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Product Restrictions

BEAM161 Element Description

BEAM161 has several characteristics:

It is incrementally objective (rigid body rotations do not generate strains), allowing for the treatment

of finite strains that occur in many practical applications.

It is simple for computational efficiency and robustness.

It is compatible with the brick elements.

It includes finite transverse shear strains. However, the added computations needed to retain this strain

component, compared to those for the assumption of no transverse shear strain, are significant.

The Belytschko beam element formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2, 4, 5) is part of a family of structural finite elements

that use a "co-rotational technique" for treating large rotation.

This element is used in explicit dynamic analyses only. Refer to the LS-DYNA Theoretical Manual for more

information.

Figure 1: BEAM161 Geometry

3

J

K

I

s

r

t

2

1

973

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of ANSYS, Inc. and its subsidiaries and affiliates.

BEAM161 Input Data

The geometry, node locations, and the coordinate system for this element are shown in Figure 1: BEAM161

Geometry (p. 973). Node K determines the initial orientation of the cross section.

The element is defined by nodes I and J in the global coordinate system. Node K defines a plane (with I and

J) containing the element s-axis. The element r-axis runs parallel to the centroidal line of the element and

through nodes I and J. Node K is always required to define the element axis system and it must not be co-

linear with nodes I and J. The location of node K is used only to initially orient the element. (For information

about orientation nodes and beam meshing, see Meshing Your Solid Model in the Modeling and Meshing

Guide.)

Use the EDLOAD command to apply nodal loads and other load types described below. For detailed inform-

ation on how to apply loads in an explicit dynamic analysis, see the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide.

Pressures can be input as surface loads on the element faces as shown by the circled numbers in Fig-

ure 1: BEAM161 Geometry (p. 973). Note, however, that pressure is actually a traction load applied to the center

line of the element. Use the EDLOAD command to apply the pressure load, and input the pressure as a force

per unit length value. Positive normal pressures act into the element.

Base accelerations and angular velocities in the x, y, and z directions can be applied at the nodes using the

EDLOAD command. To apply these loads, you need to first select the nodes and create a component. The

load is then applied to that component.

You can also use the EDLOAD command to apply loads (displacements, forces, etc.) on rigid bodies.

You can choose from the following materials when working with BEAM161, with the restrictions as noted:

Isotropic Elastic

Bilinear Kinematic (Except KEYOPT(1) = 2)

Plastic Kinematic (Except KEYOPT(1) = 2)

Viscoelastic (KEYOPT(1) = 1 only)

Power Law Plasticity (KEYOPT(1) = 1 only)

Piecewise Linear Plasticity (KEYOPT(1) = 1 only)

KEYOPT(1) allows you to specify one of four element formulations for BEAM161 (see "BEAM161 Input Sum-

mary" (p. 977)). For details of real constants to be specified for each element formulation, see Table 1: BEAM161

Real Constants (p. 978).

KEYOPT(2) is valid only with rectangular element formulations (KEYOPT(1) = 0, 1, 4).

The following illustrations show the valid standard beam cross sections when KEYOPT(4)>0, and KEYOPT(5)

= 2 (standard beam cross section).

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974

BEAM161

Figure 2: Standard Beam Cross Sections

t

w

s

t

t

w

w

s

t

w

3 4 5

1

2

2 3 4

9

6

7

8

1 5

w = flange width

t

f

= flange thickness

d = depth

t

w

= web thickness

s

ref

= location of reference surface normal to s, Hughes-Liu beam only

t

ref

= location of reference surface normal to t, Hughes-Liu beam only

Type 1: W-section Type 2: C-section

1 2 3

4

5

6

7 8 9

s

1 2 3

4

5

6

7 8 9

Type 4: T-section Type 3: Angle section

t

t

f

d d

w

t

f

t

t

f

s

t

w

d

w

d

t

w

t

f

975

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BEAM161

Figure 3: Standard Beam Cross Sections (continued)

t

Type 5: Rectangular tubing

1 2 3

4 5

6 7 8

Type 6: Z-section

Type 7: Trapezoidal section

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

t

w

t

f

s

w

d

t

d

w

t

f

t

w

1 2 3

4

5

6

7 8 9

d

w

t

w

KEYOPT(5) is not valid when KEYOPT(1) = 2.

A summary of the element input is given in "BEAM161 Input Summary" (p. 977). Additional information about

real constants for this element is provided in Table 1: BEAM161 Real Constants (p. 978). For more information

about this element, see the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide.

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976

BEAM161

BEAM161 Input Summary

Nodes

I, J, K (K is the orientation node)

Degrees of Freedom

UX, UY, UZ, VX, VY, VZ, AX, AY, AZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ

Note

For explicit dynamics analyses, V(X, Y, Z) refers to nodal velocity, and A(X, Y, Z) refers to

nodal acceleration. Although V(X, Y, Z) and A(X, Y, Z) appear as DOFs, they are not actually

physical DOFs. However, these quantities are computed as DOF solutions and stored for post-

processing.

Real Constants

See Table 1: BEAM161 Real Constants (p. 978) for a description of the real constants.

Material Properties

EX, NUXY, DENS, DAMP (MP command)

RIGID (KEYOPT(1) = 1,2) (EDMP command)

BKIN, EVISC, PLAW (TB command; see Material Models in the ANSYS LS-DYNA User's Guide)

Surface Loads

Pressure --

face 1 (I-J) (+r tangential direction), face 2 (I-J) (-s normal direction), face 3 (I) (-t normal direction)

Body Loads

None

Special Features

This element supports all nonlinear features allowed for an explicit dynamic analysis.

KEYOPT(1)

Element formulation:

0, 1 --

Hughes-Liu with cross section integration (default)

2 --

Belytschko-Schwer resultant beam (resultant)

4 --

Belytschko-Schwer full cross section integration

5 --

Belytschko-Schwer circular beam with cross section integration

KEYOPT(2)

Quadrature rule:

1 --

One integration point

0, 2 --

2 x 2 Gauss quadrature (default)

977

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BEAM161

3 --

3 x 3 Gauss quadrature

4 --

3 x 3 Lobatto quadrature

5 --

4 x 4 Gauss quadrature

Note

KEYOPT(2) is valid only with rectangular element formulations (KEYOPT(1) = 0, 1, 4).

KEYOPT(4)

Integration rule for section:

0 --

Standard integration option

n --

User-defined integration rule ID (valid range: 1 to 9999)

KEYOPT(5)

Cross section type:

0 --

Rectangular cross section

1 --

Circular cross section

2 --

Arbitrary cross section (user defined integration rule) or standard beam cross section, if KEYOPT (4)

> 0.

Table 1 BEAM161 Real Constants

Use if... Description Name No.

KEYOPT (1) = 0,1, 4, or 5 Shear factor. SHRF 1

Default = 1.0

Recommended for rectangular sections

= 5/6.

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 4

KEYOPT (5) = 0 or 2

Beam thickness in s direction at node

1;

if KEYOPT (5) = 2, then use for arbitrary

cross section only.

TS1 2

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 4

KEYOPT (5) = 0 or 2

Beam thickness in s direction at node

2;

if KEYOPT (5) = 2, then use for arbitrary

cross section only.

TS2 3

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978

BEAM161

Use if... Description Name No.

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 4 Beam thickness in t direction at node 1; TT1 4

KEYOPT (5) = 0 or 2 if KEYOPT (5) = 2, then use for arbitrary

cross section only.

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 4

KEYOPT (5) = 0 or 2

Beam thickness in t direction at node 2;

if KEYOPT (5) = 2, then use for arbitrary

cross section only.

TT2 5

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Beam outer diameter at node

1[1 (p. 981)]

DS1 2

KEYOPT (5) = 1

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Beam outer diameter at node

2[1 (p. 981)]

DS2 3

KEYOPT (5) = 1

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Beam inner diameter at node

1[1 (p. 981)]

DT1 4

KEYOPT (5) = 1

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Beam inner diameter at node

2[1 (p. 981)]

DT2 5

KEYOPT (5) = 1

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, 4, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Location of reference surface normal to

s-axis

= 1 side at s = 1

NSLOC 6

= 0 center

= -1 side at s = -1

KEYOPT (1) = 0, 1, 4, or 5

KEYOPT (4) = 0

Location of reference surface normal to

t-axis

= 1 side at t = 1

NTLOC 7

= 0 center

= -1 side at t = -1

KEYOPT (4) = 0

KEYOPT (1) = 2

Cross sectional area

See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

A 8

979

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BEAM161

Use if... Description Name No.

KEYOPT (4) = 0 Moment of inertia about s-axis ISS 9

KEYOPT (1) = 2 See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

KEYOPT (4) = 0

KEYOPT (1) = 2

Moment of inertia about t-axis

See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

ITT 10

KEYOPT (4) = 0

KEYOPT (1) = 2

Polar moment of inertia

See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

IRR 11

KEYOPT (4) = 0

KEYOPT (1) = 2

Shear area

See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

SA 12

KEYOPT (4) > 0 and KEYOPT

(5) = 2

Number of integration points

See Figure 6: Definition of Integration

Points for User Defined Integration

Rule (p. 984)

NIP 13

KEYOPT (4) > 0 and KEYOPT

(5) = 2

Relative area of cross section; that is,

the actual cross-sectional area divided

RA 14

by the area defined by the product of

the specified thickness in the s direction

and the thickness in the t direction.

See Figure 5: Definition of Relative Area

for User Defined Integration Rule (p. 984).

KEYOPT (4) > 0[2 (p. 982)]

and KEYOPT (5) = 2 (stand-

ard cross section only)

Standard cross section type.

Note

If this type is nonzero, then

NIP and RA should be zero.

ICST 15

Cross section types are:

1 - W-section

2 - C-section

3 - Angle section

4 - T-section

5 - Rectangular tubing

6 - Z-section

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980

BEAM161

Use if... Description Name No.

7 - Trapezoidal section

See Figure 2: Standard Beam Cross Sec-

tions (p. 975), Figure 3: Standard Beam

Cross Sections (continued) (p. 976).

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Flange width W 16

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Flange thickness TF 17

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Depth D 18

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Web thickness TW 19

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Location of reference surface normal to

s

SREF 20

Note

If KEYOPT (1) = 1 only

ICST > 0, and NIP = RA = 0 Location of reference surface normal to

t

TREF 21

Note

If KEYOPT (1) = 1 only

KEYOPT (4) > 0

KEYOPT (5) = 2, arbitrary

cross section only

s coordinate of integration point

i = 1, NIP (NIP = 20 max)[3 (p. 982)]

S(i) 22, 25,

28, ...79

NIP > 0, RA > 0, ICST = 0

KEYOPT (4) > 0

KEYOPT (5) = 2, arbitrary

cross section only

t coordinate of integration point

i = 1, NIP (NIP = 20 max)[3 (p. 982)]

T(i) 23, 26,

29, ...80

NIP > 0, RA > 0, ICST = 0

KEYOPT (4) > 0

KEYOPT (5) = 2, arbitrary

cross section only

Weighting factor; that is, the area asso-

ciated with the integration point divided

by the actual cross-section area.

i = 1, NIP (NIP = 20 max)[3 (p. 982)]

WF(i) 24, 27,

30, ...81

NIP > 0, RA > 0, ICST = 0

See Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross

Sections for Several Common Cross Sec-

tions (p. 982)

1. DS1, DS2, DT1, and DT2 are used only if KEYOPT (5) = 1. If KEYOPT (5) = 0 or 2, then use TS1, TS2, TT1,

and TT2.

981

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BEAM161

2. For KEYOPT (5) = 2, standard cross-section type, the integration point ID (KEYOPT (4) > 0) is not used

since NIP = RA = 0. However, you must provide this input in any case.

3. Specify S(i), T(i), and WF(i) for each integration point. For example, for 20 integration points, specify

S(1), T(1), WF(1), S(2), T(2), WF(2), ... S(20), T(20), WF(20).

Figure 4: Properties of Beam Cross Sections for Several Common Cross Sections

s

t

b

t

w

h

t

f

s

t

r

I I

r

J

r

f f

A r

tt ss

tt ss

4

4

2

2

2

10

9

s

t

r

h

I I r h

J r h

f f

A rh

tt ss

tt ss

3

3

2

2

2

I

h

ht bt

I

b

bt ht

J

b h

tt w f

ss f w

_

,

_

,

2

2

2 2

6

3

6

3

2

( )

( )

(tt t

bt ht

f

A

b t t

f

A

h t t

A bt ht

w f

w f

tt

w f

ss

f w

f w

)

( )

[ ( ) ]

[ ( ) ]

(

+

+

+

2

2

2 ))

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982

BEAM161

s

t

h

b

I

bh

I

b h

J

b

h

b

h

tt

ss

_

,

_

,

1

]

1

3

3

4

4

12

12

1

3

0 21 1

12

.

11

hb

f f

A bh

tt ss

3

6

5

Shear area

A

f

A

983

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BEAM161

Figure 5: Definition of Relative Area for User Defined Integration Rule

t

s

S

t

t

t

Relative area =

A

S

t

t

t

t

t

= input as TT1 or TT2 on R command

S

t

= input as TS1 or TS2 on R command

Figure 6: Definition of Integration Points for User Defined Integration Rule

A

1

A

2

A

3

A

4

A

5

A

6

A

7

A

8

A

9

A

10

A

11

A

12

s

t

BEAM161 Output Data

To store output data for this element, you first need to specify the number of integration points for which

you want output data. Use the EDINT,,BEAMIP command during the solution phase of your analysis to

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984

BEAM161

specify the number of integration points. By default, output is written for 4 integration points. For the res-

ultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2), there is no stress output (regardless of the BEAMIP setting). If

you set BEAMIP = 0, no stress output is written for any of the beam elements. In this case, the beams will

not appear in any POST1 plots because the program assumes they are failed elements.

To display the data for BEAM161, you must use the ETABLE command. Then, you can use the PRETAB

command to print the output data. The RSYS command has no effect when postprocessing output for this

element.

The following items are available on the results file.

Table 2 BEAM161 Element Output Definitions

Definition Name

Stresses S (r, rs, rt)

Equivalent plastic strain EPEQ

Axial strain EPTO

Member force in the element coordinate system, r direction MFORr

Out-of-plane (s, t) shear N (s, t )

Element (s, t) moments M (s, t )

Torsional resultant TORQ

For each of these output data, one set of values, given at the centroid, is output for the entire beam.

Table 3: BEAM161 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 985) lists output available through the ETABLE and ESOL

commands using the Sequence Number method. See The General Postprocessor (POST1) in the Basic Ana-

lysis Guide and The Item and Sequence Number Table (p. 9) in this manual for more information. The following

notation is used in Table 3: BEAM161 Item and Sequence Numbers (p. 985):

Name

output quantity as defined in the Table 2: BEAM161 Element Output Definitions (p. 985)

Item

predetermined Item label for ETABLE or ESOL command

E

sequence number for single-valued or constant element data

1st IP

sequence number for the first integration point

nth IP

sequence number for the nth integration point as defined by the EDINT command.

Table 3 BEAM161 Item and Sequence Numbers

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quant-

ity Name

nth IP 1st IP E Item

- - 1 SMISC MFORr

- - 2 SMISC Ns

- - 3 SMISC Nt

985

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BEAM161

ETABLE and ESOL Command Input

Output Quant-

ity Name

nth IP 1st IP E Item

- - 4 SMISC Ms

- - 5 SMISC Mt

- - 6 SMISC TORQ

5 x (n-1) +1 1 - LS Sr

5 x (n-1) +2 2 - LS Srs

5 x (n-1) +3 3 - LS Srt

5 x (n-1) +4 4 - LS EPEQ

5 x (n-1) +5 5 - LS EPTO

1. In this table, n refers to the current integration point for which you want output data.

BEAM161 Assumptions and Restrictions

The beam must not have a zero length.

The beam can have any open or single-cell closed cross-sectional shape for which the area and moments

of inertia are nonzero.

Warping torsion is assumed negligible and the warping moment of inertia is not used in the stiffness

computation.

Warping of the cross section is unconstrained and is the same for all cross-sections; therefore, the tor-

sional rotation of the cross-section is assumed to vary linearly along the length. However, warping is

not applicable to the resultant beam formulation (KEYOPT(1) = 2).

BEAM161 Product Restrictions

There are no product-specific restrictions for this element.

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986

BEAM161

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