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10th CENTURY (901-1000 A.

D)  The emergence of feudalism which is considered as one of the first major problems of the Church The power of the feudal lord became the root of corruption and abuses which also affects clergy Most of the State functions were filled by clerics who were the educated class in the society Luxury, pomp and display, cruelty, avarice and other scandalous vices invaded religious life Church recognized the need for reforms

1071  1073 

Moslem Turks conquered Jerusalem Start of conflict between the Church and the State in European countries like Germany, England and France o Ended at 1305 Hildebrand, who became Gregory VII was elected at the papacy o He reformed the church by strengthening its structure and power of the pope o He also developed the Curia (Church offices) o Enforced clerical celibacy Pope Urban II, the successor of Gregory VII, called for a united effort to recover the Holy Land from the Moslems Start of the Second Movement of Monastic Reform followed with Bernard of Clairevaux o He is one of the greatest spiritual leaders of Christianity o He became the counselor of popes and kings Lasted until 1153 Pope Urban II finally issued a call to the knights of Western Europe to start a holy war to retrieve the Holy Land from the Moslems (First Crusade) o The Pope promised an eternal reward to those who will participate in it o The knights bore a cross of red fabric on their chests and became known as the Crusaders o The Crusaders were motivated by the recovery of the Holy Land Crusaders from the First Crusade took possession of Jerusalem o Their rewards include: forgiving of all their sins, remittance from all their punishments and exemption from taxes

 909 

1088  1090 

Benedictine monastery was established at Cluny o It becomes the center of a reform movement for the church to rid itself of the increasing secularization of its institutions and practices Otto the Great revives Charlemagne’s dream of a Holy Roman Empire Otto the Great imposed that no pope can be elected without his permission Saints begin to be officially canonized by the Roman Church

936  962  993 

 1095 

11TH CENTURY (1001-1100 A.D.) 1043  Michael Cerularius became the Patriarch of Constantinople, he had little respect for the papacy Division of Constantinople and Rome reached its climax because of disagreement on doctrines (Great Schism) Patriarch of Constantinople was declared a heretic by the Pope Eastern (Orthodox) and Western (Roman) Churches were born The Pope and the Patriarch excommunicated each other

1054 

1099 

  

12th CENTURY (1101-1200 A.D) 1147  The Second Crusade was called by Eugene III

seeking truth in Bible rather than in medieval tradition Inquistion o Innocent III punished heretics o Empowered to call on the civil authorities to help detect and torture heretical movement o It was originated with churchmen who wanted to use the power of the state in its brutal form in order to crush those whose picture of Jesus differed from their own. through their leader Saladin. Philip Augustus of France and Richard Lionhearted of England o Plagued with difficulties o They were only able to recover a tiny piece of land on the east coast of Palestine Innocent III was elected as Pope o He intended to be both the spiritual leader of Christendom. science 1187  1190  1198  1204  1252  Disadvantages of Crusades:   It is one of the dark pages of the Middle Ages It had poisoned relations between Christianity and Islam . The Muslims. mathematics. recaptured Jerusalem The Third Crusade was led by Frederick Barbossa of Germany. and its political master as well The Fourth Crusade never actually met with the Muslims o The Crusaders ransacked Constantinople Pope Innocent IV authorized inquisitors to secure confessions by the use of torture Advantages of Crusades:   This stimulated commerce Advances in architecture.o 1173  1184  It was a failure due to the disunity and lack of discipline of the Crusaders  Resulted to tragic separation of Eastern and Western Christianity up to the present day Waldensian Movement begins in Lyons. astronomy.