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# Angle of view - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angle_of_view

Angle of view

In photography, angle of view describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera. It is used interchangeably with the more general term field of view. It is important to distinguish the angle of view from the angle of coverage, which describes the angle of projection by the lens onto the focal plane. For most cameras, it may be assumed that the image circle produced by the lens is large enough to cover the film or sensor completely.[1] If the angle of view exceeds the angle of coverage, however, then vignetting will be present in the resulting photograph.

Contents
1 Calculating a camera's angle of view 1.1 Example 1.2 Derivation of the angle-of-view formula 1.2.1 Macro photography 2 Measuring a camera's field of view 3 Lens types and effects 3.1 Focal length 3.2 Characteristics 3.3 Examples 4 Common lens angles of view 5 Three-dimensional digital art 6 Cinematography and video gaming 7 References and notes 8 See also 9 External links

A camera's angle of view can be measured horizontally, vertically, or diagonally.

Calculating a camera's angle of view
In 1916, Northey showed how to calculate the angle of view

For lenses projecting rectilinear (non-spatially-distorted) images of using ordinary carpenter's tools.[2] The angle that he labels as the distant objects, the effective focal length and the image format angle of view is the half-angle or "the angle that a straight line dimensions completely define the angle of view. Calculations for would take from the extreme outside of the field of view to the lenses producing non-rectilinear images are much more complex and center of the lens;" he notes that manufacturers of lenses use in the end not very useful in most practical applications. (In the case twice this angle. of a lens with distortion, e.g., a fisheye lens, a longer lens with distortion can have a wider angle of view than a shorter lens with low distortion)[3] Angle of view may be measured horizontally (from the left to right edge of the frame), vertically (from the top to bottom of the frame), or diagonally (from one corner of the frame to its opposite corner). For a lens projecting a rectilinear image, the angle of view (α) can be calculated from the chosen dimension (d), and effective focal length (f ) as follows:[4]

d represents the size of the film (or sensor) in the direction measured. For example, for film that is 36 mm wide, d = 36 mm would
be used to obtain the horizontal angle of view. Because this is a trigonometric function, the angle of view does not vary quite linearly with the reciprocal of the focal length. However, except for wide-angle lenses, it is reasonable to approximate radians or degrees.

The effective focal length is nearly equal to the stated focal length of the lens (F), except in macro photography where the lens-toobject distance is comparable to the focal length. In this case, the magnification factor (m) must be taken into account:

(In photography m is usually defined to be positive, despite the inverted image.) For example, with a magnification ratio of 1:2, we find and thus the angle of view is reduced by 33% compared to focusing on a distant object with the same lens. A second effect which comes into play in macro photography is lens asymmetry (an asymmetric lens is a lens where the aperture appears to have different dimensions when viewed from the front and from the back). The lens asymmetry causes an offset between the nodal plane and pupil positions. The effect can be quantified using the ratio (P) between apparent exit pupil diameter and entrance pupil diameter. The full formula for angle of view now becomes:[5]

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S2 needs to be equal to the focal length. Then the angle of view is given by: where f = F Macro photography For macro photography.org/wiki/Angle_of_view Angle of view can also be determined using FOV tables or paper or software lens calculators. We want to find the relationship between: the angle α the "opposite" side of the right triangle. d. Derivation of the angle-of-view formula Consider a rectilinear lens in a camera used to photograph an object at a distance S1. and the angles of view are: horizontally. m = S2 / S1. we cannot neglect the difference between S2 and F. diagonally.[6] Example Consider a 35 mm camera with a normal lens having a focal length of F = 50 mm. of the frame (the film or image sensor).Angle of view . f = F. and forming an image that just barely fits in the dimension. the free encyclopedia http://en. From the thin lens formula. the center of perspective of a rectilinear lens is at the center of its entrance pupil):[7] Now α / 2 is the angle between the optical axis of the lens and the ray joining its optical center to the edge of the film.wikipedia. vertically.Wikipedia. giving: To project a sharp image of distant objects. . d / 2 (half the film-format dimension) the "adjacent" side. and with some algebra find: 2 of 6 6/15/2011 2:32 AM . The dimensions of the 35 mm image format are 24 mm (vertically) × 36 mm (horizontal). Treat the lens as if it were a pinhole at distance S2 from the image plane (technically. F. At infinity focus. We substitute for the magnification. Here α is defined to be the angle-of-view. S2 (distance from the lens to the image plane) Using basic trigonometry. since it is the angle enclosing the largest object whose image can fit on the film. we find: which we can solve for α. giving a diagonal of about 43.3 mm. which is attained by setting the lens for infinity focus.

The effect can be quantified using the ratio (P) between apparent exit pupil diameter and entrance pupil diameter. is this angular extent of the target times the ratio of full image size to target image size.[8] Optical tests are commonly used for measuring the FOV of UV. when the calculation above is not immediately applicable).Wikipedia. The total field of view is then approximately: or more precisely.[9] Schematic of collimator-based optical apparatus used in measuring the FOV of a camera. we get the formula presented above: where . UV/visible light from an integrating sphere (and/or other source such as a black body) is focused onto a square test target at the focal plane of a collimator (the mirrors in the diagram).Angle of view . Lens types and effects Focal length 3 of 6 6/15/2011 2:32 AM . but can just as well be inches or cm). there exist many other possible methods.1–20 µm in the electromagnetic spectrum) sensors and cameras. The full formula for angle of view now becomes:[5] Measuring a camera's field of view In the optical instrumentation industry the term field of view (FOV) is most often used. when the lens focal length or sensor size is not known (that is. The lens asymmetry causes an offset between the nodal plane and pupil positions. its FOV. depending on how the target and image are measured. if the imaging system is rectilinear: This calculation could be a horizontal or a vertical FOV. Although this is one typical method that the optics industry uses to measure the FOV. A second effect which comes into play in macro photography is lens asymmetry (an asymmetric lens is a lens where the aperture appears to have different dimensions when viewed from the front and from the back). which includes the target. visible. Dimensions of the full image display and of the portion of the image that is the target are determined by inspection (measurements are typically in pixels. and the sensed image is displayed on a monitor. the angle seen by the camera. where it can be measured.[10] The target's angular extent is: Monitor display of sensed image from the camera under test where L is the dimension of the target and fc is the focal length of collimator. and infrared (wavelengths about 0. though the measurements are still expressed as angles. The camera under test senses a real image of the virtual image of the target.wikipedia. D = dimension of full image d = dimension of image of target The collimator's distant virtual image of the target subtends a certain angle. is displayed on a monitor. Assuming the sensed image includes the whole target. such that a virtual image of the test target will be seen infinitely far away by the camera under test. that depends on the collimator focal length and the target size. referred to as the angular extent of the target. The sensed image. the free encyclopedia http://en. The purpose of this test is to measure the horizontal and vertical FOV of a lens and sensor used in an imaging system.org/wiki/Angle_of_view Defining f = S2 as the "effective focal length".

cover up to 180° (or even wider in special cases) A circular fisheye lens (as opposed to a full-frame fisheye) is an example of a lens where the angle of coverage is less than the angle of view. the free encyclopedia http://en.5° 210 mm lens.8° × 6. Another result of using a wide angle lens is a greater apparent perspective distortion when the camera is not aligned perpendicularly to the subject: parallel lines converge at the same rate as with a normal lens. also known as fisheye lenses if not rectilinear. Wider lenses tend to magnify distance between objects while allowing greater depth of field.5° Common lens angles of view 4 of 6 6/15/2011 2:32 AM .[13] they are referred to in common photographic parlance as: "Medium telephoto". apparently compressing distance and (when focused on the foreground) blurring the background because of their shallower depth of field. The photos below were taken by a 35 mm still camera at a constant distance from the subject: 28 mm lens.9° × 19. For example. changing the angle of view can indirectly distort perspective. How focal length affects perspective: Varying focal lengths at identical field size achieved by different camerasubject distances. Because different lenses generally require a different camera–subject distance to preserve the size of a subject. The image projected onto the film is circular because the diameter of the image projected is narrower than that needed to cover the widest portion of the film. changing the apparent relative size of the subject and foreground.6° × 27. Notice that the shorter the focal length and the larger the angle of view.[12] Since photographers usually only encounter the telephoto lens sub-type. or Standard lenses (36–60mm in 35mm film format) cover between 62° and 40° Long focus lenses (any lens with a focal length greater than the diagonal of the film or sensor used)[11] generally have an angle of view of 35° or less. perspective distortion and size differences increase. but converge more due to the wider total field.0° 70 mm lens.wikipedia. Examples An example of how lens choice affects angle of view.4° 50 mm lens. a focal length of 85mm to 135mm in 35mm film format covering between 30° and 10°[14] "Super telephoto" (over 300mm in 35mm film format) generally cover between 8° through less than 1°[14] Zoom lenses are a special case wherein the focal length. and hence angle of view. 39. 65. of the lens can be altered mechanically without removing the lens from the camera. because more of the subject building is visible in the wide-angle shot.Wikipedia. buildings appear to be falling backwards much more severely when the camera is pointed upward from ground level than they would if photographed with a normal lens at the same distance from the subject. Characteristics Longer lenses magnify the subject more.5° × 46. 28. 9.org/wiki/Angle_of_view Lenses are often referred to by terms that express their angle of view: Ultra wide angle lenses (less than 24mm of focal length in 35mm film format). Wide-angle lenses (24–35mm in 35mm film format) cover between 84° and 64° Normal.Angle of view .

1 46. 6543. Industry: A Monthly Magazine Devoted to Science. Frank V. Visible. and diagonal 43. Modeling.4 8. The angle of view of the scene is thus readily set and changed.96 4. 2007 7. or zooming. G. Cinematography and video gaming Modifying the angle of view over time.8-fisheye-lens-review. ^ Neil Wayne Northey (September 1916).1 46.att. http://books.6 23.4 10. 3. is a frequently used cinematic technique.Vol.6 28.19 4.4 77. and vertical angles of view. S.electro-optical.8 31.10 2.Angle of view .07 85. in which the optical axis of the lens may not be aligned with the center of the frame. December. and Infrared Sensors Using Shared Optics. Scopatz. References and notes 1.3 67.google. http://www. which can be used in this table.63 6.google.D.A.html#fov. ^ Kerr. Inc.4 53.3 mm for d in the formula above). widen the angle of view beyond 90° to exaggerate the distance the player is travelling. In Education/Ref . some first person video games (especially racing games).1 75.net/pumpkin/Pivot_Point.com/cctv-camera-lens-calculations/) by JVSG.com/html/toplevel /educationref. J.87 5. 8. 9.4 28. for lenses producing rectilinear images.com/?id=kiUEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA481&dq=%22fieldof+view%22+%22focal+length%22+camera.8 34.[15] Digital compact cameras state their focal lengths in 35mm equivalents. the free encyclopedia http://en. Washington:SPIE.3 18.75 2. 6.2 13. 35.0 27.2 11. to illustrate angles of view [16] Five images using 24.0 10. to illustrate angles of view Three-dimensional digital art Displaying 3d graphics as 3d projection of the models onto a 2d surface uses a series of mathematical calculations to render the scene.7 12. 50 and 72mm equivalent step zoom function.13 3.home.1 13. horizontal.pdf. 28.4 63. 2.2 73. 35.2 7.4 59. "The Proper Pivot Point for Panoramic Photography" (http://doug. portrait format. The photographer must ensure that the angle of coverage of the lens is large enough to cover the frame in this case. effectively creating a fish eye lens effect.4 37.29 1.44 2.44 2.25 6. ^ CCTV Field of View Camera Lens Calculations (http://www. ^ Holst. when used with 36 mm × 24 mm format (that is.9 19. ^ [1] (http://www. ^ Ernest McCollough (1893). Also see Field of view in video games.com /?id=kiUEAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA481&dq=%22field-of+view%22+%22focal+length%22+camera) . Narrowing the view angle gives a zoom in effect. Testing and Evaluation of Infrared Imaging Systems (2nd ed.google.58 1. Engineering and Mechanic Arts (Industrial Publishing Company.4 90. The Camera (Columbia Photographic Society) 20 (9).5 53.3 6. thus exaggerating the player's perceived speed and giving a tunnel effect (like pincushion distortion). "The Angle of View of your Lens" (http://books.0 81. For a visual effect.pdf) (PDF). (2005).com/reviews/canon-ef-15mm-f-2.home. 50 and 72mm equivalent zoom lengths.org/optics/cop.5 54.5 16.kerr.asp. ^ One exception is photography involving camera movements.net/pumpkin /Pivot_Point.jvsg.0 19.7 84.google.72 1. Chambers. 5 of 6 6/15/2011 2:32 AM .8 23.org/optics /cop. 135 film or full-frame 35mm digital using width 36 mm.com/?id=eCkAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA402& dq=%22field-of+view%22+%22focal+length%22+camera+tangent+%22length+of+the+plate%22) .4 45. EO TestLab Methadology.15 4. (2007).7 65.).the-digital-picture. Douglas A.58 3.aspx) 4.com /?id=eCkAAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA402&dq=%22fieldof+view%22+%22focal+length%22+camera+tangent+%22length+of+the+plate%22.Wikipedia. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 5.att.1 39. and Testing XVIII.72 (°) Five images using 24. Retrieved 24 Januari 2010. Focal Length (mm) 13 15 18 21 24 28 35 43. (1998). http://doug.org/wiki/Angle_of_view This table shows the diagonal.5 15.87 4.kerr.html#fov) . ^ Electro Optical Industries. Infrared Imaging Systems: Design Analysis. ^ Mazzetta. The Pumpkin. The angle of view can also be projected onto the surface at an angle greater than 90°. http://books..C.(2005). pp. height 24 mm. ed. some renderers even measure the angle of view as the focal length of an imaginary lens.15 Horizontal 108 100. in degrees. "Center of perspective" (http://toothwalker. http://toothwalker. Automated Testing of Ultraviolet.wikipedia.12 3. Florida:JCD Publishing. 654313-1 654313-14 10. 28. ^ a b Paul van Walree (2009). "Photographic Topography" (http://books.3 50 70 85 105 135 180 200 300 400 500 600 800 1200 Diagonal 118 111 (°) Vertical (°) 100 91. San Francisco): 399–406.