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An attempt has been made in this project; the exhaust gas is used to rotate the turbine with blower arrangement. Exhaust gas is used to rotate the blower and this air is given to the ignition input supply. Our fore most aim in selecting this project is to use efficiency turbo charging. It is also good with regard to economical considerations and engine efficiency. INTRODUCTION The output of the engine exhaust gas is given to the input of the turbine blades, so that the pressurized air produced. This power, the alternate power must be much more convenient in availability and usage. The next important reason for the search of effective, unadulterated power are to save the surrounding environments including men, machine and material of both the existing and the next forth generation from pollution, the cause for many harmful happenings and to reach the saturation point. The most talented power against the natural resource is supposed to be the electric and solar energies that best suit the automobiles. The unadulterated zero emission electrical and solar power, is the only easily attainable alternate source. Hence we decided to incorporate the solar power in the field of automobile, the concept of many Multi National Companies (MNC) and to get relieved from the incorrigible air pollution. DISADVANTAGES

1. 2.

Additional cost is required Additional space is required to install this arrangement in vehicles

ADVANTAGES Efficiency of the vehicle is improved Small modification is done in the vehicle Fuel consumption is less when compared to ordinary vehicle Less pollution

most cars nowadays are designed to exhibit under-steer characteristic when driven at high speeds.  The complete arrangement is called the steering system. mainly due to the uncontrolled movement of the rear axle caused by spring deflection which is initiated by body roll. as far as possible.  REQUIREMENTS OF STEERING SYSTEM  It should multiply the turning effort applied on the steering wheel by the driver.  To facilitate straight ahead condition of the vehicle after completing a turn.  It should be to a certain degree irreversible so that the shocks of the road surface encountered by the wheels are not transmitted to the driver’s hand.  To minimize tyre wear and increase the life of the tyres .37 KB / Downloads: 691) FABRICATION OF FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM INTRODUCTION  The front-to-rear wheel alignment plays a significant role in the directional stability of a vehicle.  Although under-steer condition improves stability of the vehicle. the wheel should try to achieve straight ahead position. This should co-exist with the road feel for the driver so that he can feel the road condition without experiencing the effects of moving over it.  To provide directional stability of the vehicle while going straight ahead.  The mechanism should have self ±rightening effect so that when the driver release the steering wheel after negotiating the turn. STEERING SYSTEM  Steering of a four wheel vehicle is.  To improve stability. it increases the driver's steering effort.  This movement is produced by gearing and linkage between the steering wheel in front of the driver and the steering knuckle or wheel. both in time and direction.  Often the lack of stability causes a dangerous drive. FUNCTIONS OF THE STEERING SYSTEM  To control the angular motion the wheels and thus the direction of motion of the vehicle. Also since a vehicle handling changes with road speed. is difficult to predict.  Up to the mid-1950s the majority of cars suffered from over-steer. STEERING PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTS .  These disadvantages can be overcome to a great extent by using four wheel steering (4WS).  The road irregularities must be damped to the maximum possible extent.pptx (Size: 500.2 SLIDE. the response to a steering movement. arranged so that the front wheels will roll truly without any lateral slip.  The front wheels are supported on front axle so that they can swing to the left or right for steering.

 ACKERMANN STEERING MECHANISM  With perfect Ackermann.  Thus the angle between the vertical line and the kingpin centre line in the plane of the wheel (when viewed from the side) is called caster angle. But this may be difficult to arrange in practice with simple linkages. FABRICATION OF FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM  Here.  Over steer:  Over steer is defined when the slip angle of front wheels lesser than the slip angle of rear wheels.  Negative camber: When upper part of wheel is inside. the centre point of all of the circles traced by all wheels will lie at a common point. at any angle of steering. This tilt is known as caster. the rear wheels turn in a direction opposite to the front wheels so that to reduce the turning circle radius at low speeds. partly because it ignores important dynamic and compliant effects. CASTOR  In addition to being tilted inward toward the centre of the vehicle. (REAR STEER MODE). Maruti 800 is ideal compliment to advanced lifestyles and tastes with a car fully made for the Indian roads. It is manufactured by Maruti Udyog in India. This would be very useful in city traffic conditions  The main objective of our project is to fabricate the Four Wheel steering. DIAGRAMATICAL EXPLANATION CAMBER  The angle between the centre line of the tyre and the vertical line when viewed from the front of the vehicle is known as camber.  Neutral steer or counter steering:  Counter-steering can defined as when the slip angle of front wheels is equal to slip angle of rear wheels.  We made modifications in the MARUTHI-800 model car to achieve four wheel steering. modern cars do not use pure Ackermann steering.  Hence. but the principle is sound for low speed man oeuvres. Maruti 800 is the largest selling car in India. the kingpin axis may also be tilted forward or backward from the vertical line.  Under Steer Over Steer METHODOLOGY Neutral steer or counter steering .  Positive camber: When upper part of wheel is outside. VEHICLE DYNAMICS AND STEERING  Under steer:  Under steer is so called because when the slip angle of front wheels is greater than slip angle of rear wheels.

Powering all wheels gives maximum performance. Modification was made in the rear wheel assembly and addition of one more rack and pinion steering gear box for steering the rear wheels. Its successful implementation will allow for the development of a four-wheel. power both front wheels.  Turning radius of the vehicle can be decreased to a greater extent by rear steer mode.  The range of options available are to power both rear wheels. and a bevel gear arrangement is made to transfer the power to the rear steering gear box. WORKING PRINCIPLE  When the steering is steered the power is transferred to the front  steering gear box. since each wheel on the same side of the vehicle travels at the same velocity. Transfer rod is connected to the rear steering gear box. CONCLUSION AND SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK  An innovative feature of this steering linkage design and its ability to drive all four (or two) wheels using a single steering actuator. but known.  As the steering is steered the rear wheels also turn by the arrangements made and the rear wheel turn in the opposite direction. and power one rear and one front wheel on opposite sides of the vehicle. REAR WHEEL OPPOSITE TO FRONT WHEEL BENEFITS OF THE 4WS SYSTEM  In conjunction with rear steer mode.  Two supports are used to support the transfer rod. and optimum obstacle climbing . and. uncompromised static stability.and rear-wheel tracking. RESULT AND DISCUSSION  The use of four-wheel steering in wheel chairs introduces a dilemma for the control of that vehicle. Other bevel gear is connected to the transfer rod. driver fatigue can be reduced even over long drives. front.  As the vehicle Maruti 800 is front wheel drive there will be no difficulty in transferring the power from the Engine through Gear box. steering angles while the chair is idle. Optimum performance is likely attained when the wheels can be left at arbitrary. Rear steering gear box is fixed to the car body by bolts and nuts and the ends of the steering box are connected to the rear wheel hub where the tyres are mounted.  Due to the better handling and easier steering capability. steered power base with maximum maneuverability.  Then a transfer rod is placed in between the front and rear steering gear box to transfer the motion to rear steering gear box.  Stability of the vehicle increases. so the one bevel gear is introduced in the front steering rod.  Bevel gear is used to transmit the rotary motion perpendicularly. four completely independent channels of control are not necessary. only a rear wheel assembly with steering gear box is required. four-wheel steering can significantly improve the vehicle handling at both high and low speeds.

in few instances. the driver would enjoy nearly neutral steering under varying Four wheel steering system Four-wheel steering. Reference: http://seminarprojects. When the front and rear wheels are steered in opposite direction.capability. provides a means to actively steer the rear wheels during turning maneuvers. The front wheels do most of the steering. oversteer. they are said to be in-phase and this produces a kind of sideways movement of the car at low speeds. 4WS. 4WS is a serious effort on the part of automotive design engineers to provide nearneutral steering. this is called anti-phase. counter-phase or opposite-phase and it produces a sharper. It improves handling and helps the vehicle make tighter turns. It should not be confused with four-wheel drive in which all four wheels of a vehicle are powered. Rear wheel turning is generally limited to half during an opposite direction turn. When both the front and rear wheels steer toward the same direction. tighter turn. also called rear-wheel steering or all-wheel steering. If a car could automatically compensate for an understeer /oversteer problem. Production-built cars tend to understeer or. .

ADVANTAGES OF 4WS 1. The vehicle’s response to steering input becomes quicker and more precise throughout the vehicle’s entire speed range. Negative effects of road irregularities and crosswinds on the vehicle’s stability are minimized. vehicle maneuvering on narrow roads and during parking becomes easier. 4. 2. Therefore. The vehicle’s cornering behavior becomes more stable and controllable at high speeds as well as on wet or slippery road surfaces. 3. The vehicle is less likely to go into a spin even in situations in which the driver must make a sudden and relatively large change of direction. By steering the rear wheels in the direction oppos ite the front wheels at low speeds. the vehicle’s turning circle is greatly reduced. The vehicle’s straight-line stability at high speeds is improved. Stability in lane changing at high speeds is improved. . 5.