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Causes Mojibake is often caused when a character encoding is not correctly tagged in a document, or when a document is moved to a system

with a different default encod ing. Such incorrect display occurs when writing systems or character encodings a re mistagged or "foreign" to the user's computer system; if a computer does not have the software required to process a foreign language's characters, it will a ttempt to process them in its default language encoding, usually resulting in gi bberish. Transferring messages between different encodings of the same language can also result in mojibake. Japanese language users, with several different enc odings historically employed, encounter this problem relatively often. For examp le, the intended word "????", encoded in UTF-8, is incorrectly displayed as "æ å å that is configured to expect text in the Windows-1252 or ISO-8859-1 encodings, u sually labelled Western. A web browser may not be able to distinguish a page coded in EUC-JP and another in Shift-JIS if the coding scheme is not assigned explicitly using HTTP headers sent along with the documents, or using the HTML document's meta tags that are u sed to substitute for missing HTTP headers if the server cannot be configured to send the proper HTTP headers; see character encodings in HTML. Heuristics can b e applied to guess at the character set, but these are not always successful. Mojibake can also occur between what appears to be the same encodings. For examp le, some software by Microsoft and Eudora for Windows purportedly encoded their output using the ISO-8859-1 encoding while, in reality, using Windows-1252 that contains extra printable characters in the C1 range. These characters were not d isplayed properly in software complying with the ISO standard; this especially a ffected software running under other operating systems (e.g. Unix). Resolutions Applications using UTF-8 as a default encoding may achieve a greater degree of i nteroperability due to its widespread use and backward compatibility with US-ASC II. The difficulty of resolving an instance of mojibake varies depending on the appl ication within which it occurs and the causes of it. Two of the most common appl ications in which mojibake may occur are web browsers and word processors. Moder n browsers and word processors often support a wide array of character encodings . Browsers often allow a user to change their rendering engine's encoding settin g on the fly, while word processors allow the user to select the appropriate enc oding when opening a file. It may take some trial and error for users to find th e correct encoding. The problem gets more complicated when it occurs in an application that normally does not support a wide range of character encoding, such as in a non-Unicode c omputer game. In this case, the user must change the operating system's encoding settings to match that of the game. However, changing the system-wide encoding settings can also cause Mojibake in pre-existing applications. In Windows XP or later, a user also has the option to use Microsoft AppLocale, an application tha t allows the changing of per-application locale settings. Even so, changing the operating system encoding settings is not possible on earlier operating systems such as Windows 98; to resolve this issue on earlier operating systems, a user w ould have to use third party font rendering applications.

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