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Cellular Manufacturing
Sections: 1. Part Families 2. Parts Classification and Coding 3. Production Flow Analysis 4. Cellular Manufacturing 5. Applications in Group Technology 6. Quantitative Analysis in Cellular Manufacturing GT

Define Relation with lay out Types
Visual Coding PFA

Cellular Manufacturing
Application of group technology in which dissimilar machines or processes are aggregated into cells, each of which is dedicated to the production of a part family or limited group of families Typical objectives of cellular manufacturing:
To shorten manufacturing lead times To reduce WIP To improve quality To simplify production scheduling To reduce setup times

Cellular Manufacturing Systems

Composite Part Concept

A composite part for a given family is a hypothetical part that includes all of the design and manufacturing attributes of the family In general, an individual part in the family will have some of the features of the family, but not all of them A production cell for the part family would consist of those machines required to make the composite part Such a cell would be able to produce any family member, by omitting operations corresponding to features not possessed by that part

Composite Part Concept

Composite part concept:
(a) the composite part for a family of machined rotational parts, and (b) the individual features of the composite part

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Part Features and Corresponding Manufacturing Operations

1. 2. 3. 4. Design feature External cylinder Face of cylinder Cylindrical step Smooth surface Corresponding operation Turning Facing Turning External cylindrical grinding Drilling Counterboring Tapping

Machine Cell Designs

1. Single machine
-One machine plus supporting fixtures & tooling

1. Multiple machines with manual handling

Often organized into U-shaped layout

5. Axial hole 6. Counter bore 7. Internal threads

2. Multiple machines with semi-integrated handling 3. Automated cell automated processing and integrated handling
Flexible manufacturing cell Flexible manufacturing system

Machine Cell with Manual Handling

Cell with Semi-Integrated Handling

U-shaped machine cell with manual part handling between machines

In-line layout using mechanized work handling between machines

Cell with Semi-Integrated Handling

Cell with Semi-Integrated Handling

Loop layout allows variations in part routing between machines

Rectangular layout also allows variations in part routing and allows for return of work carriers if they are used

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Four Types of Part Moves in Mixed Model Production System

Key Machine Concept

Applies in cells when there is one machine (the key machine) that is more expensive or performs certain critical operations
Other machines in the cell are supporting machines Important to maintain high utilization of key machine, even if this means lower utilization of supporting machines

Applications of Group Technology

Manufacturing Applications of Group Technology

Different ways of forming machine cells:
Informal scheduling and routing of similar parts through selected machines to minimize setups Virtual machine cells dedication of certain machines in the factory to produce part families, but no physical relocation of machines Formal machine cells machines are physically relocated to form the cells

In product manufacturing In product Design

Automated process planning Modular fixtures Parametric programming in NC

Benefits of Group Technology in Manufacturing

Standardization of tooling, fixtures, and setups is encouraged Material handling is reduced
Parts are moved within a machine cell rather than the entire factory

Product Design Applications of Group Technology

Design retrieval systems
Industry survey: For new part designs,
Existing part design could be used - 20 % Existing part design with modifications 40 % New part design required 40 %

Process planning and production scheduling are simplified Work-in-process and manufacturing lead time are reduced Improved worker satisfaction in a GT cell Higher quality work

Simplification and standardization of design parameters such as tolerances, chamfers, hole sizes, thread sizes, etc.
Reduces tooling and fastener requirements in manufacturing

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Q g i t c f n M r a u l e C s y A v

CMS and its relationship to Job and Flow Shops: We can define the movement in a Job Shop (mathematically) this way for any product i:

Grouping parts and machines by Rank Order Clustering Arranging machines in a GT Cell

Pr(12)i = Pr(13)i = Pr(14)i = = Pr(1n)I

While in a Flow Shop:

Pr(12)i = 1 and Pr(1n)i =0(n 2)

In developing CMS manufacturing systems we are trying to make all part flows act like Flow shop mathematics!

Examining a Cell in the CMS:

CMS and Group Technology (GT)

CMS layout are based on recognizing similarities in products similarities in geometry, size, materials and processing requirements This similar products are collected Grouped instead of being treated as individuals Leads to product families that visit similar equipment and populate their cellsproduction schedule Simpler setups like in a Job shop can follow and the workers become multifunctional and responsible for all aspects of a product and its quality Cells can be scheduled to produce synchronously bringing the various sub-assemblies in as needed at final assembly with greater variety built in

N t s e k r w l a o i t c n u f W M m w c u d f l b n o p r m a e t s i h

CMS and Group Technology (GT)

CMS and Group Technology (GT)

B E U W Y R O T C A F e h t g n d l i u

N O a M C s i 1 p e t S : E T g G F M N A E L o i c l t e m a d n u f

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CMS and Group Technology (GT)

Benefits of GT and CMS (Companies Reporting): 52 % Report reduction in new part design 1 0 % Report reduction in #of new drawings thru standardization 3 0 % Report reduction in new shop drawings 6 0 % Report reduction in IE time 2 0 % Report reduction in floor space 45 % Report reduced scrap 8 % 0 Report reduced production and quality costs 6 9 % Report reduced set-up time (cost)
N T G f v u s i n a m c y b d r p R : e t o

Benefits of GT and CMS (Companies Reporting): 7 0 % Report reduced throughput time (even more report better predictability of delivery) 8 2 % Report reduced numbers of overdue orders 42 % Report reduced raw-materials inventory 62 % Report reduced WIP 6 0 % Report reduced finished goods inventory 33 % Report increased employee output/time unit (productivity improvement)

Clustering Techniques: the Fundamental Issue in Cell Development We cluster parts to build part families
Part Families visit cells Part Families share set-up ideas and equipment (Family Fixtures) Part Families follow the same (or similar) process routing These are the ideas and activities that offer reported benefits

Clustering Techniques: the Fundamental Issue in Cell Development

We cluster Machines to build cells:
Cells lead to Flow Mathematics Cells contain all equipment needed to produce a part family Cells allow development of Multi-functional workers Cells hold work teams responsible for production and quality They Empowerthe workers
Empowered to set internal schedules Empowered to assign tasks Empowered to train and rotate jobs Etc, etc, etc

Building the CMS Facility

B g n i t s u l C r o f e

A g n i s u l C r e t f

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Define Relation with lay out Types
Visual Coding PFA Clustering Method
Process Similarity methods Rank Order Method

Clustering Methods
Using Process Similarity methods:
Create Machine Part Matrices Compute machine pair wise Similarity Coefficient comparisons:

S ij
here :

x ij

Q g c f M r C s y l A e v i t n a u


x jj

x ij is # of p arts (in m atrix) visitin g b oth m achin es of th e p air


Arranging Machines in GT Cell

is # of p arts visitin g on e b u t no t b oth m ach in es

P a r e b m u N t X A B C D E 1 1 1 1 1 1
M ID e n i h c a

Computing Similarity Coefficients:

Total Number is: 5 1 6
[(N-1)N]/2 = [(5-1)5]/2 = 10 Where N-is No. of machines. For 25 machines (typical number in a small Job Shop): 30 0 Sijs

3 1 1

Here they are:

1 1 1

1 .33 1 2 0 S AC 0 04 2 S AD .67 2 1 S AB

0 0 05 0 S BC 0 04 2 S BD .67 2 1 0 S BE 0 0 5 0 SCD 0 05 2 SCE .67 2 1 0 S DE 0 06 S AE

Examining our Matrix and our freshly clustered machine cells, we develop 2 part families:
For the Cell A/D/B: Part Numbers 2, 3 & 5 For the Cell C/E: Part Numbers 1, 4 & 6

Here, if the similarity coefficient is > 0.33 consider clustering This criteria means clustering:
A&D, A&B, B&D C&E

A&C, A&E, B&C, B&E and C&D, D&E

Care must be taken (in most cases) to assure that each cell has all the machines it needs sometimes a couple of families need a key machine
In this case, the manager must decide to either replicate the common machine or share it between the cells creating a bottleneck and scheduling problem for each cell This is typically one of the cost problems in CMS systems

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Summarizing (Process Similarity Method):

Make Machine/Part Matrix Compute Similarity Coefficients Cluster Machines with positive ( >.33) Sijs Determine Part Families for the clusters (cells) Decide if machine replication is cost effective Re-layout facility and Cross Train workforce Start counting your new found cash Court customers to grow part families on Cellby-Cell basis

Other Clustering Methods:

Rank order Clustering
This method automates the cluster study by computing Binary weights from a machine part matrix It orders parts and machine cells automaticallyby structuring and computing the matrix with binary weights It implies a computer algorithm for solving the clustering problem It may not solve if machines are needed by more than one family forces intelligence in application and hand scanning after several ordering iterations

Rank Order Clustering Method: Steps:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. For each row of the machine/part matrix (M/P /M) read the pattern of cell entries as a binary word. Rank the rows by decreasing binary value. Equal values stay in same order. Ask if newly ranked rows in the matrix are the same as previous order? Yes (STOP) No (continue) Re-form the M/P /M with rows in new descending order. Now rank the columns by decreasing binary word weight. Columns of equal weight are left where they are Are current column weights the same as current column order? Yes (STOP), No (continue) Re-form the matrix column order per rank order (highest to left) and return to# 1.

Lets try it with our earlier problem:

P a r e b m u N t X A B C D E 1 1 1 1 1 1
M ID e n i h c a

3 1 1

5 1

1 1 1

Step 1:
B .W . T

Step 3:
P a r e b m u N t
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24+23 = 24 1 22+21=6 5 22+21+2 0=7 4 24+23= 24 2 1 22+20= 5 6 2 4= 1 6 3 2 3 4 1 1 1 5 6 1 D.E q u i v R k n a E C 24 23 22 21 20

P a r s e b m u N t
1 B .W : t A B C D E 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 2 24 3 23 1 1 1 1 1 4 22 5 21 1 6 20

M ID e n i h c a


23+21=1 0 24+23 =24 25+22=36 24+23+21= 26 25+22+20= 37

5 4 2 3 1 D.E q u v i R k n a

S 2:M p e t ! d r o e R t s u

M ID e n i h c a

S 4:M p e t d r o e R t s u

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! R s u l C t a e r Back at Step 1: G

Issues in Clustering:
D.E q v R k n a

P a r e b m u N t
1 B : t W E C 25 1 1 4 24 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 23 1 3 22 2 21 5 20

R/O clustering oscillations indicating need of machine replication (happens often!) Presence of Outliers and/or Voids in the finished clusters
Outliers indicate the need of machine replication Voids indicate skippedmachines in a cell

25+24+ 23=56 25+24= 48 22+21+20 =7 22+21=6 22+20=5

1 2 3 4 5


Generally speaking, these clustering algorithms are designed to convert existing routes for facility reorganization
They require a previous engineering study to be performed to develop a series of routers on a core sample of parts that represent most of the production in the shop

Alternative means to Develop Cells/Families: Most often companies rely on Classification and Coding (C&C) systems for analyzing their part mix These codes can be general purpose or company specific
General Purpose:
Opitz is a german developed code for machined parts (see over) KC1, KC2 and KK1 systems Japanese government lab based codes for machined parts Brish a british developed code for general material use Foundry codes have been developed by several groups (see Lindeke & Rubinovich, 19 8 7 in USA)

M ID e n i h c a

O P! O T S : m h y a t s e d r

Examining Opitz Code:

Examining Opitz Code:

Examining Opitz Code:

T zp O t e d c m r o F s i h t r a p e k i l f s h n u S d o C

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Alternative means to Develop Cells/Families:

They can be company specific If so, they are typically hierarchical and list important characteristics of the part/process mix, physical characteristics like size, geometric features, or material, etc. Since they are specific they tend to be more accurate in building part families

Alternative means to Develop Cells/Families:

Using GT Classification and coding systems, parts are coded by experts at the company The newly coded part is used to search existing production databases for similarly coded products The new part is assigned to the family it most closely matches Its routing is thus set and only minor variation needs to be considered Using specific digits, a company can target marketing in certain areas of their product mix

Alternative means to Develop Cells/Families:

In a greenfield shop, managers can develop facility designs (in the form of reasonable cells) by selecting reasonable seedparts as suggested by their GT C&C system These seedscan be used to build routers and, hence appropriate machine clusters Using GT C&C systems, process clusters evolve from parts as opposed to clustering evolving by process

Fixturing is a means to speed up part loading and increase accuracy of machine and mfg. processes These are tools that:
Locate the work for geometric control of various DOF May also provide a means to guide the tooling used to perform the operations (Jigs ) Before being used these tool must be accurately placed on the machine often a time consuming task since their placement tolerance must be 10x better than part tolerance!

In CMS, it is often possible to build Family Fixtures These are fixtures that can be shared among all the parts in the family (because they are similar geometrically and by mfg. process) thus reducing time to set-up any part in the family The Family Fixture is generic and may (likely) require the addition of specific change pieces for different members of the family but definitely not different fixtures.

Fixturing Example of Cost Savings:

Shop cost is Rs. 50 / hour Hand setup is 2 minutes/piece (lot is 40 0 parts) Setup on Fixture is 0. 0 3 min/part Saving of 1.9 7 min = .033 hr = Rs.1.64/part If machine takes 5 minutes/part, Production rate increases from8 .57 parts/hour to 11.9 3 parts/hr almost a 40 % increase! The company would invest in Fixturing tools if the cost of a fixture applied to a given part over the life of the tooling and part production is less than the Rs.1.64 savings from reduced setup times

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Fixturing Conventional fixturing means a separate fixture for each part made Family fixturing means a separate fixture for each family made (but several adaptors for individuals in the family) Typically, Family Fixtures cost more than conventional fixtures so lets do a cost analysis

Conventional Fixturing
Facility Tool Costs:

Ctools Cwi
i 1

P =n l g i d s t a p f o r e b m u


C ; t o c n g e d s i ; o c l r e t a m s C ; n o t c r b a f s i C ; c y r o t e v n s i C t o c g l d n a h s i C di m f i h

Cwi Cd Cm C f Ci Ch
leads to unit tooling cost/part:

i 1


n =l (s d s a p o r b u n m t e f i .) t


Family Fixturing:
Cell Tooling Cost:

C l a i t e v n o M l o T n i a R .500 s 1 p / a t r N A N A 400 3b a / h c t y r /3 y s r =3600 G d I T e a s R 1 . s 000 1 y l i m a r o f R 1 . s 00 .85/p a t r 400 3b a / h c t y r /3 y s r =3600

Ctools CFF Ca (i )
i 1

Q =n y l F i s t a p f o r e b m u

#F .R q e u d e r i C r p a d A t s o

Ca cost of adaptor CFF Cd Cm C f Ci Ch

leads to unit tool cost/part:

C ;m t o c n g e d s i ; o c l r e t a m s i C ; n o t c r b a f s i C ; c y r o t e v n s i C t o c g l d n a h s i C d f i h N .A o q e R s r o t p a d r T z S e d r O l a c i p y e


Ctool Qn

T /li h t B l a c i p y e f m t n =l (s d y p h c a o r b u n m t e f i .) t

Family Fixturing:
N .P o a r s t 1 2 3 20 C .T s l o R .500 s R 1 . s 000 R 1 . s 500 R 1 . s 0000 U s o C t i n 500/3600 =. 1 39 1 000/7200=. 1 39 1 500/ 1 0800=. 1 39 1 0000/72000=. 1 39 G s l o T R 1 . s 085* R 1 . s 1 70 R 1 . s 255 R .2700 s U s o C t i n 1 085/3600=.30 1 (.278) 1 70/7200=. 1 63 (. 1 53) 1 255/ 1 0800=. 1 1 6 (. 1 1 ) 2700/72000 = .038

Family Fixturing:
Earlier we found the text author stating that the cost of inventory in a batch is independent of schedule here we see this may not be the case! In a cell, setting up the family fixture is time consuming but changing between family members is quick and easy only the time to remove an adaptor and addition of a new one (or not!) This leads to the second rung of the factory with a future SMED if scheduling is rational in the cells!

* N o 000+.85* 1 : e t 1 * 1 00=1 085( m a 000i 1 d l u o h s e b y ! 1 o y l m f a n

1 0

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Lean Manufacturing is then INTIMATELY tied to CMS and GT

These methods add efficiency to the production floor They improve our quality picture They empower employees They reduce setup and product change time They mean more productivity They JUST WORK!

Define Relation with lay out Types
Visual Coding PFA Clustering Method
Process Similarity methods Rank Order Method

Q g c f M r C s y l A e v i t n a u

Arranging Machines in GT Cell Family Fixtureing


Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Sections: 1. What is a Flexible Manufacturing System? 2. FMS Components 3. FMS Applications and Benefits 4. FMS Planning and Implementation Issues 5. Quantitative Analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Flexible Manufacturing Systems

Where to Apply FMS Technology

The plant presently either:
Produces parts in batches or Uses manned GT cells and management wants to automate the cells

Flexible Manufacturing System - Defined

A highly automated GT machine cell, consisting of a group of processing stations (usually CNC machine tools), interconnected by an automated material handling and storage system, and controlled by an integrated computer system The FMS relies on the principles of GT
No manufacturing system can produce an unlimited range of products An FMS is capable of producing a single part family or a limited range of part families

It must be possible to group a portion of the parts made in the plant into part families
The part similarities allow them to be processed on the FMS workstations

Parts and products are in the mid-volume, mid-variety production range

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Flexibility Tests in an Automated Manufacturing System

To qualify as being flexible, a manufacturing system should satisfy the following criteria (yes answer for each question):
1. Can it process different part styles in a non-batch mode? 2. Can it accept changes in production schedule? 3. Can it respond gracefully to equipment malfunctions and breakdowns? 4. Can it accommodate introduction of new part designs?

A l C g i r c f n M d e a m o t u

Automated manufacturing cell with two machine tools and robot. Is it a flexible cell?

Is the Robotic Work Cell Flexible?

1. Part variety test
Can it machine different part configurations in a mix rather than in batches?

Is the Robotic Work Cell Flexible?

3. Error recovery test
Can it operate if one machine breaks down?
Example: while repairs are being made on the broken machine, can its work be temporarily reassigned to the other machine?

2. Schedule change test

Can production schedule and part mix be changed?

4. New part test

As new part designs are developed, can NC part programs be written off-line and then downloaded to the system for execution?

Types of FMS
Kinds of operations
Processing vs. assembly Type of processing
If machining, rotational vs. non-rotational

Single-Machine Manufacturing Cell

Number of machines (workstations):

1. Single machine cell (n = 1) 2. Flexible manufacturing cell (n = 2 or 3) 3. Flexible manufacturing system (n = 4 or more)

1 2

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A single-machine CNC machining cell (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron)

Flexible Manufacturing Cell

A two-machine flexible manufacturing cell for machining (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron)

A five-machine flexible manufacturing system for machining (photo courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron)

Features of the Three Categories

FMS Types Level of Flexibility

1. Dedicated FMS
Designed to produce a limited variety of part styles The complete universe of parts to be made on the system is known in advance Part family likely based on product commonality rather than geometric similarity

2. Random-order FMS
Appropriate for large part families New part designs will be introduced Production schedule is subject to daily changes

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Dedicated vs. Random-Order FMSs

1. 2. 3. 4.

FMS Components
Workstations Material handling and storage system Computer control system Human labor

Load and unload station(s)
Factory interface with FMS Manual or automated Includes communication interface with worker to specify parts to load, fixtures needed, etc.

Material Handling and Storage

Random, independent movement of parts between stations Capability to handle a variety of part styles
Standard pallet fixture base Workholding fixture can be adapted

CNC machine tools in a machining type system

CNC machining centers Milling machine modules Turning modules

Assembly machines

Temporary storage Convenient access for loading and unloading Compatibility with computer control

Material Handling Equipment

Primary handling system establishes basic FMS layout Secondary handling system - functions:
Transfers work from primary handling system to workstations Position and locate part with sufficient accuracy and repeatability for the operation Reorient part to present correct surface for processing Buffer storage to maximize machine utilization

Five Types of FMS Layouts

The layout of the FMS is established by the material handling system Five basic types of FMS layouts
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In-line Loop Ladder Open field Robot-centered cell

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FMS In-Line Layout

FMS In-Line Layout

Straight line flow, well-defined processing sequence similar for all work units Work flow is from left to right through the same workstations No secondary handling system

Linear transfer system with secondary parts handling system at each workstation to facilitate flow in two directions

FMS Loop Layout

FMS Rectangular Layout

One direction flow, but variations in processing sequence possible for different part types Secondary handling system at each workstation

Rectangular layout allows recirculation of pallets back to the first station in the sequence after unloading at the final station

FMS Ladder Layout

Loop with rungs to allow greater variation in processing sequence

FMS Open Field Layout

Multiple loops and ladders, suitable for large part families

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Robot-Centered Cell
Suited to the handling of rotational parts and turning operations

FMS Computer Functions

1. Workstation control
Individual stations require controls, usually computerized

2. Distribution of control instructions to workstations

Central intelligence required to coordinate processing at individual stations

3. Production control
Product mix, machine scheduling, and other planning functions

FMS Computer Functions

4. Traffic control
Management of the primary handling system to move parts between workstations

FMS Computer Functions

7. Tool control
Tool location
Keeping track of each tool in the system Monitoring usage of each cutting tool and determining when to replace worn tools

5. Shuttle control
Coordination of secondary handling system with primary handling system

Tool life monitoring

8 . Performance monitoring and reporting

Availability, utilization, production piece counts, etc.

6. Workpiece monitoring
Monitoring the status of each part in the system

9 . Diagnostics
Diagnose malfunction causes and recommend repairs

Duties Performed by Human Labor

Loading and unloading parts from the system Changing and setting cutting tools Maintenance and repair of equipment NC part programming Programming and operating the computer system Overall management of the system

FMS Applications
Machining most common application of FMS technology Assembly Inspection Sheet metal processing (punching, shearing, bending, and forming) Forging

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FMS at Chance-Vought Aircraft

(courtesy of Cincinnati Milacron)

FMS for Sheet Metal Fabrication

FMS Benefits
Increased machine utilization
24 hour operation likely to justify investment Automatic tool changing Automatic pallet changing at stations Queues of parts at stations to maximize utilization Dynamic scheduling of production to account for changes in demand

FMS Benefits
Greater responsiveness to change Reduced inventory requirements
Different parts produced continuously rather than in batches

Fewer machines required Reduction in factory floor space required

Lower manufacturing lead times Reduced labor requirements Higher productivity Opportunity for unattended production
Machines run overnight ("lights out operation")

FMS Planning and Design Issues

Part family considerations
Defining the part family of families to be processed
Based on part similarity Based on product commonality

FMS Planning and Design Issues

Production volume
Annual quantities determined number of machines required

Processing requirements
Determine types of processing equipment required

Physical characteristics of workparts

Size and weight determine size of processing equipment and material handling equipment

Types of workstations Variations in process routings Work-in-process and storage capacity Tooling Pallet fixtures

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FMS Operational Issues

Scheduling and dispatching
Launching parts into the system at appropriate times

FMS Operational Issues

Part grouping
Which parts should be on the system at one time

Tool management
When to change tools

Machine loading
Deciding what operations and associated tooling at each workstation

Pallet and fixture allocation

Limits on fixture types may limit part types that can be processed

Part routing
Selecting routes to be followed by each part

Quantitative Analysis of Flexible Manufacturing Systems

FMS analysis techniques:
1. 2. 3. 4. Deterministic models Queueing models Discrete event simulation Other approaches, including heuristics


Deterministic models
1. Bottleneck model - estimates of production rate, utilization, and other measures for a given product mix 2. Extended bottleneck model - adds work-in-process feature to basic model

Design Description (p.702)

Design Principle

Algorithm used for calculating the throughput (X) of the material-handling device (MHD) based on Mean Value Analysis. (p.70 3) Assumption:S HD M e h r f w c s n o i a t

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Design Principle Cont.

Q N g n i e u e t workM od e l Pallets come out from a blackbox and wait for service in a queue where the MHD serves each pallet in FIFO fashion. Request for service are made by the pallets which are in the blackbox. Assumption: rate at which pallet arrives from the blackbox is a function of (N-m): N=num.of pallets /m=pallets waiting in the queue for MHD M/M/ C/N queueing model. Reference [29 ] Using this model, the service rate () for the pallet can be found, and hence the average waiting time in the queue or MHD.

Design Principle Cont.

Algorithm to calculate the a v e g a r waiting time (Wr) of MHD.

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFS) network - Fuzzy toolbox in MATLAB used for approximating Tr, X and Wr. - The performance measures are found by varying different system parameters: C, , N and S. - Using these parameters as inputs, an ANFS network was built. - ANFS measure values serve as a comparison for the analytical values calculated using MVA. - Fix set of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous processing times for fuzzy and MVA measurements:

Results Cont.
Parameters: N=24,S=15, Q=5 As the number of MHD (C) increases, the throughput (X) and average time (Wr) decreases.

Results Cont.
Parameters: N=24, =15, Q=5
Effect of S on X and Wr for C=1 and C=5 X and Wr increase with increasing S. However, for heterogeneous processing time these take lower values in comparison to the homogeneous one. Both X and Wr are larger for C=1 compared to C=5

Results Cont.
Parameters: S=15, =0 .25, Q=5
- As N increases, both X and Wr decrease - For homogeneous values of processing time these take the higher value in comparison to the heterogeneous one

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Results Cont.
- Result of mean service time (Tr) and (Wr) by varying the move time multiplier (). - As increases, Tr increases linearly - The waiting time (Wr) increases exponentially as also increases.

What the Equations Tell Us

For a given part mix, the total production rate is ultimately limited by the bottleneck station If part mix ratios can be relaxed, it may be possible to increase total FMS production rate by increasing the utilization of non-bottleneck stations As a first approximation, bottleneck model can be used to estimate the number of servers of each type to achieve a specified overall production rate

What the Equations Tell Us

The number of parts in the FMS at any one time should be greater than the number of servers (processing machines) in the system
Ratio of two parts per server is probably optimum Parts must be distributed throughout the FMS, especially in front of the bottleneck station If WIP is too low, production rate is impaired IF WIP is too high, MLT increases


Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)

CAPP is the use of computer based decision support systems in process planning. CAPP offers potential benefit in terms of reducing the routine clerical work of manufacturing engineers and helps in producing rational, consistent and optimal process plans

Process Planning is that Function Within a Manufacturing Facility that Establishes which Machining Processes & Parameters are to be Used (As Well As Those Machines Capable Of Performing These Processes) To Convert (Machine) A Piece Part From Its Initial Form To A Final Form Predetermined (Usually By A Design Engineer) From An Engineering Drawing. (i.e. The Preparation of the Detailed Work Instructions to Produce a Part) Pr o c e d r b g i n a l p s m g i r t c f u n a B e g d i r

De s n g i

M g i r t c f u n a


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Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)

Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)

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Computer aided process control

Pressure temperature flow level proximity force

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Computer aided process control