ZGefv (24) &ufae@wGif
armfvòriftusOf;axmifrS jyefvnfvGwfajrmufcJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? OD;0aepkd;onf 2004 ckESpf ESpfqef;ydkif;wGif ajcwpfzufemusifa,mifudkif;vmonf?
xdk@aemuf r=umc% 0rf;Adkufatmifhvmonf? usef;rma&;tajctaerSm wjznf;jznf; ydkqdk;vm
ojzifh/ oufqdkif&myg&*lrsm;xHwGif ukocGihfjyK&ef armfvòriftusOf;axmif tm%mykdifrsm;xH
t}udrf}udrf ta=umif;=um;cJhonf? xkdtcsdefu armfvòrifaxmifwGif a'gufwmrif;=unf0if;/
a'gufwmrif;pkd;vif; ponhf rGeftrsdK;om;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@rS acgif;aqmifrsm;vnf; tusOf;uscH
ae&onf? tqkdyg q&m0efrsm;uvnf; axmiftm%mydkifrsm;tm; OD;0aepkd;. usef;rma&;vGefpGm
csKd@,Gif;ae+yD; touftœ&m,f pkd;&drf&a=umif;/ axmifjyify&dS q&m0ef}uD;rsm;xH oGm;a&muf
jyo&ef vdktyfa=umif; wifjycJhonf? axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u vHkðcHa&;ta=umif;jycsufjzifh
cGifhrjyKcJhyg?
2004 ckESpf/ ZGefvtpydkif;wGif a&zsOf;a&m*g &&dSvmjyefonf? axmiftm%mydkifrsm;u aq;0g;
ukor_ay;chJjcif;r&dSI OD;0aepkd;onf wvtwGif;rSmyif touftœ&m,f pdk;&drf&aom tajctae
odk@ a&muf&SdcJhonf? xkdtcsdefwGif OD;0aepkd;onf axmifrS \kwfw&uf vGwfajrmufoGm;onf?
axmifrSvGwf+yD;aemuf armfvòrifaq;\kHwGif wufa&mufukochJonf? xkdtcsdefwGif tonf;
uifqma&m*g jzpfyGm;aeonf[k odchJ&onf? 2004 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (20) &ufae@wGif armfv+rdKif
160

aq;&HkwGif aoqHk;oGm;cJhonf? axmifrSvGwf+yD; wvrjynfhrD aoqkH;oGm;jcif;jzpfonf?
rSwfcsuf? ? a&m*gu|rf;+yD; ukor&Edkifawmhonfh tajctaea&mufvmonfhtcgrSom axmifrS
v$wfay;vdkufjcif; jzpfonf? tusOf;axmiftwGif; oihfavsmfaom tpm;tpm/ aq;0g;ukor_
rsm; &dSchJygu OD;0aepkd;onf xkdjzpf&yfqkd;rsm;ESihf ñuH&rnf r[kwfyg?

OD;a&0w
rœav;òr@wGif aexdkifchJonf?
1990 =o*kwfvwGif tzrf;cHcJh&onf?
1999 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv (29) &ufae@wGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf?
ysHvGefawmfrlcsdefwGif oufawmf (53) ESpf &Sd+yDjzpfonf?
EkdifiHa&;aemufcH? ? q&mawmfonf rœav;wdkif; av;jyifav;&yfoHCmhor~D. OUÏjzpf+yD;
1988 &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;wGif tdrfawmf&mppfa=umif;udk OD;aqmifcJhonfh oHCmwpfyg;
jzpfonf?
oHCmhor~DtzJG@}uD;u ppftm%m&Sifqef@usifa&; uAsm/ aqmif;yg;/ umwGef;rsm;yg0ifonfh OWr
*sme,fudk vpOfxkwfa0cJhonf?
ppftpkd;&u trsKd;om;EdkifiHa&;wyfaygif;pk/ t+rJpdrf;vli,frsm;tzGJ@/ jynfol@wdk;wufa&;ygwD ponhf
EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ukd zJG@pnf;+yD; 1 ESpfjynhfonhf 1989 ckESpf ESpfukefykdif;wGif zsufodrf;chJonf? xkdokd@
zsufodrf;cH&+yD;aemufydkif; rœav;+rdK@tajcpdkuf EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pktoD;oD;u trsKd;om;tusKd;pD;
yGm;umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;aumfrwD (NISC) ukd wnfaxmifchJonf? q&mawmfonf xkdaumf
rwDESifh wGJbufI trsKd;om;EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk tpGrf;ukefaqmif&GufcJhonf? xdktzGJ@wGif
ajyma&;qdkcGifh&Sdol (4) OD;teuf q&mawmfonf eHygwf (1) yk~dKvf jzpfonf?
1990 jynfhESpf &efukefwdkif;uBmat;ukef;ajrwGif jyKvkyfonfh jrefrmwjynfvHk;&Sd oHCmtpnf;
ta0;okd@ wufa&mufrnhf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm; a&G;cs,f&mwGif oHCmxk.qüudk udk,fpm;ðyjcif;
r&dSa=umif; wdkif;oHCmhem,utzGJ@/ A[dkoHCmh0efaqmiftzGJ@/ omoema&;OD;pD;Xmewdk@udk uef@
uGufpm ay;ykd@cJhonf?
trsKd;om;tusKd;pD;yGm;umuG,fapmifha&Smufa&;aumfrwDonf tvif;a&mif*sme,fudk xkwfa0
cJhonf? *sme,fwGif tusOf;axmifwGif;tajctaersm;/ ppftpkd;&u vl@tcGifhta&; csKd;azmuf
161

aeykHrsm; yg0ifonf? e0w ppftpdk;&. vkyfaqmifaer_rsm;ukdvnf; ukvor~ vl@tcGifhta&;
a=unmpmwrf;yg tcsufrsm;ESihf Ed_if;,SOf az:jychJonf?
1990 jynhfESpf =o*kwfv 8 &ufae@wGif jyKvkyfonhf &Spfav;vkH;ta&;awmfykHESpfywfvnf v_yf&Sm;r_/
atmufwdkbmvqef;wGif ðyvkyfonfh yWedUKPeuHaqmifyGJwkd@ukd OD;aqmifpDpOfcJhonf? xkd@
a=umihf ppftpkd;&u oHCmawmftrsm;tjym;ukd zrf;qD; ESdyfuGyfchJonf?
jrefrmEkdifiHwGif
ppftpkd;&rsm;ray:aygufrDu
tusOf;axmifjrifuGif;wck?
ykHwGif tusOf;us
oHCmawmfrsm; ouFef;0wfjzihf
pmayoif=um;ykd@csaeonfukd
awG@Ekdifonf?

1990 jynhfESpf atmufwdkbmvwGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;rsm;u q&mawmftm; zrf;qD;chJonf?
q&mawmftm; ouFef;tm; twif;t"R qGJc|wfum t&yfom;t0wfrsm; 0wf&ef ckdif;apchJonf?
axmufvSrf;a&;. ppfa=uma&;umvwGif q&mawmfonf aoG;tefonftxd usifpufjzifh wkd@
jcif;/ tjyif;txef &dkufESufn‡Of;yef;jcif;wdk@udk cHcJh&onf?
xdk@aemuf tm%mydkifrsm;u q&mawmfOD;a&0wtm; axmif'%f (12) ESpf csrSwfvdkuf+yD;
rœav;tusOf;axmifwGif xdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf?
aoqHk;yHk? ? ppftpkd;&u rœav;axmiftopftm; rœav;wkdif; rW&mòr@e,f/ tkd;bkdt&yfwGif
wnfaqmufchJonf? xkd@aemuf 1993 ckESpfwGif rœav;axmifrS tusOf;om;rsm;tm;vkH;ukd
ae&mopfokd@ ajymif;a&$@chJonf?
topfaqmufvkyf+yD;p rœav;axmifonf vGifwD;acgifwGif wnf&dSjcif;/ t*Faw=urf;cif;rsm;
pdkpGwfaejcif;a=umihf OD;a&0w. usef;rma&;rSm wae@xufwae@ qdk;&Gm;vmcJhonf? xkdodk@aom
tajctaersm;wGif tm%mydkifrsm;u oihfavsmfaom aq;0g;ukor_ ray;jcif;/ tcsdefvGefrS
qGrf;bkOf;ay;&jcif;wdk@a=umifh q&mawmfonf pdwfydkif;qdkif&m/ &kyfydkif;qdkif&mrsm; xdcdkufvmcJh
onf? 1998 ckESpf/ ZGefv (22) &ufae@wGif rœav;axmifrS vGwfajrmufcJhonf?
162

tusOf;axmifxJrS &&Sdvmonfh a&m*grsm;ukd tpGrf;ukefukocJhaomfvnf; 1999 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv
(29) &ufae@wGif ysHvGefawmfrlonf?

163

aemufqufwGJ (p)/ (1) jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd tusOf;axmif/ &Jbufpcef;rsm;wnfae&mjyajryHk

164

(2) jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd ppfa-uma&;pcef;rsm; pm&if;
emrnf

wnfae&m

a&=unftdkif
A[dkppfaxmufvSrf;a&; (&efkukef)
trftkdif (1)
rœav;
trftkdif (2)
awmif}uD;
trftkdif (3)
yJcl;
trftdkif (4)
{&m0wD
trftkdif (5)
armfv+rdKif
trftdkif (6)
r&rf;ukef;
trftkdif (7)
'*Hk
trftkdif (8)
jrpf}uD;em;
trftdkif (9)
vm;\_d;
trftkdif (10)
ppfawG
trftkdif (11)
(jynf)
trftdkif (12)
jrefrmhaoewfudkif wyf&if; (4)

trftdkif (13)
-
trftkdif (14)
Adkvfwaxmif

trftkdif (15)
rdˆDvm
trftdkif (16)
rœav;
trftkdif (17)
uav;
trftkdif (18)
bl;oD;awmif
trftkdif (19)
+rdwf
trf;tkdif (20)
rHk&Gm
trftkdif (21)
Aef;armf
trftkdif (22)
usdKif;wHk
trftdkif (23)
uGef[def;
trftdkif (24)
wmcsDvdwf
trftkdif (25)
bm;tH
trftkdif (26)
'*Hk+rdK@opf
trftkdif (27)
vGdKifaumf
trftkdif (28)
armfvkduf
trftkdif (29)
avmifudkif
trftkdif (30)
-
trftkdif (31)
,kZeO,sOf+rdK@awmf

165

xdef;csKyf&ma'o
jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;
rœav;wkdif;
awmif}uD;
yJcl;wkdif;
{&m0wDwdkif;
rGefjynfe,f
&efukef
'*Hk+rdK@e,f
jrpf}uD;em;
vm;\_d;
ppfawG/ &ckdifjynfe,f
yef;awmif;/ yJcl;wkdif;
ouFef;u|ef;/ wmarG/
r*Fvmawmifnìef@/ A[ef;
ausmufwHwm;/ yef;bJwef;/
vom/ vrf;rawmf
rdˆDvm
rœav;
uav;
bl;oD;awmif
weoFm&Dwkdif;
ppfukdif;wkdif;
Aef;armf
usdKif;wkH/ &Srf;jynfe,f
uGef[def;/ &Srf;jynfe,f
wmcsDvdwf
bm;tH/ jr0wD/ aumhu&dwf
'*Hk+rdK@opf/ &efukef
u,m;jynfe,f
armfvkduf/ ppfudkif;wdkif;
avmufudkif/ &Srf;jynfe,f
&efukef

avwyf trftkdif (1)
a&wyf trftdkif (1)
a&wyf trftkdif (2)
a&wyf trftkdif (3)
umuG,fa&;ESifh
ppfzufvHk+cHKa&; (1)
txl;axmufvSrf;a&; (XmecsKyf)
&JaxmufvSrf;a&; (XmecsKyf)

r*Fvm'Hk
{&m0wDa&wyftajcpdkuf
{&m0wDa&wyftajcpdkuf
{&m0wDa&wyftajcpdkuf
ukef;jrifhom,m/ jynfvrf;

tif;pdef/ r*Fvm'Hk
Adkvfwaxmif/ ykZGefawmif/ oefvsif
Adkvfwaxmif/ ykZGefawmif/ oefvsif
Adkvfwaxmif/ ykZGefawmif/ oefvsif
jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;

atmifoajy/ r&rf;ukef;
ausmufwHwm;

jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;
jrefrmwEkdifiHvHk;

· EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm; ppfa=uma&;jyKvkyfjcif;udk vlolvufvSrf;rrD rod&SdEkdifonhf ae&mrsm;wGif jyKvkyfavh
&Sd&m tcsdK@rSm tpdk;& ‘{nfha*[m’rsm;ESifh t&yfom;rsm; oGm;vmcGifhr&Sdaom uef@owfe,fajrjzpfonfh ppfwyfpcef;
rsm;wGif ppfa=umar;jref;jcif; cH=u&ygonf?

166

pmudk;
owif;Ïmersm;
bDbDpD
'Drdku&ufwpfjrefrmhtoH
▫ {&m0wD
▫ acwf+ydKif
▫ vGwfvyfonfhtm&StoH
▫ &cdkifowif;pOf
▫ AGDtdkat

tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
tjynfjynfqdkif&mvGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtzGJ@
vl@tcGifhta&; apmifh=unfhavhvma&;tzGJ@
▫ vl@tcGifhta&;rSwfwrf;Ïme (jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHnGef@aygif;tpdk;&)
▫ e,fjcm;rJh owif;axmuftzGJ@
▫ tar&duefEdkifiH EdkifiHjcm;a&;Ïme

yHkESdyfpmtkyfrsm;

tusOf;axmifxJrS tmZmenfrsm;/ {&m0wDpmtkyfwdkuf/ 1999 ckESpf 'kwd,t}udrf

vl&SifocõsKif;rsm;/ aevif; (tuo) rwfv 2000 ckESpf

oHwdkif=um;u aºuvGifhoGm;wJh =u,fpifawG/ 0if;wifhxGef;/ =o*kwf 2001

&moufyefawmfvSefa&;orm;/ atatyDyD/ atmufwdkbmv 2002 ckESpf

jrefrmEdkifiH 'Drdkua&pDa&;&m v_yf&Sm;r_aqmif;yg;rsm;/ &Sifacrmpm& (&[ef;ysdKor~)/
'DZifbm 2002

tvGrf;uAsm tvGrf;pm/ nHZH aqmif;yg;rsm; (acwf+ydKif/ rdk;}udK;)/ 2003-2005

167

▫ Letters from Burma. Aung San Suu Kyi. Penguin Books. January 1997
▫ Spirit for Survival. Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. September 2001

▫ The Darkness We See: Torture in Burma’s Interrogation Centers and Prisons.

Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. December 2005.

▫ Burma: A Land Where Buddhist Monks are Disrobed and Placed in Dungeons.

Assistance Association for Political Prisoners. November 2004

EdkifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGH@+zdK;a&;aumifpD
ArmjynfuGefjrLepfygwD. EdkifiHawmftm%modrf;ydkufa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; =o*kwfv 5 &uf/
1989 ckESpf

jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif;rS oPmazmufykqdef&dk;rsm;ESifh jynfyrS"m;&dk;urf;olwdk@. t&_yfawmfyHk/
'DZifbm 15 &uf/ 1990 ckESpf

Auy/ autifef,l/ pdef0if;wdk@. jynfzsufvkyf&yfrsm;/ Zlvdkifv 12 &uf/ 1990 ckESpf

1988 aemufydkif; 'Drdkua&pDa&;twGuf v_yf&Sm;&if; usqHk;oGm;olrsm;udk 1988 ckESpf 8 vykdif; 8 &ufae@ &Spfav;vkH;
'Drkdua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;r_udktodtrSwfðyjcif;tm;jzifh &SpfpUef@ +idrfoufjcif;jzihf trSwfw&*k%fðyavh&dSonf?

168

EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) . ta-umif;
1988 ckESpf 'Drdkua&pDv_yf&Sm;r_}uD;udk ppftkyfpku &ufpufjyif;xefpGm òzcGJcJh+yD;wJhaemuf axmifaygif;
rsm;pGmaom 'Drdkua&pDa&;v_yf&Sm;olrsm;[m xdef;odrf;cH&jcif;/ n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufjcif;/ ESpf&Snfaxmif
'%frsm;csrSwfjcif;wdk@ cHcJh=u&ygw,f? xdkolwdk@ tusOf;axmifxJu jyefvGwfvmwJhtcgrSmvnf;
pdwfrcsrf;omp&maumif;wJh tjzpfawGeJ@ quf+yD; &ifqdkif=u&ygw,f? ppftkyfpk[m EdkifiHa&;t
usOf;om;a[mif;awG&J@v_yf&Sm;r_udk teD;uyfapmifh=unfh+yD; EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_awG rvkyfEdkifatmif
enf;rsdK;pHkeJ@ [ef@wm;aESmifh,Suf=uygw,f? 'ghtjyif 'Drdkua&pDa&;ESpfywfvnfae@rsm;/ txdrf;
trSwfae@rsm;eD;vm&if EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;awG[m ta=umif;jycsufwpHkw&mr&SdbJ
tcsdeftuef@towfr&Sd xdef;odrf;cH&wmawG/ ppfa=umcH&wmawG &Sdygw,f? ppftkyfpk[m EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;a[mif;awGudk vl@tzGJ@tpnf;eJ@ uif;uGmatmif enf;trsdK;rsdK;eJ@ pepfwus ðyvkyfcJhyg
w,f? 'ghtjyif pDyGm;a&;/ ynma&;wdk@rSmvnf; [ef@wm;aESmifh,Sufjcif;cH&ygw,f? jynfwGif;rSm
raeEdkifatmifvnf; enf;rsdK;pHkeJ@ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;cH=u&w,f? EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;awG[m
olwdk@eJ@ twlaevmcJhwJh tusOf;uscHqJ EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk =uHzefulnD=uygw,f? EdkifiHa&;
tusOf;om;a[mif;awGudkvnf; olwdk@&Jh ,Hk=unf&mudk qufvufvkyfEdkifzdk@udkvnf; enf;vrf;awG
&Sm+yD;ulnD=uygw,f? 'Dta=umif;t&mawGa=umifh jynfwGif;rSm&SdaewJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG/
EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;awGudk xdxda&mufa&muf ulnDEdkifzdk@twGuf &nf&G,f+yD; e,fpyf
a'orSm a&muf&SdaewJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;awG pkpnf;um ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif
udkrif;udkEdkif tusOf;uscH&jcif; 11 ESpfjynfhwJhae@ (rwfv 23/ 2000) ckESpfrSm EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;
ulnDapmifha&Smufa&;toif; (jrefrmEdkifiH) udk pwifwnfaxmifcJhygw,f?
atatyDyD&J@ vkyfief;pOfrsm;
1) EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awGudk axmif0ifpmoGm;awG@Edkifzdk@ olwdk@&Jhrdom;pkudk wwfpGrf;oI
tultnDrsm;ay;jcif;
2) EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG&Jh vdktyfwJh tpm;tpm/ aq;0g;eJ@ toHk;taqmifyPnf;rsm;udk
ulnDaxmufyhHjcif;
3) tusOf;axmifawG&Jh yuwdtajctaeudk pOfqufrjywfapmifh=unfhavhvmjcif;
4) tusOf;uscH&pOf EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;awG&Jh n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcH&r_rsm;/ tusOf;axmif
tajctaersm;/ b0jzwfoef;&r_rsm; pwJhta=umif;t&mawGudk tcgtcGifhoifhovdk
xkwfjyefa=unmjcif;/ tpD&ifcHpmrsm; a&;om;xkwfa0jcif;
5) EkdifiHwumtodkif;t0dkif; txl;ojzifh tjynfjynfqdkif&m vl@tcGifhta&;tzG@J }uD;/ tjynf
jynfqdkif&m =uufajceDaumfrwD/ vl@tcGifhta&;apmifh=unfhavhvma&;tzJG@ }uD;pwJh
vl@tcGifhta&;qdkif&mtzGJ@rsm;eJ@ qufoG,f+yD; owif;zvS,fjcif;/ pnf;&Hk;v_H@aqmfjcif;
169

6) n‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufcHxm;&wJh/ vl@tzGJ@tpnf;rSm txD;usefjzpfaewJh EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;
a[mif;rsm;&J@ &kyfydkif;qdkif&m/ pdwfydkif;qdkif&mrsm; jyefvnfðypkysdK;axmifEdkif&ef/ jyefvnf
ukpm;Edkif&ef enf;vrf;rsm;&SmazGI ulnDjcif; wdk@udk vkyfaqmifaeygw,f?
&nf&G,fcsufrsm;
1) jrefrmEkdifiH tusOf;axmifrsm;xJwGif&dSaeonfh EdkifiHa&; tusOf;om;rsm;. zdEdSyf!‡Of;
yef;cHae&onfh tajctaersm;udk/ EkdifiHwum vl@tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;od&dSEkdifa&;twGuf
azmfxkwf&ef?
2) jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;rsm;tm; !‡Of;yef;ESdyfpufaer_rsm;udk [ef@wm;
Ekdifa&;twGuf EkdifiHwumtodkif;t0kdif;rS ppftpdk;&tm; zdtm;ay;vmap&ef?
3) vuf&dSjrefrmjynf tusOf;axmifrsm;twGif; tusOf;us cHae&onfh EkdifiHa&;
tusOf;om;rsm;. tcGifhta&;udk umuG,fapmifha&Smuf&efESifh ‚wkd@. vkdtyfcsuf
tajctaersm;udk pepfwusulnDaxmufyhHEdkif&ef?
4) jypf'%fukefqHk;I/ tusOf;axmiftoD;oD;rS vGwfajrmufvmonfh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;om;
rsm;tm; EkdifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;e,fy,f toD;oD;wGif &yfwnfcGifhr&atmif
ppftpdk;&taejzifh trsKd;rsKd; [ef@wm; aESmifh,Sufaejcif;rS umuG,fay;&ef?
5) jypf'%fukefqHk;I tusOf;axmiftoD;oD;rS vGwfajrmufvmonfh EkdifiHa&;tusOf;
om;rsm;. pdwfydkif;/ &kyfykdif;qkdif&m jyefvnfxlaxmifa&; twGuf enf;vrf;rsm;&SmazG
IulnDoGm;&ef?

170