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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) MMPI Development The MMPI was empirically derived using a process called

criterion keying. Prior to the MMPI, personality tests were logically derived and relied on construct or face validity. Standardization on clinical groups Standardization on non-clinical or "normal" groups. Item selection and scale development. The final version. Problems with the MMPI Some items objectionable. Cultural relevance. Administration protocol was different from the original card box administration. Restandardization of the MMPI was needed. Changes to MMPI-2 141 items reworded to eliminate outdated and sexist language, and improve understanding. 16 repeated items were dropped. 13 items were dropped from the clinical scales because of objectionable item content. 77 items were dropped primarily from the last 100 items. 106 items were dropped from the MMPI and 107 items were added to the MMPI-2. The MMPI-2: The Final Version 567 items and retains the original 13 scales. Normative sample of 2,600 people from 7 states. The norm sample reflects national census data. T scores changed from linear Ts to uniform Ts. MMPI-2 Limitations Scores are heterogeneous. Scales have only low to moderate test-retest reliability. Inadequate for assessing normal personality. Variables such as race, sex, intelligence, and education can all elevate scores on some scales. Traditional labels upon which scale names were based have become outdated and misleading. Administration Issues Ethical test use Examinee testability Testing conditions Instructions Proctoring the test Time Scoring Completing the Basic Profile

Validity scales are placed separately to the right of the clinical scales.] is in the 70s No scale was in the 60s. Pd. & 7 Scales 3 and 7 Scales 0 and 1 Scales 9 and 5 Scale F 4*26"837 01-95 F -L/K is in the 90s are in the 80s are in the 70s are equal or within one point of each other are in the 60s are in the 50s [Do not need to include the last symbol since 50s is all that is left. Include as many marks as there are missing ranges.) Scales with T scores of the same value or within one point of each other should be underlined. Elevation symbols are then added using the following marks to designate ten-point T score ranges: !! ! ** * " ' / : # 120+ 110-120 100-109 90-99 80-89 70-79 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 29 and below are to the right of the # sign 3 4 Symbols are placed to the right of the scale numbers that fall within a particular range.g. and K.Welsh Coding System 1 2 Designate scales as 1 through 0. etc. (See example below. is in the 50s is in the 40s Scale L Scale K . Example: Scale 4 Scales 2 and 6 Scales 8. Including the mark indicates missing ranges. Do not use scale labels (e. F.. D. Hs. 3. List out the clinical scales from highest t o lowest T score.). Hy. L.

Interpreting Profile Validity Evaluat e the relationship between L. F.Interpreting Protocol Validity Time required to complete the test. Moderate scores (11 t o 29 items): profile is of questionable validity. L or Lie Scale [Slide: V. High scores (70T to 79T): Profile is of questionable validity. F or Infrequency Scale Extreme scores (> 100T) Very high scores (80T to 99T) High scores (65T to 79T) Moderate scores (60T to 64T) Modal scores (50T to 59T) Low scores (<50T) FB or Back F Scale Extreme scores (> 100T) Very high scores (80T to 99T) High scores (65T to 79T) Modal (50T to 64T) Low scores (< 50T) K or Correction Scale High scores (> 71T) Moderate scores (60T to 69T) Modal scores (40T to 59T) Low scores (< 40T) . and K scales to determine validity and interpret ability of results. Modal scores (50T to 59T): Profile is valid. Omissions or Cannot Say Items. Low scores (< 49T): Profile is o f questionable validity. ? Cannot Say Scale High scores (30+ items): profile is probably invalid.Fakegood] Very high scores (>80T): Profile is probably invalid. Erasures. Modal scores (2 to 10 items): Profile is probably valid Low scores (0 to 1 item): Profile is valid. Moderate scores (60T to 69T): Profile is probably valid.

e.. and form a steep valley or "V" Typical Clinical (Slide: V-Typical Clinical) Most frequently encountered validity profile in clinical settings. random response set VRIN < 12 Valid response set TRIN [True Response Inconsistency Scale] TRIN > 12 Probably invalid. Naïve attempt to look good (Slide: V-Naive) Profile slopes down from left to right L > F > K Defensive Pro file (Slide: V-Defensive) L & K are higher than F. all True Response Set TRIN = 6 to 12 Valid TRIN < 6 Probably invalid. F > 60T Typical Clinical [Variation 1] (Slide: V-Typical-1) L < 50T. All True Response Set (Slide: P-AllTrue) All False Response Set (Slide: P-AllFalse) Random Response Set (Slide: P-Random) Defensive Response Set (Slide: P-Defensive) All Deviant/All Nondeviant (Slide: P-Deviant) 2 3 4 VRIN & TRIN VRIN [Variable Response Inconsistency Scale] VRIN > 12 Probably invalid. F and K are about equal and both above 55T.Common Validity Scale Configurations Most validity scale configurations fall into one of 4 patterns. i. L < F < K. all False Response Set . 1 2 3 4 1 Normal Profile Naïve attempt to look good Defensive Pro file Typical Clinical Normal Profile (Slide: V-Normal) The three scales slope upward from left t o right. L and K < 50T. F > 65. Typical Clinical [Variation 2] (Slide: V-Typical-2) L and K are between 50T and 60T.

58 . possible somatic delusions Excessive concern about vague somatic complaints. Likely to be seen as immature. Frustrate and infuriate physicians. defeatist. pessimistic. Typically resist attempts at psychological interpretation of their symptoms. the more reliable and accurate it probably is. Typical of physically handicapped and persons with actual physical illness. Interpretations from one scale often will contradict those of another scale.64 40 . and lacking in drive. cynical. demand attention. stubborn. and responsible individual with good judgment and common sense. Unremarkable. whiny. Tend to "shop around" from physician to physician. There is generally no research support yet for within normal limits (WNL) score interpretations. Slope of the profile can be revealing. complaints are used to manipulate and control others (secondary gain). May be denying physical complaints.Interpreting the MMPI-2 Clinical Scales General Considerations Multipoint interpretations are preferable to single point interpretations. MMPI scores in this range indicated an alert capable.57 < 40 . The more extreme the score. Reflects a chronic personality style that is stable over time and resistant to treatment.80 Interpretation Extreme somatic concerns. Pessimistic about the ability of others to help them. Scale 1: Hypochondriasis (Hs) 32 items (33 on the MMPI) Measure excessive concern over poor health and somatic functioning. Prognosis not good. Scale 1 Interpretations T-Score Level > 80 65 .

lacking self-confidence or self-efficacy. feel dejected. . Consider reactive depression (especially when scale 2 is only elevation) or dysthymia if depression is chronic. Good prognosis for therapy. Experience little plea-sure and may feel life is not worth living. An elevated scale 2 (T > 65) can indicate suicide risk. Unremarkable. Consider major depressive episode. Consider suicide potential. Some elevation to be expected since most disorders include a depressive component. Lack selfconfidence and feel inferior. cheerful. D4: Mental Dullness Lack of energy. Examinees should rarely score in this range.Scale 2: Depression (D) 57 Items (60 on the MMPI) Measure a variety of depressive symptoms. enthusiastic. Measure reactive or exogenous depression rather than endogenous depression. May indicate a denial of depression. brood. D2: Psychomotor Retardation Lack energy to cope with everyday activities. withdrawn. D5: Brooding Lack energy. lack self-confidence. dissatisfied with life situation. and hopelessness pervade the examinee's life. Extreme feelings of guilt and self-deprecation. They feel inferior. MMPI scores in this range indicated an active alert. Scale 2 Interpretations T-Score Level > 70 Interpretation Pessimism. May feel that they are losing control of their thought processes and that life is not worthwhile. attention. and lack interest in what goes on around them. Deny good health and may report a wide variety of specific somatic complaints. difficulty with concentration. depression. worried. and sleep disturbances. Deny hostile or aggressive impulses or behavior. somatic complaints. and out going person. and feel uneasy in social situations. avoid other people. D3: Physical Malfunctioning Preoccupied with physical functioning. 60 . tension.59 < 40 Scale 2 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers D1: Subjective Depression Feel unhappy or depressed. appear to be emotionally immobilized.70 40 . Depressed moo d. ruminate. lack energy for coping with problems of everyday life. cry. and memory.

They have few defenses. Present a good front. Hy3: Lassitude-Malaise Feel uncomfortable and are not in good health.65 40 . Tend t o be sensitive about how others respond to them. self-centered. Scale 3 Interpretations T-Score Level > 80 65 . comfortable interacting with others. and have difficulty concentrating and sleeping. sensitive. Claim to see ot hers as ho nest. self-centered. Hy5: Inhibition of Aggression Deny host ile or aggressive impulses. fatigued. They are immature. Express little or no hostility towards others. Hy4: Somatic Complaints Have multiple somatic complaints of the type that suggest repression and conversion. and social isolation. Unremarkable. They avoid unpleasant issues and deny any problems. Extraverted. Specific somatic symptoms may develop under stress. suggestible. MMPI scores in this range indicated caust ic manners. and are socially conforming. naive.80 Interpretation Consider Conversion Disorder or Hysterical Neurosis Conversion Type. flamboyant. and reasonable. Fears this need will not be met if honest about their feelings and beliefs. Feel unhappy. cynicism.57 < 40 Scale 3 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers Hy1: Denial of Social Anxiety Socially extraverted. and superficial. not easily influenced by social standards and customs. and demanding of affection and attention. Hy2: Need for Affection Strong needs for attention and affection from others. narrow interests. weak. Associated with histrionic features. . Naive. but need attention and reassurance. lack insight into or deny their problems. 58 . sarcasm. exhibitionistic. and deny critical or resentful feelings towards ot hers.Scale 3: Hysteria (Hs) The 60 items on scale three (same as on MMPI) appear to measure admission of specific somatic complaints.

65 40 . Describe their families as lacking in love. 58 . social alienation. Admit to problems with the law or in school.57 < 40 Scale 4 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers Pd1: Familial Discord Struggle against family control. and rigid. MMPI scores in this range characterized examinees who were passive. and a disregard for consequences of their actions. poor social judgment. Strong association with Cluster B Personality Disorders. Likely to be unreliable. Rebelliousness and hostility toward authority figures. Unpredictable. Pd2: Authority Problems Resent the demands. conventional. Possible antisocial personality disorder. Tolerance for mediocrity and boredom. energetic. and lack identification with recognized conventions. antisocial tendencies eventually surface. little empathy.Scale 4: Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) The 50 items of scale 4 measure general social maladjustment. and boredom. and irresponsible. . and deny anxiety or dependency needs. understanding. however. Tend to externalize blame for their difficulties. Exhibit indifference. problems with family and authority figures. Have strong opinions and defend them vigorously. conventions. Extraverted. Unable to learn from mistakes or to plan ahead. Unremarkable. absence of strongly pleasant experiences. superficial relationships marked by conflict. dependent. egocentric. Women frequent ly are in trouble with the law and men often abuse drugs or alcohol. impulsive. dissatisfied. Affectionate and serious.75 Interpretation Clear antisocial behavior. May be charming and make a good initial impression. but lacking in heterosexual interest. and creative. Dislike rules and regulat ions. They believe that other people do not understand them and that they get a raw deal from life. Scale 4 Interpretations T-Score Level > 75 65 . Pd4: Social Alienation Feel isolated and estranged from other people. and standards of parents and society. Pd3: Social Imperturbability Comfortable and confident in social situations. and support.

Typical range for college educated males in masculine oriented fields. (Functions as a modifier scale as does Scale 0) Consists of 56 items (60 on the MMPI) that measure vocational and avocational interests. e.Scale 4 Harris-Lingoes Subscales (cont. and personal sensitivity.64 45 . and may even seem effeminate. The same items are used to assess masculinity and femininity in both sexes. They are socially perceptive and sensitive to interpersonal interactions. and remorse for past deeds.) Pd5: Self-Alienation Express vague regret. Scale 5: Masculinity-Femininity (Mf) Scale 5 is not considered a true clinical scale. Passive. introspective. and uncomfortable with a life that they find uninteresting or unrewarding.75 58 . sports. Men tend toward aesthetic activities. Very strong identification with traditional masculine role. despondent. activity-passivity. easygoing.. Scale 5 Interpretations for Men T-Score Level > 75 Interpretation Typically self-proclaimed homosexuals and persons willing to admit their homosexual concerns. are imaginative. engineering and agriculture. Typical range for most college educated men. Are unhappy.g. and outdoor activities. aesthetic preferences. guilt.57 < 44 . Tend to be adventurous. Traditional identification with sex role interests and activities. have aesthetic interests. inner-directed. 65 . and have interests in mechanics. Lacks identification with culturally prescribed sex roles. May be rigid and inflexible about their masculinity. and have a wide range of interests. coarse.

Examinee's suspiciousness should be apparent in an interview. and demure. Less interested in traditional feminine activities with more masculine interests and activities that women who score low on this scale. Examinee may have paranoid tendencies. and suspiciousness. Often associated with a depressive reaction.74 45 . Suspicious. Over-identification with the feminine role. dominating. angry. Scale 6 is comprised of fairly obvious items. They may be coy. taking the criticisms and remarks of others too seriously. 58 . May be self-pitying. Tend to be passive. so there are few false positives. moral self-righteousness. Not interpretable. feelings of persecution. submissive. yielding. Interpersonally sensitive. Rationally argumentative in treatment. Check for errors in scoring or profiling. and competitive. Unusual for women to score in this range. Scale 6 Interpretations T-Score Level > 70 > 65 Interpretation Paranoid Delusional Disorder o r Paranoid Schizophrenia likely. Mental health workers typically score in this range. 65 . brooding. and overly sensitive.64 45 . resentful. aggressive. modest. Confident and spontaneous. but may become anxious when expected to conform to traditional feminine sex roles. Not interested in appearing o r behaving according to traditional feminine role. masochistic. Unremarkable. and manipulate men via sex.Scale 5 Interpretations for Women T-Score Level > 75 Interpretation Typically self-proclaimed homosexuals and persons willing to admit their homosexual concerns. hostile. Tend to be vigorous.44 < 34 Scale 6: Paranoia (Pa) The 40 items on scale 6 (same on MMPI) appear to measure interpersonal sensitivity.57 < 44 . seductive. but conceal this by not endorsing the obvious items. and feign helplessness.64 35 . Genuinely identifies with traditional feminine interests and activities.

having high moral standards. anxiety. They are high-strung and sensitive to criticism. They externalize blame for their problems. and failures. unable to concentrate. In extreme cases. These examinees are secure and comfortable with themselves and are emot ionally stable. Pa2: Poignancy Feel lonely and misunderstood. Unrealistically optimistic about the motives of others. tension. considering themselves special and different from others. and lacking in self-confidence. Agitated. Also measures abnormal fears. poor concentrat ion. Anxious. and very responsible. and guilt-feelings.74 58 . Perfectionistic. and capable. They are suspicious and mistrustful of people. they have delusions of persecution. There is an absence of worries and a relaxed attitude toward respo nsibilities. and not having hostile or negative impulses. Pa3: Naiveté Present themselves as trusting. and view the world as hostile. unfairly treated. persistent. Pharmacological symptom relief may be necessary before other types of therapy can be effective. Handle work and personal responsibilities without undue worry or anxiety. Measures both trait and state anxiety. indecisive. Scale 7 Interpretations T-Score Level > 75 Interpretation Extreme fear.64 45 . May become anxious when unable to meet their obligations or commitments.57 < 45 . punctual. self-criticism. frustrations. Scale 7: Psychasthenia (Pt) The 48 items on scale 7 measure characteristics of what is now referred to as obsessive-compulsive behavior. depressed. and disturbing thoughts.Scale 6 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers Pa1: Persecutory Ideas Feel misunderstoo d. obsessive. 65 . They are success oriented.

restrained.75 58 . 75 . and fearful. The variety of factors measured on scale 8 makes it difficult to interpret without the aid of other scales or subscales. Feel alienated. Examinees who are clinically most schizophrenic score in this range. although this may reflect creativity. excessive fantasy and daydreaming. May reflect actual schizophrenic process or extreme distress. Unremarkable. Scale 8 Interpretations T-Score Level > 91 Interpretation These examinees are under acute. Withdrawn. Very important to assess the impact of K-correction on this scale.90 65 . an avante-garde attitude. chronic schizophrenics with good long-term adjustment with their disorder may score in this range. misunderstood.64 45 . or schizoid process. however. compliant individuals who possess a practical orientation. These examinees frequently are not schizophrenic. They tend to be concrete and are usually controlled. few social relationships. Difficulties with logic. These examinees think differently from others. realistic. and adaptable. and judgment. MMPI scores in this range characterized conventional. An examine going through an identity crisis will score in this range. confused.57 < 44 .Scale 8: Schizophrenia (Sc) Scale 8 has 78 items that sample from a wide variety of symptom areas. friendly. concentration. severe situational stress. Avoid reality through fantasy and daydreaming.

Scale 8 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers Sc1: Social Alienation Feel mistreated. and difficulties in concentration and memory. strange and puzzling ideas). Display flattened or distorted affect. Sc5: Lack of Ego Mastery (Defect ive Inhibition) Feel they are not in control of their feelings and impulses. . delusions.e. Experience their emotions as strange and alien. Tend to be restless and hyperactive. Sc6: Bizarre Sensory Feel their bodies are changing in strange and unusual ways. Experience the self as strange or alien. May feel they are losing their minds. May wish they were dead. depression. Sc2: Emotional Alienation Feelings of fear. May have uncontrollable periods of crying or laughing followed by amnesia.. misunderstood. May believe that others are trying to harm them. May report unusual sensory experiences. feelings of unreality. and unloved. hallucinations. and apathy. or ideas of reference. Tend to withdraw from meaningful relationships. Exhibit of inertia. and regression. inhibition. Sc3: Lack of Ego Mastery (Cognitive) Exhibit strange t hought processes (i. Worry excessively and withdraw into fantasy and daydreaming. Sc4: Lack of Ego Mastery (Conative) May be depressed and feel that life is a strain. depersonalization.

and opportunistic. hyperactivity. Tend to deny guilt. Consider Bipolar Disorder. . restless.Scale 9: Hypomania (Ma) Consists of 46 items that measure elated but unstable mood. talkative. impulsive. May feel tense. May reflect genuine fatigue or depression. when scores exceed 80T. Ma3: Imperturbability Express confidence in social situations. feel comfo rtable interacting with others. Unremarkable MMPI interpretations suggest low energy and activity levels. Ma4: Ego Inflation Tend to have unrealistic evaluations of their own abilities and self-worth to the point of grandiosity. Active. Symptoms become more severe as scores increase. but low frustration tolerance may result in temper out bursts. creative. energetic. narcissistic. Manic Type. and may experience flight of ideas. grandiosity. Do not like external restrictions on their actions.54 < 44 Scale 9 Harris-Lingoes Subscales Subscale Name & Description of High Scorers Ma1: Amorality See others as selfish. and use this to justify behaving in similar ways. 55 . thrill-seeking. uninhibited. Resentful when others make demands on them. extraverted. Extremely low scores may reflect depression regardless of elevation on scale 2. emotionally labile.64 45 . and able to mobilize their resources effectively. dishonest. May be disarmingly frank. defensiveness. Typically such scorers are balanced. and cannot delay gratification. Profess little concern about the opinions. values. Normal elderly persons may score in the upper ranges. These examinee's are grandiose in their selfappraisal. Mood is generally expansive and euphoric. out-going. Scale 9 Interpretations T-Score Level > 65 Interpretation Hyperactive. and excited. Ma2: Psychomotor Acceleration Rapid speech and thinking. May appear hyperactive. agitation. and rebellious. and flight of ideas. independent. They are easily bored and seek out thrills to overcome this boredom. and attitudes of others. No rmal college students and adolescents tend to score in the lower end of this range.

Scale 0 is not a clinical scale (Functions as a modifier scale as does Scale 5) Scale 0 Interpretations T-Score Level > 75 65 . Introverted. not likely to act out. Prefer to be alone or in small groups of friends. Items are scored in the introversion direction.57 < 44 . but prefer solitary pursuits. Have the ability to interact with others. 58 . compliant. Adaptive balance between introversion and extraversion. Withdrawal from or avoidance of others.Scale 0: Social Introversion (Si) Consists of 69 items (70 on the MMPI) that measure social introversion-extraversion. May indicate schizoid adaptation. so high scores indicate introversion and low scores indicate extraversion. Submissive. shy. gregarious. and poised. MMPI interpretations suggest socially extraverted. reliable.75 Interpretation Extreme withdrawal. and socially insecure.64 45 .

(E. hostile. Personality Disorders: The higher the elevation the more ingrained and resistant personality characteristics are. High F can be indicative of psychosis or extreme distress. (E. and ethnic group. Psychotic: Higher elevations indicate more severe patholo gy. Can be viewed as generally maladjusted. There should be at least a 5 T-point difference bet ween the scales in the codetype and the next highest clinical scale. Check elevation on the individual validity scales. A score in the normal range can be as deviant as an elevated score.g.: Was the examinee uncooperative. duration.MMPI-2 Configural Interpretations Preliminary Considerations Obtain background information from examinee and significant others via interview. Obtain information regarding the nature o f the problem. Check co detype definition.) General elevation can indicate a number of things: Neurotics: The higher the elevation the more distress the examinee is experiencing. Scale R: High scorers repress or deny their problems and lack insight. Assess implications of this presenting complaint/problem on possible MMPI-2 interpretations. severity. angry. completed the test too quickly. elevation on scale 7 indicates anxiety and the failure of coping mechanisms. . Check general level of adjustment. education.g. gender. history of sexual abuse or legal difficulties. social class. take more time than expected. Check configural interpretations for the validity scales.) Ascertain that the examinee has endorsed items in an accurate manner.: History of substance abuse. family history of chronic mental illness. Interpretive Process Note examinee s test -taking attitude and determine if this will have an effect on interpretation. The more defined the codetype the more applicable the interpretation. Where codetypes are not well-defined. and are free and open in discussing their problems. Check elevation and slope on the clinical scales.: examinee with a criminal record whose scores do not reflect guilt or remorse. Low scorers are usually well-adjusted and not overly anxious. Scale A: High scorers are experiencing a great deal of situational anxiety or stress. Negative slope (descends from left to right) indicates better adjustment than positive slope. Elevation on scale 2 indicates depression. (E. Relevant demographic data includes: age.g. Determine # of Cannot Say (?) items. investigate the applicability of all possible codetypes. Low scorers are socially extroverted.

and hysteroidal features. sexual complaints. Men are likely to be chronically anxious and have anxiety related psychophysiological disorders like ulcers and gastritis. Scale 3 > scale 2 > scale 1. Immature. See litt le correlation between their physical complaints and any psychological problems. dependent. and filled with self-doubt. but scale 2 is higher than scales 1 and 3. 1-2-3 Elevation (Slides: 1-2-3) All three scales are elevated above 65. Scale 1 > scale 2 > scale 3. Poor prognosis. They have a high level of anxiety often accompanied by insomnia or anorexia. 3-2-1 Elevation (Slide: 3-2-1) All three scales are elevated. 2. Mixed picture of chronic complaints involving physical symptoms. Long-standing. dizziness. Usually fatigued. insomnia. constant somatic concerns with no evidence of physical pathology. Women frequently have marital problems. and a life-long history of ill health. Sometimes called the "hysterectomy syndrome" as it is most often found in females with gynecological complaints. and headaches. Examinee is somaticizing psychological problems. They frequently lack insight and resist psychological interpretations of their problems. These examinees present a mixed clinical picture of depression and somatization. inadequate sexual response. . and poorly motivated for treatment. anxious. depression. 2-1-3/2-3-1 Elevations (Slide: 2-3-1) All three scales are elevated. 1-3-2/3-1-2 Elevation (Slide: 1-3-2 & 3-2-1) Conversion "V" Scales 1 and 3 are both above 65T and 10T points greater than scale 2. Usually show good work and marital adjustment. and 3. Emphasis on physical complaints and the denial of psychological problems makes these examinees poor candidates for therapy. Prognosis is better when scale 3 is higher than scale 1. Somatic complaints typically include: nausea.Neuro tic Triad Configurations Refers to elevations on the so called neurotic triad of scales 1.

6-7-8 Configurations (Slide: Psychotic) "Psychotic V": Scales 6 and 8 are above 80T. scale 7 is above 65T. yielding. and sexual dysfunctions." "Passive-Aggressive Valley. No comparable 4-5-6 interpretations for men. May have thought disorders. Women are angry and hostile. They are demanding. They are excessively demanding. and in need of attention and affection. yet they are submissive. Most often diagnosed as schizophrenic. Typical of all true response sets and fake bad response sets. Usually present with marital difficulties. or physical abuse. sexual abuse. These women are particularly adept at enraging others (even professionals) and deny their involvement in the process." or the "Victim s Valley": Scales 4 and 6 are above 65T and scale 5 is below 35T/40T. but unable to express these feelings directly. This configuration probably occurs most frequently in invalid profiles. delusions.Scale 4-5-6 Configuration (Slide: P-Ag) "Scarlett O Hara V. and passive-aggressive. Valid profiles describe examinees who are emotionally withdrawn. suspicious. Use interpretation for 4-6 elevation. family problems. socially isolated. They manipulate others into attacking them and then revel in complaining about how others mistreat them. hostile. and hallucinations. and over-identify with the traditional feminine role. Most frequent diagnosis is paranoid schizophrenia. Look for a history of early sexualization. dependent. and lacking insight into their own behavior. manipulative. . hostile.

and Compulsive Gambling High 4 (Pd) High 2-4/4-2 (D and Pd) High 4-2-7 (Pd. Addiction.The MMPI-2 & Specific Problems Alcohol & Drug Problems Scale Patterns Associated with Alcoholism. D. and Pt) Adult Supplementary Scales Addiction Admission Scale (APS) Addiction Potential Scale (APS) MAC & MAC-R Scales Adolescent Supplementary Scales Alcohol and Drug Problem Acknowledgment Scale (ACK) Alcohol and Drug Problem Proneness (PRO) MAC-R .