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margin-right:0px. .archive. 3 1924 021 601 962 Cornell University Library The original of tiiis book is in tine Cornell University Library.org/details/cu31924021601962 PROKUNCIATION OF ANCIENT GBEEK.</a>" </h1> <pre> CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Cornell Unlvarslty Library PA 267.<div style="min-width:600px. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www.B64 1890 Pronunciation of ancient Greei&lt." id="col2"> <div class="box"> <h1> Full text of "<a href="/details/cu31924021601962">Pronunciation of a ncient Greek.

Honton: C. J. CLAY and SONS, CAMBEIDGK UNIVERSITY PBESS WAEEHOUSB, AVE MARIA LANE.

CAMBBIDGE : DEIGHTON, BELL, AND CO. LEIPZIG: F. A. BKOCKHAUS.

PEONUNCIATION

OF

ANCIENT GREEK

TRANSLATED FROM THE THIRD GERMAN EDITION OF DR BLASS

WITH THE AUTHOR'S SANCTION

W.'^^ J. PURTON, B.A. PEMBKOKE COLLEQE.

CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 1890 [All Rights reserved.] (B

ST

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAT, M.A. AND SONS AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PEEFACE. rilHE present translation of Dr Blass' work on ancient Greek -'- pronunciation represents the third and latest German edition, and the translator has throughout its production had the advantage of the advice and help of the author, who kindly undertook to read all the proof-sheets. A few words are necessary touching the system of transliteration adopted by the translator. As regards the consonants little difficulty presented itself. He was able here simply to adopt the transliteration used by the author, only paaking the necessary changes of y for j, ch for tsch, j for dzh, and so on, according to the dififerent values of the letters in German and English. With regard to the vowel sounds however his course was not so plain. As, in spite of the labours of Mr Sweet and Mr Ellis, no artificial system of phonetic representation has obtained sufficient acceptance to be really familiar to English scholars, he has resolved to retain the vowels with what may roughly be called their continental values. The alternative plan, namely to represent them by their approximate English equivalents, presented great difficulties. To take an instance : to represent the continental long i sound by ee, not to speak of its cumbrousness, labours under the additional disadvantage that the short sound must still be represented by i, thus obscuring the identity of the two sounds. Again Dr Blass has in the case of the e and o sounds adopted diacritic marks to distinguish the open and closed sounds, and it therefore seemed especially desirable here to

PREFACE.

retain simple symbols. In all cases therefore where the Greek vowels are represented by Roman letters, these must be understood to have their continental sound, that is to say roughly speaking : —

a must be pronouncec as

in father.

n

as in man.

7 I e e

as as as as in in in in second syllable first syllable of fete*. ebb.

of quinine, quinine.

as

for similar help. 6 as in not.in note*. A. a as in put. The translator has already mentioned his indebtedness to the author for his kindness in reading the proof-sheets . u as in lute. Neil. Fellow of Pembroke College. he has also to express his gratitude to Mr R. * It ought to be remarked that these two sounds in English contain a .

118 (text) 1. Our object is contact with the spirit of classical antiquity . and even if they were. The investigation of the pronunciation of Ancient Greek may be considered from the point of view of theory and again from that of practice. Section 1. in the latter the point under discussion is. the welfare of Greek and Latin instruction does not depend on the abolition of this misusage and this only. in the case of o a a-glide — which gives them a decidedly different sound to that heard on the Continent. which the Greek letters and combinations of letters had in the living ancient speech . V for o. while the actual man called himself KtJcero.'' P. 23 after Auramazda add Ma^aios. 14. 7. but for the purpose of such a contact it is by no means a hindrance to me. In the former case its object is the phonetic value. Siv&amp. Masdak. P. P. 47 (text) 1. a-no-si-ya for a-no-si-ja. Mazdai. what phonetic value are we to give to those letters and combinations in reading and teaching Ancient Greek ? The answer to the question of theory will influence the answer to the question of practice . The theoretical and 'practical sides of the subject. F. 72 (text) 1. 77 (text) 1. P. 12 after Xr/iTovpyla add " K\eis for kXjs " and substitute for e nd of sentence " in which cases even inscriptions shew a and the grammarians designate ijt as old Attic. 1890. ADDITIONS AND COKEECTIONS. And there is according to my conviction . 37. P. note 5.diphthongic element which phoneticians call a glide — in the case of e an i-glide. The nature of this difference may be suggested by saying that in the case of S the continental sound often tends in the direction of our aw in saw etc. for in the case of the latter appropriateness and feasibility must be taken into consideration. For the Germans are not in need of reform either in the case of Greek or in that of Latin in the same degree as the English. lirirriSeos for first ^TriTijSeio!.pia for Au/dpia. if I say something like Tsits^ro. Ma^ixris. June. 52 (text) 1. I iatend in the present work to enter but little into the practical question. not however exclusively. 12.

for such a man I have of course nothing but praise. must be withstood in view of not only practical but also theoretical and scientific interests. and can in so doing guard against the reproach of straining at gnats and swallowing P. that quite a different pronunciation was customary in the case of the sprinkling of Greek words in Latin. constantly repeated here as well as in other countries. If however anyone feels himself bound in the interest of what we may call a more workmanlike prosecution of classical studies to pay scrupulous regard to such things. but to a supposed scientific accuracy. alphcibetwm. that the fact of an alteration having taken place could not by any possibility escape classical scholars. As however these studies were prosecuted more independently and thoroughly in the countries of the West. who naturally brought with them and introduced their own pronunciation. such as ecclesia. A short history of the whole contest from the beginning of Greek studies in the West may conveniently be introduced here. first printed (1512) in the appendix to et diphthongorum prolatione ir&amp. History of the contest about the prommciation of Ancient Greek. of the '^ttitout) r wr ANCIENT GREEK. 1 2 THE PRONUNCIATION OF camels. there arose against the traditional pronunciation a reaction which started with some support in the fact.nothing in our pronunciation of Greek so positively and stupidly wrong as the ordinary pronunciation of Latin c. to introduce in practice the modern Greek pronunciation for ancient Greek.pcfyyov. Accordingly so early as Aldus Manutius we have his little Trdpepyov^. Finally. ethice. Section 2. that it of necessity not only appeared unpractical but also called forth doubts as to its originality. But the attempts. the Aldine edit. many passages in ancient authors spoke so plainly for a different ulterior pronunciation. which it obviously does not possess. Moreover the Byzantine pronunciation deviated so widely firom the writing and confused so many sounds. The knowledge and study of ancient Greek came to the countries of the West towards the close of the Middle Ages through the medium of Byzantine scholars. which has appeared in many forms in 1 Aldi Manutii de vitiata vocaliwm . 3 . that is to say that current among the Greeks of their day. For even the champions of the modem Greek pronunciation appeal not to a practical superiority.

moving the condign wrath of Stephen Gardiner. A short treatise on the pronunciation of all the letters was furnished by Jacobus Ceratinus'. Progr. 36) . 108 linguae Graecae vera et recta pronunci. in which e. Sigeb. qui de Philohgenversammlung (1853).^ S. which appeared first at Basel in 1528. de sono litterLeipzig. priority is evident. who died in 1530. griech. p. professor at Louvain. whom we know in Church History also as a fierce persecutor of heretics. at that time Chancellor of the University. but does not Brasmian Dialogue (1529). p. 28 mentioned Cologne piracy of Erasmus. bishop of Winchester. {0pp. 0. and domestic chastisement for boys. Bat. Lugd. Although the author was pleased to clothe his subject in the facetious. 1—2 . In 1542 he issued an edict for his University. see further in 1530. dress of a dialogue between a lion and a bear. 1883. and some consonants. Title. z. The treatise was printed at Havercamp's Sylloge altera scriptorum Antwerp 1527 (vid. 1736. or more correctly the rather insipid. ij and v. 11. (as E. EUissen. 1740). in a dialogue de recta Latini Graedque sermonis pronunciatione". Nikolaigymn. The fact is not altered by our knowledge that Erasmus himself continued to use the traditional pronunciation °: a reformer he certainly was not. Meister shews. pirated 1529 at born at Hoorn in Holland. A greater stir was made by some English scholars at Cambridge. then repeated in arum. under penalty of expulsion from the Senate. supra). Havercampus. 183). p. ei and 01 from i in pronunciation. exclusion from the attainment of a degree.print. reprinted in the above. 355—376. Phon.ff. died Cologne (vid. But the most celebrated of these early combatants was the renowned Desiderius Erasmus. 1—180. Aristarch. i His proper name was Teyng. ed. i. 2 Eeprinted 1530. Bat. It is the Cologne pirated reprint of the dedicated to Erasmus. (Lugd. Vossiua. nevertheless his treatment is so thorough and comprehensive. p. yol. it was categorically forbidden to distinguish ai. Lohmeyer. E. John Cheke and Thomas Smith. etc. praesertim Graecarum. also in the make the smallest reference to his Orthographiae ratio Aldi (published labours on this subject. p. 1566). qui.g. I. Choke's correspondence with the Bishop on pronunciation appeared at Basel oKTii ToS X670U fiepdv by Const. rustication for students. 13). Gdttinger also in Sylloge scriptorum. Lasearis atione commentarios reliquerunt. Dialektologie. Stud. that there can be no doubt whatever of his scientific seriousness. so that the by his grandson. relating to the diphthongs. from e.

that in France. 5 against Mekerchus by the Englishman Gregory Martin' (died 1582) was of trifling importance. He was seconded by his friend Thomas Smith. ANGlfiJNT GREEK. whose missive to the Bishop is dated in the year of the edicts At this point the movement began also among the French scholars. for not only had the Erasmians. Stephanus in the work to be 2 Hav. A pretty thorough exposition was written by the well-known reformer Theodor Beza. Wetstein of Basel (end of the I7th century') failed to make any alteration in this result. the better cause. England. and the counter-efforts of Erasmus Schmidt of Wittenberg (1560 — 1637'0 and of Joh. Stephanus is already able to say. (1572). Joh. of the massacre of St Bartholomew " Hav. In this there is nothing to cause surprise. among whom Petrus Ramus and Dionysius Lambinus' must be mentioned as the first combatants. the Netherlands and elsewhere the reformed pronunciation was eagerly learnt and practised. 1 170. Stephanus entered the lists in the same cause. Accordingly the Erasmian pronunciation prevailed throughout the West. 181—468 contest on pronunciation is learnt (the ChanoeUor's edict p. but the opposite party were very weakly represented. p.4 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ia 1555. he could have no object in establishing and defending it. Cheke on the other hand that of respectable learning and intelligent critical discussion. the victory of the Erasmians was decided in all the chief centres of classical philology. Bishop Gardiner cannot be reckoned a scientific combatant . Reuchlin. Bruges 1565. 305—352. and the interest in the question waned. to EUissen) 2 Both directly or indirectly victims 1554.). According to cited below (p. 391 f. from H. gave the impulse to it only in so far as he was the founder of Greek studies in that country. Stephanus. and the short treatise directed 1 Printed in Hav. He as well as Cheke was made use of in a somewhat questionable manner by the Dutchman Adolph van Metkerke (Mekerchus) in his work de linguae graecae veteri pronuntiatione^. All our great grammarians have entered the . There was now a lull in the contest. until the revival of grammatical studies in our century gave it new life. de germana pronunciatione Graecae linguae''. p. for although he used and taught the modern Greek pronunciation. 377 476. p. the most complete confirmation of the Erasmian system that had been written. Before the century had closed.'s first Sylloge. inasmuch as he never lived to see Erasmus' treatise. the Bishop uses for the most part the weapon of authority. appeared (aoc. 1568 by Eob. Eud. Hav. published by Coelius Secundus Curio'.'sPraefatio this was published in « Printed in Hav. p. Their participation in the " Id. ii. p. from whom the pronunciation of the latter takes its name in Germany. 205—207). on the whole. Finally in 1578 the famous Henr. 469 — 574. Apologeticus pro veteri ac germana linguae Graecae pronuntiatione".

Gymn. Kriiger. altera p. G.183 — 195. Curtius*.arena either entirely or essentially on the side of the Erasmian pronunciation. Blooh. e.Ij6iTpz. die Ausspr. Parchim and Ludwigsmore thoroughly Ztsehr. who. additions in Seebode's over the pronunciation: an index of Archiv. lust 1839. 106 — tumgenuinistumadoptivis. Gott.. Henrichsen in a justly valued book. Copenhagen Sohul-Programme. ' Verhandl. Leipz. 575 — 622. E. Karl Fr. betr.. Beuchlinische Aussprache 1686. f. Phil. Altona 1832. also three the literature of the subject is given p. J. editio 11. J. F. iibersetzt vou P. * G. G. Bloch'.g. Vers. N. p. The matter was next treated of in the Gottingen and in the Frankfort Philologenversammlung in the years 1852 and 1861. 144. EUissen supporting the modern Greek pronunciation and Bursian a mixture'. who published special works on the subject in 1824 and 1825 respectively'. The hottest and most persistent combatants are the Greeks ' In the Syll. thiae'schen Kritik. P. able on account of its thorough treat^ S. Seyffarth and Liscovius. affect an independent attitude towards both schools. Revision der Lehre ment both of the history of the Greek von der Ausspr. Vers. 1826. der sin. osterr. 1853. K. d. R.Cxatixis.a. Altona and nation and the history of the contest Leipz.l5S. 1829 — 137 f. Wetstenii pro graeca et Altgr.p. 1 ff. 1852. Bod. genuina linguae Graecaepronunciatione Henrichsen. Liscovius iiber die Aus. xx. deut^ Seyffarth. note. was a zealous champion of the modern Greek pronunciation. Hermann. des Altgr.. and arrive at mixed results. 1863.Erlduter. J. p. are in fact the only people who still cherish itacism. T. 1825. de sonis litterarum gr. des ' Joh. 1831 . Kiihner. 1827 and 1829 . Basileae oder sogen. scher Philologen. N. d. iiber die Neugriechischen orationes apologeticae. Sprache. Zweite Beleuchtung der Mat^ Id.l824:. Buttmann. p. 6 TEE PRONUNCIATION OF themselves. Among them however there are not wanting . Sal. who was refuted by his countryman R. d.nd Priedriohsen. August Matthiaq. Leipzig. now that the German pronunciation has been adopted even in Russia. W. p. Ellissen's treatise is valusprache des Griechisehen. About the same time the Dane S. 631 — 674. id. Hellen.

Genuine and counterfeit Erasmian principle. I regard the achievement of Erasmus and his predecessors and followers. the most obvious being ANCIENT GREEK. The train of thought then is this. Relation of Sound and Writing. but rather. was retained from those scholars' scientific discovery. o + 1. as they are heard in numerous instances in living languages. and from linguistic precedents. for as such. as I have said before. But finally in practice only so much. who do not refuse to take a scientific view even of this subject.6+1. for ev. 7 of course unconsciously adopted. the pronunciation also was diphthongal. various modes of writing such as t. ' i. but this is an axiom of convenience not of science. and call this the Erasmian pronunciation.e.e. while Beza expresses the pronunciation of these words by moae toae soae (triphthongal). Accordingly the Germans pronounce f as ts. It is indeed the case with all . to recover the ancient pronunciation from direct evidences. Section 4. Section 3. Oi. when the writing was diphthongal. 7]. but which is on that account by no means less real and important than the alteration.e. i. It is however worthy of remark. The genuine teaching of the Erasmians is on the contrary really scientific . as was convenient. ohov. ei. namely the freedom from modern Greek tradition and the employment of West European analogies. that the symbols and combinations of symbols are to be pronounced as the corre. The theoretic and scientific significance of these researches can indeed be far more easily undervalued than overvalued. In reality the axiom which has been more or less followed is this. in the German Kaiser.. a + 1. Erasmus heard the sound of at. which took place in the language so to speak covertly. they endeavoured. called in to their help the analogy of modern languages . The history of Greek pronunciation is the history of that phonetic change. e + i for et. that the Erasmian pronunciation.J sponding symbols in the various languages . V. I shall here disregard practice and keep to scientific discovery . and indeed as a very great discovery. that of ot. the members of the diphthong were pronounced distinctly but united into one syllable. like evvovi. i. in the moi toi soi of certain Frenchmen. in the actual form which it has taken in various countries. is by no means identical with that theoretically developed by Erasmus and his adherents. VI cannot possibly from the beginning have stood for the same sound. although the ancient Erasmians required the pronunciations ds for ^. They also. independently of the modem Greek tradition. both syllables of ehai with the same vowel sound. which became apparent in the writing. However. as was right and fair.enlightened investigators of language. from transcripts into and out of foreign languages. and recognizes the genuine oi (o + i) in soin and besoin.

/8t It huy it. rue . for ei neigh. v. the mute final consonants were perceptibly dwelt upon at all events before a pause. but. For the diphthong ai. mean fjurju. 1869—1878. meat fiTjT. Latin u is heard according to them in bow the verb ^ov. History of English A. we find. But Erasmus was perfectly right in inferring a variety of sound from the application of various symbols. pay are cited (in these cases however in more cultivated pronunciation more of an ei. the sound of the Greek eov (the modem ou). (/&gt. Bit hite.. for eu few. 70 ov go on. Further. But if these sound-changes are not apparent. 461 (517).. in beau Smith heard the Greek diphthong tjv'. the closed sound in me. But the enquirer must not allow himself to be juggled with. habit has stepped in. that however need not prevent us citing here the results of the abovementioned treatises of Cheke. To sum up. Erasmus and Stephanus a triphthong. vol. in Scotch and north English almost a monophthongal ae was heard). 1873—1874. which was also attested for rude. Sweet. 8 THE PRONUNCIATION OF nunciation of a as ae to the Scotch. after this has been done once and originally. French also of that period was pronounced quite differently to what it is at the present day : mute e had its value. Not that the present English orthography is the same as that under Henry the Eighth: but we should be entirely misled. and a diphthongal pronunciation from diphthongal writing. Transactions of the Philol. Ellis on E. Vwv gone. Society. the long French u. Smith and others. which is nowhere greater than in English. Au/c Xvt pelvic duke lute rebuke. p.e. but remains more or less in the lurch. foul ^ovX . 1875. They transcribe Engl. bloody (written at that time bludy). muddy. The Scotch according to Erasmus pronounced this e as i. for au claw. in bow the substantive. but would be general in ruddy. a + i. Writing is no conscious translation of sound into symbols. i. says Smith. not even to the extent of regarding what is apparent as more important owing to its transparency than that which comes to pass covertly. bowl etc. ib. the rj signifies the open sound. heat rjT. that the writing does not keep pace with the changes of sound. and one race hands on this habit to the other. wheat ovrjT . quite as great as that established for Greek by the Erasmians.t\ file. for Greek too there is a whole series of similar evidences in ancient authors. juggling away as it does the most important changes. Erasmus ascribes the pro' H. dew. and so stable writing. all three vowels being heard. mane fidv. The matter is well known to and treated of by specialists' . that an extraordinary alteration has taken place in the actual language. extra Sounds. bee being called e italicum. 1871. if we were to estimate the deviation of the language of that period from that of the present day by the deviation in the writing. way. is heard more frequently in central than in southern England. gown lyovv. Hence arises the well-known variation between pronunciation and writing in modern languages. the corresponding short sound. English Pr. The . So shifting is pronunciation. how can we know anything at all about them and about the earlier soundstage of Greek ? I might answer at once : in the same way that we do with regard to the earlier sound-stage of English . gate jdr .languages. 1869—1870.

ven(jal still retains diphthongal ai makes the universal statement as re. eit gards the French : " non solum diph. p. Gramm.(faire. eastSu= chateau) etc. Erasmus and Beza attest the living dialectal use of the diphthongal pronunciation in their time . Now it is . in like manner au (= a + o according to Beza). roman. . who adduces for au from oresreetepronuntiamus. has never from the beginning been infringed without special reason. aa.. they must consequently have originally striven to bring their writing as near as possible to the sound.) u. ex tribus vooalibus ? " Modern Pro2 Stepbanus. si una sola enunoietur. PRONUNCIATION OP by much reading and writing . Such a reason ANCIENT GREEK.the pronunciation likeao wasNorman. V. fairs etc. verumetiam Beza's treatise de francieae linguae nullamex vocalibusdevorantes.p.recta pronuntiatione (1584) a somewhat luta voce plane distinguimus ieau. = e + (Fr. as in Greece in the classical period and in western Europe in the Middle Ages. but this must have consisted much more in what was old not being entirely crowded out by what was new.(DiSu. 429 ff. disregarding the mixture of different systems of sound-notation. where there is but little reading and writing. write as you speak. lieu. ed.simple and natural rule. d. Diez.o. hisque longi.Qxiotum enim quem. velut quaelibet p. French modes of writing such as corps. thongorum et tripbthongorum ? Id est. q existed in many instances for the Romance languages in the deference paid to the Latin mother language .. than in the retention of the old to the absolute exclusion of the new. eau and oi have been already mentioned. and for the latter the original pronunciation as o-\-i is guaranteed by the living English voice from vmx and choice from choix\ Similarly English orthography. Havero. where the penultimate consonant was always mute.mdre). paire. 442. discrepant testimony to the efieot that ioyausc. maire = p4re. the orthography is extremely shifting. ew is according to them universally a diphthong. lO THE . unless the sound is very stable and well defined. indisso. doigt. factum^. ioyeux. Since then the ancient Greeks were not in a position to pay deference to a previous language in a higher stage of cultivation. For the ai in aimer. As the language underwent further development. at an earlier period also faict for fait and so on. 414. que Gallorum hodie reperias. has arrived at its present incongruity with the sound through deference to Latin and the permanence given by writing to sounds formerly — but now no longer — really heard.. qui aequo the ordinary pronunciation much like animo ferat fiovo^avlav suarum diph. Op. For a crystallization of orthography can only occur where the word forms have stamped themselves firmly 1 Diez. thongos et triphthongos. Spr. could never have existed but for the Latin corpus. digitus.. it may well have happened both in Attic and in the other dialects that the orthography did not progress evenly .

Attic Greek was an acquired tongue. 1 Strabo xiv. and that in part by means of its literature. When in the course of time the Attic dialect extended itself beyond the boundaries of Attica. 15 (of the Eo. or again of writing any breathing: all this is in the living language mere dead weight. and especially Herodian. r/. and became essentially the standard for the Koivrj of Hellenized countries. 1. namely the regular notation of long t". and also the Dorians of the Peloponnese. Accordingly even the mute l was reinstated. Here was the opportunity in those cases. after et had become attenuated to a. the only principle which could have weight was the phonetic. fluctuation in orthography must most certainly have become far less easy. in literature at least. For the latter. rifirji are written promiscuously. although it was not given up in writing. no considerable change was possible either in the form or the writing of words. ANGIENT GREEK.actually the case that in Attica towards the close of the fifth century the entire system was absolutely changed. To the Macedonians. now took great pains to obtain fixed orthographic rules based on etjnnology and original writing. p. Moreover. utei jungendie the 1 of tlie Dative. the Carians and Lydians. so that sound and writing impressed themselves simultaneously. a. However even at that period the orthography did not yet crystallize : the t of the diphthongs a. with avowed principle of restoring everywhere the genuine Attic as opposed'to the barbarous corruption of the language. and subsequently. indeed it only . II From the time of Augustus however Atticism made great strides. would be under no necessity either of making a distraction between o and w (we owe their distinction in pronunciation to the Erasmians) or of retaining mote than one mark of accentuation. it was applied to a new purpose.(for a long i). and it attained a supremacy in literature which it maintained throughout the whole Byzantine period. 648. We soon have to add to this the influence of the learned grammarians. the Egjrptians. 7. Quint. speaking of mans): Diutius duravit. et for long t was supplanted. as Strabo says\ ttoXXoI sK^aXKovai to e^o? (jtvaitcrjv aWLav ovk exop. was in the time of Augustus consciously omitted by many in writing also. were they to write phonetically. Accordingly it is actually the case that on Attic inscriptions of the fourth century the orthography is by no means established in all points : ret Tijiel and ttji. Moreover the grammarians. since the Athenians and also the other races did not yet possess any grammarians or etymologists to attach importance to a historical mode of writing. and at the same time habits of composition and literary culture increased to an extraordinary degree. where the living sound had here and there deviated from the writing. In like manner. which had gradually disappeared in the spoken language. to bring them again into harmony. eadem ratioue qua Graeoi a uterentur 2 Cp. but the standard was given once for all. long t. and all ancient modes of writing together with the diacritic marks of the old grammarians were preserved with the same conscientiousness which we see at the present day among the modern Greeks.

." Let us then allow. in so far as the sound is everywhere similar. 12 THE PRONUNCIATION OF tradition. g (before e and i). and that it is a not less recognized principle to prefer the older and the literary to the later and oral\ The present sound in any language proves nothing for the earlier. he forgets that we have here two traditions. 'has. Grimm also says in his German Grammar: "for the pronunciation of broken and diphthongal sounds I lay down a general principle. There must be added however an important point." and Diez remarks with regard to this.' baxo Fr. x had at all events up to the 16th century the value of French ch. Texas. Bursian appeals to the fundamental axiom of philological criticism. For when. this mode of writing is alone sufEcienfc evidence to teach us. still there would be ample ground to justify doubts as to the original similarity of x on the one side and j and g on the other. this testimony requires in each single case further confirmation. Jerez etc. before it can be admitted with any certainty. that what holds in general. although the mode of writing it may have remained the same . This is an incongruity. For as specialists know and tell us. just as the French and English orthography alone sufficiently prove the alteration which has taken place from the original languages. oral tradition the false. Modern Spanish has or had a short time ago three notations for the guttural ch. 417. that tradition is to be regarded as correct. Xerez. As a matter of course that only can pass for oral tradition and evidence. Diez.' Quixote. bajo. Now in the case of the Greek of to-day the genuine language falls foul of the traditional writing much . that of 00 is stranger: why relotc 'horologium. which has been emphasized by the Greek Psichari". and leave off making oral tradition our basis instead of this literary 1 Grimm. 38. that each one of the vowels contained in such sounds was originally perceptible singly. holds also for Greek. note. 1'. this forms the strongest presumption against the so-called testimony. "the history of French pronunciation will hardly invalidate his axiom'. 1'. g and j of Frencjj j^ The writing therefore was in this case too the true witness.serves to mislead with regard to the actual sound conditions. to take an example. Mexico. and not from the beginning reloj. as has been written since 1846 ? An explanation might perhaps be found. which really exists in the language of the people. that the ancient Greek sounds were absolutely different . the writing dissimilar! The writing of g side by side with j is easily explainable by the deference paid to Latin. not anything which may have been violently foisted on the language by the learned and cultivated out of regard for writing or some other supposed standard of accuracy. shewing the present value of x to have been the original . and the condensation of both into one tone in aW cases occurred at a later period. j and oc. How can anyone possibly think that such an orthography was originally shaped to fit such a language ? No. And if there is an absolute incongruity of sound and writing. until its incorrectness can be demonstrated.

yos vi6&lt. and arrange everything under proper rules the number of which must certainly be very great. would certainly be bound to shew their adherence in this point also. where a sound has undergone a universal transition into another. 1 3 more frequently than the language of the learned. This investigation niust be carried on separately for every single sound. che. v. This is all emphasized by Psichari. Method of ascertaining the ancient pronunciation. = Diez. or that of X after p (k or ch) : where consequently as a matter of fact we have no evidence. Moreover the language as now spoken tolerates neither two tenues in juxtaposition nor the combination of nasal with spirant . /a and 7 must be assimilated or allowed to drop out before 0. Psichari.i. The Reuchlinian therefore ought to say eftd. 14 THE PRONUNCIATION OF Section 5. p. for . e) or i (i. but neither the cultivated nor the Reuchlinians are willing to pronounce thus. The matter then stands thus . clinging to the writing. how long the original sound has stood its ground.r] etc. chye. but of written tradition. p. which they wish to make their support. %..^ Frankfurter Philologenvers. as for instance that of / to ^ and that of i to 77 . as regards which the testimony of oral tradition is entirely at variance. ANCIENT GREEK. ' J. the cultivated language. 1887. if they want to follow the testimony of the living language.. tsye. for example with respect to the pronunciation of K before e and t (kye. and that v. although the latter.) when followed by a vowel becomes y in the real spoken language : nyos veo&lt. It is of no importance whatever in this respect that educated Greeks are careful to preserve the value of « and v . for that takes place not as an effect of oral tradition. and when the present sound began. according to dialects and localities. ochtd. so that now this new value is actually attached to the symbol. Bev. tye. tse = ice). 371 f. . critique. adopted the new sound. etc. for the original sound writing is our evidence. (j). palyds iraXaioi. which they despise. niffi (nifi) for vvfi&lt. et. and the necessary inference to be drawn from it is that the Reuchlinian principle neither is nor can be carried out in practice. The latter it is true has in those cases. frequently does not admit it. but where the new sound has appeared only under certain conditions occurring in a minority of cases.{lSei). for the present sound (and for this only) the living representatives of the nation.f&gt. Finally there is no lack of points. we must therefore force on ancient Greek the rules that k and tt are to be pronounced as (German) ch and f before t. p. otherwise he transgresses at every step his own principle. Every e {ai. 184. 262 ff. and the point to be investigated is.

and can also draw inferences indirectly from the grammatical nomenclature and classifications of sounds. Of great importance too are transcriptions from and into other languages. it would be concluded with equal certainty that en still had the e sound. the justness of which no one would impeach in the domain of any other language. which latter however belong more to the prehistoric than the historic ' period. If then in like manner we say with regard to the Greek at . the fact that French en in the golden age of old French literature was identical with an. E. since it is exchanged neither with -q nor with e . Cimon Gyrus. especially during the course of so many centuries. this is a mode of reasoning. Mundarten. that Latin c was always h in the classical language . and give a plausible appearance to that which is most questionable. and here Latin is of primary value for Greek. ANCIENT GREEK. it was in the Attic perio8 a real double sound. Such people are doubtless skilled to throw doubt on that which is most firmly established.g. conversely if such a confusion did not appear. The sum of these is a piece of sound-history of the Greek language. this teaches us something about the value of (f&gt. In fact it is quite clear that. We have only to notice in comparison.. to be supplemented from the alterations which become apparent in the writing. ecclesia. whether a sound at a given time retained its original value or had already passed into another. Further phonetic transitions within the word and especially in the combination of words have weight . which is established by other considerations. how shifting and uncertain the Latin writing is in the period of the Kepublic in spite of the exertions made by the grammarians from an early date to regulate it. p. is inferred among other proofs from its confusion with an which already took place at that period' . since this fact is utterly irreconcilable with certain values of these symbols. KovKprjTio'i are alone suflficient proof that r] was equivalent to e .aX ecrri becomes KacrTi. it must be confessed. 15 ouvert. It is true the general rule. from directions as to orthography and so on. may simply be taken over from allied fields of enquiry. becomes 60' cS. Next we have direct information and descriptions in the works of the grammarians. for that Latin e was not equivalent to i is doubted by none except those who have given their verdict after having bowed their necks once for all to modern Greek authority. and.In like manner transcriptions such as Athenae. Even if we suppose that ai was an e tres 1 Lucking. and ai. even in the case of a much more learned people than the ancient Athenians some confusion in writing would infallibly have occurred. by which to decide. and also r]. for no one can doubt that this was the value of /c'. and K. Looking at it in this light we first see the whole of the significance of the subject. such a trifling difference as that would not long have been adequate to hinder confusion. just as Greek is for Latin. Ke\e/36s KiKepmv. according as it falls foul of or is at harmony with .the results may be very various. 106 ff. Krjva-o'. This then is the first and most general method : investigate up to what period the writing is constant and when it begins to be no longer so. the whole of its difficulty. while j] was an ordinary open e. are in themselves adequate evidence for the fact. riltesten franz. d. for if iirl &amp. if ab was identical with e.

veloped out of it in numberless words " num in usu variantur. Much light can be obtained for Greek from ^ It is true that in the 16th century pluribusreoeptus est. which have become so numerous in our time. . e/iol Be rdSe. . For neither can precise limits of time be given for the transitions. Bishop Gardiner prescribes : how the Eomans pronounced « . 150 f. Degree of accuracy attainable. they will not submit to refutation. nor can these themselves and the original sound be denoted with mathema- . ne aut horum aut illorum aures outside France). 1'. Lastly the plays on words depending on similarity of sound (analogous to rime. Section 6. who substitute dogma for enquiry. that in the Bomanoe Tooalibus sonos i aut e referentibus daughter-languages an i has been deconsonantur. for instance from Coptic. I mention this here. oaeterum qui in his sonus a 1 6 THE PRONUNCIATION OF oriental languages also. provided that we do not look for too much. quoniam a dootis etiam. which is contained in this representation of the cries of animals'. as I have no inclination after this to enter the lists at all with opponents. .this authority". the point was not considered to be " EUissen. we do ink ei g quoties cum diphthongis aut know however. aliis densiorem (Diez. with these and similar turns of speech he can wriggle successfully out of the quite unimpeachable evidence. They are fortunately not too numerous among us.Eomance languages but not usual oito. offendas. p. are made use of in a critical and unbiassed manner. which in the case of Mediaeval languages is certainly a far more excellent resource). satisfactory results can certainly be obtained. also etymologies in ancient writers.ev raOra Sokovvt ecTW. a-oX fj. especially the /3^ /3^ of Kratinus. If then all these expedients and especially the deviations of writing in the inscriptions and papyri. and we can only take leave of them with the words recommended by the ancient Euainus for such combatants. This last expedient. 136: "wedonotknow settled . states that the tranaliis tenuiorem sonum affingentibus. sition of e to j is common to the utriusque pronuntiationis modum dis. imitations of the cries of animals and so on must be laid under contribution for information. furnishes a Reuchlinian like EUissen with a handle for cheap witticism making it appear as though the contest about t) was merely a contest to decide the competence of a wether as witness for the pronunciation of a Plato and a Demosthenes. ilium frequentato.

Finally. v. a more open. not to mention all the other points of difference.225 W. in fact every science has its own degree of precision attainable. who both declare t to be of all vowels the least agreeable to the ear and the most wanting in dignity*. yevoiro yenUtf). IS.tical precision.) . iroia Ti]v \i^iv TrKeov&amp. I am perfectly convinced. ANCIENT GREEK. I J sound of ». But in ancient Greek. there the language has suffered a change affecting its very essence and something absolutely new has been developed out of the old. as e .Tw8i(T. the ancient Athenian would probably stop his ears at such disfigurement of ^ Dionys. for there are two sorts of e's. I mean ancient Greek in the mouth of the modem Greek. ir. than tt/so? dupi^tiav . Nor would the ancient Athenian think the language especially agreeable to the ear. 1888. if a German came with his Reuchlinian pronunciation. p. 291 Sp. Lastly there are not merely three open e's. if an ancient Athenian were to rise from his grave and hear one of us speak Greek. on the basis of the best scientific enquiry and with the most delicate and practised organs. For instance it is certainly not sufficiently precise. every unaccented vowel short (e. Zaoher : dieAvsaprache other methods of proof the meritorious des Griech. without regard to the possible variety in the single elements. (to I riKUxra uenv^ v TOP S^ irAvTuv t6 (. 77 B.g. for instance a diphthong can be spoken with greater or less preponderance of one or the other vowel. P.P. acute and circumflex are not differentiated. Hermog. spoken according to the fashion of the modern Greek. We find Cheke insisting that these things must be treated rather ev irXarei. This is by no means a matter of indifference for harmony and correctness of pronunciation : but no one can expect to know anything about such subtleties in the case of a dead language. the French distinguish three sub-varieties in their language : an ordinary open e. 2 1 8 THE PRONUNCIATION OF his language (if indeed he recognized it as such) and at such .aav) . but a numberless series. simply because he failed to observe that this is supposed to be his own language. that. this vowel has an unnatural preponderance. as is well known. I ought not to be asked further. and a very open one. If however I say t) was the open e. he would not indeed be so loud in his censure. and every accented vowel is pronounced long. ((ax"'. which open e ? although. His taste would probably coincide with that of Dionysius of Halicamassus and Hermogenes. For where. and the same holds good with regard to the other sounds and combinations of sounds . the open and the closed. But if he heard a modem Greek. &lt. if I give the 1 Cp.. observing quantities with pedantic care. he would think the pronunciation horribly barbarous. on this proof as well as on exposition of K. Leipzig.

they are however distinguished by no diacritic mark. and this fiction only illustrates the fact. triangle for the vowel line which has ANCIENT GREEK. 4sca esso the closed. The Germans pfonounce the short open.. London and Berlin. as soon as ei became simple I.has changed back again to the see the less reason for exchanging this beginning . After this rather long introduction I reach my subject. the closed (French 6... irelv for Tri^elv. Between a and i come the two e's. In like manner between a and u come two o's. Standard Alphabet lately won favour. French peu). t%s iyi%ls Trji. 0. such as never appear in any real language ? The ancient Greeks. since in Greek its (2nd ed. the German u. The whole is represented as follows : — . Att in many cases to At. the German language however wants the short closed e. ondre dmbra drdine. by the well-known triangle.u . For who (to take an instance from Herodotus) would put up with tls allthvtls Ty&lt. French peur) and a closed (Ofen. Next comes the intermediate sound between i and u. Lepsius' e) nearer to i Both e's are found both long and short. that we can attain perfect accuracy neither in practical pronunciation nor in theory. Vowels and Diphthongs. 1 B. no longer said vyieia but vyeia. an open and a closed (o and o). vyielrit. which must be sought in the short i of certain dialects.discordant sounds. these also occur in French: open in encore. the open (French h i. However we are at liberty by all means to pronounce as we please . Greek v. Section 7. just as at an earlier date TToKu was contracted to ttoXi. Lepsius' e) nearer to a. System of Vowels. we are perfectly secure against the censure of the hypothetical ancient Athenian.i -. 1 9 Italian grammar on the contrary uses such marks both in the case of and of e : 6ra Spera Srgano. an open (offnen. dos. The relation of the vowels to one another is excellently illustrated by modem authorities. and all the similar monstrosities. and first in order the history of the vowels and diphthongs. and in like manner rafieiov for ra/j-ieiov. the long closed . a long open is shown in the Low German broad a (English water. dX7j9riiT]&lt. for instance R. 4rha etere have the open sound. closed in anneau. I end . having at its corners a i and u. French u. Lepsius'. Danish aa. 0. 1863). I. Lepsius. For these Lepsius writes u. a short closed in those dialects which also pronounce the i as described above. Swedish a). and similarly between e and come two o's.

f)d6y'yov {ypd^erat). In the Greek of the present day the vowelsystem has developed in the following way : — . to •n-atSe? Kara rrjv 'TrapaXij'yovcrav Sia Trj&lt. iirelTrep to //.rvffTo\y aToexfiiov Karh ttjk oiJr^i' Sivaiuv Koivbv • 8ia(pipovffa. ten.j&gt. iffTiv 0. and o to to. o (^. The names of the vowels were : ak&lt. &lt.. to the Saxons\ Should the names el.e. ' simple v ' with oi. mathem.aKpbv il yap aiTii SAva/us iv &amp.ia-i.ii cTd(reiKal&lt.&lt.pv -^jriXov. how the writing has assumed this form. and consequently an endless series of vowels : but the distinction of these principal types is quite suflScient for our purpose. two short (e. it is at any rate better to say with the later grammarians e. as the definitions. ov. "hard T {D)". Sextus Empiricus' takes exception to this arrangement on the ground that e is to 17. The ancient grammarians distinguish seven vowels for Greek.g. which do not tally with the pronunciation. o).ltol and so on. Tp6irov xal to Kal to &lt. or. Bk. see especially p. to Si /3/)axi5 iffn v o&gt. The use of e ^jnXSv and V -^Ckov. Kal ffv&lt. w.a fda otoix^ Iov d/toXonSijirej Kal t6 e xal to v Iv eXvai yev'^veTai. and we find the expressions kv ylriKov. But the origin of these old names. Sy. i. In fact in this entire theory writing rather than sound ' Sext.if/i. they do not mean the adjective to be understood as part of the name of the symbol. having regard to long and short. to Be •n-eSai Bid tov e yp-iXov. Bmp. rjja.&lt.It is obvious that in this diagram there is a different vowel for every point on its lines.piyripav itrH..iv a p .^oi. ei. contrasted with the writings koi. additions which were about as necessary to the Byzantines. and three common (&amp. for when the Byzantines say e. ' Simple e ' is contrasted with the diphthongal writing ai. Si to e ylverai if /corct Si rov airov 624 f.ii. 'simple u\ as names ought in reason to be dropped . ifCTtCdiy 2—2 2p THE PRONUNCIATION OF has evidently been the guide . . at Si. Iwra. as these pairs in Byzantine times coincided in sound. but the point to be investigated is. 625. CO /tie^a. as a is to d. &lt. «). e. adv. v.. "soft D (T)".&lt. The case is not far otherwise with the definitions 6 jLLKpov.f)a. 'simple e'. will have to be investigated. 8 ff.s Koi.na\ii' /ih to rf yiverai. namely two long (17. l. A p. and that consequently only five vowels have to be distinguished. S). ov not be permissible as liable to be misunderstood. with whom these two vowels had the same sound.

We find in ancient Greek side by side with the vowels and having a like function of syllable-formation a large series of diphthongs. C \pCKbv 1859) p. has elsewhere in modern Greek different shades of tone according to its origin. Wesen oi the Etym. . System of Diphthongs. 433 ff. according to competent authorities pure invention*. But. Cfymn. Lat. nor indeed can they all be proved even to have had an actual existence^: ao (dyopai. as keryaki KvpiaKtj". Since these two can be combined with all the other vowels. As names of symbols have been disposed of by Karl Ernst they are only found in the grammarian Aug. The e is in modern Greek 1 The definitions ? tj/iUv.e. 21 in general open. V. f. short as well as long. 62 ff. close combinations of pairs of vowels. vp) becomes er. Beitriige zur GescMchte ^ For the evidence see ib. Ztschr. the fact of an ij appearing as e 6 before r in unaccented syllables (^£p6&lt. ?) ei (XetVo)) ev (ev) rji (Ti/jbfJL) Tjv (tjvXovv) 01 (otz/os) ov (oJto?) . The u sound of v is heard even now according to many authorities sometimes before r {dj(ypa achura. Gud. but less decidedly. theoretically we have in all fourteen diphthongs . 01. Grammatik des Griech. that the i sound. and in Ohrysoloras. of which the last is always either i or v. p. (I. in spite of the assertion of Eeuchlinians.(l.) av (Travoy) di (djopdi) dv {ypavf ion. rip. according to which every unaccented ir (ip. but to a modem phonetic law. is.!.) is not due to a retention of the ancient sound. 6epi for 6'rjplov etc. 64 ff. (HaDe ANCIENT GREEK. rvpl i. and i also with V as first element. vt) In this complete incongruity between sound and writing we see a clear indication of the transformation which has taken place in the former since classical times. 1J. u. these however are not all distinguished in writing. ypr/vi. d. Section 8. tu/jo? tilriy-. 1851 p. Schmidt. o also tends that way. especially in accented and long syllables'.

. Since however this distribution was certainly not originally ■ invented with this purpose in view. that of Dionysius Thrax. 61 = 1 Lastly come the diphthongs Kara Kpaam.f&gt. (paii'fi {(pBdyyos) is vowel-sound as B. (oi= 0. r/o = e. * Foy. also must originally have belonged to the third class*. In Choer. are defined (Chqer.&lt. numbers only six of these. oi. opposed to the \p6^t. p.ii. 86. 34 f. consonants (Aris. p. namely those with actual fusion.A. 49 ff. (f&gt. would leave at and ot altogether out of their classification. According to one distribution' they fall into two classes Kvpiat Si^O. later writers go as far as eleven or twelve . gr.f&gt. developed by G. p. i..6oyjo&lt.. Sehol. dor. The diphthongs The doctrine of the diphthongs will at Kari. eu do not weld together into such a simple sound. ou. those in which the voice passes successively through both vowel sounds.tot (oStSt) cov (ion. 72 B. at and ot. soil. id. griech. 3 Psichari Revue Grit. Kara Sd^oSov. et.d. why these were called proper and the others improper diphthongs. 1879. Foy. Hal. what else except (two vowels in one syllable). a-wd. iii.mv)]'\ is properly a more or less simple sound. Mosohopulos p. p. must rest in the idea. and KaTaxp'ncTi'K^ai''. Vulgarspr.. Lautsystem d. p. have come upon the idea of a diphthong ^ I do not know. p. -It I Theodos. Hermann de emend. Leipzig. p. rat. 35. Gramm. yi. toxenus in Dion.=a. « The theory of the 14 vowels is 2 id. 1887. The second class in this classification are the diphthongs kut eiriKpaTeiav. For this very reason these three diphthongs are called according to another classification' 8t. we nowhere find more than one vi and one av distinguished." Theodos. the former are those named diphthongs by Dionysius. ov .. Chosroboskos ply . tt. 84. where the one sound prevails over the other and makes it imperceptible: dt. in order thereby to explain their different value in respect of wordaccentuation. p.&lt. for the later grammarians. 24. Gr.). Dion. at. that is those with a short vowel for their first member vyith the exception of in. wvtoi. eu. p. 804. 84. The reason. p.e. 1214 f. « is entirely left out. T hr. 266. 11 tHE PBONtJNGIATION OF The oldest theory preserved. av ev ov .) : xwp's . av. which however consists of two elements . ^wp^ (or ffuXXa/Sij?) it is possible to sup. by whom this doctrine is handed down to us. Si^f. = 6 avTosi) vi (veKvi) Vi (dviwi ?) 1 K. that rj Si.

p. Sio &lt. that coming at the end of a word they are less easily shortened before a following vowel than the others. For according to Plato (Kratyl.av^v Hipp. iveneplrravr o eavrks the doctrine of letters and syllables. More discrepant.aaiv referred to in the sentence. 803. that there are other elementary sounds. to which therefore at and ei also belonged. Kar eiriKpdreiav'. that Sextus Empiricus* quotes from ' certain philosophers ' the statement. ji if) 1 pass over as ^T^e tjme of Sextus (about 200 a. He afterwards mentions et also as belonging to this class. Zev etc. 01..v vl scarcely ever occur at the end of words. ii.•* Cp.d. since the tone is stronger owing to the clear pronunciation of both vowels. is the distribution of the musician Aristeides': Kara Kpaaiv. the other. eS. the introductory words aSrai phist Hippias busied themselves with toIvvv al li&gt.) ai having no importance by the side of ^^g pronounced ever so decidedly as a. of the diphthongs KaTci avfnfkoKrfv he says.l&gt. 285 c.a-ai/ tois 5io (puv-fieaa/ .v&gt. which indeed will coincide with the six diphthongs of Dionysius and with the diphthongs Kara Kpaaiv accordiag to the original numeration. we must understand this to refer to ev and av (av. the same from the beginning to the end of their duration. its main features. Emp. hid tov &lt.. 424 o. 23 must also be meationed.). The class Kard icpdaiv would thus be limited to ai. 625 of ei=i. The which pursuit they must inevitably division B. /cttKoi^uroi (tjuuuui) ^gTai. A. according to their statement. for instance at. oi inx^i-poOvTcs Tois fivS/iois and the so. The expressions /cara (thesixofDionys. different from those usually taught.). d) in his time both ap/x6foi. than at first appears.e.wi&gt. Maj. Accordingly the philosophers BJs.lav &lt. \iyco Se twv Sid tov (a poor variant Bi avrmv) a-vvTiOefiivtov. i n whose .anyrategobaokasfarasAristoxenusin iKoierat 6 ^ffiryyos toO his tpiavqevTos. except in so far as ei. and the corrupt statement about these diphthongs t(Sv Kara av/j. : Kal dvaarpoipdis lireirdal nvi.ievTa Kal dirorcXoOo-i //. we get no new element out of this or out 1 Sext. had now to be counted in the class Kar iirinpaTeiav. perhaps even farther. and this is the characteristic of an element. in Kal iyhavTO Kara rpdvoys rpus. must be emended by the repetition of a letter. those Kark Kpatrw : avympvCoaiv iavrk r i. For these sounds are. ov and all similar sounds. p. Now siace r)v a&gt. unlike a syllable such as pa. into ci'^upoi ANCIENT GREER. Kara crvfiTrXoicrjv. (j&gt.If then in and aipiavoi (q.8eKa di4&gt. adv. mathem. ei. koX oStos aToixSov.Tr\. having already become long t.t&gt.

rj&gt.SoiJ. We are unfortunately not in a position. Quintil. Kar iwiIJ. Phoenician Cheth. Kal raOra crroixeja.\oa6&lt.pi. with the means at our command. various attempts appear in .rv/ji. their oldest development and representation. 46.earlier. to follow up to its sources with any certainty the ancient theory of diphthongs. At a somewhat later time. as Rumpelt says'. must be Si. 44 Meibom.v avvif. KaXirS. 24 THE PRONUNCIATION OF K.j&gt. in improper diphthongs on the other hand the relation of the sounds one to the other is an ' interweaving '. Kari. — iireloiv (p.5Tis.poT7Js6jju)Las^&lt. at a very early period employed the symbol H. p. and in most local alphabets up to the year 400. This was in fact very readily done in Asiatic Ionia where the breathing was lost . iroiovi nai.j&gt.otov Kalro M Kcdrbov ^ Arisi.^av. the symbol in coni sequence of this was now called ^ra instead of Cheth ''Hra. properly used to signify the rough breathing. Section 9.p aSrai.(moi tQv &lt.&lt. so that an actual 'mixture' takes place as between water and wine . exactly as aX^a with a. we will begin our investigation with a discussion of the E and O sounds. every e was written with E. Kpareiay ylyveffOal ipafiev). and especially the lonians of Asia Minor. time ei was still a diphthong. about the sixth century. Originally. and began with this vowel. tiirovaripovs y&amp.TT(. since a admits of no doubt whatever. iffrai. As regards the value of these vowels and diphthongs. i. 6asirapadi.ofiov ^x""'''".paaiv and Kara avfMirXoKriv are a marvellously happy definition of the distinction intended .Siyafim t&amp.6. every o with O^ The Greeks of the East however.t)jvi}iVTa.T\oKi]v &lt. Afterw ards Afterwards 626 after a discussion on p.oyoei. E and O sounds. as a vowel-symbol for a particular kind of e. the voice sounds during the movement from one vowel-position to the other and only during this movement. koL Kpaaiv rj xori &lt. as iJToi. 29 Jahn) (oi dlipBoyyoi.poiv ir\elova (TToix^ta.TTl^iiae(as. oi: — Toirov di oUtus ^x""'''"^) ^'"^^ '^"^ " Tois rpC^^t d/n^Arepa (pavepw iK^oui rai TOV et tp06yyos Kal 6 tov ou pioyoeLdTjs Kal tA &lt.aOydeTos Kal a/UTd^oXos Xa/t/Sdcerai. for in proper diphthongs. 6 TOV at Kal ei ^ffoyyos aTrXoSs i&lt.

Siphnos con. the natural way to do which would have been to double the vowel. PoU. ' gee Arist. 47.). TOtoC. according to which the new symbol corre' Eumpelt d. 225 ff. Thasos. a-riWeiv. though not with the necessary general 1^ ' . But which e did the ancient lonians intend to represent by H. fiia-6ovTe. which in the developed orthography are written diphthongally ei and ov respectively. seeKirohhoff soriptions (Zum Vocalismus des ionip. and it became the more obvious and finally as early as Aristotle^ the only distinction recognized. and which by O. On the one hand. Consequently the distinction between H and E. I and I. without however being really by origin diphthongs arising from e + 1. the old symbol O to E'. for w : subject of the old Naxian and Kean inSnio-oi. on the other hand in ecrreiXa. and furthermore it never occurred to anyone in ancient Hellas to distinguish in script a and d. after e and had been distinguished from their lengthened equivalents by the diphthongal writing of the latter. BiBovf. natUrliche System des reader once for all to the classical book Sprachlaute p.various localities. and the only qualitative distinction which can have been intended is that which the Italians make prominent both in pronunciation and in grammatical writing in the case of these two vowels and only these. of A. or by leaving it open below and annexing two feet (H) . as is also the v in ov and ovtos . by Dittenberger on the veraely f2 was written for (on). ridek.application. (f&gt. the quantity. namely the distinction between open and closed e and 0. v and v.i\eiTe the ei is merely lengthened e. The quantitative distinction came to pass accidentally and secondarily. and on the other the sounds tj and ca which were always or almost always long. and was applied in the manner adopted by the lonians of Asia. 25 sponded to H. although H almost never and the corresponding O symbol in no instance whatever represents a short sound. Hermes xv. ANCIENT GREEK. just as the consonants were written doubled for similar reasons. as has been assumed since the days of Greek grammarians. the open or the closed ? On this point the old inscriptions of Keos Naxos and perhaps 1 In Paros. this last form ultimately prevailed.. In XetTrw and yevet the t is radical. the Greeks distinguished 6 and o together with their lengthened forms. to distinguish the corresponding O sounds by the introduction of a new symbol. for those namely. e. schen Dialekts. and in jSovXr]. which was so carefully distinguished in the cases of e and 0. 65 ff. For. therefore. Kirchlioff : Studien zur Geschichte ' For facts of epigraphy I refer the des gnecliischen Alphabets. or by a point in it (O). TONrfiy. The symbol O was differentiated by leaving the circle open (C). fl and O was originally one of quality". 2 This was first explicitly stated. Xoyov the ov lengthened 0. But that. was by no means. E and O are as late as the fourth century used for long sounds. o + u respectively. 21.

AHMOS. Bull. The Naxian Inscr. (derived from a correction on the stone) . VI. . and previously had that value universally. Eohl's restoration TH[XoO (TT-dJNTA 1. The Naxians represent the short sounds also with H. xi. and to E that of closed e. Bechtel. But this occurs in Attic also and elsewhere : TBI for rg side by side with THI. 29 ff. we must give to H the value of open e. which elsewhere has the value of a. is certainly right in ex- . iii. Mitth. For there H is only written for that e. that is. &lt.I)EPEN ^e'pew. (Bustrophedon Inscr. Mitheil. in Keos e is written in these cases. in them H and E only partially coincide with ordinary H and E'. thus in the diphthong ei (24 i^evtxSei) a mixture of the two E sounds appears. the e which stands nearer to i. 16 1 consider wrong on the score of meaning . Beohtel 23. if they have arisen from long a.{Taevea from to eio'iY. AHMOAIKHO ArjfjLoBUeQ). on the offering of a Naxian woman) = Eohl 407 . the e. ®Tii. that is. i. Bulletin de correspondence Rellenique. (Keos U.ENAI ehai. c. 187. 97 (Amorgos). the rj on the other hand which is common to the Greek dialects together with e and e is denoted by E. EIllBAEMA eTri/3Xr]fia. 1. 139 S. . for a lu stration of the interior of the house (diappalveii/) cannot be accomplished from a distance. Irwcr. and also that arising from contraction of ea: OIKIH. Gr. in the same place occur also Smpavdiji and line 23 fldcTji. 395 ff.. Dittenberger's endeavours on this head are in my opinion misplaced. especially as this corresponds to the writing EI cur- 1 Cp. ^ The two last examples on line 17 of the longer Kean inscr. Kirohhofi* 32. If then in these dialects that sound is written with H. Instit. AAHON aXXeav*. 1 ff. offers only one stumbling block HKHBOAOI iKrj|3(5\vi which D.26 THE PRONUNCIATION OF Amorgos also are especially instructive . EIIHN. which stands nearer to a. without admixture of diphthongal writing^ ME fi-q. which corresponds to old Greek (Doric) d. Kohler) =Eolil. Dittenb. des archcsol. antiquissiviae no.

Here again the Italians might be our instructors^. * Comp. for H here still keeps the value of the breathing as well as the other. ordinary Ionic : from Xo6 s. which it had there. not e. TToX^os in verse. 27 rent elsewhere. no. ix. That is to say they gave to the symbol derived from their neighbours in Attica. no German on the other hand pronounces 6/te correctly. k-tj). id. that the foregoing statements are true in an especial degree for Attic. 381. but the mode of writing was also different — . cp. it is true. ( = Eohl 408) we find BKHBOAOI. while the later shew lacunae in the places in question). that the Boeotians. although not the same as u. 4 is explained by Bechtel (Ion. I may here remark. On the Naxian bronze published by Frankel ^reft. since Ipos is found elsewhere in Thasos. p. Bechtel 174. the pronunciation was mi. 84 ff . 202 ff. Moreover in the comic poets of Attica the cry of the sheep is represented by /3^ /3^ : S' rjXWio^ Sa-Trep irpo^aTov ^q fit) XerfOiv fiaBi^ei^. 107. there could not be a more mischievous waste of time. the value. 52. 1879. IHPON Thasos Kohl Inmg. that Merzdorf {Curtius Stud. Inscr. Beohtel 162. 133. who give to iMri a sound similar to French mais — in Keos and Naxos. The next evidence touching e and rj is . is. elmoY is strange to that language. Those then pronounce correctly. \ri6 s (open e] came Xei6s . frequent in Italian {fdndere. and the latter as early as the Alexandrian period had become i.) tries to prove a double value of H in. when about the beginning of the fourth century they appropriated the symbol H. H in wpa must be pronounced as in French encore. but o in opdv neither with this sound nor yet with German short 0. of Chios. and from ai came e (a).. I. Eohl no. but one tending more to u. Consequently m also is open (o).. from jSoo-tX^os on the other hand (e original and closed) /SatriX^os* ffoXeus however occurs twice on the tolerably old inscr. Beohtel 44 (Keos) BIS occurs twice in proper names of the 3rd declens. 3 But in G. and o the closed : in fact the lengthened equivalent of the latter became at an early period a u.. I am not of opinion however. inasmuch as the short closed e. Z. that we ought in practice to exercise ourselves or oyr pupils in this mode of pronunciation . employed it to represent their dialectal sound arising from common Greek at ('ApLo-rrjx/J'O'. Cauer no. A striking proof. Gr. Abdera Eohl 349.plaining as agraver's errorforHBKHB. ANGtENT GREEK. alongside BS (according to the earlier copies. 56) as a mistake for HIP. 2368 b.

are united by Ahrens under the name of the stricter Dorism. the open sound maintained its ground still longer in those dialects. iK p. The Dorian dialects coming under this category having ^xof for el-xpv. but among the Ionic Keans and Naxians and also in Bceotia and Thessaly it got the closed sound : MHTEP metei. for the short may indeed subsequently have had the same development in these too. that is in Arkadian Elean Lakonian Lesbian etc. Ionic. 43 Kook (from the published by C.). Xiyetv. This open sound may have been retained in those dialects. and Ionic. Aristoph. in Boeotian. /Sj/^^i/ irpo/SaT-oi/. at least in the long sound. In the milder Dorism. for the lengthening gave 77 e. of Literat. that is the closed. and the Lesbian etc. The same follows for Doric from the contraction of ae to 7) : vLKfjv. which made . 19. assigned by tions of the R. Doric and Ionic : Tei^n Att. ^ tj closed). XTpaTrj^=%TpaTea^ and XdX. Further the old long sound as in irarijp remained in most dialects open. Mein6ke to the younger Kr.(Keos). i. had everywhere only one sort of e. hence its lengthened equivalent ev. In the last two dialects therefore there was also only one kind of e. 8. Lohmeyer {Phon.. These then. S. 69) '■'Diez 336: "every unaccented compares Hesyoh." ■• Inscr.. r/v. except in so far ^ as an open e had been newly developed out of ai. diirj. Lisoovius. Further op.this phenomenon an argument for wards by Oheke (p. accented e in Italian is both short and 642 E. Lastly the special Ionic 17 was everywhere e.. the open. 288) in support open e.aXKea on Rhodian inscriptions^ For we cannot get from ea the mixed sound e. partly different. p. Siieiv /jte /iiWei Kal KcXeiei. fr. The short e had at that prehistoric time. Thessalian. Since a was open. when forms such as irobfjaai. such as contractions. rrifid i. ^9. Vol. ra ifid. keep rj as lengthened equivalent of e. and accordingly the following history of the E sound for Greek becomes evident'. e^CKrJTO. which lies nearer i than either of the two elements. in Attic. The line N. In fact for dialectal r] in general we must everywhere assume the same sound of open e. which in later formations also. 333 (every un. Stud.Krj=X. Newton. ix. with respect to the o sounds. which it had long before elsewhere. 28 THE PRONUNCIATION OF but ea readily gives e. The case is partly analogous. still an open sound. Transacdrama DionysaUxandros. standing as it does midway between the two. iwrjv. T.the contraction of ea to 17. o must have been so too at the time when the nominative -(ov arose from -ovt and the augment o) from o . TraTijp rjadiov arose. is closed.of Btaoism.e. MATEP and from the fourth century onwards MATEIP in Bceotia and Thessaly. ^ Diez Gr. recognizes in is used by Aldus Manutius and after. of Kamiros and lalysos ' Kratinus fr. e became at an early period e. .

' I follow here the excellent essay Sprache.2. the ordinary E for € and ei: AFENIA (real ei) i^eiviov. Gr. 447. ySpiis Naxos B.j)iTpka written with E et in the penultimate 1 Eirohhoff. 104 f. 15. in many places. roughly speaking. rule I intentionally refrain from giving 483. no. 5. Epitaph of Xenvares (B. and also Boeotian.Eotl Inscr. ANCIENT GREEK. p. As a 433. Aeivlas G. veos Hiero's helmet. where it was represented by ov. Finally the original long sound as in Xewv remained open everywhere except in Thessalian. that is. ■where else write EI in names derived ^ Kirehhoff*. once we find even 'A/i&lt. 4 oomp. i. and both et's are written diphthongally^ In both places and also in the Sicilian colonies of Corinth spurious ov is denoted by OT. from Savds : AeivoSUrio and Aeim/iiveos ^ Collitz Dial. I. 29 Section 10. EI and OT from E and O. By the Corinthians the local symbol ^ was employed for e and 7). no.344) M el^ios (real ei) elfi. ABINO Melos E. 299. as IIOT^SAAN. 20.). . the epigraphio forms of the symbols. 433. lengthened e and o are universally confounded in writing. on a Corinthian vase*. KAETOAA2 KXeiTSXa^. antiqu. 5&amp. of Dietrich. . 3122 {AnBustrophedon Insor. and were so. while O serves for and ft)^ This OT is found also instead of T in the diphthong ev : 'A-x^iXXeoin. in the sixth century or even earlier. I have intentionally deferred to this point the important question. First of all there is no doubt on this point. 20. 16. even at an early period.Xoyo}'} out of Xoyovi and Xoyco out of \6yoo. what the sounds are. that the real et as in XetTrro and the real ov as in outo? were originally the diphthongs ei (more accurately ei) and ov (more accurately ou).nali delV Inst. HOTEAAN (do. the fact that arohaio inscriptions every. fi. no. ^ Epitaph of Menekrates (Bohl 342) That Aeivlas has the real e: is shewn by iirola. Aeo-a.= Bohl no. Aeivo/ii. the same. which shew 1? for et. A. which are represented by EI = e and OT = o. 18&amp. 88 ff. Naxos. 23. 48 ff. but S^NOKA^S SeJ'o/cX^9^ In Corcyra ^ is the only form. hence the lengthening ov. tlvi. Zum Vocalismus der griech. 408 . p. Kuhn's Zeitschr. for example here and there the Corinthians resolve their E into ^2 (et). In the rest o became at an early period 0. This levelling took place earliest in Corinth and its colonies. Bohl 510 . with these diphthongs at a later period. correspondingly Corinthian E = et as second element of the diphthong at : A@ANAEA 'Adavaeia 'Adavaia^. All these forms of writing are not perfectly constant . Inschr.) Uoreu^dv. .

twice with S = i. From all this it is quite clear. 491^. while on the other hand no such need was felt of separating original diphthongal ei and ov from the newly developed mixed sound. pul). 329 (Anaktorion ac. F.. VIII. and once almost all private inscriptions. lished by Eohl under no. o" % . the sound which is constant in writing. K\^ffLos . (note) as errors (omission). 146. but at a very early period EI for e^ although the Athenians in particular in by far the larger number of cases do not separate e and e in script. 492 has Ztschr. was constant also in pronunciation .). 20. Miletus 6th cent. 1877. 500 at least 4 times BINAI (with E cording to Kirohhoff). f. These are with ^=c. Gr. but the diphthongal writing of et. 4 times iv. and in like manner the real and spurious o.30 THE PRONUNCIATION OF syllable'. 491W.m etc. rightly considered by Kirchhoff*. clay tablets. The last three forms are dirodeKvivrei Eohl no. is written 26 times with B. 642. the ' i pingue' of Lucilius.heproducesasexamples p. in fact Hot. Gymn.* Teos. (Kirch.). DeP no. The old Ionic and Attic inscriptions nowhere or almost nowhere shew E for real EP.E&gt.. Halikarnassus ATTO Eohl no. — But with BS = c«. el/d in the Ionic part with B. that the lengthened equivalents of e and o had become so near to i and u respectively. vgl. and ov is to be found on one of the Lokrian bronzes of the fifth century". Eohl no. KBTAI /ceiTOi do. and a corresponding mode of writing was adopted. 19 ff. 381 B. which he wrote ei (puerei nom. v. 3044 = B6hl 497 &lt. We must here state our opinion. 485): el/il. ^ Cauer. EIXON . For the other Doric dialects our material is not at present adequate .Sav. 154) HPAKAEAHS CIA. only two certain instances) .E.real and spurious e. The Sigean Inscr.(i&gt. Stud. twice MBNEKABABS 373 "7.(Kretsehmer Ztschr. that is real et. Sprachf. E. f. that a need was felt of differentiating the. on the other hand 0ei}7e(i/ and ^TrwaXeii' 321 . are also found. 231). UoreiSavi N. will be nothing else but the Corinthian E. with ^S (once also nOT^. 229. KBINO B. Kirohhoff p.C I. 'AB&lt. 13 shews &lt. Eohl 488. This sound might be represented by f H..-Wesen. 108 the Ionic shortening of this verb. Wilamowitz with E. The mixed sound was thought to be heard in diphthongs siich as at and ev also. plur. in the ' For Attic see Cauer (in Gurtius Attic with EI. ix. that which was shifting in writing was shifting also in 1 On the Corintli. 7 1 in the same place 6 inWe have acertain example of = oi/ip stances of Einthis word.

to me are "Ecmates 'Orpvvh irpirrdves ' Examples on the Theban inserip. Dietrich Kuhn's Ztschr.EPEN pheren) did tend to the pronunciation pherein. Hell. sides nESIAOS UelariSos G. de corr. Eodiger Progr. Athe ns I.I&gt. (341 / B.o. b. takes place for Athens and Ionia in the fourth century .j did not tend to be pronounced as lepo. K\el&lt. iv. being held by Brugman' and after him by G. 470.of E = real ei only ABZON (so G. IV. The view of Zacher (p. I. menos Bull. 37 (9 ??). the thickened pronunciation can scarcely here be traced back beyond the beginning of this century^ Subsequently the i everywhere prevailed over the e in the case of the later (spurious) et of the various races. 373". For the different treatment of the two sounds is a proof that they were not quite similar in the fifth century : etymological scruples about original i were obviously foreign to those writers. Att. ivoluv. 82 ff. Inschr. but was only an orthographic expression for e. IV. Dia^ A. 6. 7/ and et) even in the fourth century very frequently with E*. St. 330. Hell. p. Inschr. composed soon after 67 . 300. in. ""IS. i. ni. 179 'ElMl.C. lekt. Bull. I am consequently opposed to the opinion. Meyer. 3 The latest Attic examples known Dialekt. EXSAAB'I'ATO? do. here EI comes . after the first decades of this century B is very seldom found for spurious et. 798. that from Thespias id. but ^epeiv (&lt. A. never has EI. Cauer C. without however the i in this case being very prominent. Gymn. has in five instances EI only once. A. iiroUv i. 3 1 pronunciation. E 4 times .) 1884 p. xiv. 454. which is tolerably general at present.d to on p. 27'' 18.5. de IB 33. that is the passing of both of them into the mixed-sound described above. although this mode of writing can be traced beyond the middle of the century^ The Boeotians write their long closed e (= Att. 1 thrice BINAI. with OAEIZON G. viii.e. St. There are found be. Dietrich^ seems to me rather in this respect also to have seen the truth. which shews in essentia ls and is do. For distinction of quantity cannot be regarded either in this case or elsewhere in ancient times as the cause of difference in writing: consequently the second syllable of (fiepeiv was distinguished from the first in quality.S»22. II. 382.I. 804 A" 33. 872 . that real 1 Brugman C. Consequently XetV&amp.e.) C. (Luisenst. Berl. I. 230. i. iv.nos. I. 16). also ANCIENT GREEK. 53". according to which the spurious ei never had the value of a diphthong among the Athenians and lonians. 334 / 3. The levelling of et and e.corresp. 30 of the treatise referrQ. drodiiirev Eohl no. A. Comp. A. the Boeotian alphabet . just as had long before happened in BcEotia in the case of the real et.

Bull. was in the 5th century e'w. 49. OT is always writ. which arising from o approximated to u. i. p. guish correctly (Chios E. 284 f. nay. of Akraiphia. d. On the 836 c-kMaXeario(u) and other genitives Attic treasurer's account C. but in the 2nd or 1st In. I. n. 395. as in TOTON tovticv^. Ahad.C. In the first quarter of the fourth century however the difference in quality between o and its lengthened form cannot have been great at Athens. In this dialect therefore the p. of Keos E. 2 The latest Attic exx.26^a/)/3apoi. it is quite certain that it cannot in the meantime in the 4th and 3rd have been en. 176). and KaXXiicpnTEIs inscr. 2. where it is written for ov diphthong. u. exx. The stone is C. by Meisterhans Gr. 380.1031 no. Meist. 1885. Halik.^ p. seems untenable. Berl. 6. of Orcho. Inscr. tSto. on vases Kretschmer. 4. The . B thrice. 854 / 3). Lolling Monatsber. VIII. I. p. 4. d. (B. fid. they employed the combination OT in this value. n.rt. Comp. 36 AO (end of the 6th Asiatic-Ionio inscr. Even after the reform of the Attic orthography the simple O held its ground with great persistency. • For instance the inscr. 30. p. 2. With regard to the Attic-Ionic ov=o the ease stands thus : the mode of writing was for a long time almost exclusively O. 21. C. de corr. 1888. Meisterh. 121 . 241 ff. A. Teos497b. 7. as we are bound to assume.century?) 'UpaKXhvs. in Chios 382 however we have (cp. att. for which unlike most of the other Greeks they had preserved the old w-sound. (and got more and more to be used quite indifferently for ov and o). When the Boeotians in the fourth century adapted their own to the ordinary orthography. Hell.'KKiKapvaaae (dative) is found in the four times. 51 fi. For ou=d the oldest example on coalition took place very earljr. since to take an instance on the document of the new 1 Dietrioli 1. Stud. Other examples of for real ov . and accordingly the diphthong ov had as early as the fifth century coalesced with a sound.!f. that is for their old T. p. generally distin. 32 THE PRONUNCIATION OF and unreal « were united in the 4th century into a pure closed e (e).from the 5th and 4tli centuries are given ten for 5 on the insor. II. 173 on the archaic insor. Brman Cv. For if -eiv. Cauer Curt. i. V. Stud. 21. o. isolated instances occur. 3). in -on. A. 154 500). isolated examples occurring up to the end of the fourth century^ In this case then the designation of the diphthongal sound is at an ancient period no more constant than that of the lengthened sound. and finally became an undoubted w".

79 (likewise be92. 60. 27".. where longing to the year 363/2) give OT for in a decree of lulis ov in every other real ov 14 times.Ti\rje&lt. 2). for spurious (includword is written diphthongally. for Dittenb. 91. 546. accordingly the transition to u made rapid advances. A. But in the Dorian and Ionian islands of the Archipelago we meet here and there in post-classical times with forms of writing such as 1 C.I.A. The statistics 'lovMfyrai as spurious. for lOAIHTfiN (occurring three times) is unreal 85.form of writing. A. iv. G. quite without exception (s. I. de corr. especially eu. A. Later development of the sounds EH. Hell. /Sao-tXe?. 13 (begin- . no. 262). ^^ Dietrich p. 33 maritime alliance (378/7)' simple O stands or stood forty times for this ov. and G. 513 Koivi similar nature and also most of the and /iuXwSpS (b. At this point I leave the diphthongs.. I consider the ou of ' G. In agreement with this Plato in the Kratylus^ indicates the difference between kuXov and kuXovv simply as one of accent and quantity.c. 302. Meyer^ p. and the resolved forms occur both in the fifth and the fourth century*. regularly written so. See it is true the older documents of a also Bull. And nevertheless in the same document every ei is constantly expressed by EI. being evidently " Old Attic XAAKIAEB2 C. iii. I. especially in late Attic ^acriKeh as opposed to old Attic ^aaiXfji : it is rather the case that the latter goes back to /3a&lt.n. but ing '\ov\it(rai) 16 . 11. 117 — ANCIENT GREEK. no. Section 11. 11.128 (01. liririTis Kumanud.: Puthios and the Attic ov in ^ovXrj.n. 301). for real ov 4. so that about the middle of the century there was no longer any very great difference between the Boeotian v in Ilv0io&lt. Ofl..?. to turn to the further development of the E and O sounds which remain. On the other hand on a stone of the year 363/2' is written only nineteen times with O and twenty-five times with OT.I. the former to 0acnXe€&lt. though Chremonidean War (circ. Syll. the survival of an old. TOTON and TOTO inscription dates from the time' of the stand ahnostwithout exception. cp. 54. It cannot be allowed that Attic 17 in isolated instances became later ei. later ones shew TOTTON and TOTTO 3 p^^f. on touXos. while ov is only written three times for it.

with following consonants. (" accent") fibvov Kal fiiiKei Tov ov Wxadies 11. as in Boeotian ©eto-Trteie? ©eo-Trtei?. irpovoeiOijTO). to be compared airb {to KoKbv. see Dittenberger.ovlq. In Bceotia and indeed also in Thessaly the original 9? as in Trarr/p may at the close of the second century B. . the chief point at issue. de corr. iveipocna} . ei as yet by no means coalesces with i. have reached the t-extremity' . Cp. Gr. secondly and far more frequently where followed immediately by vowels: MANTEION l8pvcreio)&lt..g. Herm. Syll. ®i6&lt. @e6&lt. Short e has especially in two cases a tendency to pass into et. I.C. 13 (2nd ed. ii. xvii. which all point to at least a closed E-sound. 872 KoXAurf/es.p€crT0&lt. Late Attic. avu. P.pii. 402 B Kp6vos from Kpovvbs. Beeia-7] for Seijaei. 570 (only in these two words and not without exception in them). bp&amp. "in pronunciation") with linriiDs liririas. in Attic as early as the fifth and fourth century^ It has been remarked that an i can very easily be ' Epikteta's Will Thera C.peicrT0'. of ^acrikevi) Aeimyopov etavrov. 416 B : "Kiyoval ye ning of 4th century). vulgar ela-yy]Ka etcr^'77/uat* . firstly before a. 38 : his view is oppos ed by 406 OINOS from oreo-Sai and j/oOs. xxvii. 609. hence it would not be wrong to call the itacistic pronunciation of this letter the Boeotian. 267 t unwithout any notice of a difference of successfully in my opinion as regards sound. 396 oipavia derived from ib.' Plat. all Wackernagel K. h. avvTeXeiTat (conjunctive)^. For this i. Z. 3 34 THE PRONUNCIATION OF el for fj. Dittenb. 148) not infrequent. A. ivSaav and iveip6(na often in the Deliau insor. although the phenomenon signifies the progress of the sound in this direction.}. ' Mystery-inser. 2448 (Cauer^ no. such as arose at an early period in Keos and Naxos for common Greek r).aa rb. of Andania Cauer no. also written eles as TapiJKTai. Kineiav ^aa-ikela (accus. Kratyl. eveicrav. 47). Bull. also in the Dorian Peloponnese retpetv. e. el fidv.

in the writing of the dialect. o-ti^XtjO5 G. = Kumanudis 'Attiktjs inyp. 113) eldv and ivDela. besides the confusions with ei. do. h. &amp. In like manner we find on the Ionic inscr. Att. s. Mantineia Le Bas 352'' (rapuv by iT-lip-qaev). dSiKi conjunct.C. Inst.388. de corr.v however appears to be rather a jussum speeiale of the language than to rest on a universal principle . 463 in the Boeotian part of the document always Gcio-tt. I. Test. h. Meyer Gramm. 563 (elsewhere ia-T'fflait i. Att. 337. 1826 'laiuvlxa — QjiPala. 11 (Psephism of Demades). IV. vi. elcTT'^Xrii.ffiolians. 1329 II. for Boeot. ANCIENT GREEK.^ § 112. 852' 43. M. . N. de corr. 42.p. for it is found also (as d iiijv) in the Septuagint and quoted in the Etymol. and I have no doubt. 'Ad'^miov ix.) Xpi. 553.^15^ Meisterhans2nded. * In Thespiae itself Qetcrir. eUxov Telos Bull. an accidental omission of the E. Bull.e.— As to eiffxriKa see G. Also crvvTeKetTai irpoffdetTat conjunct. are so to be explained (Meyer= § 149). 1. 37399. 229 (Ditt. Dial. arch. of Zeleia Mitth. a?" (Thessaly shortly after 196 B. A. likewise Orohom.r/3eio = 7r/)ea-j8^a irpea-petn-^ii and in general -eios as gen. of which there are isolated occurrences before other consonants also\ the fact that Latin ^ in many positions was expressed by the Greeks in the earlier period with e. in the same place 6i60e«rTos i. that JBolic ■7rp^&lt. Inschr. C. on the other hand in the part composed in the KOivfi both names are written with e. 11. xli). d.35. v. 352. et for 15. Oeddecms .rliJ.&lt. inr. to ens assigned by grammarians to the later lonians and . Te/3epio&lt. 425 (Lebadeia) Xarapyinev. is the regular orthography.e. 263. For the quality of e as ^ in the Hellenistic and Roman period we can cite. 362 (Lebadeia) Tftiofuvlo) by Nio//eu//u. and actually (line 91) Qeurirteieis to. I. 35 developed after a preceding vowel from the sound of the s. E? ii6. dSuei.. Syll. 168. p. III. II. iii.ov for Xpeia. Athens Dittenb. and in like manner a weak i (or y) is a natural result when the voice passes directly from e to another vowel. (Lachmann.

8. which hovered between u and 0. until in the time of the Empire ov appeared. 5673 6. KaiKe\io&lt. xiii. a nd Uepioii'Tos Delos ib. airo Tpbvini.and Te/Sept?. Ahrena 11. h. ' Id. 1840 TreiStot by ireSlm .e. insor. the t would certainly have been nearer the Latin sound. 3 /ieit^oiv. vii. Xivriov =linteum^.o. no. writer of no. Kiel. v.i . en Maci. K-aTrermKiov. p. op. iii. 20 lUeifwy. 2 and 22 f. u for o". 130 ff. p6\ofi. 2140 &lt.iiiov. Ao/terto?. iSvros etc. 447— on the reverse side is dated in this 452. elv T&amp. no. vi. V for " also once in imTrlois and uttus occur.od. 231 ' AyaBvfi^poTov. 1^ iKo/cpareov^ by -609 in Thessalian. The Latin sound hovered between i and e. But the these vase-inscriptions : 'A$'^aioi&gt. ^ AtoWuvIov) rov Y\av3-2 . 214 = Z)mZ. iii. confuses o and ov far less than o and w : the latter as early as the time of the Ptolemies are correctly distinguished throughout on the papyri by very few scribes. 8 i x'^" 1699 elvdoryevij. In like manner Latin -tt too. 156) is guil ty not p. Bull. 15 wparai. although indeed it might also be explained as having arisen from necessity. containing a sltetch of doine luser. astronomy was written before 165 B. * Heuzey Mission arcMol. Inschr.avei.for a fragment of a public document one?) C.. Tos. 5751 (also isolated Ti/&lt. 41 (the same date) we find Trap' ^ I note in Papyrus 1 of the Louvre ' AroWavlai (i. TifiovppoBov on Rhodian vase-inscriptions*.f&gt. KiKKav for -ov. 1461 (Halos). Xeyedv. 333. iTrupavdaTa. having been before avoided'. Gr. . I. Gr.This ms. I. 1887) : col. Adfimvovi Ni'^wi/ou? in the Peloponnese. as spoken in Egypt for instance. of itoXoctos (vuXovvtos). inscr. on which also mistakes such as p6Sov Tt/jLop6Sov). for ^X'"'. Herm. p. Here and there ov is substituted for o in Greek popular dialects .C. and cannot have had any considerable difference in sound in the ruder speech ^ In this case therefore ' So (in Dor. was in Greek prevailingly represented by o. But the Hellenistic popular speech. 281 ff. but ev en Ehod. 40 (b. Le Bas 159 e (Hermi.scrits xviii. ' AyaBvppdSTi only of MaKediivos. 190) collection (Notices et extraits de manuC. to ^ Dittenb.. if therefore the Greek e had been e.-^^ dKraeTiiplSa. cp. de corr. Eudoxi ars astron. fieBoiropivos often. in no. 2. This also agrees well with the pronunciation of o as 0.fi6s.year.

76. m. Bonn 1878. i. — • » dov. it is certain that r) preserved the e sound among cultivated speakers up to the fourth century A. p.jn&amp. /laXXov. . I. tt. but in other localities t.e. frequently confounded by the Papyri'. tov irvei/iaTos avu (jxpoiUvov also occasionally interchange. 341. Dionysius of Halikamassus' puts forward in respect of agreeableness of sound the following descending scale of long vowels. is unfortunately not of such a kind. and on the latter as well as on inscriptions e no less than tj is used for the e arising from at^. Of course u and o of inscriptions said of o. de corr. that the TrXijy!) takes place irepl . In this period however we must make a very sharp distinction between the cultivated language and that of the people: the transformations in the latter passed by no means at once into the former. h. a. Louvre 1 shews the follow. SeiTepop Si to if. for of a it is said * P. while e remained stationary or actually moved in the reverse direction. no. but in tt/jos tok oipavov). of a). avvB. Kal /ierpldis &amp. The description.36 THE PRONUNCIATION OF the subsequent development consisted entirely in the cessation of the qualitative and finally also of the quantitative distinction between o and a. followed the tendency to become i. 40 d5reXXii7i)&gt. eS/Mop^p (on account of their shorting : col. 12 SurmeiSh and &lt. Swn k&amp. it is true. that it is rather e 3 Dionys. : MriXria-iTrwov and 'B/tirijSou tffTriJi. E. V. ykp to (TTofia KpeiTTov BaTipo v Kal Delos Bvll. Halik. the ecSis. mss. 77. The case is not quite the same with r) and e : these sounds also are. ness) tjttov Sk SviyeiSh tov e to o (thus 11 okiffeas.D. which he gives of the production of 1] and of e. For instance. StInscr. ii. r) the most agreeable after a./ .r(ca0o. I think. this of course must be taken as a general statement and not extended to the distinction between e and e. 46 ^tv/^lorai. give some to e some to o). At a later period the qualitative distinction between the two letters is absolutely denied. he denotes i. -q.Usener Ind.toj before. sehol. for this fact we have the clearest evidence in Greek and Latin authors.vo iyonithe early period not by any means vov toO o-to^otos (farthest in the case frequently. tV irXiiyfiv Xo/t/SApei vepl riiv Aprriplav 2 See below under at. that we can with any certainty infer the distinction of an open or closed sound*. tup Si PpaxiuK oiShepov 1 Pap. 75 fl.— p. as the least agreeable. which is preferred . 5 TTvpoeidis twice for -^s.

non soni nativitas^ Marius Victorinus. Auson. seldom and then only owing to the fault of the East-Gothic scribes in Italy by i*. p. Graeoorum. see Henrichsen p. Maur. ut ab hoc die. iKTaSiv di to e ■ylverat. adv. iii. 39 KeU : quam (the syllable Ther in Thersandrvs) si produxeris — . p. 625 Bk. ut pro e 17 Graeoa littera audiatur.KpoaToiuov : would it then i n the rixov dXX' oiK dvoi (as has been before case of o be repl t^v ipr-qplav naKKovl ANCIENT GREEK. 202 ed. : — ixoKovB^ffet. this will be not less the case with e and 7].) declares. Cap. : ^ra quod AeoKdum (i. 145) quodque e valet. inasmuch as such examples in many instances do not bear a critical examination ^ And even those instances.. quae semper natura longa est. have the less weight as opposed to these evidences. o and CO. 17 (there follows a corresponding statement with regard to and 01). Mart. sicut o et to videntur esse vicinae sibi: temporum momenta distant. tt^v oiVV divafuv KOivbv. Ars gramm. which have been cited from inscriptions of the period of the Empire or even earlier. that there are naturally only five vowels. vide Stern's Koptic Gramm. ^ Mar. cum produoitur. p. 1 Sextus Empir. mathem. for if a and a are to be reckoned as one letter.D. which do bear such an examination. Isolated examples of confusion of -rj and i. Nam cum oorripitur. Viotorin. v. Kal avaToKh fiiv to tj yLveTM e. since e and o lengthened give tj and a&gt. § 235 : E autem vocalis duarum Graecarum litterarum vim possidet. with I . ut 06 hoc hoste . Ausonius and Martianus Capella' also in the fourth century bear witness to the universal quality of i/ as e .Te irepl t^v pAjrwTris yXiiTTrjs ipdSei top to &amp. xal to e Kal to 17 III elvai dTOixAov kuto. e Graecum est. not seven . in whose translation of the Bible -q is prevailingly represented by Gothic e. 37 Sextus Empiricus (about 200 A. .e. the latter shortened e and o\ In like manner Terentianus Maurus (end of the third century) says : litteram namque e videmus esse ad ^ra proximam. the same may be said of Ulfilas. 2 Terent. hoc Latiare B. ^a est.iT'i} divafiLS iir^ afJupoT^pav icH. Bip. p. 450 flf. 7} ykp a.

In Koptio also the letter H signifies in the earlier period e and is confused with e . no. Moreover in the Psalteriwn Veronense of the fifth to sixth century.iiia. 15 places the transition at Athens 150—250 A. the pronunciation of these symbols is consequently established beyond a doubt for this period and locality. Kvptvrjs. Dittenberger Herm.rp.). However the pronunciation as e seems to have maintained itself to this day in the popular dialect of Trapezus'. that in the West the old pronunciation of the rj maintained itself for a very long time. the followers of Erasmus are wrong in attempting at all to rebut the proofs which their opponents have drawn from Eustathius. of Gytheion Le Bas 243" (161 — 169 A. the Sinaitic and the Vatican. 2790(Aphrodisias) i^7i(pTi&lt. only in a later period 32. but not r) (e) and 1 .D. On other points there ought to be no disagreement as to the pronunciation of the real Byzantines . t and et (4) and indeed v and ot are not infrequently confused . ' Thus IPfifiN is said to stand on the insor. Aivdpia appears twice on the insor. I. not for the general pronunciation. In like manner Egyptian documents of the Byzantine period in the signatures written in Latin letters regularly transcribe 1? with e*. e and at (e). of Karpathus in Boss 8. I therefore have no doubt that the first half of H has disappeared in this gap. that in the Alexandrine mss. without any other 38 TBE PkONUNGIATlON OF are with regard to the general statement convincing only for the popular dialect. that such instances become more frequent according to the various localities towards the end of the second. or as in the case of Athens. as the editor himself makes prominent. 6672 (Eome) KaXX^ffr/jaros iviSiKcv. Incomparably more valuable than a few dozen of such isolated scriptural errors is the fact. If however we look more closely we find that this word stands by itself in a line and is preceded by an empty space. Very few confusions between t . He says in general. of the Bible belonging to the fourth century. i for t et and y for v and ot\ from which we may infer. Gr. 2588 (Gortyn) Ki/n-i}Xios Quintilius. vi.D. not tin the third century. 264.' Aunisimus 'Or^cri/ios. and moreover that there is a serious gap in the sense. 147 cites C. Meisterhans p. which gives the Greek text in Latin letters. e stands for erjai. Filippisians a\iirT7](Tlovs.

It will be found a plebeian contraction from ?ron)(r.d. t and v. it is true. but (pavepovaa (TTifmlvei. = ia-riii.epia-io^.i]Tai. to be an addition of the epitomator comp. Pronunciation of T.2'cs«. The word being inscr. 185 an insor. corrupt orthography).. Deflner C.&lt. iii.. At the present day it is pronounced like I.avi&lt.. ^ Lachmann^o«. At least I do not know. Section 12. 39 and 11 have perpetuated themselves in our mode of writing. Wetstein Abhandl. except dialectically. d. and i. and the use of Koppa before the nearly allied w m as well as before o on Chalcidian vases appears quite natural: 9v9j'o?. but according to the testimony of inscriptions (KaO)7)/ji. gr. l. who collected by Sterret {Archaeol. the classical pronunciation is u. with regard to -q is entirely on the of Amer. iv. s. r) Biaxplvovaa Kal L.).evoL Pap. although in Corinth to all appearance the pronunciation was at a very early period the ordinary modified one. 118) ktJ. that iroi. how the forms on the latter vases 'Ta-firjva = 'la-jjbrjvq.. in Corinthian inscriptions also. current then. 41. . ranging from the second to the much used underwent an especial shortsixth century a.uiie-ii eia . ei — i. Ki. But belonging to the 9th century i. ?. TreTroket and wourai on the leaden Hermolaos. must be by i. Berl. consequently of the date of tablets of Knidos. A similar result is given 3 poy Lautsyst. 89. is not itacistio fo r xoiijird/i.i i.} apparently = Kuaj/t?* admit of any . and it was with this latter value that the symbol V (T) was taken over by the Italians from the Chalcidians of K3Tne. 286. Of the two remaining vowels. a fact which explains away the anomalous use of the n after p'. p. vol. viii. Vulgdrspr.— i hardly ever. Bursian. G. where the sound ii. iiiv Sik Tov 1 yp6. esemioth. is still heard ^ . but the original sound M. xvm. Stud. Cp. On the numerous Syrian Mus. 85 . I remark against Byz. explained from the open sound of the ^ -Wessely Wiener Stud. 1863 255 ff. ai. Nii^os : to Sk Kprnxri &amp. = i Steph.K6vri. communicated by eniug. Meyer Gr. 395. seldom (no. xli. Justinian.vol. Apostol. p. Akad.j&gt. This use of Koppa occurs. V. Waohsmuth Kh.~e are very often In a transcript of the SymJ). already {strategiu. Instit. or 10 v. pvKTepicrio^ appear to be correct. only the latter demands any description. that khI here is commonly presented sometimes by e sometimes written k^. of Christian period with very as the oldest evidence for i. kti for Kal no. ANCIENT GREEK. side of the Erasmians..c6. 112 e and the closed sound of i.interoliange of •&gt. 569 f. is rethe fact.. gives on p. d. by the inscriptions of Asia Minor p..p. interchanged. Xijfvdo'i'. The Chalcidian HVIIV (viro) will accordingly have been pronounced hupu.

3 (Kirohh. also has mss. But in Attica ^ B. iv. In EubcEa the native land of the Chalcidians the place-names Kumi= Kvfirj and Stura= Xrvpa Appendix. have hemerisios. ^dovKXo&lt. Cp.?Xi5/iiei'os etc. 40 THE PRONUNCIATION.e. tovvt) i. On vep6. In Cyprian and Pamphylian also the sound appears to have been the original one°. 'E\evSvt. Dial. Kvvoprris side by side with 9o/"»f&gt.a ('EiXeva-iviaY may be cited. the interposition of a consonant ^ KadtiiiepldLa G. 86.Dial. This is another proof.OF remain to this day. A.nos vvKTepel&lt. above (but KXvTib 7459).i.ri. 7611.ai vfierepai. &lt. 76 does not remove the influence on the (col. That the zi-sound was preserved in the neighbouring country of Boeotia. G. vvKrepLvhs itiJ^pi. Inschr.^. 47 QvKolSas. op. ov/x. 'ApfiX-rj^ (?) Bohl no. 3185.fvpa(vaiwti). accordingly the cultivated language of the Spartans may have had the ordinary u.YIlYBeahtelInschr. It must be stated however that on inscriptions and in the literary monuments of this dialect no such form is found' . th at p.}vvl(r9os. Bamberg. 21.) an d Tliesm. 11.other explanation. this ov was in the course of the fourth century already employed for the short sound also: ]lovpplvo&lt.8135 &lt.}\vtIos 7382 . III. The popular Lakonian also still possessed the Z7-sound. how little the ancient Greeks troubled themselves about the differentiation of short and long vowels in script. 8337 .?Xi5t-os IIe/)i &lt. 22. I. Corinth Eohl 7. likewise 9\uTii 73S1 « Dial. av. 121) . from Doric Magna Grteoia do. &lt. ^epSs etc.p6s. 26) . that the writing 9" was continued into the period when the modification was beginning or even after it had become general. It is quite possible however.os K-sound (or on its repr esentative). as is shewn by glosses^ such as Kapova. 204). XXXV. 518 In Phn. Cyrene pendix. in support of which the interchange of v and i on inscriptions such as TivBapiSai. and Voss. 520 (Chalc. we know from the transliteration with ov. authority (as in Aristoph. 2 Foy p. Eohl 506° &lt. § 124 mss. 8130. Meisterh. Cp. Gr. QiQvos XiiVuSos C. Meyer 2 § 93. 3. for vvierepii]&lt. § 73.d. n. 3123 (3129) QiXKapos.ioii. Meyer. Inschr. p.^ p. Ap. But in general the u was modified at a very early period in the same way as Latin u in France and northern Italy": this pronunciation is established for the Attic of the fourth century in particular by the Boeotian manner of .. I. Cp. which became usual there after the adoption of the common Greek modification of the Ionic alphabet . is.

from Quirinius is only possible on the assumption of the modification of the v.ovvv)^i. The has been introduced into the Boeotian Theban inscription on the contribu. also Buii. Cp. hell.'ooupeis=Kwoo-ou/)ersonthe 79. E. as o became nearer and nearer in sound to u. 'EXewuc/w Crete Bull. if the Athenians had given the same value to T as the ancient BoBotians. Boeotian in the Acharnians. That the Thessalian pronunciation was il. and 1388 comes under this head "■ G. p. * Ti»5. ni. (Ahrens 1. ANCIENT GREEK. for the ov would not have been introduced. . 124 ff.writing. iii. rather I and T which interchange : /Sc/SXiov and ^v^iov. V is written here as well.. would be perfectly incomprehensible. 85 f. D. 365 (Cythera).poems of Corinna. G.« Diez Gr. iii. the same may be said of the v of the Asiatic lonians of the fifth century. but the same may be said of the V.. In the next place. 2 Ahrens D. since the ou B.?.. 11.C. I.v. Moreover if that had been the case. if a Greek transliteration like K.. de corr. if the latter had been not u but u: the BcEotians write ovm. 41 Tpil3Xiov and Tpv0Xiov. but which was generally got rid of by the transference of the nominative and accusative to another declension''. 105 f. de com Meyer^ p. considering the treatment of Persian names such as Vistaspa 'To-rao-Tri. a confusion between the symbols O (OT) and T would have been inevitable. It would seem to me just as unlikely that huius should have become hus. C. Moui/t^toij' and M. as that olos should ever become ov? in spite of the occasional shortening of the ot. without t. the old nominative form corresponding to the genitive vieo&lt. ep. p. 103 f. 705) has ov only for out v. »ButKo. Among literary monu. 8 (name of month).a&gt. 1347 con. Inschr. 292 1. Bull. Meister Gr.. Eohl 62" . hell. ments Aloman's poems come partieui5i= Dial. de very late Lakon. Gr. which the composer of an inscription reading from right to left has not even avoided in script (HTS).) . But on ^ Attic and other inscriptions of the fifth and fourth centuries it is. inser. i. is shewn by their writing ov instead of the ordinary a). But in Athens even the archaic inscriptions shew vv&lt. Vidarna 'TSdpvT)^. Inschr. 'BXemVia E. c). 470 (about 330 larly under consideration. Dial. ijfivav very frequently for ijfiiav^. hell. In the case of . Added to this the treatment of the diphthong vo.cj)iKTlove&lt.vpijvioi. which at Athens in the fourth century was simplified to v almost without exception. Dial. 231 f. and a confusion of sense is created by the coalition of the two v's. the Lakonian in tions to the Sacred War {'Ad-fimtov iii. ^ Orchom. Meyer ^ p. the Lysistrata indeed shews tlirough479. 'A/i^t/cTtiove? and 'Aij.

assimilation like ijiMvav). KivBvijs and KwSu^s are interchanged. A similar development of sound has taken place also in popular dialects of modern Greek. correct documents no. HTTS de corr. d. further. That is to say an i is prefixed.) and in Dial.the Kocvij there is no room for doubt. hell.ri Hiyeies. Xoi/)i)Xos rpl^Xiov for rpi^Xiov Delos 364 B.. hell. 400) Si5i)Xi. 398. apin the tribute lists of the fifth century pears first 410 B. only there it takes a different form which coincides with the present English representation of French u. I. Quite analogous to ^i^Xlov is cp.'-^ p. ^io&gt. hell. as Louvre 1. II. Mowi/x. 1. Meisterh. de corr. In 'A/i^. but nevertheless appears Delian inscr. iv. Artake Bull.11. col. I. § 14 without exception. Pap. for instance in that of Trapezus. vii. de corr. 8016. of HalicarBi. first C /.C./itis and 'ZvSiXyji/. 108.C. indeed the modified 1 Att. Inst. '' HTS C. but in the more below. of the year 346. 114 (KvKixvi. alllater Attic examples. 373»''. ^IpXos Mitt. nassus Bull. which so far as the writing is concerned was in Greek actually a triphthong. the t.C. de corr. 17 A. and is generally only found after h t 6 v \^. x. On the inscr. de coir. (circ. and in the descendant of the ancient Lakonian. A. l"". 368. This mode of writing is however never constant. h ell. 461. Inschr. arch. i.C.) Si/icefrom inscriptions earlier than the first emi. 3731'"' (-u). capable of being scanned either short or long : IIoXtotio-T/saTo?. on ^liv(rv II. TLovxa. 283). Cp.) HomoUe to be the original (Birt Buchwesen p. Bechtel n. Megarian aln/iviras. 295 ( circ. 22 . 16. iv. vi. KxiKlxvri. 45 (878/7 B. p. 247 (306 B.i.viovaio&lt. 580 (Delos). 180 B.C.vv8vkS)i -w&amp. n. 22 and Pap. Examples f rom century B. the Tsakonian. [Bull. vm. Inschr.yeueO&lt.ov 12). xii. i^wSviUi^rii (Bull.C. de con: hell. scanned as one syllable do. 23). S. Bull. 5 ^/juav. hell.is . 42 THE PRONUNCIATION OF pronunciation is proved even in the case of the later Boeotian. 2i. the stone The writing with v has no evidence of Sigeion Bohl 492 (6th cent. BttK. even Taur. from . and there arises an improper diphthong. 1.). 4 and in general here two syllables iv. A.8\ioy G. 4.

at that time every one knew by the light of nature. eu. So much for the simple vowels . HI). Diphthongs having the first vowel long (HT. etc.. the first element of which is a long vowel. Dial. gi. ■' This is not contradicted by the 2 Foy p. Inschr. where the Latin representation with u and then with y is in evidence against its identity with i. Dial.. 382. but rather one sooner another later. AI. I^ev. Now these semi-diphthongs .x"P°''&lt.. viovra vv^ and others". movpe rvpo^. fact. 233. Deffner C. Meister Or. ot and V are put by themselves in the alphabetical position of the latter .the latter of which are cited Xiovko Xvko&lt. see Psiohari Greek of southern Italy xy^^o=X'^'"-&gt. In this case the modification. and vypi^ were not to be looked for under i or 7]\ 1 E. crit. which is strange to the ancient dialect and even in the modern has by no means become general. But vonic the borrowed words. that is m rji mi. (dv) tjv mv . iv. that 61ko&lt. Stud.tine period. before lay down as their original value : ai. 86 . myuio iJ. seems to have established itself in a manner analogous to that in Boeotia . Meyer ^ p. We must in accordance with what has been said. but also on into the Byzantine era.01. which was disappearing. G. fi^o™ Church Sla. Accordingly in Suidas' Lexicon. (r/iipva . the transition may have been similar to that in English. ou ..i 298 ff. where et t? 4 stand together after Z and before I. these indeed were the first to lose their distinctive character.ipop. These have in the lapse of time altogether lost their distinctive character. we have now to speak of the diphthongs formed from them. 108. In ordinary Greek however the u has maintained itself for a very long time. where we have such abund- ANCIENT GREEIL 43 Lastly we must not omit to mention. the value of u proper. 1888. axyuTo &amp. appears occasionally in a Papyrus 3 Meyer produces from the modern of a much older date. For the ByzanX^u. ei. f2T. by no means however simultaneously. I begin with those improper diphthongs. that is yu may have appeared in the place of a -ii. but in Trapezuntine and in the other localities. i. as will be shewn later. the u when occurring as the second member of a diphthong having in general. For long after the extinction of the diphthongs and the transition of tj to t. not only through the Roman period.. lil. that confusion between 1. ziiiyw:na.v and oi (which by that time coincided with ^ V in sound) kept themselves distinct from t r) ei. where a similar phenomenon is found^. 381. even the most uneducated masons never confusing them.u. kyuminti also lovLu (Tetraphthong!) Chaeronea Kiiuvov. that Quintilian sees an especial euphonic superiority of the Greek over the Latin language in the possession of the u-sound\ Section 13..

if this sound was indeed heard in such a word as Attic 7joai}? = Ionic 7/3771)?. or to simplify them by rejecting the second. because the component parts do not coalesce to a proper unity. it is not only allowed who draws the conclusion that the 9th but incumbent on us.). to be mentioned immediately. in the Attic vav^ in spite of the Ionic vr)v&lt. and hence the tendency of the language. vocagreat mass of evidence certainly shews lem alteram. that of simplification. if an inference may be drawn from the augmenting of ao to ei. alteram consonantem (u the long continuance of a separation and &lt. that is r]v ill had passed into Su". 134.period. chiefly perhaps owing to the Grammarians. Far more important in the language are the corresponding diphthongs with i. DfT hardly occurs in Attic {"n-pccvSav = irpoavBav. In the former way we may suppose that dv. with shortening and at the same time also approximation of the first sound to the second (gv instead of qv) . 2 (j_ Meyer-'. 1886. 444. This also may be regarded as an accommodation of the first element to the second. in which the other method also. quibns nullae apud eos dulcius between il and i. it is which the transition from ot and v to impossible that an obscure Egyptian the I. 10. in so far as e lies farther than e from the original sound a.ji). rjv maintained itself as augment of av. bacher Ber. either to fuse them more closely together by shortening the first element. is more frequent in Ionic and Doric.sound was completed. in evidence more than elsewhere . for the general cultivated pronunoia. baijer. since an d would in these cases in Attic also have become rj^. xii. 27 : jucundissimas tion in the Byzantine realm.spirant.are one and all inconvenient to pronounce. In the middle of the fourth century the Athenians retained rjv in the augments of verbs with initial ev. and it is therefore rightly replaced in texts . although not in the direction of u but of i. is employed more vigorously. kov =■ koI ov also may be ascribed to this shortening.^ Quint. and from ev)(pv fjuqu (from av')(e(x)) ev^rjaa (from av^dvo)) of later inscriptions*. See also Krum. 44 THE PRONUNCIATION OF wvpfrrlh] = w EyptTTt'S?. 42 ff. We have an . anoe of eyidence. a short vowel must be assumed. p. at an early period was identified with dv . d. Now we find on an Ionic inscription iovrwv^. at a later period these verbs were augmentless. The ex Graeois litteras non habemus. but even here is almost confined to crasis : ecovrov. since kohv would have been the regular crasis and is actually recorded in Sappho and Epicharmus". Hatziscribe should be taken as an authority dakis 'AB-fivauov x. to sift this and 10th centuries were the . covto^. Ah..

of early Attic inscriptions by the side of -lytfft -aiai. The Dorians. Inschr. Boeotians. tov for rcot*. 14. With BcEOt. originally -an. I find only three instances of 33 ff. etc. But the Cor. like Kapaiwv ''Ep/Mam NjKoXai'o?. id. had -at? already in the earliest period . 8.o. since the of this inscription is however by no stone. 3 BTXfi is certainly to be emended p. Inschr. Eiemann Bull. had in general become at oi . MCFi) in the dative of the first declension: this -Mat -aari occurs only after t or p.). 3130. iii. 315. In the case of these races indeed the diphthongs di on. 2). as we may gather from the analogy of their ot in the dative of the second declension . de con: h. 56. as Eiemann assures us. I. .iireli^a-a in Greek text of Monum. 558 (Akrai ANCIENT GREEK. v. but Iiischr. epyiTTjice and evefryeriiKairL. for ■iraTpoio'i is recorded by the Grammarians as a Boeotian form^ Or again. On the other hand we have d^ Sappho I. Bceot. 271 and Epioh. 192 (Thera. In Eohl's Imcr. the same is true of the Arcadians and Eleans. the ancient Boeotians having also ai in the dative singular. The reading only owing to an error. Elpovldatos 345. HT. 4. 4. We find. where no one will assume diphthongs ovt and ove . iii.^ Dial. Anoyranum col. while the form -at? which appears subsequently following all sounds alike has the a short'. in Ionic dialect edited by Petrettini. 3137. 1885). d. 362/1). eSx^ai in i : no. and more accurately by to ei!xo(vv) not Iffxov or ifffxio. 433 (Melos). B%(ra Wessely. 50. Mis. ion. EtpmifSa?. I. (after Wecklein Cm: epigraph. 19 Ahrens KiaiSh Sel. in epic dialect) . ant. Dial. in the other cases this dialect rejects the I tolerably early. Gr. Eoman period. no. On the 283 (end of the fourth century). Samm. they kept the vowels separate. n. ii. 45 head is the --qcn -aat. d.. TlTatwv 'Ofj. 144. In the a colony of Syracuse).instance of this at a very early period in the nominative of feminines in -aS. as is shewn by the testimony of the Grammarians from old manuscripts and by a few inscriptional examples^ as a general rule on quite old vases and stones we find only -o (coy. The Lesbians also as early as the fourth century begin to dispense with the i of the dative \ Conversely the Eubcean and Oropian Ionic of the fourth century weakened final tot and 171 to ot and et. inthian vases (Dial. Gr. has means certain. also Greco-Egizj (Vienna. reducing internal r)i before a vowel to the simple sound : lepfjov". 24 KuiK i8i\oi. Among the Thessalians we find in like manner Etpout'Sa? and Trarpoviav". 9 . The next instance to be produced under this 1 C. » Meyer^ p.e. 500 f. 415. iv.6\c6i')(o&lt. (i. lungen Wiem (Vienna. 86 f. 1826) line 15 (op. it is true. 4. other hand kovk on a Papyrus of the ^ Kaibel Ejjigr. gr. 2 0. Papyri d. 57" (b. A. 2909 (Mykale) = Beohtel Kohler C. ra for tSi.a-a. Fap. 326.

A. I. (SavedH). d. 262 . Also Ionic Seairl. exception might be taken to /colvoTrlSri^ . 99 . IV. Still earlier in the case of the article : 1 Cauer Curt. p. I. p.ri.)i&lt. ion. 193 f. 8148. and at hold their ground almost entirely in the classical and also in the period immediately following. . since the remainder of the "BpoilSas Dial.vna. i. 33.e. 01 for (01 is hardly more frequent than the converse coi for oi'.podlT ai of such names have only one with i to. A. twice. 13 (Insor. 8. we must compare the numerous instances where ai and ot lose their t before a vowel . 2 Ahrens D. I. 503 TO for t&amp. no. 53% 20 (418 b. ra/dacffi " Bechtel Inschr. E5hl. 15. Dial. 3146. Conversely the vases in the Chaloidian * With the article still earlier than alphabet (Kirch. (Meisterh. Inschr. KepSolov. error . Bechtel would assume Qr. Olynbut elsewhere -&gt. I may remark that wise in the dat. in other oases -oio-i. 3152. Like- Meisterhansp.2 p.. no doubt aairn from a-coi^m as vofiiw from vofil^w^.) is an i. with long thematic vowel) and Trpij^oia-iv (Aorist I. Dial. x'X'o'o-' stands do. quantitative metathesis.* 124) in eight examples elsewhere: Eohl. 10. 109).94-5. line after SI is wanting.3143. plur. the Attic vases not one « AhrensZ). Meister 18. Inschr. 325). 36. But yiiupiijrn 'BpolSa Assos Arch. thus no. UeWot (Dial. 403 ff. of Bretria no. Inst. 327 Td. certain. no.o. I. 48 is by no means rois rais. 281 A. of America G. with short)'. ^. 75. p. The Asiatic lonians distinguish correctly the conjunctives \d^(oiaiv (Aorist II.v Rohl 501 . of the article Spaxfiauri C.(j&gt. p. Oropus 18). 3156) furnish Trarpoios compare Thessal. 12 examples of 01 and none of 0. Meister 87ff. -aicr i. 9. A. 221. Ahrens. 37 . as in the ease 46 THE PRONUNCIATION OF case of the Athenians on the other hand (oi. 17. Stud. 'lepffjov Crop. vm. 249. with Xwov and crtutw.

p. 560. to? Srifwi toi Aioviffoi TpayoiSots by side of six instances of Ml 'Bi^. I. rji and 01.rToii. on the other hand toIkotteSov on the same is correct. 1. ei in the conj. I cannot consider correct. 238 VifrnffWioi. nur8601. II.. SiT\6oi = Snr\o?. 174) . 24 (e. 52) 268 (e. 293 ff. as p + pt cannot give ot*. Eur. the correct explanation for the alteration of m. 11. Herm. i. line 56 'A^cdxoi. II. Soi&gt. II.?).. 83 ff. G. p. Bull. as many do in the case of Boeotian etc. ei always for 171) . The case stands otherwise however with HI both for Attic and the other dialects. A. 491..e. o-fflov. (E) sometimes ei'' . in the conjunctive for example. as Cauer. 470. p. There are however in this inscription other instances of confusion between and fi. Comp. apx. 52.g. I. and then to «. Dorian inscriptions shew very early for Tjt. 69 ff. 381 (Beohtel. Epidaurus'B^ij/it. no. dpxa^oXoy. 254 'A/jiittoVoi.1884.g.) " Toi Si^M"'. 1886. 277 (TfilAHMfil Pittakis) .. xx. ' Eohl. kwixolSIoi. since kuI oc.. ind. iuird6ei = fuirBo'i. 329/8). cp. G. of Asiatic Ionia (and Crete) was given by Schulze. iii. hell. ? Meisterh..must by rights give KCui . G. as Avalovi alongside Amr/wi'i. 304). 180 c SOINAPrO[T].. 834'&gt. (in the same are two instances of o for on ./ai. and G. A.69 ™. and the use of ei in the of ew from r}o : r/t to eT. Meyer^. " Ahrens D. 120 (ivth Century). Meisterhans p. p. €icd&lt. 1888. 38 (ivth Centuiy) . aTe(j)avCiL 3rd sing. Kaibel no. wlvox67) 403 (iiird Century) . ^2^ 7. de corr. On the Xuthias inscription . 147. Oai. no. on inscrip. sometimes ■. * The modes of writing such as (fvaxbos and ^vos. (Eretria 'E07/AI. (Others.riioi as present form with future sense . in Boeotia et is indistinguishably confounded with t] and rji. take &lt. Meyer^ p. D.s (for iKa/rrm sing. I.Tou=Suw. 162. Gycl. In any case in this dialect it is impossible to consider the oi to have been an original locative. 416 ff. on Ionic inscriptions the dropping of the i in the dative. 86. 1 C. A.on the same Chian inscription. conversely oUoalTwis.

Fragm. In fact this is a domain.. vol. dial. B. which always has i in the subjunct. ° On \riTovpyla (written everywhere 61 (after 357) x&lt. 37.i'. 37. s. no. similarly in 2 Since EI for HI is commoner the Pap. 1 . 13). separate category. is strikingly frequent'. orthography.. eipidrjcrav^. 30. it was done away with by the Grammarians.. 78. 72. The inscription of Gortyn however. 36. there is an ac. 30. It is rightly explained * Gomperz. mid. xaSeiprifUvos 'Hpa/cXfiSei . A. we cannot consider ments are in other respects very it a remnant of the pre-Euolidian correct. ii. other examples Papyr. Inschr. complete statistics. i. and that it existed in manuscripts. On the pillar of Damonou (Sparta) E. . 68..col. Dial. in other instances Fouoart. xxxvii s. MevMei t£i ^TriiUeXijTei. iireiveKaa-i.-'&gt.C. ZfiE. 382 auT^ . where the current rules of orthographic distinction may here and there be challenged. ion. Hecht. ii. of the pres. and words such as XetTovpyia for XrjLTovpyla^.. ir.^oHi^^ ^"^^ "^Te in Attica as late as the 4th cent ury) (also ?x« foJ" ^X"?). 91. This ei remained .. p. Orthog.p. Simple E. 15 iinfi. and this orthography at the close of the fourth century actually prevails for every HI.(Sparta?) Eohl. Rev. to assume that r]i is wrongly sub^ Chios R. although the usage of Ionic H was in other respects correct. p. 1. at Athens from about 376 B. c. n. in an inscriptional instance like 'Apia-r7]lBrj&lt. C. such as the 2nd pers. EI (in isolated instances even E) was often written. 83 by Ahrens. has OIIE. also in Philod. e.) of 1 omitted in Rohl ib. p. All these dooulater the period. Wiener Akad. nBnOKA. Louvre 22 (2nd cent. ii. occurs twice by AnoeANEI. fiij. ANCIENT GREEK. Here. but the corresponding masculine forms (patronymics) with -et'Sij?.. Bavdrov (Scott curate enumeration in Meisterhans. is shewn by isolated remnants on the Herculanean rolls. where an endeavour was made to distinguish indicative and conjunctive by -ei and -tji. If we suppose Meisterhans^. p.&gt. 47 conjunctive. ret jSovXei. de Philol. Forseh. ed. 3.e\7i Tei d. such as €kIv€i for eKelvrji*. It occurs also on inscriptions and Papyri' in the Hellenistic period.C. of. in the same ei and i. For instance we write the feminine derivatives of words in -ev. I.g. I. But with some exceptions. Taur.i. so that these adverbs must be placed in a. Beohtel. Alye^ for Alyy&lt. Mekler. in Attic with -779 or (which is certainly wrong) with -rj'k. are we then.

pi.■ili=a.C. Meisterhans^ p. Bull. 331 always ei. Xat/je\ea)?. A. was in general far more rare of occurrence. IV.. With the close however of the third century B. with whom -rjt. de corr. A. ^ op. and indeed with the result that for ei sometimes | sometimes ei was heard. ancient Attic. ii. 570 ff. in the datives ypafi/jLurrjo. for real ov.. or shall we consider 'ApicrTr]iSr]i. ^Appeveto'i (for -vt^o?)'. ^ovXrji and so on'.C. which also occurs at that where inscriptions of the Eoman period period. Delphi dpie'r^aau.. The gramh. is in these cases the i. II. had not the support other respects also not very accurate. 'E/)/ie? ib.e. the writing E is analogous to in the language also in Alyels etc.i 834. de corr. « and marians introduced the poetical form ijt.). rbv leprjt. considers " ypa/inaTfjt. always shews i. Ti/ii}!/). rt/iij. 'Apto-TetSi. 482. II. e'^' Sre. A. Since the -r)i. iv /caroxv p.. Tifiijs.. (410 is only one instance of it. in the conjunctive. » Example given Meisterh. 1059 (321 B. I. Meisterh. Still inscriptions of the fourth century do occur. c. \o0oc). ypafi/jLareo)'. in the third decl.. 29.. 53". 'X.?.KpoTrb-\T]i. iroKeK. in which the t of the diphthongs di tji a&gt. because there 356) . In G. appears considerably earlier than the -ei in the first we cannot regard the former as due to this confusion of tji with ei. Arcadian. Meisterh. 35 . simultaneously with a shortening . while .]iSr}&lt. Alyrjh. TroXeco? for -rjo&l t. came the period. without any rule. ^ where. IV. p. give Alyis. C.) with improper i. According to what has been said there has taken place in this transition an approximation of the first element to the second. I. n. the transition to TToXet under the influence of the other cases (?) {wokewi. ■noX. consequently if ■iroKrji is original. 307.c &amp. which correctly distinguish in these cases. 180—182. just as we do.i began to disappear altogether from the language. ravrdi (neut. v. and Airyr}i&lt. cp. 136. in the case of the Dorians. 2 48 THE PRONUNCIATION OF stituted for ei. ed. ib.rjt. n. 90 (about Ypa/i/iariji also erroneous. 1 Meisterh. it was the more readily done away with. aKpoTroKei. 51 f. ii. ei for ei. which also does not know a m. but ttji. v6\t.. Samos ib. 1.s p. 179 .. ^AppevijiBrji.aipeXtjiBrj^ from ' Ap'^^evewf. 54 (829 B. i.) of any cognate form as it had in Ti/iij 3 Inscr. 29. 31. the inscr. Private documents of the second century. 30. of Delos. hell. ixereoi. Bull. (cp. shew more or less numerous errors in this respect.). (E. alike the correct writings ? We have also 'Apxev&gt. TToXea-i) may yet have taken place at an earlier time and have been more general than that of ttji to ret. 6. such as the emancipation inscriptions at Delphi and the ordinary sort of Papyri. "EpvfidvSpa as dat. 'Att oX1888. ^ret 0.

153 ff. also Irrit for ANCIENT GREEK.o.335.e. 161 f. II. as for instance ' See the Delphian documents published by Wescher-Fouoart and similar examples in Bull. documents of 869 and 363 deposited 142. 6 Ppa^everj and t6xV «onj. oonj. 49 without the proper i'. last example according to earlier. which likewise date from the beginning of the second century °. 25. xii. 189 (378/7). de corr. although some caution is necessary. 104. 35. s Bull. 1st decl. de corr.C. It is certainly allowable. except that it is added (and indeed consistently) to the optative. and certainly not those of the Empire. Still it is possible that the cultivated pronunciation of this period still maintained the t. at Delos (HI in dat. no. except perhaps in the case of the dative. 7 rairdi. Similar uncertainty prevails e. 991. col. 3 \6y(i) nvl. h. B. Among these irregularities we still find the earlier et and oi also. where the mute letter ought to stand and where not. 397 ff. lasos Bull. iv. 162 a. 3 (4th century) ■.. 644 (B.C.there B. and that the Grammarians disputed among themselves and tried to ascertain scientifically. 474. and in ffAXiji.l08. 23 (a sort of rough draught of the foregoing) the t commonly omitted. in 11 instances . n.g. iii. For it actually came to pass. Attic Add Bull. de corr.n.. although for the common people it was a mute letter: at least on carefully composed inscriptions and Papyri there is as yet no uncertainty in its use. (399). II. v. 165). 42 (aU before 376).*. hell.) .—K]pdT7it.. from the latter of which I have taken my examples. Pap.I. A. Louvre 63 (b. for instance at Delphi once in the same line t&lt. Meist. &amp. C. 30 (393). col. 6eor]t. p.KpoTr6\i i twice. 22 (tolerably correct) iv Karoxv and ivamyKdffti. . h. on the Cretan inscriptions in Teos. 497 = Beohtel. to take good documents of the second century as evidence in doubtful cases. on the other hand hardly those of the first. are many of ypafifiaret and much 50 (372) . ^i^.3 and ol i.0. as for instance et'ijt. 12. ' ApLcrrdSris once). 1. that even the educated no longer knew. 4 fuTjji/jat. 400/399).

Epigr. end of 2nd cent. 42 (Phokis.v€K&lt. IV. or ei. where in other matters there are very bad orthographic blimders . wi regular.)'. 1 (do. in other respects correct. "many throw overboard the entire custom. p. rpSwoi ol xa BlKii. 304.).) = Dial. IV.) entire con- fusion." The Latin transliterations also are instructive for the distinction of the pronunciation of the late period from the earlier. As further examples I cite : Bull. di with i dveK&lt. TO airb iiSwp rb airb Tphviin. 1884. a.f&gt. has ai and bii. 1539. 15 (legal verdict) . Oest. Pap. Mitth. 24 (Dialectics) is correct in this respect. 3 . 430 . Taur. as having no reason grounded on Nature''. instead either 7. Wilamowitz Lect. On another Tean inscr. de corr. TO. middle of the 2nd cent. 14. Weaoher-Fouoart no.. also 1 (Astronomy). Further. " Papyr.c.l&gt. the constant writing 'Kryrovpye'iv is noteworthy.2 Bull. 7 and 8 Bdrii .wvrjTov. 50 (Abdera) QpaKwv. 8 Cauer' no. h. rit with errors. Bull. but iipelTO col. h. 164 (TeoB. Cp. de corr. Le Bas v. 95. The Delian inscr. vi. iii. where efi/i appears line 50 and 65. p. the rights of i a. 1. but never rii.. 86 (Eesoript of King Antigonus. correct. Tu etc. In consequence of this there is at the present time much doubt on the subject. Bull. The inscription shews Ionic forms but the style of the writing belongs to the 2nd cent. ■fyreko . it must be admitted however that it has. as Strabo says. 113. 290 (Cret. This mode of writing occurs also on the Tean inscr. though the investigations of Usener especially have done us great service\ In ancient times indeed many omitted the t on principle as useless. 4 50 THE PRONUNCIATION OF by comparison of dialects. 6 ff. 9 eitji. after 181 e. 16 : ai.. between 306 and 301). col. document at Delos . Inschr. In words which were taken over at an early age tot is treated just as oi. v. lb. 0.ccvr)rov just . Epigr. 122 ff.) Sa/xoSpaKtaffral. Domaszewski Arch. the letters of the kings of Pergamos (middle of 2nd cent. Dittenberger Syllabus 294. [1885].

there is in Attica so early as the fourth century no trace whatever : there i5d? is . that the letter was really pronounced. S. Y8 f. that from a very ancient time they tend to simplification before following vowels: the i then in many cases disappears in script. to tSere. which in pronunciation precedes the i of iSeTe\ For the rest the mute t was written." Gardthausen Gr. ^ Usener Flecheisen's Jahrb. I. 24. 94 and Eep. n. A. oii 2 Strabo xiv. FaUeogr. tragoedia . aiii^oiv in the same) . Eohl 552" (Olympia). Thraecidicus 193. AI. EI. so far as it was written. 203.vrha. iKtpai^eirai tUv. to poetical dialect . Arsenal. vapdments relating to the building of the /ceirai Si koI—t^ dyXaig. of about the 7th cent. hell. ii. 1054. 51 Section 14. have all of them this in common. Thraex^." Dionys. The remaining diphthongs with t.Mgypt. els to i \fyovn. that is vt ai ei 01. f. p. and only drowned by the preceding long vowel ^. The Musicians however maintained against the Grammarians. on 'OM/j. 162 E. the writing with « is a cor. oi5k i^aKoverat U Sid. after as well as before in the same line with the rest of the letters. in. and in pronunciation had at most only the value of a weak y '. Kal the e).. 61 (Thessaly. 236 fi. ruption of that with ae).s SonKas. and to this perhaps may be ascribed the fact.riwjr7) 5^ t an^oTv TO ^dos (pvffLKTjv alHav oiK yivcTai KTi.. Anecd. rj eK(f)covoi)aa to t : citharoedus. p.ovcri. p. ttJs d/c/)i/3e(as (ppovHl-ovTes 'Kiyovcnv S n Bull. apxA/iemv awa toO i.apis ToO (S i} /ieTa^i iK^dWovcTL Si p.as ai 8b(j)6o'yryo&lt. melodia.t&gt. /liyedoi t&amp. 3 Thraex. C..oom-p. 1186 : o! novaiKol to be correct by the metrical iuser. de corr. I found the a'ot wui in a in Cicero (only Sest.wi.t and the inser. crwB. which from the earliest period and during the whole history of the language appears only before a vowel. Value and treatment of TI. X&lt. 35. vii. Thraecius. . S. not until those of the twelfth century with i subscriptum". But uSe without i is shewn « Bekk. tt. At a later period on the contrary the t was not regarded : ode. Thracia. 648 : voWol ydp ffwaXel^erai TaOra oXX^Xois (the i with I ypd&lt.ot iirl .va Kdna etcro irporipui by the docu. &lt. 01. comoedia. that Dionysius of Halikarnassus on the subject of the Pindaric dyXaia (. t&amp. ^XO". ANCIENT GREEK. with a . is said 156 f. and it is not until manuscripts of about the seventh century that we meet with i written a little higher or a little lower (a'aj. 1880.v fiaKpiop ^wvijhTuv..see Ztsclir.'Sere speaks of the i. 1865. Spr. 9 Papyrus ms. Of the spurious diphthong vi.

the 5th cent. Opaa-ea &lt.. And this pronunciation must be assumed for ancient times in all places where v had become ii uniformly^ For the simplification of ei ai oi before a vowel it is sufficient to mention a few facts. jreir\evKias. 2. 22 . 407) ought not Stud. 3 Thus Cauer C. The Boeotian pronunciation was in any case ui (one syllable)^ but the writing was subsequently triphthongal. 273 . insor. lepew! (from eTri/ieXela irpvTaveia iepeia) Aiofxeev&lt. r)ii.. Tts I Kareayva. As the Grammarians reckon it among the diphthongs Kara.7ea&lt.^ p. vl Crete Cauer. 164 ft.I.^vvrj was found i n Philemon' .: from Thucydides. as G.. 42. 89 . 'Sipeldva. vapeiXri^va. 374 . with vi on the altar of to make use of this for Attic. even a tetraphthongal form covi (jouid?) = m occurs °.{ . :. 2 65 repeatedly (apparently side by side (Tanagra). 275. note 1. St.)6s etc. Kareayva^. we ourselves write Tfkkov re\€o&lt. also in to write there Kwreayia etc..re\7)\v0vlas occurs labio in a hexameter in Eohl. but in the 4th cent. have restored in the insor. 373= . but de ■philol. n. p. for instance in the adverbs meaning " whither ? " ol oh and vl vh (also without i ttC?). iv.2 p. also in 4—2 52 THE PRONUNCIATION OF again written before a vowel. * Mpfivi. Herm. 373"' "». 11. iKwewXevKvup. metr. whether the process is to be regarded as a rejection of i. Foueart Bevue In Homer we certainly find 6(i)is. 367. Meyer Gfr . xiii. ^ Cp. 482). the v is long. ' Ahrena D.s P. 46. Thomas Magister quotes Ta&lt. so that it is open to doubt. G. ^Hpeidva. in order Peisistratus. N. In Hellenistic vc is 1 G. 364. A. 25 . 117. Meisterhans (p. the Epigr. ed. Kaibel 36. viii. i. or as a coalescing of the two vowels'. with -lias) no. iv. and has consequently been again introduced into the Attic authors. 16. 46. In 118. while we find ei in the participle as ipprjyeia^.written for utd?. In all cases however. ^pa')(ia is Ionic for ' . no. in Doric there certainly appears a shifting between 01 and vi. and other instances*. " On Attic i&amp. ib. 1. irpvTavea'.i&lt. Baunack Curt. D. Meisterh. Mv in Simbel (E. no. (dative of A^p/tus) dissylIn this period also i&lt. S. A. I. Bie^oSov. they in any case pronounced it as ui.i just as in l')(^dvSiov from ly^OvlSiov. in vd? from vi6&lt. 381 . 373 ^is. Attic inscriptions shew e7rifieXea&lt. ovi ovio'. iv. Attic poetry only v{i. Lobeok Pathol. 35 . no.. of AbuComp. although not always'.

or again the d may have been a mistake of the grammarians for ai. four times with o. once with oi. § 12 above. p. ) . which was simplified to d. Thessalian Fej/mo?. '%7rovBdo&lt.'. p. fr. p. Examples ANCIENT GREEK. Schol. 282 etc. VIII. which comes to the same thing as the inscriptional writings Det/aaet. 99. 372 ■•• '^K simple V. n. old Attic 'Adrjvaia passed through ^A6rjvda to 'Adijvd^. cites 'kdiivaliav from Eupolis (fr. Inst..: o'iei with the first syllable short are frequent. Dial. The same holds good with at : Lesbian has "AX/icao? 'AA. 331. iyeioS '' Ar. ant. and in the Attic poets scansions such as ToiovTO&lt. s Meisterhans. p. p. Hipponax. p. 24. 95.iraio'i SeiXaioi Tleipaiev&lt. I. " Meisterhans.i.. d. p. a Thuo. from which comes Latin poeta . xdo). An. 50 Ku«. 53 at'cTo?'. 187 f. Hephtest. 85 (Christian). 24 (iv. twice. more after the 2nd century b. D. 47. Epigr. o-Tota also became cttoo/^.i. .^pa'xeia. all of them shewing ' Pap.i\aOrivaio^ ep. for eTriTijSeio'i . Vesp. 2 7eYo»'w(3&gt. i. ion. 100 . also ieidv (Asia Minor) Sterret Arch. «3. A. 268 ff.c. just as the supposed Attic deTo&lt. ijixla-eas is given also by our mss." G. Lesbian dXddea = aKr)Oei. 2 Cp. Meisterhans.Kato?.f&gt. Stud." The case is different with eXda. Kkda etc. 4 irpoeKriKvdvLiiv . 61. p. On Attic inscriptions given by Cauer G. of America iii.. 90 f. Mag. col. 8 Mein. 107 W. viii. 172 aX and oX are especially frequent in B. 20 Koek). Gr. Here perhaps a was original. Meisterhans. Meister Gr.).? KvSadrjvaev'i etc. Phile. Doric daakea = dcrdXeia. 25. 573 mon Bekk. Cp. this is much more frequent than the ^ Eohl I. Dial. &lt. in the Ionic Styra in Eubcea we find Alaxpdo&lt. and in the period of the Empire " Ahrens D. 19"!. 138. 31 ff. olo&lt.. eTnTijSeio'. I.i'' . p. Bechtel Inseh. shew the at shortened in Attic poets^.Krelas). as (Oi in Xwov to w. ■^/jLuaea". which has no support from inscriptions. A. also w appears again during and even ' Ahrens D.a'' . Lastly for ot the best known and most frequent example is iroelv ttoi/tj??. excepts (which has ■ti/i. n. for o e o from old Attic inscriptions 63. Ueip. SiKcdav Kaibel (vloS) Assos do. L. 36 K. 8 (Thom.

250. 278. 298. ffS = f) . 9.8o(i)9os Oalymna. 45 f. the first elements a o e were still clearly present. p. accordingly much earlier than 01 for o . 2 (TTOid Ar.. 270 the origin is IKai-la. waver) .. A.C. Inscr. ^atevv6&lt. have only aTo&amp. elsewhere with simple a. 27 (2nd cent. Insclir. p. Dial. The proper name 'Aeriuc occurs as early as 4th cent. * Bechtel d. do. 321 f. (the mss.. 36) we have no examples on inscript.. 278. 25. C. ion.C. . n. Inschr. II. 688. Less frequently before consonants ((7T. I. also IV. hell. A. 44. viii. p. oi and o.If then in their final development the diphthongs au oi ei coalesced into the simple sounds e (that is ancient Greek ij). inscr. Z. Curt. kX(£&lt. Gr. et for e ceases according to Meisterh. mentioned above*. .7]&lt. 28. For /tdw. Should any one on the other hand be inclined to 1 'EXoioi. 299°.. in the Louvre. 99 (Miletus) . 8 Meisterhans. which I place in 4th cent. ffToitt Chalkid. 142. I. U (i). A shifting also occurs in the converse direction : on inscriptions of the third century and on Papyrus we find written ^oir}Spofiiwv ^oirjOov oySotTj?'. I. According to Cauer C. j8o«. Tpo^ijvioi has inscriptional warrant'.Papyr. Eccl. in Ionic are found Aavaiij Ilafj. 7 (before 403) .. 684. 33 (B. Thas. Kara/Soi^s by Soti on the. d. cp. Waokernagel K. . I. 384. n. (p.^ 216. but nothing obliges us to take the a in this case as long.«(i» Pap. 16) . and ei stands for e in evveia and the examples. d. not TrakaiaTiq^ . also on oii = ai q. Br. 44. yet it follows from this fact of the alternation between at and a. 369. 24. Attic and others.i) (Voemel Dem. Etym. et and e. Stud. de corr. 46 as early as B.. p. 26. note 2). ion. no. Insch. Syll. on aterds Meist. 418). iraXaarr] in Attic. L. in Ionic dial. rather incorrect). Dial. 53". and FepatcrTos in manuscripts". Attic inscr. 104. Ditt. 340 (epitaph of a woman of Halikarnassus in Bhodes). Meisterhans. at lasos (Bechtel d. ii. Mus. x. that so long as this took place so freely. C. Dial. Also npaiivolri Bull. p. IV. ffrmti Mitylen. refers this to the degeneration of the fi to a simple sound.^al. contiones p. xxvii. 167. Tepaa-T6&lt. M. etc.

de corr. It is certainly possible to pronounce ai as well as d in very different ways. i. This leads then to the 1 G. a strictly diphthongal pronunciation as opposed to the more careless. 33". ' Besides appearing on the snakepillar at Delphi (op. that at had the same sound as e. appears to me in the face of the constant separation in script a pure impossibility. 242. -nXWiov i&lt. 241. Wesoher-Foucart. 54 THE PRONUNCIATION OF infer from the Attic HoTcibeaTai from IIoTetSata'. For that ai was so early pronounced e and had become identical with 77. 614. 4. Wilaas well be completed as IIoTfiSaia (as mowitz in the letter of Attains to the in the preceding list. 617. can just xxxvi. Dial. ii. I. 285). where the no. and isolated blunders and shiftings make their appearance in spite of such a code. Bh. as the right reading is ^tto)? ryivTjT e(j}p6vri. op. There is ^ G. A. I. Delph. Foucart ou Le Bas. I. a mode of writing which is as invariable as UoreiBaM on the other side. 106 (whence?) . Mus.j&gt. 33 at. Curtius argues against of letters shews that Kirohhoff is wrong Btich. which allowed the i to become more evanescent. I. 379. in 16. and ti . Thuc. and next in the third century a supposed inscriptional 'yevrjre. a historical mode of writing running counter to the pronunciation is only possible. Coins shew Tpotf. but rather that a drawling of the diphthong is the object of the reproof. that TloTeihaaTai. 1. priest of Pessinus (Domaszewski Arch. which points to T/jof. for HoraSai-. where there is a strict grammatical code. reading. Gr. 244. h. which at that period did not exist. A. Eiemann Bull. and that in Ionic also eTrca-reaTai iSvviaro were used instead of eTTtardaTat iSwdaro^. 497. in Stud. since the latter is in this case followed by a vowel. A.also 834^ 11 . dieppvriKoa-iv. G. is wanting in euphony and out of all analogy. 236. 11. as also an identity of et and t. which does not exist. 1. The only examples however which are brought are UoTeiSeaTaL. in supplying HoTeiSai^aTat. I. iii. of 01. or perhaps.cr[e*. 3014 (Megara). " 0. the answer would be obvious. 2. In like manner we are not by any means to conclude from the censure which occurs in Aristophanes of an inelegantly broad pronunciation of Kpefj-aio. in Kiihler's transcription is only a mistake. In like manner v.$^^aTo Kal rom xe'^cT'" but no less also in 238. 18. ii. Inschr. especially in the course of so many centuries. 50 . 275. . that the elegant pronunciation was already at that time Kpi/xTjo^. earlier TPO. not before Empire. G. 240. 132) it is also constant.. where Kohler absolutely no example for the latter reads yhriTe (ppovrh .

I. 6). A pr. on Gr. p. 11. a definite form of crasis might be handed down to a period. Kara.. but afterwards the a of this legeta was treated like that of ravra. Now no doubt.. yous of the editor into -o-eo-e' U. fiov&lt. ought properly to give a different result : for instance Odrepov is good Attic. Nubes 870 ft.) . ijmSa. 16 ^o. crasis furnishes.re(ree Kd3 Biioheler Eh. Cauer Epigr. . how could ke en become kdn ? The same applies to KaKm&gt. which is entirely independent of that of the ordinary Greek.bet but a syllabarium. Xeyer ev like ravr eV.g. Further. has corrected the in(rTpa^&lt. The at of most verb-endings is. 56 THR PRONUNCIATION OF certain proof. Kpi/Mio ye.niv from jMOi eo'TLv. 95) c. 1. Dial. (see p. 188 . With regard to the other dialects. Curtius shews'. though ka was as will readily be understood not in general allowed to shrink up into k'. 2. and a ' E.o&lt. Aristoph. 106. pr. Curtius Stud. not only in Homer but also in the Attic comic poets and indeed in prose subject to elision'. a clear indication. A. 302 . Deinarch. {Lect. giving a passing notice to the Lesbian diaereses such as ol8a oiicrjv {plKelvY I call especial attention to the Cyprian writing. all phenomena as easily comprehensible on the assumption that 01 = oi g. though the form in use thei'e is no longer are/jo? but eTepo&lt.). 40 vapaKpoiovB' the Ion. 3 yev-fiaeaB' airov (according to N » G. as G. as they are absolutely incomprehensible supposing 01 to be u. 2fiKP. also QoliMariov like Oalfidria. Meister 2 Ki.268.. For ot we have to consider. 2. KaiTovanv. Oest. Mm.— ei epigr. This peculiar script. If on the other hand it had been legete (XeyeTrj. viii.. that the pronunciation was diphthongal in Cyprus. being not an alphg.. — Idoi Kpipiai. N and A pr. crovBcoKev. 277 ff. kuo-tiv etc. a. where there is a frequent occurrence of a certain word-combination. Papyr. in which its elements. as is well known. note 2) ilMi (according to cod. 1884. then a^vpi. * Ahrens D. St. k iv twice (1. cis ANCIENT GREEK. 16). Mitt. having in the intervening time suffered change.e. fMovSoKei. 44. i. 96. But this is clearly not applicable to the crasis of koI with any chance word beginning with e or ei. that this was conformable to the pronunciation. 1. This fact is explainable without diflficulty from the pronunciation ai: in the first place Ugeta'en was pronounced as ka'en^ and as Peiraeus . ka' en becoming kan . fiovjKW/jiiov.'. Kal iv = Kav.2 Merzdorf G. A. h found in C. 50 . p. : *EIA. but here crasis was employed. I see no possibility of the long vowel being elided. KEN i. 55 arguments to be drawn from elision crasis etc. especially strong arguments for diphthongal pronunciation. nevertheless expresses all the diphthongs in a manner entirely analogous to the ordinary script. as in Boeotian). xx.

1031 no. for instance the older coins of Thebes shew OEBAION . 238. -Sojpo?. as regards the formation cp. as referred to the iEolic. AEBPA" also is found on a vase which is probably Attic. a-ro-u-ra dpovpa% Section 15.. m. in those cases. only in Tanagra and Hysise AE is written for ac and di quite in the Latin manner: 'A/SaeoSopo? i. 136. vii. 57 Weavaeia UepaeLoQev^ . ta-i ra. ABANAEA. 223 f. ma-to-i MaSot.. tji ot cot Bceot. 61). The above however does not hold good for all dialects. distinct from ai oi. AopKelSas Orohomenos Berlin. and it is the BcEotian. pe-i-se-i ireiaei (i.^.. Dial.'yeveuo&lt. At Tanagra we find also corresponding to AE the writing OE for 01 and wt: Moipixo&lt. iii Boeotian. vi. i. I. for not only in Latin but also in Cymric (Welsh) there is a diphthongal ae oe. AI is retained in the earlier period. Plataiai Lolling Dial. on the other hand the Thessalian Aapia-aimv on coins of Larisa comes not from Aapi(ralo&lt. Terent.e. a-ne-u avev. as in Savelov AopKet'Sa?.9°. Gr. and accordingly we find also eu (= ijt) in such words. : antiqui quoque Graeoorum in Bezzenberger'e Beitr. there however the E was equivalent to ei. Meister 16 K. o-na-sa-ko-ra-u ^Ovaaayopav. and it is not till the inscriptions of the third century that we find them all complete. The old Corinthian writing also had this diphthong. but from Aap(o-a(t)ei. Scaur. Monatsber. is in many cases in the earliest monuments and at a later period without exception simplified to t. UoXvapaToe. that in the case of these diphthongs also has anticipated by centuries the development as it took place elsewhere. Meister duntur.:. Teca-et from tIvo)) (y is wanting). AI. 22 about 330. A. Dial. iirl Aa/ioei'^Toc. fiavreUa ' AvTi. 7] at at et. ANCIENT GREEK. wherever it is really e + 1 and not e. rji appears to be original. 185.e. 470 (ib. ei 1!) 7) i et v v. to-i tw. Transformation of EI. where it maintains itself. even Priscian compares this Boeotism with Latin oe\ I consider AE OE as real diphthongs. n^PAEO@^N 1 Alirens D. in which we have already recognized the beginning of itacism in the case of H. OI. 1885. These alterations however did not all arise simultaneously. ei.For instance a-i-ve-i alFel. the Corinthian writing . though nearly approximating to them''. banc syllabam per ae scripsisse tra" Foueart Bull. (del). eVi 'A/jteivoKXeuae^. The Bceotian sound-system. Inschr. Meister Gr. 502. shews the following changes : JEol.

All this is very mysterious and perplexing. 3 Fiek Dial. dating 100 B. I. one cannot understand. just as in the Attic hvelv. Krj tv Tpei^covilv] (or Tpe^wvl^ ?). why in the first word they always added the E. shewing two forms HiKivvaiiuv and nsKivvalniv the local differences . Kpola-oi on 235. just as V expresses that between and u. iii. 5 . from IIAiwa. 3127. 7756. ■* Prise. iii.Inschr.g. A.^. 1 § 53. Gr. 700). « Fouoart Bull. G. 58 THE PRONUNCIATION OF EI for OI occurs also sporadically in late Attic . even before the introduction of the common alphabet. Stod. 140 (Eohl above.yu. 360 . I. not only in the fifth but even in the fourth century. that in the Theban Proxeny decree Dial. compares the ^ Ahrens D. C. Inschr. in favour of a Carthaginian (Dial. e. At this time therefore te time was pronounced with the simple sound e both in the dative singular and in the nominative plural . Beer. On very late Boeotian inscriptions we find ei. 4. 382 ff. 719) ai is written throughout.. Tpe^wi-r Meist. Curt. if we except Tanagra.o?^ and this is subsequently the regular mode of writing everywhere in BcBotia'. rot? XoiTrel^ is found on an inscrip..' The Boeotians did not readily admit v instead of ot before a vowel. 01 on the other hand remains. these are all dedi= B. Gr. 7374. 136. for di and di also at this time were not distinguished. a vase. (Chaironeia). Lepsius Standard Alphabet catory documents relating to slaves. Inschr. 7746 .. no. which in other instances appears on these with the evident value of I. Inschr. Inschr. The EI must it would seem have been an attempt to imitate the sound. Instlt. 133 and iv. Gr. in Botwrot"' . basili). which appeared to their ear something like ei. 3) is a wrong as due to intermixture of the Koivq. 20. IX. o'Uei for o'UoL occurs in Menander. -WJ. and even subsequently was not ousted by the simple writing v^. X72. i. -| being the sound midway between i and e. Welcker Alte Denkm. 'A/3to-T'j. probably Attic. At Tel ^aa-iXel (for ^aa-ikeli pron. 194 ff. 88 . 34. no. If the Boeotians finally pronounced ti Di. mann. alternating with v as in ret. ^velv is frequent. 1 Bohl I. If .however corresponds exactly to the Oscan HA. according to the Grammarians also oo not v was substituted in Boeotian for a)t°. reading for 9o/)af. TeXecrr^o?. p. 199. (Lebadeia) . 429 f. Gr. Dial. p. The example cited 429. 481 ff. ant.C. I. Foucart 1. Meister Gr. " Dial. c. ^ C. against the pronunciation and against custom. 29. op. 300. — Afterwards however the Thebans adopted the Ionic H for at. on the other hand ' Accordingly it must be regarded 9o/)ae (Ahrens i. Dial.

this would have been the adequate expression for ui. oi) is not credible. But El is confined to the endings: irouo/Mevei or iro-iofievet = TToiovfj-evoi. = Dittenb. de cmr. 347. 249 f. p. ii.. Dial. as also by the fact that TI was never written'. p. the same is true of recurring jforms such as Xipmv for the Centaur. as for instance in the month-name IlocrtSecoz/. 124.). 3 Ahrens D. Corinna.this is the case. Tots XoHTcts G. Grdz. n. (383 oluv stands for vlaif. Nom. (=to(. 19 '"&gt. The ease will be d. Later Simplification o/" EI to i (e). 41 f. that in the same rot for rip 1 otei Herodian i. Gr. we shall have for the foundation of this ei in a preceding stage a diphthongal oi. 193 f. Dial. 32. Cp. Meister 372^80). — The view held by Curtius and Dietrich*. and we must suppose. o. $aXij/. Aueu/ on Attic inscr. not a monophthongal w. could have stood by the side of ^/ii! tv 31. which in Attic also is always so written . 463. The case decides for the transition oi. although. 24. Dietrich FUckp. title of Athena Itouia. A. Meisterhans. 59 Section 1G. 430. 2. We must of course place in a separate category abbreviations in particular words. irarpom etc. 1872 p. Syll. 495 . ois -eis -is. plur. as we shall shew hereafter. which we meet with frequently before a vowel) was always found in elsewhere. ix. no. is contradicted both by the ancient OE. i. with omission found to stand thus .^ 706 . hell. Outside of Boeotian the examples for an early simplification of this diphthong to 4 are not numerous nor are they sufficiently trustworthy. form Tod can become tvI as well as b m^tuikos is said to be found on '■'''■ one of the tablets of Styra (Eohl. Nachrichten 1862. p. MikoXos 'E. On the 2 BvuT(2v. that in Boeotian oi first became ui and then il.) Bull. ix. see however Bechtel Inschr. Dat. ion. that the early fluctuation between 01 and T represents a fluctuation of pronunciation. 504. We must now with reference to the remaining dialects and the Greek language as a whole separate the diphthongs which have hitherto been treated in common and first of all give our especial attention to EI. for -/cXet'Siy? may be derived from -kXos . in these endings (as indeed also in the stems) in Latin also oi has become ei (i). ANCIENT GREEK. ii. 12 f. 16 . I. 467. in accordance with the value of the T prevailing there.e.icppoaovav 386). other hand Beermann {Stud. eUen's Jahrb. oi -ei -i. which may lay claim to pass as correct \ The ending -kXiStji. A. « Curtius Gott. 18 (no. (oi of u. For oi and v are closely related to one another both in ancient Greek pronunciation and that of the koivij.

). from which we gained our information on the fate 1 C. M. whence guarantee for this reading is wanting. On ^tXaiylpris on a tablet On the lead tablets there still re(Bohl 372^82.not /cX^9. Alyione untrustworthy example. Alyiparav on coins (Fried. 38. 1887. crv/ji. Bull. 8359.(only in a bad copy of Fourmont) . so that e.. For Xe/pwc there is only 'E^/i. 84. de corr. and wrote Et/at?.d'i and conversely irapafiivaTtt) and iepl&lt.(7870). p. other hand Alyeiparris Oropus 'E0. no.also cite: BapiKds Sparta E. 297 (p. I. f. that Myetpa in Aohaia. 1885.^. was simplified in this way in the most diverse regions of Hellas. Teijj. SiBacTKaXea^. ^Xeto?.). p. EI.. Meis. . First a p following exercises a certain protective power over the E-sound. cp. The Boeotian $iXai7ipti[o] vase {Dial. 1. for which however the Delphian dialect has et". Cp. Gr.C.C. accordingly even on the lead tablets of Styra" in Evibcea. in a decree from Byzantium of the time of Tiberius^. where they ought to put t and where ei. de corr. Inschr. But without doubt from the end of the third century onwards. 2 ^etsahmer Ztschr. 8 AXytpa Inscr. Our evidence for this is drawn from the same documents. iv. which is seen also in Latin and in modern Greek (fe/jo?) . Airi. 17). 'B. B. 36 (Lead evidence for either side of the question. I may reotly written to have an i just as Sto. 8287. 3121) . oxet. 8185. iratSria olKrjoTrji. (elsewhere the same occurs with « . 69 ycpos. p. Halic.vgl. eirna^riov. namely the Delphian manumission documents and the Egyptian Papyri. IX.. and that both genuine and spurious without exception. Epidaur. There are however two exceptions. Bechtel Bohl no. %p»7as. 19"^) it must be mains Tiipieos {UeipWovs) B. 97 ff. appears when cor. 6o THE PRONUNCIATION OF of the diphthongs at wi rji. nothing more is left which can be considered trustworthy. of Lagina Bull.paK\LSrjs logue of Greek coins Peloponn. 3 (81 B. 77X1701/0?. 312. h.. 29). 566) is not Imchr. tablets). 1. 2 col. which seemed to furnish the most numerous examples of t for 61. 3). 297 B. 'A/)xoy6/)w for -pew ib. 159. iropeav evdea&lt.cp. 1. just as eicexvp^ci' is found on an early Delphian record with what appears to be strict Doric tj. p. On the terhans. /j. Numismatik p. Dial. but noted. Inschr. lander Z. 9ff. Alylpuv proper name Insor. Cata. t/itt and ecmiv.'Apurrldas Sparta ib. ion.rjvirja ttXtjA'.^a)vovcreii&gt. the name comes. and this holds its ground for a long time.Sprachf. accordingly XcoTtjpa and %e/3a are written.para Wesoher-Foueart 109. Bechtel on no. 7687. 444 frg. the Egyptians allowed this to be mixed up in the universal confusion. p. dpx. These writers of the second century were in perfect ignorance.g. 2 and 31 (soon after IX. h. d. 6. and if the Delphian masons at least left the short t to itself. 43. 382 {Dial. 7400. f. Secondly the ordinary equivalent before vowels is r] or e. /Meo^ovei^. on X]o/)«XiSa! of a Corinthian 115 B.

61. 8. cyperm (-um) Ki57re(i)pos .). 2 x/jias). X^piSs (and x'/""") . I. 3 XoiT-fipai {-pav) C. Dittenb.= Dial. i pingue. Bavdrov A ool.pov Scott Fragm. 469. 73. I. both sides (on reverse side = Pap. 203) XLIV. ^ Papyr. wepd. Kohler and by myself). Cp. ii. Herculan. occurs (by ^reiplaii) and K\apoi&lt. and further what was said above on the final confusion of Boeotian ei with 1. 15. — Lat. (Wessely Wiener St. « C. Syll. Cp. 1. in which Zrlpi. ('BTToii'^a-flai ib. 1.io. we find iirei = eTi. 368. Dial. 365. (col. Meisterh.— At Delphi dvSpeov.. but Epirus pirata etc. Bull. col. 3078. L. 545 1. In the Papyrus published by H. III. no.) Bull. 2060. Kirrpcidos and others without number.alav. 219 f. 294. viii. 1886. col.rivi. ANCIENT GREEK. Ei5xi}/)ou Delph. x^pa Papyr. 50 rij XeptI. fiaauXeiffffTis. 11. x^/""&gt. (after 181 B. Gr. xa/)«i' {xapiv). 435. Lond. I. h.) oIktjov woKiT-ijav (Amorg. 42. Inschr. op. p. 29). — "EKexvpl-a Amphictyonic decree C. 48.irr. Dittenb. Dittenb. A. which contains fragments of Euripides and other poets. &lt.TiviKav by editor and wrongly emended to ii. furnishes these and other examples. not = ^Trai^/fio-ffai but a perfect. 108. Weil 1879.Pap. 15. 3059. which is by no means the most incorrect. 38 f. X. Phokian official record from beginning of 2nd cent. v.ri. Inschr. Mriviirjav Pap. Dial. Dittenb. — For Athens cp. 61 col.). 5 X^po-. col. 198. but the same gives also Sij^/a for Suva twice Append.1 Wescher-Pouo. KaWiKparria etc. 445. 1589. This calls to mind the Lat. Mi'^ei-ois Pap. 6 1 . yvvaiKeov. 22. 92 etc. * The examples are from Pap. Inschr. 68. 246. written ei e i. A. 11. xxxvii. de corr. p. 9 (Philod. &amp. no. wrongly read p. 1. 82.C. 1 of the Louvre. xxxviii. de con: h. 49 (the H which was suspected by Ahrens has been confirmed for both places by U. cp.

halineum ^akavelov. 385=Dial. Meisterh. or again %. and this agrees with the fact that t] is no longer written in such words on Attic inscriptions of the second century A. Stud. 30. either iri can arise. of Herodes (sic) is = i7roX6f^6M. in the times of Terentianus Maurus an i was heard in Greek in MjJSeta. 5594. 196). of Halaesa G. as "E\ev. i. Clio. I will Bepiei for -pei -ri Athens. also von Herwerden's examples some may be 62 . on the other hand 'A7ro\Xa&gt.' (cp. ' Aa-KXa-n-eia. that et from the earliest times had a tendency to lose the e before a vowel. § 54 f. 306 (we must admit. Meisterh. Gud. 69 ff. vaov W. p. de it must be remarked. only refer to the insor. Aeneas. discrimination. "Aa-KXa-n-teia Asklapia. 441. 6280. Of Attiios. there is need of greater ' Terentian. 96. In like manner an inscription of Cos shews Kato-api^a. The uncertainty of the Greek pronunciation is sufficiently established by iiTiTrjhio'i and epp-rjvia on a Papyrus of Herculaneum*. Bd. Aiovvaeia.° But that previously the E-sound predominated. in general even at a later period e predominates'. where jiewos /5«i/a occurs by 2 So also in late Boeotian Qeurvduv the side of piras jiiva. in some cases owing to contraction. Gr. (where 'A-jroWuneia occurs. h.D. K.p. For in those cases where this ei is preceded by an i. for instance I cannot 8 Meisterh. Gr. fusion of ei and i. 83.iw . 37. On this point i. Inschr. Thispion for Qetairieluv. 399. account of the derivation from l&gt. Dareus and Darius. 'AypU-n-ria. on = Cp. p. 48 Aristarchus 'Tyia Athens. ib. Iphigenia. 816. C. Medea.' To avoid useless prolixity. Bull. 1. affirmed that jids was the spelling. Alexandrea and Alexandria. that according corr. .da-a/iriayrov are written consistently. in Wessely however notice here pei6v = vri6v. 77). and 1 Dittenberger Syll. BelveaSai. in words taken over at an early period shortening occurs : platea.veia. as in vulgar v-yeia Qiygm) instead of vr^Uia. 39). 91 f.e. where the pronunciation was -ia. 175 uiroX^^eaiK heKa on the Eoman inscript. 400 ar/jeies v. I. L. Maur. — to Etym. 1882. AtVet'os°. For the rest the simplification to i was already complete over the whole Greek speech-area before the beginning of the Christian era'. op.. Gr. Awpeia^. TufMeiov instead of ra/Meiov^ There is no especial degree of consistency to be found in the Latin representation of ei before vowels. Schneider Ausf. v. c. being in some cases original. As regards the supposed eonp. iii. n. I. may fit in with the fact. Priscian i. as in fi'qvLrjav and 'tapairirjov on the Papyri. that on the Pap. 'UpaKXrja. 458. v. also fleis instead of 9/s on account of * Gomperz Wiener Akad.

explained grammatically. ^ Of the Papyri of the 2nd century the following are correct and trustworthy in disputed questions : Louvre 2 (dialectics). fjieiyvv/xi. In many cases the resource adopted was to write et in all cases for long i.. Gr. took pains in the opposite direction everywhere to ascertain and carry out the historical method. i. ret fj.^ &lt.) has only one blunder diroTuraTU 1. as on the inscription of Byzantium. ereKxa Teia-co and in all the derivatives of tIvci)*. 38. and TroXetVa?" regularly. care and culture were still able to give not only on and at. see Dittenberger Herm.\6tov9. nevertheless this soon ceased to be a possibility. (verdict). 15 (judicial verdict). A. 2058. finally XoXX^Si)s ri. Mei^ia^. Victor. With regard to Attica in 2nd cent. de corr. this however never became a universal and fixed mode of writing. Even at the present day an orthographic correction is nowhere more frequently necessary than in the case of i and ei. p.o. 39 is found in an inscription which is very imperfectly handed down. Polycletus). p. and l had become a crux orthographical.C. 17 K. ^ra for eTra G. Delphi Bull.d&lt. for the writing eifidriou ei/MTur/ios is conformable with the dialect. 2 Mar.THE PRONUNCIATION OF even if in the second century B. The inscription of the Mysteries of Andania (93 b.. in. i. . Meisterh. v. ^Xeida-ioi. 78. where the E sound has remained even when followed by consonants (hypotenusa. h. 414 . especially Herodian. etc. which has been cited. orthographia Graecorum ex parte maxima in ista littera oonsistit. fiet^w. Also on inscriptions: Olbia G. 82 shews T) for tji. 167 (Staterecord). and the distinction of ei. but also et its due and no more than its due'. For instance we write i wrongly instead of the diphthong in the follo^ving words. 22 (petition). says.E&gt. Taur. nam.et in quibusdam mediis interponitur verbis. very many contain rj for ei before a vowel (p) . — In Latin there are certainly some examples... according to whom the confusion properly begins there about 100 b. I.c. and the Grammarians. I.

1798 (Epirus). . (Gott. Blass Pruef. iii. et eadem subjecta e litterae faoit longam syllabam ei. 15 (cp. I. 1876) . before our era. Besides vjeia and Tafjuelov. Many examples also for {Ti/i/ieiKTos. 105 do. StXiyvo?*. ut ei'x'/' st iropeuiji. iireUeia and irelv for Tnelv. 29. that the Greek et had the same value as the ei of the early Romans. ix. 102 Md^iTTTos. whether the state of affairs is even approximately the same in the case of the other diphthongs of a similar kind and first of all in the case of at.nyp. Conversely we keep et. 8 and ffu/i/ieifai 49 of small value as evidence on account of the incorrectness of this ANCIENT GREEK. 1284 Meif/Swos. n. Ancyr. L. 482Meifi7^i»?. Gr. Bull. et in extremis. 7. Priscian i. Testini. It appears then from so many indirect testimonies added to those which are direct (such as Quintilian's remark. Kuman. A.. ^ Examples in proper names are frequent. 50: quam {ei diphthongum) pro omni i longa scribebant more • antique Graecorum. vi. Kafiipof 'ZTayipoi^. p. fet. that already in the Roman period. inr. Hyginus vyieiv6&lt. p. 2059 (Olbia). ^et.g. there was no distinction in pronunciation between t and et°. vol. i. de phil. n. 22 {en/iei^ei 63.. Quintil. (Fairly regular in the Greek text of the Monum. Meisterh. and further from Latin equivalents. Meisterh. wrongly instead of I in oUrlpo) wKripa". 97 MeifidSou. 1258. 142. Niemann Rev. that is to say long i'). aipo'i^ . EuVeaiot and consequently also in eWea (willow)'. ii. Cp. Herwerdeniap. 2 above). de con: h.) ^ Sauppe de duolius titulis Tegeat. 575 Mei^iy^vrp). quamvis uon enuntietur. "&amp. from the name of the deme 'EpUeia may be inferred ipUi] (heath). ii. Let us now see. 63 YloTei^aia. etc. 40. et dativis casibus adjungitnr. G.ut "Aiffijs. p. d/ielKTOis Pap. 575 Meifks.'' may be cited as vulgar modes of writing to be explained by the contraction of I and et. 2335 (Tenos). in the names of the letters Tret.K. Isocr. such as Pisistratus Dinarchus. 10. C I. ^ In like manner e. 91.

g. 374 ed. antiq. ° See the Attic tribute lists (Herwerden 25. 28 (time of Lycurgus).1885. Inschr. 1885. As regards /myetpos the testimony is contradictory: HOMAriEOS Epidaur. Meisterh. 8 is unfortunately corrupt. Messene (SiXavis) ib.fjt. 1885. ' Quint. 11. 570 ff. Meyer^p. 8 This was recognized by Ceratinus (p. 59. n. viii. II. letters of the Pergamenes (p. 3. which with o-iifoj/Ti 1. 14. 477°. of Isyllus 'E07J/4. note 1. 822. is the son of Demetrius. Bohl I. C. of Eleusis Bull. C. I.. de corr. G. 3220.. and accordingly the inscrip. v. 325 (Thessaly). of Lagina.eT^ai. 2 Four examples for olKrlpeiv .) " Inscr. 151. 64 THE PRONUNCIATION OF . The passage of Nigidius in Gellius XIX. 2264 (Tenos). Suppl. 357. note 3) D. (On the other hand ewoticTeipov Epidaur. iv. 303. 1 above) p. p. iii. 3 ff. n. but /MyeipiKov C. 49.. 43^. h. 468 (by means of which the fact was first established by KirohhoH). 35. /myipos Coroyra Dial. 1 Meisterh. A. See also Curtius F6. p. that the Philippos of the inscr. 2 above). 15 (see p. 197. 8212 . ib.piece). I. 71. p. *XeoCs inscrip. 168. " eTelKeia e. I. n. IV. 7. on Teip see Jacobs A. dates from the beginning of the 2nd cent. 70 serves as a proof. 39 ff. 45. Korkyra Dial. 477". Inscrip. Pal. see Meisterh. A. Inschr. dpx. 1. dpx. 10. Fleckeisen's Jahrb. cle corr. see also Voemel on Dem. * Numerous exx.2 165. 'E0. for instance Bull. (Delos). Gr. Fleckeisen in his Jahrh. 10 ervfji. 1870. I. h. 226. 128. 69 ff. Halik. 373). Gr. 67. I. Haverc. 684 .

&lt. that the lonians of Thasos said alpaipTjfiai. Meyer ^ s e. avrjprfiievov) by the side of [avai\pai. and Inschr. In the next place for the third century the Reuchlinians have that great crowning proof. Dial. Since moreover ti&lt. that in this dialect too shortening has taken place.! is unsuitable as applied to 'H^w. Petersen Progr. Unter. dvepaiprjfuii. as to repeat the words addressed in reverse order. Later history of AI. that is nechi-echi".." I however think with Henrichsen*. that Callimachus was far too subtle a poet. in any case the example is isolated and not such as to warrant general inferences. Petersen's'' emendation. ion.Section 17. 'Avaipep. It is certainly much more likely. Meyer produces. or dvaipepijfiat'. The lines run according to the traditional reading. explain the Lesbian af/turus = ^/iio-us ' Callim. once.) ANCIENT OREEK. (To tion as in ^p/iroTroi'.. 350 considers the slightest trace of such confusion. A. 'H^r&lt.u. ff. than a form which not only is very clumsy. iii. the epigram of Callimachus. .. Kd\6&lt. 65 aSXa wpiv eiirelv tovto (ra(f&gt. "ciXXo&lt. sees in the 2nd form inner reduplicastands there twice. is more than questionable. Accordingly the mention of echo applies to the repetition of Ka\6&lt.wi Hpj^fti. 134.pai/». Wilasinee this dialect shews elsewhere not mowitz Horn. § 37. with aXXo? exet. but is not even really read (on the stone). instead of dpaipr]ij...ai of Herodotus. av he vat^i. we shall probably be right in accepting E. koXov' 1 Bergmann Herm.f&gt. 233 (Beohtel ^ Bechtel supposes dva]paip. Echo as the reply which necessarily and it is evident that in aXfuffvs alfiloms follows and denies any intentional AltrfoSos we have a peculiar phonetic jingle. Dorpat 1875. d. P. ep^eti/. Avcraviij.. Should any one however prefer to take it as an instance of parechesis. to present to us such an absurd Echo.. is dvaipepTjfievov (i. 28. av Se vaixi Ka\6&lt.&lt. Schneider suggests dWov Ix"". xii.. no. and there is no longer any question of a harmony of sound between vaix^ and e-x^ei. as is done by G. 113. nothing is easier than by .e. of a by ai. Ava-avlrj. .5 ^rjai ti. for the confusion of at with e u i].pTjfievo'i on a Thasian inscription of about the fourth century \ It is thought then. where Echo returns the words vaixl KaX6&lt. koXo^' dWd "Trplv elTretv Tovro (Ta^w^. development.r]ai Tt9 aWo? e'X^eiv. 71). but I can think of nothing more intrinsically suspicious. Outside of Bceotia the oldest example. which G. from the orthographical representation ^ P.

ool. on another Papyrus^. reverse side ool. that at was at that time universally confounded with e rj and had ceased to preserve the J.. o and to and so on. Dionysius of Halicarnassus furnishes an unmistakeable testimony for the correct pronunciation of the Augustan period . on the contrary ^\av is the 1 Pap. " Col. since the sounds of the i of koI and the a of ^ Adrjvaiaiv could not blend into one^ Demetrius the rhetorician declares the name Alalrj to have a particularly harmonious sound'. the second century there can have been absolutely no difference whatever. or «».r/ '^eveyicetv^ is an unintelligible corruption and cannot be regarded as evidence. But we nowhere read rjiieprf (-pe) for -pai. this is expressed not only by e but also by t). ' Col. for ireivSaai. 66 THE PRONUNCIATION OF shortened form of eXaioi'.epo&lt. on those from Attica the confusion of at and e cannot be proved before the second century A. that they intermix ei and I I. On the other hand on No. What then are the facts of the case ? The somewhat incorrect astronomical papyrus in the Louvre has Spare^ for oparai once. P. 17. Accordingly it is quite plain that the at of the verb-endings -aOai -rat. 43 we find eppwcOai for -a-Qe and elBPjTai. 206." It may be mentioned that where in the period of the Empire ai is written as e. as 'Zapa'rrirjv of -■melov^. ^aiverai fot -re . eBwKe.reading (prjo-i rt? aWo? "e%M" to restore such between 'Hp^tu and exto. the representation by e not by 77 may be to some extent connected with this weakening. 17. it is therefore quite impossible. 11. (ks) for xai. And nevertheless these bungling copies bristle with the most crying confusions of ei and i and such like errors. L. If in the time of Callimachus there was no distinction in the most cultivated court speech between the sounds ai and e. 13. On Weil's large papyrus" Tria-revcreTai. and irivovre'. da-Traadfievo^ rrjv /Maxaipav stands for aTraerdfji. but then these are cases.* on a papyrus. 19. where besides iarelv etc. The fragments of writing on the reverse side of the same shew no error.. . where the diphthong was from of old liable to elision and had no influence on the accent . 1. with which may be compared ^/aaji/^' to?. ' Wessely W. 4."H. or jjpw for aiprS . TrepimKoSo/jbrjicev' auTov&lt. for tov fiev ^evaiKeiv for rov (to) /J. 1886. eKTeTare for -rarai. The same may be said of papyrus No.. on 40 ayopao'eSeoKe = dyopda-ai. sounded in the speech of the uneducated like the e of the endings -ade -T6 . he says that Koi ^Adrjvaioov in Thucydides is a case of harsh composition. 23. Stud.B. . In that case however uneducated writers must of necessity confound ai and 6 (or rj) in the same degree. 5. But a positive refutation can be given in the following manner.(j)r)crTo&lt. in the vulgar speech of. 4. for instance on an inscription from the Thracian Chersonese we find KT) twice side by side with yvveKi. even those from^ Delphi in other respects so incorrect . The contemporary inscriptions are perfectly free from examples of interchange. stands for -crare. 5.. -sound..

or rather the intermediate sound between e and i. ill. oXo v Alalri do not occur at all. irivv " That I may pass over nothing. Gr. t. see more correct Kal Bflios. ipixriv. just as much as the Cymric ae mentioned above. more correctly Epigr. afterwards however an e-sound was thought to be heard in the second element. In the next place the Grammarians describe ao in contra-distinction to a as 97 at Bl(j)doy'yo&lt. p. that it had become simple e at an early period. * Bull. 38. oiSiv re Sm^uivoTspa tup copy Le Bas v. SXKuv i^ri TavTa. 414. 26^. 19. 'A/MO-TE^'^TOu. 67 opinion prevails with regard to this very diphthong. L. — If then in spite of all this the ' Pap. p. the . a-vvexh t^s ap/iovlas Kal SidaraKe. 31.elsewhere ^ ai dl&lt. 'B?r^. Ktirepa.Ka. 167: i) tup 8 Cp. 2693» (Ehodian money . a. But it is just as reasonable to draw inferences from Greek at with regard to the pronunciation of Latin ae. Kal aitoKlyirTovaai. iy. L. how. 1214. 1 above. 226.5U. that AE was originally intended to represent a diphthong. p. decorr. n. " Dionys. 69. the real reason must be sought in the fact.l)WT)htT03v TTapddeiTts — diaKiKpovKe Tit ANCIENT GREEK. since express testimony to ae= e is only to be produced from the period of the late Empire ''.? ? This description caused even Aldus Manutius* to recognize and insist on the distinction between the modern Greek pronunciation of the diphthongs and the genuine ancient sound. On the inscr. to say the least of it. hence arose about 200 B. Op. alaB-qThv top fiera^ii Xa^ovaa xpiS"""I notice the Bhodian verse inscription dKipaarol re yap ai ipoival tov re i Kai toS AiraCKov (='A7re\XoO?) in 'Ad-r/v. I. (jioipoi/xepov. 17 ?xowa to i iKever p.surely however not pronouncing it eee. that it represents Latin ae and is represented by ae'. § 69: iroXXo U . o\V ro-ws Kal /ioviri2 Meisterhans. 2693' ri. 2 below. n. p.. e Demetr. is very ill suited to ai = e. 2. no Eoman Kal Sii. as the converse. 77 sK^wvova-a to i? . for even Corssen gives to this ae the value of German a. In old times the spelling ai prevailed in Latin also . no. Pap. tov tjxov .'eTos (soil. ir. above. hell. &lt. In the first place it seems to me certain. 416. A. p. p. awB.bvoiv rSp (parrihTUV avvrLBriffiv names). for in that case why should it not be t) IcroSwafiovaa tw ■&gt.C. of Mylasa G. often written ei .aTa. an expression which. 872 . no.ihel ^ B.pe. ■^ iTwiJfieio) 6v6fi.

Seelmann lengthening of i (e) will be the first 167. but a followed by e. i. but rather as skaena. L. 16 k: sed magis in illis (words with 5—2 68 THE PRONUNCIATION OF — (u) : platistrum plostrum caudex codex. but ae for r] is confined to the two words in question. faenerator feneratrix* (and pretor and Cecilius are given even by Lucilius as examples of countryfied language^). sic sonat in fen. Corssen^ 327. I suggest that these forms shew an intermediate form between the a-Kdirrpov a-Kavd of Magna Graecia. For although iy = e.vrj which reached them at a later period. of Hadrian) it was not yet sounded as ^ So Terent. 676. 97). and the aKrJTTTpov a-Krjvtj of the Koi. which the Romans received first. where the i tending to become e (1) stands as the second element. mann Auspr.sima sonat. VII. quasi diphthongos. vii. as is unmistakeably shewn by the living pronunciation of German Kaiser derived from Caesar. if they did not pronounce the sound as skena. and we must interpret what precedes in accordance with this : in pluribus verbis A ante E alii ponunt (in pronunciation) alii non'.spelling ae. Sergius in Donat. If so early as Varro's time there was a fluctuation in isolated words 1 between e and ae. that the Komans pronounced aw as a diphthong. Maia. no Roman of ancient times thought of writing Daemaetrius or thaesavrus. this is in no way different from the fluctuation prevailing at the same period between au ■ Except in words borrowed at an ae. This latter corresponds exactly to the Oskan. Lat. to cause the one to be readily substituted for the other in transcription. claudo cludo. v.^ i. formerly written with ai) e novisearly period such as Aiax. Diphthongizing has also taken place sporadically in austrum = . about 130 B. quando oorreptum est. 520.C. e is original. Claudius Glodius. Seelenlm (the diphthong ^u)siprotrahamus. Moreover Varro by no means says. but also the Ancient Germans. that the writing fluctuates between sceptrum and scaeptrum. But Terent. aei as in conquaeisivei. At that period then (that pula KpaiTroK-q. why the Romans made scaeptrum scaena out of cncTJirrpov a-Kr^vr). Now the difference between such an ae and ai is sufficiently slight. must allow to ae the value of a real diphthong. Should the question be asked. 28 * Varro L. Gaeiciliits'. era. d. e et u (that is ae (|) the " Corssen Ausapr. partim scaeptrum. § 96 (op. ° ib. element). 490: hanc a simple c. sceptrum scaeptrum. K of e . 224. Scaur. a sonabit. in these however and especially in scaena the writing is almost without exception. Whoever then does not deny. v. but : partim dicunt sceptrum. Maur. Moreover the Greeks are not the only people who have heard in ae a diphthong similar to ai.

ostrum {ooTpeLov) and in Latin words such as ausculum ( faenus faenum); just as ai — e, so au — o lie very near together in sound, and foreign words adapted to popular use are especially liable to peculiar treatment^. It is also worthy of mention, that Latin poets occasionally scan Phaethon as a dissyllable, by no means however with a pronunciation so remote from the original sound as Phethon; Quintilian calls this avvaipea-Ks'. At the period then, in which Latin ae became the simple sound, that is in the third and still more in the fourth century*, the Greek at also had suffered the same fate^; but up to that time ai and ae may be considered to have preserved their ' See also Gellius xvi. 12. 8: deiectum fulmine Phaethon. Nam ei (Varro) M. Catonem et oeteros aetatis esset prosa oratio, easdem litteras eius feneratorem sine u, littera pro- enuntiare veris syllabis lioebat. nuntiasse tradit. « Corssen i.^ p. 692 f. Seelmann "^ Prise. I. 52 ; Seelmann p. 163 f. 224 f. » Quintil. I. 5. 17 : quod (rmalpeaiv ^ In Coptic loan-words e was writet ffwaXoK^x Graeci voeant— , qualis ten, Stern Kept. Gr. 36. est apud P. Varronem : turn te flagranti

ANCIENT GREEK. 69 character of double sounds, not indeed in the mouths of the people \ nevertheless in the cultivated speech. The oldest testimony as regards ai = e, corresponding to that of the later Latin Grammarians on ae as the lengthened form of the open e, is to be found in the treatise of Aristides Quintilianus Trepl fjbova-(,Kfjii, which is placed by some in the second, by others in the third or even the fourth century, but which judging by the names of those to whom the author dedicates it, Eusebius and Florentius, certainly cannot belong to the second''. The evidence drawn by the followers of Reuchlin from transcriptions in the Septuagint is quite worthless. For the fact of Bethel being written Bai0);X and Elam AlXd/i^ does not shew that ai = e, but rather, if indeed it shews anything at all, that Hebrew Tsere with Yod quiescens was represented by ai. ' In the first place it ought logically to have been written BaidalX, if the sound were the same in both syllables, and in the second place the combination of Cholem with Vau quiesceiis is perfectly analogously represented by av : Avvdv Onan, Na/Sau Neho*. Finally this point too does not appear to me proven, that so early as the second century a.d. Herodian had given orthographic rules on ai and e". For why not also on r) and at ? H was at that period certainly still e. There are moreover at the ' The wall inscriptions of Pompeii duotion ; what the latter says p. xxx. f. shew the greatest confusion, both be- against Csesar's argument from the tween ae and e, and between ai and e. names, has not the least signiiicance. For example, sometimes cireaedus some- ^ Frankel Vorstudien zur Septua-

times cinedus; no. 1684 etati maeae, (/-mta p. 115; O.de Lagarde OHomasSica haberae ; 733 tv0a.Sa.i. xaroiKu, foidh sacra. Bt/S- (Bed-) is found for Boi9eheialTW (i.e. cIixUtu), cMtu) Kaxo/i (here in other names, but -r/X (simple Tse re) too it is evident that Lat. e Gr. ?;=?, is never written -ai\. Latin S Gr. e=e, op. p. 37, n. 5 above). * Frankel ib. p. 116. 2 Aristid. w. iJ.ova. p. 56 Jahn ^ I must here run counter to the (93 Meibom.) : to 3^ e BriKv liiv iari. kotoi authority of Lenz, who tries to pr ove TO TrXeio-Toc «s irpoelptrroj. ("has a femi- (Herod. p. 01.), that H. has given su ch nine character in contra-distinction to rules, and who accordingly collects the masculine and the neutral a"), tc? from the Byzantine writers everything U TOP S/wiov rixov iTn&lt;f&gt;aliiei.v, el exra- having reference to this in th e frageeli], rf ai SKpOoyyij), ypatpo/iivri Sid, toS ments Tepl 6pSoypa(plas, while he sets o, cT iXaxurrav ("in a very slight aside their rules on 7; -« -t, o( -u, -u (cp. degree") iippivwTai.—ks regards the p. on. f.). But the proofs are neither period of Aristides, cp. Jahn in the intro- numerous nor sufficiently strong.

70 THE PRONUNCIATION OF present time hardly any instances of uncertainty of writing with regard to at and the E-sounds. It is a ridiculous thing, that the name of the well-known Athenian, who fell at Marathon, is written Yivva'v^eipo'i instead of Kvveyeipo';, in which latter spelling it gives the intelligible sense "urger of the hounds" and may be compared with Kwdpra?. According to Moeris tooth- ache is in Attic rjiMwhia, in Hellenistic af/itaSta'; but the Attic form is perhaps an invention of someone who found the imperfect of the verb alficoSidv written HMflAIA^ The form ar)fiala, {standard) for crrj/xeM is erroneous : all the older inscriptions such as the Monumentum Ancyranum, and also the oldest manuscript of Polybius, shew either -ei- or, which comes to the same thing, -ij- or -e-, which latter form explains the false -at -I The extraordinary contrast to the confusion in the case of EI -I is unmistakeable.

Section 18. Subsequent history of OI.

01 appears to have become confounded with v at about the same time, that at was confounded with e. It had never been very far removed from this sound; if the attempt is made to Steph. Byz. ' K^aKaivov : iroKis S«eX(as, Lenz himself ceases on mature conoiSeripus xal vpoirapo^vrovas, KoX i] sideration to reckon as belonging to* TrapaT^'qyovaa Sih Si.(j&gt;66yyov, us 'Hp. kv the fragments of Herodian. And no w 17 Trepi oiSeripav. Are these the ipsis- with these compare the abundance of sima verba of Herodian, or has he not instances, even out of irepl /wvripovs rather merely set 'A^dK. under the Xi^ews, in the case of ei -i, g. -a etc. I In neuters in -aimv? Theogn. xii. 26 the same way Marius Victor, (see above (Lenz II. 409) etymology of xo/tt; from p. 62, n. 2) says that the orthography o f 'Hp. ev rS 6pdoypa&lt;t&gt;iq,. Is it really the Greeks had to do for the most p art likely that he intended by the ety- with i mute and ei ; there is no mention mology (from /cpoTw KpaTrj) to guard of ai. against the barbarous writing x^'"';? ^ Moer. 198. 15; oi^.. isinmany cases P. 410, an etymology of dxpi is cited the traditional reading in Aristotle, from the same work. Eustath. 1392. 2 Timokles in Ath. vi. 241 a uses 23 (L. ib.) on yair/oxos and yeoOxos the form rnj.aSla in such a context, that 7r;oDxos, from Didymus and Herodian. any one might well take it for the subThis is an isolated case if one at all. stantive. The 4th passage (Jo. Alex. 18. 23) 3 Dittenberger Syll. p. 489.

ANCIENT GREEK. 7 1 pronounce ot really with the closed o, as must be done in accordance with what has been said above, the small interval separating it from il will be remarked. Consequently Eustathius may be right in seeing intentional alliterations in the Homeric "Lk-uXKi) ko'iX7)&lt;;, Xapy/SSt? dvappot^Sel^, and there is a close connection between words like \oiyo&lt;; Xvypot;, Koipava Kvpio';^. Accordingly there is no more need to assume any intermediate step, in order to explain the common Greek transition of ot to v, than to assume such a step between ai and e. The transition through ui assumed by Curtius and others was destitute of actual traces even in Bceotian ; that through o must be decidedly rejected both for that dialect and for the Greek dialects taken as a whole'. For it is always open to suspicion

Seelmann 227. it is nearly related to au. Od. The later inscriptions in general interchange ot with v in the same degree as at with ' Eustath. in Portuguese and other Romance dialects . 406. " This is shewn by its representa2 Curtius Etymol. Sohuchardt Vulgar152. An ou occurs as is well known in old Latin {douco. ot has shared with v the fate of becoming first u and finally i. and that accordingly simplification took place by iiriKpaTeia as in the case of et. namely ov. hold the same (long ago cited by the followers of view. Latin oe. dvyvaci'. 226 f. which arises from ' it as in German. '* Pronunciation of genuine OT. tion in Eomance by e (Diez Gramm. 151. but only where it is accompanied by very negligent orthography and grammar: dvvyere. Curt. L. 1. 72 THE PRONUNCIATION OF e Tj^ . but afterwards passed not like ae into an open but into a closed e".to enrich a language with a new sound taken from other languages .C. Section 19. 658 f. As regards the time of the transition of ot to v. oe and e are treated entirely alike. A. we have already had occasion to treat of the rarest and the first to disappear. on 11. ious). was in my opinion^ just as much as ae and for as long a time as the latter a real diphthong. or forms its origin as in Portuguese. we find isolated examples of the simple spelling so early as a papyrus of the second century B. moreover in the case of .C. L. 51. Whether it was at any intermediate period 0. It is self-evident that its second element was u not u.). still it seems dangerous even here to assign this special sound to such an extremely small number of words in the language. i. This ou however is related rather with the Greek wv (ou) than with ov {on) . this statement however according to what has been said before applies equally to the case of at e. while ae corresponds to Eomance Beermann. * On anquina see Boeckh Seewesen and c was closed. 104 Seelmann Auspr. in old German. 50 (160 B. /i.. I do not venture to decide.^ » This transition is favoured by 170). Of the three corresponding diphthongs with o. which forms the middle point between u and i. 41 f. moreover o that is the sound intermediate between and e is no nearer to gi than is il.^ p. ie . ' Pap. the orthographic rules on ot v belong to the period of the Byzantine writers" . latein iii. 5 K. Stud. Eeuohlin). by which oi is regularly represented except in Troia and anquina {dyKoiva}* which were taken over at an early date. in English. causa ouro*. AT ET OT. Schneider Gramm. ix. i. 77.

1204 ANCIENT GREEK. iv. Inso r. (L.% by oi in contrast to its silence in wi.vi^a. also in tolovto^ ToaovTO'i TrfktKovTo^ . p.... Pronunciation of AT ET. next in cnrovhri (cp. on (Jortyn. e^epyeala. that in ancient Greek the v in this . diphthongs. 258 f. ■* Diez Gramm. where it is formed by the addition to o of the same v. a0TO9.ovviov\ ^ovd6&lt. an exception only for certain words it is true we find AOAOS. inasmuch as here there took place not a simplification. such as dpolTTi dpirr. e. p. A. ciii. inscriptions. a) ^ af ef.' 171. and accordingly we find both TOTON tovtov and BON ^ovv''. This sound-development forms a decisive proof. A. . ^ Cp. which in alirr] ravTa produces with a the diphthong av .g..d.f}ico\o'. i. VIII. uTrevZa)). in l.. but a hardening of the second element into a consonant. 514 (Thracian Chersonese). who allows the possibility of AION CI. de corr. 2826 Aphrodisias . 645. ^%^. Xfjuvp.'.. The Greeks of the present day pronounce them as av ev before vowels and soft consonants (/S^S. 333 . that the line of demarcation is not exceedingly sharp. hell. ib. 379. 378. Avv^at. ' AuTTtt i/eoTTufij' ireTri-qii. e&lt. In dpovpa the genuine diphthong is shewn by the Cyprian writing a-ro-u-ra*. KeXevdo'i). « Cauer C. 1933 . all these instances rest on the testimony of ancient. f j that is according to their usual writing aj3 e/S. especially ancient Attic. It must be admitted. whose fate was notably different from that of all the others. Section 20. The earliest ^ In the Athenian tribute lists the example from Attica is noicu/e^iffiya forms AiXiarai and OuXiSroi inter(about 238—244 a. e&lt.i etc... Stud. in ukoXov00? (cp. in /Soi)? (^oyr???) BovrdSr)&lt. as we have said before. 73 etc.ai. C. D.) Meisterh. Herod. dvi^i. 7 above. (written so in Boeotian too. tovto etc. p. = a^ €&lt. ovto&lt. which continue to distinguish ov and o. In B. 46^.j)Kparo&lt. The genuine diphthong ov is found in ov. fvveKl and ki) Bull. AOTI. I. d. and in the case of 0P0TP02 *POPOS' (from irpoVopdw) it is difficult to say which is correct. (npov6o&lt. in Sov\o&lt. not SciiXo?). e^htv (evSeiv). pronunciation (^/c0Myeiir9ai) of the i i n Cephallenia G. ii. I. p. olir6 Lyd. i. Gr.f).. 13) Herod^an speaks o f the 2824..the latter there is hardly any appearance of contact with av'°. change in a Carian name. Gr. but before hard consonants (tt^t. 126 A. 2 Even according to Lenz. viii. There remain AT ET.

G. de con: hell. and this mode of writing was also made easy by the treatment in Ionic of original eo. 1.diphthong. The lonians on the other hand made do first into tjo then into em : iroXireo). 162. for au could be equally or more correctly represented by ao i. P. 'EXevOii in the Anthology (A. But. 268).r only in cultivated proStyra Eohl 372*'^. 35. 8. iii. 56 . KaoKaa-Mv. at least in general. ^vpva-Oeveou'i from Samos'. 27''. Il/aao^a. and accordingly must be transliterated by au. de eorr. 191. Dittenb. 8.Bull. ao also in many places became av: Arcadian and Cypriot -av in the Gen. which became in pronunciation and for the most part also in writing 611 : KaXevvre^. the second vowel is lengthened and approximates to a. of Eleusis G. certainly implying a sort of diphthong (ep). C. Instit. A. A. 68. Meyer and others.. 'EXevdia 'BXeuo-ia Sparta mtth. 67. eu and not by au eil. aoro'. In the Doric 'Ep/MOKprjvv TifiOKpijvv from 'EipfioKpicov we have the converse process'. ix. ' 'B \euSu/as Cret. 74 THE PRONUNCIATION OF Mantinea belonging to the first century B. arch. IV.''. side by side with frequent instances of av and ev^. hell. 13). c. 1. to close this digression . This need imply no difference of pronunciation from the Attic. 27. while the first loses some of its a-sound and is shortened. 1. the value of this V has been thereby established as distinct from the ordinary 1 Le Bas ii. of Idalion. 4 tuto- .74. Zeitschr. ao as by av i. I. Bull. 352i. Cretio tppiipiov. since this ecu decidedly resists separation into two syllables ^ The process is this. 40. from Sao-. alrdv and iiruTKeidv. Eohl no. Xe&amp. and to return to the point from which we started. iv.. iiroUvv. ail. 'Sn-povBL'tis also witli OT ° Before &lt. There is an isolated instance of eov. EO : tootu.C. 604. 1. XeoKoi&lt. Inschr. (Le Bas v. the close relationship of ev av to corresponding combinations of an 0-sound is sufficiently made clear. and wherever it occurs furnishes a proof. xiv. had preserved its original CT-sound free from modification'. in 'iXei0via '^Xevdvia 'FXevdci'' . of the 1st Declension . I. vowel are notably frequent. ^oeXOwv. The lonians however were so far from tending to such a pronunciation. 20. Ourtius. Also in the late inscrip. ■xP^^H'^vo'i. At the same time in the case of eu traces are not entirely wanting of a modification of the second element : ev interchanges with ei. XavKparei^ Sav/^etXo? Upav'^a'' in Boeotian. that in the district in question ev was not eii. that in the fifth fourth and third centuries they wrote with more or less consistency AO. This very contraction into ei^ was in many places usual in Doric''. 7. Syll. PIAE side by side. further we find on an inscription of 1 SouWos ancient Doric (Sparta?) 60 e. * Inscrip. 293. Caner 1. ' The same opinion is held by G. the popular pronunciation 2 Inscrip. 3 Dietrich in K. nunoiation .e.i?. For the development of v from u would be as difficult as that from u is easy. 22" *POrPON and *P0. Dial. 9. is ps (see Appendix).e.

7 of the great Arch. and that only once in twenty possible instances where he had to bring in Naupactus or its inhabitants. vi. Additional proof is furnished by spellings such as 'AxtWeovi ancient Corinthian. Doric Cnidus has B«^uXos. especially as the digamma continued for a long time in use in so many dialects. 294. (TavTo = TaiLiTo&lt. In 1 Cp. 51 .)^{\eu?. 217. 75 value. In Crete on the other hand such a multitude of examples of aF eF (oF) have recently come to light^ owing to the excavations of Halbherr. For how could Ka\eovTe&lt. 2008). Hali. Meyer^p. who explains rightly. except in the case of Crete. AouSi. 68. and even he did so only in one word NaF7j-a«Ttft)i/. Ztg. has been pretty nearly proved already by what has gone before.ra. Stud. 58) from Chios. 135 f. The 6 q_ Meyer' p. 35. would also explain thus {p.'ApurroKMovs (Thasos) no. Dial. no. avro. Olympia. p. Et/jOu/i^Sj. no.?. Hau. (after Dittenberger Herm. it occurred to only one man among all the engravers and stone-cutters. Meyer^ p. Curtius Progr. Asiatic mainland (also a coin of the * Ahrens D. period of the Empire. 2121. 136. Inschr. of Syllium (Rohl . D.Pamphylian insorip. p. 72. Zetif. The examples are B. v. to write digamma here. namely that ancient Greek av ev were not av ev. EiiTrii/ioyos. from Phanagoria C.are so written'. I. carnassus and other towns of the n.2 Erman in Gmt. G. 3 Beohtel Inschr. period of the Empire .ravToS. Hauss. 29above. Samos. So fixed was the stupid " historic " or " traditional '' orthography among the Locrians ! In like manner "EF^ero? on a Corinthian clay-tablet is isolated. G. KavhiKeoix. Dial. de corr.) . but omissions of the preceding ANCIENT GREEK. A\/\TAISI is found onl. hell. iv.9 MeTvov&lt. as far as we know. Amphipolis (ib. 306). soullier in Bull. s G. V always.. Nevertheless.^ 169. Wesel 1873 . 68). dveo avev Attic. C. At the same time the other point too. but has represented it by its own u^. namely the cutter of a Locrian inscription". 4 above. 213 ff. 78. have been contracted to kalevntes genevs (genefs) ? Or how could av af have come to be written with ao ? It is indeed just as hard to say. how if the pronunciation was av AT came to be written and not AF. ion. llpaiixoe Eohl 1. Gr. d. jeveo'. 135 Beitrdge vi. Meyer 2 p. that the matter deserves serious consideration. 127. also 14 xeKvei. Erythrse.6 ev9vTa = iv0aSTa. 1877 part 2. and other similar instances\ Moreover in this case alone Latin has not retained the Greek v. c. 148 f. while on others 'A. cp. Ionic papyrus so often mentioned has ' Cauer Bel.

222. which as is well known belonged to the Latin v. 218. 68.e. also BeTTTXO[S tions stands for Digamma (Eohl p./reus and many others [Empire]. 81.) must be Bezzenb. had it had the fixed sound of V. if it was a semivocalic u. pears as well: f^T[i]ia (vetiya. dating from the time when the digamma was disappearing. 211. inscription (Deecke in Bezzenberger's etc. 4. reading o-vo i.. the digamma. that the sound au was adequately represented neither by av i. just as an old Naxian inscription also shews AFVTO avrov. no. 2 31. 194. n. 143 Bull. de V. would hardly have disappeared so generally from the language. VII. that it did not follow suit in undergoing the change to u and consequently had to disappear. 52 (These. Seluviyos. ov for ou on a Cyprian 131. Inschr. 321 (Cauer^ 229) B. ail nor by aP. and the name of the town Axus. below p. 48. TtfidFeaa. that the sound might be thickened to a spirant.-p. and on the Gortynian law code without exception. 76 THE PRONUNCIATION OF the first place then on archaic Cretan inscriptions also we find as a rule av ev. and we also see dialects such as the Boeotian retaining . which on other Pamphylian inseripof America i.e. without f etc.^. 215. appears more than once as "Oa^o9 . Inst. as the only spirant of this sort. an example of F in Ionic to which exception has long been taken though to no purpose". instead of being resolved into a vocalic syllable : Bia^enrd/jLevo'i. corresponding to the instance cited 'A^tX. here too E(ii)r. 15. Inschr. vipywv i. 101. but conversely. 1267) with a symbol 136. 43. and the language in general gave up the w-sound. epycov is found repeatedly. Meyer 505 Dial. Accordingly there will be to a certain extent a connection between this sound-change and the disappearance of F. nor indeed would it have been likely to have existed in it before. it is easy to understand. for example dfjiefvaadai [ajfyrdv^. 33''. Moreover. we find \AOIKT oIkov. In the next place examples are not wanting of a writing which was evidently in a state of fluctuation. written ^. fepycov. The digamma it is true ap3 Eohl no. 162 f. 66. For on a later Cretan inscription. 20. Dial. ' E.. h. I willingly leave undecided the new " Comparetti Miiseo Italiano 11. 368). properly Fa|^o9. roveoOn Assos Archmlog.Xeou?.e. BoTioeyrtot = 'OXuvtIoi. In the third place it may be erroneous to give to the F the value of the English and Romance v and not rather that of the English w. 2(B)ArV\II0S ■■' Cp. Srea). while on the other hand it is true. Now this fluctuation points to the fact.

and in neighbouring Pamphylia.=faX'«ou('HXeio. Ei5p vo-ifXao? for 'EF/3i/cr.'''' '' ^^ '^ "' ' '''''''Dial. In case however any should be inclined to infer from what has been cited.^^' ^^' °" '''''"'■ tion have been hazarded (as by Eohl).ri5. Kruozkiewiez.. p.^' .e. 39. TSiv^avBpo's Dodona. dpuTTeirovTa. evfprjTaauTV i. may . A new instance of f in a «'°M"°J"-Pj. admits of easy explanation. how Lesbian avprj/cTO^ for dfprjKTO'i dppriKTo&lt. If now the digamma was a semivowel."' 678. e-u-ve-le-to-to-se EveX^oi'To? Cypriot^. 1888. that the V of these diphthongs tended from an early period in these dialects to harden into a consonant. SiSoirj (formed from AT instead of AO). 182 a it is written 'AXiS/oi/. 204.. Z^ ^ . that is to say with the semivoweP.e. where two i's are written: AHA. from fpijra = cofioKojia.S representing a digamma after en when followed by a vowel which occurs regularly in Cyprus and occasionally in various localities: — ^vfdyopa&lt.^^T' '"'. d. Lakon. (Ofj..) Naxian inscription has lately come to while ib.0«a. 1.i. "JJ the digamma with the true u. pt^rpa)*. 208 TlTTfOZ).^. the doubtful light : Bull.. for the manner of writing is pa-si-le-u-s{e) ^acrtXev^ o-na-sa-ko-ra-u 'Ovacrayopav. The Cyprian dialect also shews by the coexistence of forms such as e-v{e)-re-ta-sa-tu and e-u-v{e)-re-ta-sartu (ifprjTdcraTv. 221 (cp.^ and similar instances are to be explained. . /s have TITOfTOS. Coroyra E.Fa9 Boeot. it must at least not be forgotten. any more than in the case of the Oscan. 408 (the reading quite „ '^''"T"" ^°™P.^"''?r' ^f-i ''°. de corr. 'Ev^d'kKrj'. no. and on a Chalcidian vase Fa/L/uFoi'jjs Trjpv6vr]&lt.°Pf'U°&gt. hell. certain). ESTFEAIIT2 "Ka-rrevhio^. altlat. In these the ^ B. e-u-ve-r-(e)-Jce-si-a evepyecria. which likewise appears in Cyprus : a-no-si-ja dvoaia. Many attempts at explana. 464 : TITOTfBSeO 157.o'XS'yrjcrev. ^ Bbhl no. The interpolation of a digamma or of a . ANCIENT GREEK. ^BAIT^AHI^R f. ' ^^^ "''° ^'''"" see however Beehtel iLhr. that it was precisely in the Cyprian dialect that the customary pronunciation was really diphthongic . col. 5... u. which writes the corresponding diphthongs regularly av ov.1 ib. For in this case a semivowel V was developed out of a m just as easily as a semivowel y from an i. no inference can be made from the writing aF eF for a modern Greek pronunciation. The same holds good naturally not only of ev but also of v = u\ hence we have in Cj^rus tuva-no-i Sv^dvoi i. while those like the Attic and Asiatic-Ionic gave both of them up at an early period. d. 343. ion. while in 215 we ip A ITS] A ^l-^r^ r j. ii. Ba«:€(.

g.. as for -evFovra. Apol. Dial. 272. TT. ^ 569. c. (Cauer" no. ou. 458 (ep. 20 . 1879.Inschr. d. 0. 472) 1. Karapanos Dodone Tab. avia')(pt. Mitth. Inscr. the examples cited with shortened ev drjpeVei and evtovoi are only from the rustic Hipponax'. 75. For the rest av ev were neither at the end nor the beginning of a word readily shortened. as in avdra in Pindar and aveipofievai in Alcman^. 71. The Greeks of to-day pronounce e/So and evo precisely alike . 60 1146) . {vaos:). p. for which process the Cyprian writing contains the middle step . that in evahe and vavos the following V combined with the e a into a syllable'. the v however must by no means be considered as the representation in writing of a digamma still heard in pronunciation. 34.Eresus. 559. Inschr. bst. Zeu aXe^fiTop in Sophocles*. 165 ff. Inschr. Homeric evahe. Beat 161 ff. if the pronunciation were av ev. i. Apollonius Dyskolos bears witness.oikuehe Diphth. 6. In many cases a digamma in the middle of a word also has in the dialects become combined with the preceding vowel into a diphthong : e. subsequent copyists have in general as far as possible removed the antiquated symbol from the texts.).. 648. 14. 143. ' Inscr. C. avai&lt. evaXwKe. if the 61) av in such words were scanned short occasionally. the syllable must have been scanned short where a vowel followed not in isolated instances but always and without exception. 7582. How comes it then. i. Inschr. the pronunciation could hardly be other than avata etc. archaeolog. 1 ff. Dial.. Gr. 2.seeGiese. p. and but little can be added from the authors that have come down to us : I'xyeveov in Pindar. 4. Hephsest. On the other hand 78 THE PBONUNCIATION OF F was changed into a vowel before the r. (op. that he finds no evidence. the ancients are said si dis placet to have done the same. e-u-va-te-vo-se Eidv. (»/(»?). A. Ztschr. Ion. So also Zed '0\iriri. col. e-u-va-ko-ro ' Ahrens D. . t. in Eohl no. 8. I.. 37. of Idalium. 2 Dial. 149 ed. It is true that. frg. 3. C. eu-ade not ev-ade. DjaZ.^ Curt. Sehneider-Uhlig). 29 (p. Pyth. that a learned man like Bursian" declares. 29. * Idalium 1. ^ Find. Dial. Btym. that in these cases the poets themselves did not really use the digamma.4coJ. Lesbian vavo&lt. 1 KevevFbv Dial. in marked contrast to the corresponding diphthongs with i. Cyprian ke-ne-u-vo-n(e) xevevfov Kevevov (/ceveov). 231. " Sohol. ^ . of 'EiFay6pa 153 ff. Inst. just as well be an error for dpurrcdoi'Ta Gymn.e in the verse 2 In the Egypt.e. he accordingly analysed ev-ahe. why then are they written with v? But we have not the slightest proof. 107 Westph. iinpp. f. Yet. 1040. Soph. p. that the ancient Greeks did not pronounce av and ev as av and ev'&gt. 281 o. Insclir. 35.

TOTTO on the other hand not toftu but tutu ? Or how can the Rhetor Demetrius note the euphonious character of the name Evio&lt.€V'ye. 1. 2 Demetr.'-' p. Add. 5. d. 430 c. different from vi. tov t//? etc. 487. Zev. will find on this very point embarras de richesse.. x. 664. W.) : but the most obvious mitigation of its difficulty even if the pronunciation were autu. could only be the rejection of the u. hell. and they are not only counted as diphthongs. Lemnos 96 ff. 481 A lyx^e. In the same way in popular pronunciation the German name Auguste loses its u. ANCIENT GREEK. And why is ATTO to be aftu. but as genuine diphthongs. Seelmann ib. viii. Whoever continues to see no impossibility here. Meyer^ 8o THE FBONUNGIATION OF . but actually as diphthongs Kard. de coir. which it is alleged can only be comprehended by supposing the pronunciation to have been avtu and not autu ? As a matter of fact this word being troublesome and difficult to pronounce considering its frequency was very naturally made easy in the popular speech and finally lost even the a (mod. because it consists entirely of vowels up to the last letter"? Of what avail against all this are such poor arguments as that drawn from AFTTO and the writing firov and earov common after the 1st century B.. and not only as genuine diphthongs. 41 Bergk ^eve 6 Verhandl. A. that the Grammarians should so consistently reckon av ev as diphthongs. but still hopes to find a way out of the difficulty. im is handed down. 137). 543. whoever will take the trouble to cast about him. Spmchkunde Bull. in. zur lat. 430 a. Cladius. hell. der Philologenvers. * Corssen Amspr. 66). c. xi. if the pronunciation were as in modern Greek.. 79 but their poets have obstinately scanned the one as a Pyrrhic the other as a trochee. al. 6. Diez Gr. Athens G. 478 Ausspr. Kpdaiv^. 153. ipixrjv. though in ib. further instances from Delos Sohmitz Seitr. Anoyr. i. Gr. for avTov and eavrov^. . It would moreover be absolutely monstrous. de corr. with which we may compare Agosto and Zaragoza (Caesaraugusta) and Italian Metaro and Pesaro (Metaurus. Lat. 223. ^aaiXev etc.' 171. 1 Cp. 22 above. p. I. Accordingly au can very easily produce a . tt. although they do not regard a^ e/S as diphthongs .Also in Aloffius frg. may proceed to explain how (j&gt. § 69 (see p. ESTETO (arai airif Phryg.FranJcfmt am Main (1861) S.C. 489^ 15 (G. Athen. 251. this must not be ascribed to any real lack of material . ' So in Greek text of Monum. Bull. 187. IV. can have the circumflex accent. p. in late Latin too we find Agustus. 11. If then Bursian finds no evidence. Pisaurumy.

266. 1887. de corr. D. plete collection of examples G. from KaTairavw.pwi&gt.. Accordingly under the assumption. eVtraBovfia^. 219. ^da-rifi Phryg. aro? cannot be explained from aftos^. no. under the other assumption we are absolutely surrounded with difficulties..l&gt. and 2919 (Tralles. W. of Ame rica. Meyer^ MeyerIadd7roXuS&amp. I. I. hell. for. in the case of ev iiriKpaTeia. ^".i7Pap. On the see Le Bas. d. 16 ^Trai/^ffai for ^Traiv. "^ etc. inscr. 139 . 193. our difficulties vanish on all sides . de corr.Sev&lt. also with supposed Thasian 'AvKu&lt. In the same way we may explain Boeotian evSoiMo&lt. Gesellsch.wv Sterret Arcli. 440. That is to say in the case of av we have KpdcrK. is certainly not to be read.cri'. see of letters are omitted). p. h. if not impossibilities. 139. Bull. ^^. Grit. UoKvexTos Ehodea p. G. viii. When furthermore we find in the centuries just preceding the Christian era. if a. 2107° (Pantikapaion) grammarians. though in some it has remained.Kaibel 816 (Borne . Styr.). (It must be remembered from inscriptions. p. just as ai becomes t) by Kpa. (from the trustworthy? Ib. 188. ix. 115 . no. Gr. but not how v should have been allowed to drop out just in those cases. 513. 616. Inschr. [Leipzig 1883] p. and so on*. (TKeoOrjKa KarecTKeaaev. Meyer'' ii.a l on the that Ionic BO=ET. ANCIENT GREEK. 187. avaarov from aj/To? avTov = eavrov^. a proof of the original diphthongal pronunciation of av . . how in pronunciation the v which was really inconvenient was got rid of. 137 ff. Inst. for x^'^"'. see Frohner ^wv see Beehtel Ttias. [v.^iiA&gt. iv. To offavTv Dial.. more than a scribe's error). D. ^ Ahrens D. Meyer^ in. ■t^ovSia -^evBr). a very com. Even on the Lam. ^Fja&gt. where all sorts Eohl 372. according to him. p. where it stood between vowels''. 148. which survives to this day dialectically. evOrjv = eXdeiv' : al el becoming ' Psichari Rev. Gr. On the other hand Boeotian aTre\eS4pa Osann Syll.43. 19 (ib. iii. 185.'Tos.8ao-. Kvpiiovaa written for Kvpievova-a.i. 2 Ahrens D. these examples and a few others in * Ahrens D. I can well understand. 18] is nothing this /SaffiX.'A.) But in 2691''° Gortynian inscrip. 2909 Beehtel 19. 391. 598 . de epigr. 1. 114 must be cancelled. 246. 8i au eu as in Romance. in various dialects and also in the koovij. Above all how could av change to o ? Nevertheless this vowel has here and there in Doric been developed from av : KairiraTa^. D. 11.L. Inschr. (Mykale)=Bechtel 144 Trpurav^upTos. G. 385.) is a modern forgery. Curtius Sachs.indeed if we are to believe the Greek philologist Psichari.x^o'o/iai ' p. A. " Before consonants ivolai 0. at present no evidence [j3a(ri\]^o.vvfiev&lt. G. In Cretan dvKo. Wagner * Ahrens ib. that av ev were au eu. 45). = oXkij. 354. for e/3So/io? and evhofirjKovTa (if really existing) in Corcyra\ Similarly we find . in Beehtel p. = 'Ay Xoo. Correspondingly in Cretan ev becomes ov . Bull. Eohl 372*1 'EaXKlSris (carelessness? ib. we must absolutely recognize in aro?. xvi. just as t arises from ei by the same process. where in mosb dialects the next step was for au to become o. but 'BBifrnxos Styra cp.

6 . Kvpr}\io^. (There is no information ^ Papyr. a stronger in. cautivo from captivus. the Macedonian son of ^ Terent.p\i\liavTas wished to transliterate au eu by mj ey . Proven5al paraula Fr. says also very exPtolemy Glankias. 278. parole from parab(o)la.elsewhere on du. accordingly Paulus. auspices cum dico 20). that the Romans expressed consonantal and vowel V with one symbol . Lend. C. have taken suflScient care that ' Ahrens D. Zander. sylla* Terent. 40. and therefore readily combined with a before consonants j forming au: cau(e)neas. Gr. i/i^XiiraavTas. P. Forshall) ii. vii. K. protrahamus. EV. that v was pronounced as a semi-vowel. productum sonum. nostratibus. Terentianus Maurus speaks of Latin au eu and Greek av ev as perfectly similar sounds* . miraneo " On this (Cic. 467 ff. Aurelius are represented by IlauXo?. 58. aufero. de Dn'. the fact is | rather this. 228. the poets however by scanning Agaiie euoe. that we know nothing of the pronunciation of Latin au. A. L. 132.: AV et bamnecinvenimusextribus vocalibus. three documents is the hermit of the 158. 1563. avt.e. that is only evading the matter .The alleged testimony of Beda for the muniter. Maur. The author of the Curt. Serapeum. XP"""" quod SX0o notum est. 174. Schneider Gr. auceps from avis. 480 : banc enim (EV) si 3 Diez I. Valerianua in Cassiodor. v. he must allow the logical conclusion : avspices. etc/ As regards transliteration into and from other languages. 41. L. 47). like English w. i. stance still i/i^XeiiravTat Papyr. A sonabit. et au)-Mm. sive Graecus a%oi'. 17. It must be regretted for our purpose. 11 for iij. siout A 1845 (Dial. ii. M. 491. avrum. K. corripi plerumque possunt — pronunciation avrrnn does not exist (481) AV tamen oapere videtur saepe according to Keil's edition (vii. 289 etc. I. The Romance languages furnish excellent analogies on this point also: Spanish ciudad from civ{i)tat-. 281.i and pavro^ for pd^ho'i^. Inschr. This people are naturally not willing to do°. 40. 84) putanda nobis talis altematio est 5/. If then in face of this Bursian has recourse to the argument. quas sic habemus cum Grais com. in spite of the famous Gauneas = cave ne eas' .vide Henrichsen p. pressly v. E et V. p. 3206.on some of the most faulty papyri pavho&lt.) Some Bomau grammarians (ed.

Hebrew Vau=English w. A bad Attic Epigram of the time of Hadrian. it has . eue. p.aTpai[&lt. as in the biblical names Aevi. and *\iiOrphaeus three syllables. The Greeks on their side represent consonantal v by ov. AaviB. for the available material is in part of an absurdly questionable character. e : 'Oktuovio^. ' p. Mar.e. 19. which has tormented our learned men quite unduly.. ouios no. which is explained by Kaibel in such a manner. Moreover.. 65. Gr. And supposing that v had been doubled in these words we should find the writing euuoe (like Maiia). The change must be explained by the endeavour of language to get rid of all diphthongs.82 THE PRONUNCIATION OF the difference of pronunciation as contrasted with avus levis should he evident. Seu. is shortened by the verse-wright from eveipij^} For my part I have the greatest hesitation in assigning ev = ef and &lt. i. 426. even in cases where it is preceded by «. were not in this case sufficient . 279. the Copts also write GTg^X. ?]. the Romans would never have declined these proper names by the second declension.» So Dittenberger 1. 345. 'Eevrjpo^ would have served their purpose. neither mutilation nor monstrous piling up of vowels would have been necessary. and this is quite wrongly used as an argument on their side by the followers of Reuchlin. if Greek avi had been avi. thourfi_never beforg. 366. Also " Dittenberger Herm. The latter mode of writing occurs after Hadrian's time^ although so late as the period of Septimius Severus the writing %eovrjpo'i far preponderates*. 1. 229. 613. had 'Ar/seu? been pronounced Atrefs or Atrevs. 536. Stade Heir. Eva. 3. while according to others -KaXalaTpaif. according to what has been said before. the modem Greek pronunciation cannot have prevailed even in the time of Terentianus Maurus (end of the third century). 56. as they do: Atrei Atreo Atreum^. vi. 3 do. The only real difficulty in this question is to get any information as to the beginning of the present pronunciation . But the fact that Latin av ev is written from the second century onwards with av ev. is the right 1 The vulgar pronunciation was tions (note 292) we find 2eoii. gives ev evt^rj^oiai •7ra\al. and naturally first before vowels.e. for before consonants. where the h can only be put in on account of the hiatus^.j)=f to the time of Hadrian. 306. lieovrjpo'. to which end the other means. that he makes the author scan icjyrj^oicn from metrical necessity and represent this scansion by ev(j) = eff. In Sterret's insorip. 83 reading and eii^rj^. Victorin.. suggests that the modern Greek pronunciation had at that time begun". Gr. 66 f.. 302 ff. and side by side with this appears 'O^rato^^ Yet. There was indeed nothing extraordinary in the representation of eve by evrj i. Euha. K. p. viz. . 534. Seelmann 620 . vi. 306. as Aristaeus.s Stern Kopt. krasis and eTriKpareia. ANCIENT GREEK. c. 'OKTavio&lt.

ei — . xi. Gr. corresponding to the old German w. = & lt. 1 f. as always before".TiToD BijKaro TSviujjoSliTov. i. I. G. on the other hand 6665 (on the Via Latina). and also nothing like afios (avrot. as we shall have occasion to shew further on. KareaKeovacrav t«S fi&gt. in all which cases the insertion of the O was just as much a work of supererogation as in UaovWiva.connect ToKahTpif. A. This appears to me at any rate 956 (the stone is lost) : elxSm rl]vSe less monstrous than K. J.i ?) on the other hand on another Roman inscription". vaKaiffTpiu (even the who moreover takes iv iip. (cp. evarpaTO'. However even this argument is a desperate expedient : XlaovWiva according to him is to prove this. III. allowed this spirant to stand before a tenuis. When however we find in Asia Minor.'s explanation. 'as one of the Ephebi'). if av had still had the sound of au. both Teiijas Ko(7iJ. it is true on a very late inscription. although in Germanic words it was rather a semivowel. HoBeaibi h&gt. ®paovSI02 {€)paova-TO&lt. last s is supported only by one copy) (Neuh. with reuf a s. since Paulus would give Polo. of course proves the opposite. 6669 (epitaph of a freediip^poun with pleonastic v and a play on man of Tiberius). and cannot be shewn to have existed even in the dialects.r6i' i(p.). Ila. Nenbauer Herm..t&gt. According to Dittenberger we have an instance of the consonantal pronunciation of v in av in TlaovX\iva on a Roman inscription of the late Empire. and the same is true of the above mentioned yoveovcTi. Ulfilas also represents av ev by av and aiv {Pavlus aivaggelyo). The sound /.) . etc. . was on the whole entirely foreign to the classical language. However Latin au also becomes av in Gothic : kavtsyo for cautio. since. Moreover a Spanish Pablo points with certainty to a Greek Pavlos.). the author must doubtless 1 C. Gr. and this Gothic v was certainly intended to represent a Greek spirant. Kaibel Epigr. same Herm. the = Dittenberger p. Xo((rT/)ai[s] Boeokh Dittenb. I. 1104.e. ei&lt. even supposing it had a spirant at that period.= ' G. 139 takes 6i!^. aov in the case of a Greek name. there is nowhere anything like efkratos efstrotos (evKparo^. xii. But there can be no two opinions about KarecrKe^aa-e and aTreXec^Tepo? on inscriptions of a period later but unfortunately not to be more accurately determined^.\aoviavoS.. since no dialect. it would have been written HavKKiva.however brought with it barbarous dissonances. 6—2 84 THE PRONUNCIATION OF have pronounced kateske-vasan just as Fla-viano^. 307. since the v has become sharpened to / before hard consonants.

i. n. that the transformation of the sound. are reckoned among the fricatives . 2015 (Callipolis). Inscriptions preserve abundant testimony to this. ANCIENT GREEK. ^ ■\]r the only double-consonants. As regards the pronunciation of the consonants Bursian again says. namely ^^■yfr. conflicting with the writing.II. C. under which head we shall reckon the spiritus asper.^. assimilation is . a distinction which corresponds approximately to that which is made by modern phoneticians between explosives and fricatives. 3693 (Cyzious). corresponding to the three classes of mutes : the labial nasal fj. but belonged to the fricatives. at least before mutes and fi. mutae and semivocales. but final v was assimilated in the context to following consonants. the dental v.. 202 (Kios) . I. /3 ly B tt k t and according to the ordinary classification (j&gt. that he sees no reason in the case of any of them. Troto? pyos). three double-consonants are added. w\ Xiyovcn. . which has no especial symbol in the alphabet and is represented by 7 (n in Lepsius). lastly the universal abandonment of the lengthening of the consonants represented in writing by their doubling : dX\d pronounced aid. ^^^ ^1^° /S S 7 and f. hell. ir k t are the only explosive sounds. — We will begin our more detailed examination with the i^filcfxava. Section 21. Section 22. There remain to be noted the loss of the spiritus asper. especially as even the explosive sounds which have remained have in certain cases a special pronunciation. it became /i or 7 respectively. I on the contrary see many reasons in the case of many of them . e? IilSSvo.j&gt. Gr. according to some also ^ X' ^^^ ^/xiipcuva . Pronunciation of the nasals MNP. ea-arrfKeu or i(TTrj\7)i.KareoK. Not only 6 &lt. 5922" (Rome). which was 1 Sterret (p. Bull. and the guttural. 279. and in many. to deviate from the modem Greek pronunciation.conditions could hardly have been greater.e. called by certain grammarians d'yua or ar/iyfia.eXK(o melS^. /j. indeed I find almost the whole sound-system different. 1888. Consonantal system in ancient and modern Greek. The ancients. 80. except possibly /3. direX. each formed by the combination of a mute and a semi. 5 above) no. %&lt. and more rarely X p a: rop 'PoSiov.vowel. Consonants. This distribution according to the modern pronunciation appears in the following shape. distinguish betw^een d(l)(ova and rj^lipava. in many cases diminishing the number of syllables (larpos yatrds. 85 not reckoned in the alphabet. as is well known. According to the ancients X fi v p a-. de corr. The Greeks have and had three nasal sounds. X ^ ^^^ mutes . Only v can be used as a final. I think therefore. the new formation of the fricative y not only from 7 but also from vowel i.

. iv. 295 ff.. ivar. and doubtless in the Attic and Macedonian periods this mode of writing was largely made use of in the texts of authors. Stud. So also iariiffavTi. . Gr. of Halicarto Psichari (cp. i. 3 oiSifi. 3800. and in our present manner of writing none . with the ancients this is not so much the case : it is not only that a-vvXafi^dvco. 5 00 1. 9 dial. however ^ Pap. In any case very few traces of assimilation have remained in our best manuscripts. to isolate words more and pronounce each distinctly by itself^ as is shewn in an especial degree by the dropping of elision and crasis. 7 century B.S&lt. viii. toirafti rbv I&gt. ivKoXeiv and in general ev.I&gt. but also on inscriptions 'OXwiria. 8 irpocriBoia-afi (j&gt. although in general it rejects final v altogether*. that the Greeks pronounced the nasal before consonants in the French way. Op. 86 THM PRONUNCIATION OF wanting on some papyri'.e. the modern Greek popular pronunciation on the other hand retains certain traces of it. Progr. Avpiffffui. 1887. Dial. I.aw.os. even manuscript authority is not ' In the modem dialects according 1885. the older one E. . C. 2 (Dialectics) col.&amp. G. 86 . de corr. 9 07 ylvoiro. Heoht Ortliogr. 588. A. ^ Poy p. Imchr.Heraolea Latmi.0os. 303 has 4) the vanished nasal has developed a sometimes i\ Avpuram sometimes ii&gt. 41 niffi vii/j^ij.before all sounds is on papyri the more common writing*. Manlius to the inhabitants of Cauer in Curt. that in time the general tendency was.g. Forschungen 1. The Ionic Insoript. 3003) : in the rescript 834"". 209 (only 1. toxk^ro rbv X"'/""') toyyero tws nvixirivTav . Gr. Giese Aeol.Trav. 14. Dittenb. in the cultivated speech. Le terhans ed. 31. Conversely with us assimilation in the interior of words is regular. irpbvomv iroi. L. p. as some have done. 2 tuh soon after the beginning of the 3rd TronjTuc. Tbv y4pov{Ta).. hell.6.consistently carried out' . eirev^ev and such like appear at all periods with greater or less frequency^ To infer from this. But it appears. I. 83S. ' Consistently carried out e. no. Bas v. II. doubling of the consonant: a8ffos&amp. 7-67 ye.C. 264 n. ?r%a. dvKvpa. on 2 G.&lt. 369 the Megarian inscrip. (Dial. 28. Konigsb. is an extraordinary piece of perversity^. 1052 etc.tiiv. crit.i&gt. 5 iy yvvai^l. 14". Meis. of Cn. 2. Xav^aviro). nassus Bull. 86. I.xSai).9. Rev. 24 (top irapaKokw pron.

(Gompertz Wiener Alcad. Philod. irifiireTe in Pindar is an instance of On the ancient Attic iuscr. c. who calls this a nasal Hecht assimilation ceases at Athens vowel and transliterates nyphe. carried out in early times than 2 Hecht 1. 1 has only ^. Hermann de emend. gr. Olympian inscriptions. This then and the habit of dividing into syllables. ■7r6pp(aSip. 158 E. m5. 19 avv Ka. n. led to entire assimilation or even omission : Boeot. ^TviT-fiSiop. xvii. rat. 116 ff.11 Tuiii iroi-qTHv. "KOa^^os. Gr. but to Latin m'. later on. o. gr. irpa^ai.—KXvTav constantly G. A. and ip.vev\f/ev G. a nasal after-sound following final -e (ec) and . especially before labials. ''E. eVTracrt? = e/iTrao-i? (eyKTrjcri'}). vv&lt. Pap. in. iroBev. ly the usual spelling on the anc ient TO/i Tp6Ki]feav yiyvd/iemv Kal tw/j.) which also shews ei for i)4 : ^ 'oXwirla 'OXivmos is absoluteSrap. 61. 83. 87 ff. 85-8. indog. TO Xeydfievip. However it is not tombarakald. vide Cauer harsh juxtaposition. it. L. 6. frequent on this careful and very old « On the mss. and the same applies to the German pronunciation of mp mb.e.j&gt. 288 f. 2. 1840 (Coroyra).nuscript. awB.* The most important phenomenon of this kind is the so-called v e&lt. 11 hxiKXeiKev imXlvi.voijAvuv. We have express testimony to this. A yet more undefined pronunciation of the nasal. 6. -. causing the nasal to become in a certain degree final. was not pronounced as a full m as at the beginning of a syllable or a word. beginning of a syllable — According to Spr. tov ToXe/ioi/ tonibdlemo). gives a sufficient explanation of that manner of writing". p. ^paxei in the acrostic v.peXKvcTTiKov.in general was much more car elessly Xaaroy ykp etc. p.) Trovirrjs 603. 18. p. 13 rdyiroWa. 32 cites (after G. i85j iviriKi av Dionys. iv. i. I. p. 'OXvirtKOf. col. On the other hand a Herculanean ro5iJc«. irore. Bd. the closing of the lips not being completed before the sounds p b have been reached. do not fuse together at all into the « j. Karayi. since the dental v p. tt. avKvpa 811 D. assimilation &lt. etc. I. 14 hwoiei. ms. of Hypereides cp.ai. Pap. with reference not only to /j.. ANCIENT GREEK.ky yhp my table of comparison p. Schmidt Vohalismus d. found sporadically in the most various localities 'Ac^tTptVa.' 2. 1. 'OXuttTTi'x^a^. On Attic in general Meisterand the labial tt do not agree well and hans ed. 6py.l)T]. xi. ^y no doubt before ^ ir ^ yjr the fj.

e. Also 2. ' Mar. 3 above). no. TepiaTnr^Ti^ Comparetti Mus.. and twice Kaibel Epigr. 489'' 3. and before dentals and bris Ponpeii. studiis viri. n. ' Kixpui'p.). p. Seelmann 274. gutturals as well as labials. in Attic we have iv^paXKwBai.pe/3itfi ^p^/Su/f los.. omnes fere aiunt inter m * lb. stantly Insor. 284.dency: d^oXos (5/i0aXo's. 16 Keil : elari in voinrdv. iypav. G. quae non Seelmann 273. iii. S0if.— On the Sprachkuri4e p. with regard to Latin Seelmann 289 f. (cp. 3119 f . 88 THE ■ PRONUNCIATION OF often did effect this and as time went on its tendency to do so increased . 66-. Gr. A. G. 267.j&gt. 52°. 385 (koiv^ Sl6. rvxafoi. corr. language constant in Cyprian and Also in Latin spellings such as Septen. hell. 96. I. 1840.px. I. de occurs in ^/iirplaro C. which naturally took a special colouring from the initial letter following.nasal appears in Modern Greek too. 147.PamphyUan.and tuxxo'i" -f"™. p. in Crete aipiparxji a/iipavta. KoKw/jidTuy con. This rejection of the abhorreat ab utraque littera. I. ii. p. ndrevev C. for 20(7f. op. Poy p.&lt. Victor. tam nobis only before (pBx owing to a special tendeesse quam Graecis (i. cp. which was present in Attic and Ionic from an early period and thus made its way into the common language. Schmidt I. 44. lat.e. I. Corinthian clay tablets (Bohl no.. is unrepre. nam cum iUi Sam. but it Meyer also opposes this view p. sented in writing) . A. Meyer= p.S. In the anc ient byx Bcribant. &amp. 20 . This nasal. in like manner it did not necessarily make length . 147 sqq. sed neu. qui aliquid de orthographia Ital. vi.-I (especially o-t). z. 57 sqq. ten twice with /*.cu can only be explained Dial. Schmitz Beitr. Addition of nasal also 3 The latter occurs in Bullet. neo m exprimere neo n. Bcripserunt. 8139 (Athenian vase) . et n litteras mediam vocem. 79. 1886.\. twice with . was not strong enough in all cases to exclude hiatus and thereby prevent synaloepha.without a nasal. G. Inschr.rvxi^p&lt. Gr. of Epidaurus 'E&lt. ii. 80. J. 1.Papyr. 284 .) ' X/KpiTplTa is writ by division into syllables (Athens)./. i. but tram proprie exprimat.

on Ionic insorip. eXey eXeye eXeyev. p. libris gramm. ' Bohl no. 1 ft. a transposition of ydfifia. 1.. 88-9. I. 10. e. 146. § 36 . p. Brugman Curt. 108. i. Mus.&gt. 3 Prise. Varr. p. Maassen: de litera v Graecorum para. Wiliuanns cases. 7382 where MHO'i'OS on the valuable treatise of Hedde must be read with Stuart for Mao^os. with our texts of Herodotus (Ennann " Westphal Griech. Met|to?". et vox communis est Graecis et Latinis. Maassen p. ctuam vocant agma {ayy/M ten mode of expression is rb e e(pe\icv(TTi. iggerunt. Subsequently he adds to these 505 Dial. V. f. the prosaic language of the Attic inscriptions neglects to denote this weak sound more often at an early period than later on . contrasts sharply Alphab. Stud. 43: the original litera. xxxvi. Gramm. 278) .— Cp. Initial fj. Meyer'' § 244 Note. AW. neither he nor any . iv. (Cp. based MHO . p.by position with a following consonant. is founded on an ut Ion scribit quinta et vicesima est error. in prose to prevent hiatus and in all cases where there is a definite pause. § 39 (A. on account of the traditional name agma. 279.— The use of v i&lt.) Stvdien iv. deM. but it could do so. 1 Meisterhans ed.G. Dittengogica (juaest. also on the ut his verbis : aggulus aggem agguilla inscript. indeed finally from the Macedonian period onwards the nasal was written regularly in all cases or at all events completely predominates'. 2. G. 1266) 1. Curt. Ter. (Bechtel 174) and that Evidence as regards agma is furnished of Halioarnassus (238) have v in all by Varro in Prise. Accordingly the pronunciation may have undergone a gradual transition from elegS esti to a tolerably defined elegen estin. Stud. Chian insorip. i. Gr. in Latin also initial vi had its fullest sound. written y. epigraphicae.) . MHEIH102. xliii. and the aspiration of initial liquids appears also in Welsh ^ Some would assume the guttural nasal. 344 . before /m and v. the sound itself ought according to them to occur*. for in this name. cuius forma nulla est eaTi ToD &gt. 221): The name i^e\K. 21. the longer 17 . 23 ageeps agcora . Lepsiua Stand. 1. 514. Homer and after him the whole range of poetry has made free use of the means here presented for convenient versification : — eW 'ia-Ti ea-Ttv. on the other hand in contrast to its weak pronunciation when final or medial is in isolated instances written with aspiration: MHErAPEI.Kbv Brink and Wihn.p. Inschr. 172. Our custom of placing the v i^eXK. Leipziger berger Jahresber. of Sillyon in Pamphyha (ib. has no foundation whatsoever.g. but elsewhere of leaving it out. also Bh.

P according to the description given by Dionysius was pronounced with the tip of the tongue*.Tijsy\i!iir&lt. 14 « Cauer Del. 49 f. Eompelt p. — Insor. de compos. 1. Berl. : tA 3^ 8. and Greek yivofiai jivcoaKio thus receive an immediate explanation. Section 23. no. 106 .j»'eiTat). for this softening takes place before other liquids. Corssen xxxvi. and in the latter case g is written ' Bohl no. Still the latter is the case also with S/i Bf. AW.p&lt. 77. moreover yv y/j.. 79 B. while in the former the usual to Comparetti's reading which is rightly way is to write n.ANCIENT GREEK. 89 For this very reason however others emend ayy/ia. — 'lo. 34. . and accordingly was as in modern Greek^ dental. Inschr. * Dionys. K. not guttural. according in Latin. Akad. it is however vouched for by Latin transliterations as well as by the Grammarians: other Grammarian says anythingabont ' Foy p.iti^iatii to irveO/ia. =Dial. 3 f. 87. For our part we are inclined to pronounce throughout. signum sihnum. 29. 3189. (Ber.28. also ivaa-Teva/ws (-atr/tos). 9 . Apx. i. 3. Kal wpos roV oipavov /mra of Epidaurus ('E0i. 49 a-H-ynara. 11. always make syllables long by position. m n. 7 etc. the occurrence of the same sound before Ppe/ihos = {pe)PpeyiUi'os (Psich. Singularly enough its aspiration when initial or doubled is supported by only one example on inscriptions PH0FAI2I of an ancient Corcyrean epitaph".). not Trpaiy-ixa^. (archaic) 'B^.1886 p. Pronunciation of P {and A). Schneider Gr. although combinations of mute with liquid. 11. p. jiyvo/Mi. AHEON. AHEON Attic vase I. 27. This question hardly admits of decision . of Antiochus ' Foy p. 360 jEgina. AHABON Xa^wv'. On Latin gn op. [1883] p.. 1883) 1. f. L. (palate) eyyis tuv ddovruv aviaraiUvqi. 343. omission on the other hand occurs as in ylvofiai: Trpafi/xa (prama) irpdy/ia^. . 2). 1883. ginnomai. 272 f. 99.riisa Kpa!dTroppaotherwise in this manuscript. 1 Hypereid. certainly we cannot regard as decisive the softening of 6/c to 67 before /a and v. 5 .) iv". Modern Greek has in such cases no nasal. and on the papyrus irpa -yfia is thus divided where there is a break of the line. 23 (=84)= Bohl SiareTa-yiihais. approved by Bohl {Jahresber. On the pronunciation of \ there is nothing to note except that it too appears in a few instances initially with an aspirate. never divided p{eK&lt./i.

Dial. 876. VII.p6i. 88.. s-hage (sage).90 THE PRONUNCIATION. p. which has lost not only the aspirate but also the doubling of medial consonants. p. 228) as 'Aluriav. 152. 16. § 25 .OF Rhesus. and Bechtel Inschr. . 2 [This emphatic pronunciation in German is described by Dr Blass as follows : — We are accustomed to pronounce (in emphasis) t-hage (Tage). in Greek we find besides MH PH the f'eicaSdfioe of an epitaph from Tanagra'. 133 would take AHPSIBN (Amorgos no. 167 . is not borne 1 Varro's doubt whether hr ought not to be written (or again ntor without h) was grounded on grammatical theories. Pyrrhus. but also treated initial p itself from a prosodial point of view as a double-consonant: i&lt. 74 d. II. where also r when initial and when doubled in the middle of a word has a quite different and much more emphatic sound than medial r alone. 9. The Copts indeed write hretor Stern Kopt. A. I. ■* It is true that this rule is often violated.. dp6vo&lt. for instance wapapiiMTa in the att. not to speak of other languages. and even 'haber (aher). . d(f&gt. which on their part shew also. diropavT^ptov etc. 60. Analogies for the different values of p are furnished by Spanish. that is to say we pronounce the spiritus asper after the lenis. but Kairpoiiy. Cassiodorius K. appears certainly to know no such distinction.] 3 Eohl no.ra kuI to. 19. The ancient language on the other hand not only as a rule wrote double p* where initial p either in composition or by reason of the augment became internal. des ion. that the h was heard after the r'. Dial. Seeurkunden as G. pijfiara TLKreiv Aristophanes (in anapaestic verse) ^ On the other hand its aspiration after an aspirate. p. as taught by some Grammarians (p^jodi'o?. A. Modern Greek. *HPAHSO (Naxos no. especially where we speak with much emphasis . Inschr. Gr. n-hein (nein). s. Aspiration of initial liquids is. 131. 28) as ^pahffov. 78 etc. KarapaKTovs C I. not unknown even in German''. Priscian i..

in. 675. since ^(p no more than «p makes length by position. in like manner ea-fiiv ezmen. II. Stud.Cauer Curt. 282. i. 205 . 29 f .priiii. hell. in Homer forms like dviippuiyas. inscr. In the interior of a word before a consonant the Greeks were uncertain. La Boche Horn. ANCIENT GREEK. A proof of this is given by the writing with f not infrequent in antiquity after the Alexandrine period : Zfivpva. though Aristarchus certainly wrote not only to fia. or according to present nomenclature surd sound. where the second syllable began with p (aspirated ?) : 'Papo? Rarhos". aspiration of the p as well as the vowels was unknown in ^olic' . dfitpiWeyo/xhoiv Crete Bull. 9 1 out by its treatment in prosody.r . which gives to s the sharp. The same fluctuation however appears in Homer in the case of the other liquids. is and was an exception : ^fiiipva pr. it was actually a point of controversy among the Grammarians. |8. G. that current in ancient times. 49 ff. Among the dialects. pa^rf. 2. Textkr. Doubling of other liquids in similar position : ' A-px^vvrilSov Seeurk. irdKipYives. ^^evvvfii' . In fact the doubling of &lt. Apx.aTappvixois (i.era tj/iKoO (iptsKonevov p 4i//l\ow.we have no reason not to recognize in the modern Greek pronunciation. ed. n. Kartippbov. not unlike the German in similar cases. Section 24. Studien vm. " B. Wessely Wien. A. while ^ ^ . e. which spelling was more correct^ In this instance Z cannot express a doubleconsonant but only the soft s which had always been contained in it. Toppa. Pronunciation of 2. to Si yjiovos alphas Bpovos iSdffvmv.e. In the case of a. whether the right division of syllables was ia-rl or i-ari". with the French pronunciation of z. 693 : ol opx^'O' ypan/MTtKol rb liiv //. in other places it was omitted in the few words. Meyer « §289. and perhaps the pronunciation was essti (eV-o-Tt). dc corr. Tappt^evra on a papyrus of the Ptolemaic era. a-^evvvfii zhennymi^. with soft or sonant s. Zmyrna. dprii/ioro fiv/UHs) . p. where a medial or liquid follows the 0-. 1889. Cp. but Smpalaei (— ). pax^a. Meisterh. p. 290.)^ in the second syllable produce no alteration : piOo^. ^ Cp. 20 d. 809 d. 1886 p. The case. from Eleusis 'E0. 73. 889. TO S^ /lerd Saffios ISairvvov' olov TO 'Ar^eis Kal mir^os e\j/l\ovv.

sometimes eir-ri sometimes E-o-ri Prefat. p. G. 20.. 122. and his suggestion has found many to repeat it . etcra-TT/v. p. Section 25. 247. even in the follows is certainly perplexing)..1 Ahrens D. c. English sh. Schneider Gr. which end the lines Sov\o5 (Psich./ 4. and the alphabet of the latter having the value e for H became that used throughout the Greek world. y Foy p. the division is * Franz. The 'la/iara ('B0?. Besides the iEolians of Asia Minor the Asiatic lonians* lacked the breathing. ^ gext. Luoian.r. 638 Bk. ypaylraaa-dai. of Antioch (n. also th e he Bas II. p. Elem. 547 L. 9. 'XpiaMuv or'Apition of /3 7 /u. epigr. Attic e. On case of words in connection like xaXos papyri and inscrip. and this very symbol was used by the Grammarians perhaps as early as from Aristotle's time onwards^. they would doubtless have made use of the proper Phoenician symbol to express it. if the ancients had possessed it. 50 . Kpl&lt. the oldest example is Hyper. not however written in 1 G. In Magna Graecia however after the adoption of the Ionian alphabet a new symbol was employed for h. 2 Herodian 1. have treated this point exhaustively in . (aiiiHav 176. K. 1. 0. Dial. which also belongs to the fricatives or semivocales. Spiritus asper. 92 THE PRONUNCIATION OF is found very frequently on old dialectic inscriptions . Meister Gr. it is however as unwarranted as it is unmaintainable and is at present given up'. time of Alexander) 1883. 323). p.). 100 f. Cp. Seelmann 315. On the corresponding inscr. 1. 224 f. xvi. Boeckh" was inclined to regard this as an indication of the sound s. with a full syllable. IleXafyiKoc (Argoa. in isolated cases even on Attic inscriptions: Aeaa-^ov. spelling in Latin (zmaragdus) s. The sound s is unknown even in cultivated modern Greek . At this point we must treat of the rough breathing. the p was tj/i\6v in both syllables. 225 f. . and instances continue to be found down to a late period'. that whi ch holds good before S \ p. Empir. L. (According to Herodian himself 'Zidpva or iiiiKiov Z/iipva). A.) ^uc.g. G. 1885) also divide after o-. Meyer^ p. namely the divided H h'^.^ Sext. ix. Meyer'-' p. the same ittImv (i^-pijioi or S-Ppi/ios. althoiigh the ancients did not reckon it in among the letters at all. ' On the modem Greek pronunoia. . Empir. 1. 381 f. Meyer^ p.

so G. Its representation in Latin shews that the h was still heard in the Hellenistic dialect . h. hKTairas and 'Ao-. 52=. I ANCIENT GREEK. Srav ex twk airwv a'roiof line kx xdiisaTO. See also Seelmann 144 f. 3122.dpia-CTTa. 7612. 284 . 59 f. effre^avuia-crav 567 . h. iKKT[o\0 1060 . but written ahove as a . 249 1. p.r&lt. vi. x^lmv yeypaiinivov g koX ihtrairai. Meisterh. 272. A. 80. 93 the same line with the other letters. of Tarentum cases K is similarly doubled: "'Ekktup and Heraclea. . n. * Giese Aeol. KaO'eroi. and the rounding of these symbols gave our present mode of representing the spiritus. 121. El. ex^' iKB. 8391 . de corr. 389 n. 2919 does not exist . C. Also on Vases.see p. 573". II. even ^iKoTt-iiaaffKol 603. Gr.. (i. Spos and 8pos : h ixkv rots y^ypanixivoi s 880 . In a few isolated ' Occurring on inscr. x. 8351. ^ diacritic mark A. 177 b 3 on (rxXaTriui Slateia Bull." Aristot. Soph. i. although not always in a way identical with our own . Sawppio o hlata 233. for we find for example. 68-9. . I. with division of syllables at end rairbv 6voixa. . the absence of the breathing*. c. 'AffcrTUTraXai^s the Satura philologa H. 9. Gr. Aia-jpov ii. i. 25. enKTeKiaavTi. y6p. I.niiv dffffrd the same point in Latin. 28. 4. 20. i. Dial. S' •^h) Trapatnujia TotoOpTm' rd Si ipBey^ Boeekh on G. (KKweTTToiKoTiav 224 . ypiyj/aaaBai. A. (cd/cei Bull. (?}•. TraUes G. Vase Dial. but KAPIEfiS eKKTup C. p. fieOo'rraspivo'. de corr.eva oi Tairrd. 314 .I. Meyer 1. on 320 . I. moreover the aspiration of the tenuis in elision was consistently observed. At a subsequent period the corresponding symbol H was invented for the spiritus lenis.e. I.2 p.") Cos. be Eohl no. ^ For instance by G.e. d&lt. Corinth. Inschr. This.

from ^ Corssen Ausspr. and Seelmann p. est enim). gr. in the case of vowels it must conversely from this time onwards have lost ground in the popular language. Wagner de epigr. when he takes the expressions Syll. 1883) have been (as so often) awkward in p. but only different Kaibel Epigr. 90.. by a passage of Quintilian.speaking only of correctness of pronun- . Ind. L. 244. e^To-j. of breath. to take an example. In the case of consonants aspiration came in about this time from the Greek. 205.C. their grammarians. so that it was in the cultivated language that uncertainty prevailed. d^earaXKa^. is the daireia and ^i\^ to mean not something regular spelling Pap. 6. MefloTr. that Greeks or Eomans iri'eCAio^tXoj' (the latter properly speak. i.pronounced the unaspirated vowels ing an unsuitable expression) can mean differently from the Germanic and absolutely nothing else: &lt. which would not * Catullus carm.!. degrees of aspiration. qui sine aspiratione et probut only shew like countless others the ducta secunda syUaba salutarit (avere dependenoeofLatingrammaronGreek. the passages spoken of by S.^ G. Dittenberger taken. where he laughs at those people as affected. 1 .^ 104. have " Quintil.l/t\6i is devoid Romance peoples of to-day. 222 .Meyer 2 p. Catullus' poem on Arrius and his chommoda. who greet one another with ave instead of have on account of the derivation from avere\ 1 The definitions irpoaifSla ypiXv or sumption. Latin writers Rich. 190. 262 is mis. 84. p. cp. 21 : multum enim no value for phonetics whatsoever. Similar fluctuations are well known in Latin from the first century B.and SajSexeTri&lt. i. (Lpz. In the whole section he is For my part I see no reason for the as. Keil their translation of the terms. cp. 784. litteratus. allow to h the value of a letter. on dijb^ffToX/ca etc. and onwards both in the case of consonants and vowels' . 112. p. 7 ft. That educated people continued to pronounce the h even during the Empire is shewn. 781 f. hinsidiae illustrates this best*. where to pronounce and write h and where not. daSexirvt absolutely opposite. and Schedae epigr.

Bull. I. n. 265). alphabet. p. 265 f.g.I . for the French owe their h aspird to the Germans. Gr. Vel.: ylverai PpaSxirrji ris toC xpovov.I. etc. &lt. I.94 THE. compare (Oros) Prolegomeu. 93 W.) d^elas (\os in KaXos longer than in « v. the letter was therefore evidently disappearing. . cp. of Eleusis c. PRONUNCIATION' OF But after the second half of the second century A. G. . Seelmann p. it cannot therefore have disappeared in the second century. Long. 3 August. Modern Greek however knows the aspiration no more than the Romance languages. Xiyerai. (is Kol 4c tJ Saa-elg.. i. The Copts. hote etc. evidently owing to 2 Stern Kopt. S2i.. except on one inscription which was evidently cut by a foreigner. 110 . 69. where the ciation. just as in Latin. 53" (e. de corr. vu. vm. 27 b) 0. A. and the same development took place in Greek. 131 it is always written except in shew the same uncertainty as early as composition . where H ought to stand and does not*. 7. of Pompeii xii.D. h. The question is also settled by found subsequently {C. v. where we find Augustine testifying to the offence taken in his time at pronunciations such as ominem^. ('Aetivalos Bull p. every ten instances. c.— Among Greeks instances.&gt. iv. 5. 18 § 29 traces of which appear there in other (Seelmann p. The cultivated pronunciation certainly retained it much longer. iv. G. he comes to orthography in 232 ff. continue to represent the spiritus in Greek loan-words almost without exception with their 2. On the insoript. being left out ae and e in the same. are written in the most surprising manner^ It has indeed actually been maintained. Hephaest. G. G. that the breathing was no longer heard among the Athenians of the 4th century". Schutz Hist. are we not bound to make the same inference with regard to the Attic of the fifth century B. hina. (h): hoste. 178 (on vase) is krasis. Sia T^s 423 ff. 17 ff. A. 19. The converse of this is of less frequent occurrence. A. 242. 418/7) the 1st cent. 68 f. If however we infer from the growing uncertainty in the use of the symbol in Latin that the sound was beginning to disappear. &lt. p. Att.? For here too the cases are very numerous. 54 ff. A. cp. (the -wall insorip. oiKwv etc. Meyer Gr. I. p. and this view receives support from passages of Aristotle. c. i. where ev. the influence of the Ionic writing. 1). on the confusion of only in the word lepov.pt\os). Gonfess. * Collected by Cauer G. h in inscriptions is more and more frequently wrongly put in and wrongly omitted' . . the symbol is omitted about once in 1 Corssen 1. St.^. it is true.C. p. K. ^ p. everywhere else.

of which the reading is it is true corrupt. 349 (Teos). For there is scarcely a dialect.. in both places must have been the name of the breathing. moreover we find the aspiration of tenues in elision constantly taking place in Attic. dir^j7)&lt. Bull.. Injeh). even on the tables ' Aristot. 821. 178 this word in the same more general a 2 (to iJiv d^irepov to S^ ^apirepov sense as later writers (op. 'l&amp. the spiritus ■* Plat.). as a irapdaTj/iov written over letters. starting from the philosophical standpoint of Heraclitus.. where there is not fluctuation^. I think we shall have restored these much abused passages.^dXX.. A. 19 (Halic). 437 A. c. Grammatik p. on another occasion however.. Since ifi^dWeiv often occurs in the Kratylus of the interpolation of a letter. according to which it must be eiria-T. Locris B. the chief point is. (e'/c/S. according to which '6po&lt. 187 f. B. 384 to explain this on the assumption. the latter : opOoTepov iariv wa-Trep vvv avrov rrjv dpj(rjv Xeyetv /idXkov fj eii^dX\ovra&lt.'i\ Moreover Plato's Kratylus contains two important passages. but in that case " Hiero's helmet. 1. Soph.pSla. TO oii mentioned by Ar. 95 distinction between ov where and ov is designated as one of pitch without the least mention of breathing V But on the opposite side we have another passage of the same author. from icrTT)iJ. I suggest therefore that the s3mibol h was already known to Plato. accordingly ^. 155 f. Gesch. 510. aXXa rrjv ifi^oXrjv Troiijcraadai dvrl Tr}&lt. Kratyl. that is iir-tcrT'lj/Mri. from sTro/iai. The former is expressed according to the recorded text thus : Sio Srj e/i/SaXXovra? Bel to el (e) eTriarijfi'rjv avrrjv ovofid^eiv .i. 500.) to eZ (i) eiricrTr)fj/rjv. iv. d. Schmidt Beitr. z. and that which is here interpolated is the breathing. and must therefore have used 96 THE PRONUNCTATION OF . that such an inference proves too much. considering it from the Eleatic standpoint. K. To return. ■irpoir&lt.ovTa&lt. p.pwv where was it ? Only at the beginning and — . de coir. 115 = in the combinations /iiv ov {me-nu) and Dittenb. was not perceptible. THPHI (rfj "Bprj). Socrates derives the word i-jnaTrnxr) on one occasion.ANCIENT GREEK. and that the name answering to its form was the first half of ^ra. 166 b 1. 146. iv tw el (e) eV tcS Imra*. 412 A. wishes » Bohl no. Thespiie E.j-i. that (Samos). but the sense of which cannot be mistaken. ju' " Here also Aristotle is speaking of and Ss (o[I] E. and 0/30? were identical in writing but not in sound''.). B. the object to ip. in contrast to the Ionic Kardvep. El. Schmidt 1. h. 'OvovTlav of a sentence ? and 'OvovtIwv. If then we substitute TO ^ (or TO h) in both places for to ei.

that the aspirate in this case was quite '^ Athen. Panhormus. In Elision HAPH. Latin as a rule represents it even here : ecchedra (exedra).form wdp). -qai'. We find too side by side dyco (in Locrian it is true aym) and "^yeofiai.. 42. 397 ef. if the real significance of the word lying hidden in the compound appeared to be no longer felt: (OKvd\o&lt. 333 maintains. 34 and iv. I. In the interior of words in Laconian and other dialects the breathing was a late development from o. although ^ The latter is Argive. We must therefore seek for some other explanation . there is no etymological reason for the fact. Gr. 243. p. 2. who wrote the ' interaspiration ' in the texts of the poets for the sake of clearness. vqw from a\?. 97 Section 26. Stern Kopt. 192 t. Pronunciation of the Tenues. I. such an explanation is furnished by the weakness of the breathing. bans ed. Dial. Also EAPOI G. inscription uiCs. 'Eivalfjumv from aifimv. G. " irape^ovn once by irape^dvTi (the 8203. i 1 G. 240 f. p. A. and e'&amp. renounced the rough breathing. At the present day however the media appears in pronunciation after . MBAHENI 1. L. 8202. it could not very well have continued to exist in the Alexandrine and Roman periods in the common Hellenistic language. We say iTTTros but rXav/ciTTTro? AevKnr7ro&lt. the spiritus has no etymological warrant whatever. It had undoubtedly in this position a still slighter sound than at the beginning of words . 10. that initial v is always aspirated'. that the Athenians and most of the other stems on adopting the Ionic alphabet should not trouble themselves about any new symbol for the sound of the breathing. Coptic a/ioratos. on the Heraclean tables not always'. no. 116°. 67. evoLfr]6 = i-jTOirjae^ . the surd letters) have on the whole retained their pronunciation.of Heraclea we find tVo? and 'Irra side by side. ix. E. 44 a. 51% 43). 19. Meyer" p. 77. Euhemerus". (Attic vase inaudible. 6 (also with pleonasm ANCIENT GREEK.. which also serves to make the great inconsistency and capriciousness in the aspiration of isolated words more intelligible.) preposition in this dialect took the ^ Cauer Stud. the Alexandrine Grammarians themselves. But if the breathing began to disappear at an early period in all the dialects. ■^iXd. p. Meister. viii. Gr. Giese Aeol." K.: ' Ayr/iaTpaToi.e. according to the Grammarians the Attic dialect knew this internal spiritus only in the foreign word ram".. Schneider p. KAeHAHEP iv. Among the nine mutes the Tenues (i. I. This weakness of pronunciation also made it natural. cp.. ■^fiap and rjfiepa. and as the cognate languages shew.j? .. In composition it was not generally written in Attica''. parhippus.

^ Kfi-irpaKia and 'A/iySpaKta. E... although it had b. 11. ' Aristophanes Acham. . Hyperid. for instance on Attic inscriptions rorco for Sotco. 303. dypoTroXet. which has often been maintained ia " (7. ToBe for TOT€. iinally the Aristophanic pun ^Xeireiv BaXX-rjvaSe (IlaXXr}vdSe. 552 (ib. that to say nothing of the license of word-plays. 7wi}). Something analogous to k k' might be found in ancient Greek in the contiguous use of ? (koppa) and K . xvii.a nasal : \a/i7r/3o? pr. nevertheless made itself distinctly felt side by side with the other at the period of the revival of letters*.7r\aKeiv and dfi^XaKeiv. Apart from this in the case of A. but being of infrequent usage it was remodelled on the analogy of TeXo&lt. actual instances of interchange are not wanting in Greek any more than in other languages. Bnll. 1857 p.ai endripome . For tenuis and media or as we now say surd and sonant explosives approximate so closely in sound.. p. ivTpeTro/j. lambrds.de con: denied by Psichari for the general h. p. this however seems in . accordingly mistakes such as TiBvfioi. MeKa/cXij's*. that it approximates to t. 7 98 THE PRONUNCIATION OF But the position in which the sound occurs. k' acodfding to Lepsius' alphabet. a twofold pronunciation is current in modem Greek' : guttural before consonants and before a o u. as they certainly did? For we are not entitled to appeal to the Aristotelian ivreki'x^eia by the side of ivSeXex^^: the word must have been ivSe\exeia. ^ Foy p..11.7. those who cite these instances not perceiving that the very infrequency with which they occur contains a full refutation of the inference they draw. 47. Above all in Egypt t and 8 could not be kept distinct owing to the peculiarity of the national language. in which the k is produced so far forward on the palate.so strictly distinct. In many cases this palatal k like the c in Romance was and is further developed to ch ts. and this pronunciation as Italian ce.. although at the present day it is not considered worthy of imitation^. being to k as ch in ich is to ch in ach). rov TOTTov ton ddpo. which did not possess a d. Toi' KocTfjLov tou gdzmo^.e. ° Praefat.. IlaXXrjvii and ^aXXeivY.603. dva^avSov and -(fiavro. Next we are confronted with d/j. iii. dva^Ka^to ('ivdryKT] anangazo anangi\ The same thing takes place in close combination of words: t6v TroXe/xov torn bdlemo. Nachr. makes in these cases no difiference whatever.272. The assumption of a similar pronunciation in ancient Greek leads at once to pure impossibilities: how could the ancients have kept eVro? and evSov. so that Psichari gives four further pronunciations for Ke Kal: — chye che tsye tse'. and inclining to palatal before e i (i. 64 Scyros Kwr/ for language. Eii'To^o9 are among the commonest on papyri^ 1 The pronunciation of k\ as y\ Curtius Gott. 233.^. Consequently in the Kai of the present day a sound is heard somewhat like kye.

Saa-v ypdnfia points ' Foy p. fieaov. Aspirates and mediae. Cn«. as standing before the other in the alphabet. But in modern Greek S is the soft English th as in this . The pronunciation of the aspirates 6 * X is one of the most difficult points. that is to say . Meister mal. In pronouncing ph as /. before ei on the other hand with a palatal sound like ch in German ich (x). and ch in the German fashion. 530. gg to the addition of a breathing./3M[X]as ? ner (p. The name aspirata littera. just as k in Latin gave place to c. were on the other hand written with kappa for the same reason'. ^ as f. because the letter was called koppa. p. Media. the rest of the work fell to the share of the latter. /3 is t). 1887 p. 2 Psichari iJeu. Smith Sylloge ANCIENT GREEK. 265. we make out of the aspirate a spirant. The syllables ko Kpo kto were written with 9. p. Section 27. » BO9AS (?) Bceot. It has however also made the mediae into spirants in the same way.point of fact to have been more a matter of orthography than pronunciation. Eohl 183 3 Foy p.-Insclvr. Subsequently ? was given up as superfluous. accordingly they are written in Latin th ph ch. x before consonants and before aou with a guttural sound like the ch in German ach (x in Lepsius' alphabet). that is to say neither quite without breathing nor yet with a particularly strong breathing'. an h . being pronounced as English th in think. 56. stands alone . except where a u still retaining its proper w-sound appeared to demand similar treatment to 0°. 3 above).e. which on this point o Cp. i. denotes the intermediate pronunciation between ylriXov and Saav. 35 above. 5. 881 '' Cp. Modern Greek also makes them spirants. Ka Kpa etc. aUowe a certain licence. the edict of Chancellor Gardi. contrast between ancient and modern Greek. and such also is the English th.

B. Koivd Si dfi. Tag (Taye-Tax). Dionya.u(Sos). Another instance of TO 0. and accordingly the Greeks now pronounce yevoiro yinito. in the ordinary language p. The explosive pronunciation. tiyyineha).). komvos (k6. that is according to the ancient nomenclature ruiii^ava. consequently at the present day vt vS. according to whom the pronunciation 7—2 lOO THE PRONUNCIATION OF system as this transferred to the ancient language must of necessity alter its character most violently. It is however perfectly impossible to transfer it. 1 below.the soft sound corresponding to the hard /. n. is the sounding of the y of the ^iKorepov rov Sh SaavTepov) to tc y xal article in Tbv yi/iov. The Germans give the g this pronunciation in many cases. Grit.4&gt.p Ps. Berge Berg (Bery'e-Berx) corresponding to Leid pronounced Leit while leiden has the proper d-sound. ti yineka). fiw fi^. 44 (29 J.oii' (repeated snbse. p. and partly also y/c 77 are identical in sound'. yfj yi. Cp. especially in the interior of words.^ x^ generally reckoned among the d^wva. For all spirants are fricatives. toO /ih yi. p. A. also Aristid. Meib. and make 7 7' when medial correspond to x X ^* ^^^ ^^^' J"^'' ^ ^^ German other consonants which are soft when medial are pronounced hard when final : Tage. 266. (54 Jahn). as a media in the Latin sense. 1887. Quintil. 101. but in ancient Greek jS 7 S are always and &lt. 89 f. 83 : ^iXa ijiiv to re K Kal t6 fioial and owes its existence to th e ir Kal TO T. Such a sound1 So Dion. having even without the addition of a vowel a certain perceptible sound . it disappears without any oompensa2 Psichari Kev. That the latter were by . t^v yvpoiKa : dia tJ jS Kal TO S. only remains to the modem Greek mediae where a nasal precedes. Thr. y either a soft guttural ch or a soft palatal. Scuria Sk to tc % Kal to (p Kal written form. Palatal y is identical with English y German J. 631 . Lepsius writes these sounds too with Greek letters: 7 y'. tion (to yamo. anSros is simply artide compos. being wholly analogous to the X'.artificial pronunciation according to quently as /t^o-oi' a/Kpoiy. lectally this is assimilated {toyyamo .

vepi toi&gt. p.Aprriplas irveSixa 'Ma-r/ rip Seirp ibp airoS. 57 reckoned only six vbv iyyis Trjs tpdpvyyot Kal t^s ipriiplas atpava. that the added breathing is of itself a rjiJiL^asvov .ivrii vpbs rbv o ipaDion. Aristides Quintilianus also writing in the third century expresses himself to the same effect : — in the case of the media /3 and the related sounds TT and ^ the stream of air. that ineadivros rb Tpopa\\6fia& gt. qui et dSbmas. breaks through the closure of the lips in the centre. represents p are pronounced. and so on. p.tw causa.j&gt.some. inducti. lireiS' iwb toO irveifxaTos dwop9 et X semivooales putabant. Halic. — KXP: det. Srav toO a-rifiaTos the aspirates as TiiJ. is fully explained by the fact. p.vi.oiva\ Pris.u&gt.ipovTa rp cx^i^aTi iWijKuv. L. Moreover Dionysius of Halicarnassus gives a closer description of the pronunciation" . 78 B. nulla alia (PHrifoyu^c))! Kal t^v Si^JoSoi/ airif k &amp.s /iereiipo vs grammatiois invasit Latinos. in k ^^ 7 it is raised to the palate.i(l&gt. ' Dion.a)va owing to the o.(j&gt. ^ y S k T t. d/t^oo/. oidh oiSi raSra Dion. oiau I. VII. Saa^as. apparently by the Stoics. 14 says conversely : hie quoque — T9A : t-^s yXdirr-ris axptf rif ffrStmn error a quibusdam antiquia Graeoorum irpoa-epadofi^vris /carA toi&gt.l&lt. Hal.(rTap. 621 f.va. he says that in the case oi tt ^ (p the mouth is shut and then suddenly opened. Hal. Gomp. 83 f.|f f are reckoned as i]/j. and there is no further distinction between these letters according to him beyond that of the breathing". Thrax etc. : tt . The Stoics according to t^s yXiln-TTii i. reckon the aspirates Sia(f&gt. Dionys. he too making the only difference between the related sounds to consist in the fact. nisi quod spiritus in eis abun. adding. Empir.ov ix rijs 'some' reckon them as &amp. in like manner in t 6 B the tongue is pressed against the teeth . that the tenues were articulated in the front part of the ' Sext. irXV as mute without expressing any doubt in rb /liv k ^iXfis \4yeTai. rb Si y fifrpius Kal iiera^i ■" Dion. in like manner ^ •&gt.which forms one of their component parts. iwrjxoiir'iis T(f irreinaTi. In the modem Greek pronunciation on the contrary no one could ever maintain these letters to be mutes. he says. Oomp. rb Si x on the subject. considered as rjfiijxova^.s iUvrai AiroStSoiffiis.

fiacrrat. yu^iroc iKpiaj^op-hov. Then : Toiriiiv Si ri. other nations however. but only brought near. eip7)TM koX ttjs i. their prior member being a tenuis : k pt. nor in making the &lt.) ^ Curtius Grundn. the mediae with moderate force in the central part'. that the aspirates and the mediae during the classical period had a different pronunciation from that now in vogue. both classes are considered in the alphabet as simple sounds. Beitr.I lerri Map rpax^a ' to. and the approximation to their own aspirates. and of the media : gh dh bh . for neither are the lips closed in producing /. as G. 89 Meib. Curtius especially has shewn''. . (54 vorepa • toi 5' hSoBev ix cpdpvyyos uvoJahu) : tGiv dtptljvwp rot fi^v 5iA tuv X6t.ra re (/juppa^ip airuv Kari. especially those of India. as for instance the Hindoos.A-sound is the tongue pressed against the teeth. perceive the distinction between their own true tenues. It is then already placed beyond doubt and will receive further confirmation. we must turn our attention to the living oriental languages. Sprachund yovra tov &amp. W. Accordingly all these sounds were instantaneous and explosive .&lt.ipa k&amp. datria k&amp.ANCIENT GREEK. p. 118 ff. consider this to have been the character of the Greek aspirates.lOl mouth and softly. Si Similarly only more briefly expressed KTi. rod irveOfiaTos T^v 8' iK fi^trov rod (pupTjTLKOv t6tov /M ^&lt. Quintil. /iiv TJpe/juilus irpod. us Tb j3 Koi tA ToiTov TepieKTiKd. To understand what the aspirates really are. / ch etc.k tuv vepl Tois 6S6vTas Litteraturkunde p. There exist in Sanskrit as in the derived languages combinations both of the tenuis with the breathing : kh th ph. 44 (29). \^ij)v Yeirat fiovwv. but are really formed by a combination of mute with breathing. Germans in general pronounce their so-called tenues when initial with a similar breathing.(yr ipuv etXrixe (pio-em.^ 414 ff.Schmitz. the aspirates energetically from the larynx.1 ianv ed^u- I02 THE PRONUNCIATION OF Out of this a spirant has been developed by assimilation and . being produced by a contraction not amounting to complete closure of the vocal passage .j&gt. (The description is less lucid in before p. ' Aristid. ri. the case of the gutturals and dentals. Toirwi/ KiKKTfrai re ^iXi Ko. on the other hand are fricatives. eur lat. We must then. generally without being themselves aware of it . . Pronunciation of the Aspirates. Section 28.ij.

pd\ but as a matter of fact nothing of the kind is found. 22. qui primam ejus littefoedosque (scil. ut pro Fundanio 2 Quintil. 236. the latter finally crowding out the tenuis. ita adspirare without ei also has versehiebung p.^.ei. for p. his representation of the foreign . just as much as ^ i/r t. Gramm. for any one who can pronounce p/can also pronounce / The fact that the Greeks always represented / by 0. whether this assumed intermediate pronunciation : pf kch tth. Roscher\ This question too ought however to be decided by the classification of letters discussed above . because according to Quintilian Cicero in the speech for Fundanius laughed at a Greek witness. sound hy p + h would not have been any further from the mark. Ghristoph Krissimili littera uteutes .s p\ The only inference that can be made from the passage is that there was a fundamental ^ ^. more fundamental than between labial / (pronounced entirely with the lips) and dentilabial / (pronounced by laying the under-lip against the teeth. as we do). for pf etc. hordemn hoedos). if only in sporadic instances. SpalGurtius Stud.fusion of the elements. and among the aspirated tenues the . . is easily intelligible. Miklosich Altsloven. 14: quin fordeum Cicero testem. that.BiaVLmeiAspiratenimdLaut. IV. Halm . Lautlehre Graeci adspirare ei (others read (j&gt. ky). 1 03 distinction between Latin / and Greek &lt. was the pronunciation ram dicere non possit. ding rejects «t) solent. 66. tO. Halm) {Franzose Prancuzas. irridet. / ut &lt. but even supposing that he had. Christ. 117 ff.^ Christ. since pf or ts or something similar would have been written. And I fail to understand how v. In the next place if this view had been correct. Kosoher authority . von Raumer and finding after him its principal champion in W. it must have been possible to have cited in its support transliterations. (other mss." a view maintained first by R. Greek (f) was at 'that time pf or according to Rumpelt a simple spirant' According to Quintilian we must suppose that the man said Hundanius .p or German f a. who could not pronounce the first letter of Fundanius'. ANCIENT GREEK. for Greek &lt.v. in the mouths of ancient Eomans for ^ Eumpelt p. Raumer and Rumpelt can argue. 1. nam contra tups) .. than the Slavonic and Lithuanian representation of late Greek &lt. 2. made the / into a &lt. the breathing according to the view I usually held being changed to a spirant of a nature homoI geneous to the tenuis {pf or pi. are certainly not mutes.f&gt. and also certainly more fundamental than between pf and/. 50. I. p. as they think. vel / ut . pro aspiratione velut " Kursohat Litt. and one may go further and say that they are clearly double-consonants. since the simple breathing did not even exist as a Greek letter. had already begun in the classical period. 96 ff. It is still a matter of dispute. W. especially in Latin.

Those Greek races. are in the final short vowel can be used as long first place extremely infrequent.labial enjoyed a distinct preference. alone forms an irresistible 1 This is the principal argument ters is in no way different from that of Eoscher (p. that a appealed to by Eoscher. 49 (Anti. 46 Meib. as double-consonants. 78?). which made their way into the language after the 1st century B. that &lt. observing that this doubling also is found only in a very few words among a very large number not so affected. 84 f. Rather the fact that. 102). The following facts may serve as a confirmation of the pronunciation as p 4.i\aKXev (Mylasa Bull.. exstra. that this transitional stage obtained general acceptance at any period whatsoever.^ was a double consonant. 26). x.t&gt. Cauer Syll. by a doubling of the tenuis which in this case was not at all unnatural : we may compare the spellings oK'x^o^. which was added to the tenuis. We can explain the fact. (-Kxe") thrice ib. 302 1. ought to shew clearly.follows. that ^p XP 6p form length by position in no higher degree than irp Kp rp". 30 Jahn). which did not. xii. maohus fr. I am not myself convinced. and it may accordingly for our purpose be disregarded. "O^is as trochee in «{s.forms avvSia. 208. ^iXicrJ^os Arist. 12. (Stratonik eia) p_ 24. consequently as a banda ib. Hipponax fr. belong to the grammarians. The fact. ' 2 'spelUngs such as SeSfex^ai (Sa. possess the non-Phoenician symbols ^ t^. and Aristophanes words like o&lt.). 121 ff. 39). Christ Ifeft-i/c. de corr. h. the aspirate in the countless other cases does not form length by position. /teTTiXKaKxires (A la571 (in a hexameter. Bcci. if we except this dozen or so of instances. that it was only the breathing. 134. v. The whole theory of the pf is also overthrown by metrical considerations. In like manner no Latin writer thinks of treating the aspirates fh th ch. At all events I can not find it absolutely established for any period. The later Hom. For when we find in isolated passages of Homer./)t? ^(. o-zcu'tt^o?.C. which cannot produce length by position.Xocro^o? used with the penultimate long\ we are not to infer.A etc. cluayuaKxhra matter of necessity). oKxelv. that the Greeks here and again actually do this. Buo-fcii/Tioi. can scarcely have any founda- I04 THE PRONUNCIATION OF refutation of the theory. in those .IJ.ir^&lt.' The remark of Aristides Quintimos. Hipponax. in the with especial ease when an aspirate second place the accumulation of let. which are lianus (p. and is accordingly a special peculiarity or licence'.

Secondly the contact of tenuis with aspirated vowel produces aspirates : ij) a. tion G. ANCIENT GREEK. as for example to Lepsius. 89. Moreover the doubling of aspirates gives tenuis -faspirate. ^ Bosoher p. So iveavBoi Sterret Arch. Eoscher Scythian in the Thesmoph. exactly as the Eomans did. Gr.breathing * .E&gt. since . Bull.S. VI. 276. 'ApKe^div^. dv6' ov {ephoi. 1 05 to pronounce ekhthos (exOo'i). decern: h. how slight was the distinction between the two. Tpdirifnos./&gt. of America in. adopted the writing IIH KH. hell. in like manner the Germans write quite correctly tz for double z. and dveS^Bri on the Eleusiniau insorip. that &lt. 79 ft. eTeOrfv. which is quite regular. for which subsequentl y hansp. A. fivrjadrjTi. anthu). 39 Ai. XX for ■\lr and ^ . . 114 * There are naturally here and ff. ok\os.. -v|r o.27. and the p.cases where they were not satisfied with the simple tenuis. hence arises the writing &lt. these errors and the other very numerous alternations of aspirated and unaspirated mutes' only serve to shew.— The ^dp^apoi in Aristophanes. de con. ii.oirdv7]s Tet/i6Teo s. for to others. when the representation of the aspirates by the tenues pet usual at an early period seemed to them not sufiiciently accurate and aspiration of consonants had ceased to be regarded as strange. phs appears perfectly possible. also Meister. Cp. % also has a similar aspirating power. On a 1 The two last examples from Delos Phrygian insorip. 25. and if on the other hand violations of this principle are not infrequent" on inscriptions. Plato says.366 1. 98. Inst. " Bosoher I.e. the there violations of this rule./j._ It is true that a difficulty arises from the fact that before an aspirate a tenuis pronounced with a different position of the vocal organs becomes likewise aspirated . supposing that the latter consists of tenuis -I. Is it possible then to pronounce p h s in succession ? We must however be on our guard against speaking too readily of impossibility. I. 'Povir'wos. khth. Schmitz p. On the other hand aspirates readily pass into tenues according to a definite rule in inflexional formation and composition : redea/jiai. no. 35. for to many it appears impossible tion. X0i. eKe')(eipLa. p. dpKedecopos. although this treatment would Triballian in the Birds always put not be unnatural in the case of the tenuis for aspirate . nian vase C. 8076^. 100. 1. see also the Athepronunoiation p + h etc. and only khkh impossible. at all events at an early period . IV.109 Kn/ieKiji/os.^ are letters with a strong breathing^. 255 f. 'AfiirLdaXij'.. I. phtheiro with doubled breathing*. Bull. 782f.

. -e(j&gt. Finally we must remark the effect produced in many cases by a preceding p: fipra for fipda fjXOa. W. according to them.iad6&lt. xxviii. 1875) p. Where the phonetic laws are so different the sounds themselves of ancient and modern Greek must be fundamentally distinct. Curtius' following the lead of others. /ji. 314 (Phokis). Kopro popular name for Corinth.riT(u airoii dvo/id^wv (the (Lpz. Accordingly we have no need of the way out of the difiSculty. In tbe same way a surd spirant does not allow a preceding nasal : either this is assimilated and in some cases expelled as d'l/^o? aOOos aOos. olov to \puxpov side J. irivTo. after 6'ti TvevnardSri ri.. Eaumer p. 179 ff. iU ff. o^tq) okto) : neither a combination of hard (surd) spirant with spirant nor of tenuis with tenuis is in accordance with the genius of the language. 427 a: Sii rod 4&gt. which was adopted by G.^ p. who uses it (for want of better proof) 266 ff. to establish a.e. ypdn/iara. ^ Curtius Grdn. The modern Greek spirants shewing an exactly opposite tendency combine with the tenues : ^raveo (pOdvco. 21 f.aa becomes eyjra — epsa. See on the oth er giver of the names). aicrOavo/jLai (navofiai^. KXe(j)Trj9 /cXeTTT?/?. KATAIieiMENHS etc. the four or five exceptions on archaic and later monuments : AOHITON.here the organ is the same . before the mouth assumes the new position.ktto'. comes out simultaneously behind the first letter. or a tenuis took the place of the aspirate and then a media the place of the tenuis. /j. and these combinations being of frequent occurrence habit did the rest to establish an orthography $@ etc.. Koi TO tiov KoX rh adeaeu kt\. the breath.€i in Plato's time. The ' Eohl no. lo6 THE PRONUNCIATION OF immediately preceding nor following it: -evaa i. ep'^^o/iai pronounced erkome or er-)(pme^. On the other hand the entirely different treatment of such combinations in modem Greek must be made prominent. as in the word K6pivdo&lt. vv/jb^r. Z.^ This form of writing is as a matter of fact much too well established for such an explanation to hold water . This was that the breathing heard after the t or with the s in combinations such as pth ps was liable to be transformed in the sensorium of the hearer and consequently also in script to the p which was equally susceptible of aspiration. which I have myself heard pronounced Korindos (written Kopti^ro?). niffi nifi^. c^^t'fa) becomes aKi^w. can hardly count*. Schmidt K.efil/j. Koi ToO i/'ei Koi ToS a-ty/ia zeal tov trjra. 101. The same applies to the voiced spirant in combination with a nasal..admits of a surd spirant neither 1 Ebel in Kuhn's Zeitschr. rb.. where the organ is different on the other hand. 382 (Chios). xiii. von der Muhl Aspiration der Tenue s TomOra /i. spirantio element in (p 2 Plato Kratyl. passage is (Quoted by v. neither is this spirant allowed without exception to stand combined with p. In like manner o.

by ]&gt. quibus Graeo-TT. who regarded ^ as a dulcissime spirans littera. 85. which he found emphasized by the earlier grammarians . At what time then did the spirants appear in the ordinary speech ? Priscian about 500 a. X for the real aspirates which are found in Egyptian .In the next place there remains to be produced in support of the long continuance of the real aspirates not only Quintilian's testimony. ANCIENT GREEK. quae " See p. Latin monuments with very few exceptions shew ph and / unconfused up to the time of . The Egyptian Christians. 27: jucundissimas discrimina dentium eiiflanda est.efiScient. XII. vi. which they likewise possessed. employed the symbols @ &lt. linguist.1&gt. 134. oia caret (/ and u). for their national language. just as in the case of native words the combination of tenuis with h alternates with the aspirates'. 265. et velut in locum earum suc guage. crit. Nam et ilia. they adopted peculiar symbols which were annexed to the Greek alphabet. EII2020N as well as E43020N. quibus nuUae apud eos dulcius cenumque dioimus. — ex Graeois litteris non habemus (u and Aeolioae quoque litterae. but instances also are found of the resolved spelling. But even Ulfilas makes no difficulty about representing cf) by Gothic/. but in Trapezus has become cedent tristes et horridae. bantur. 305) in the ordinary Ian. 1887. vis tamen nos ipsa grecizing spellings Zephyrus. voce vel omnino non voce potius inter * Quint. evidently found it difficult to adjust to his satisfaction the difference between &lt.paenenonhumana 3 Psichari Rev. persequitur. The description is entirely at variance with that of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. He goes on to speak of the nobis repudiata est. etsi forma {/). that (^ should be a mute and / a semivowel. and accordingly he ends in making / likewise a mute'''. 1 07 Greek $ X occur. Roman / and also the 'v in serviis on the contrary as odious and offensive sounds* but also that of the Coptic mode of writing which arose at the end of the second or the beginning of the third century.. n. Ephyrd. surdum quiddam et barbarum . a spirant.^ and Latin f. it appears to him quite absurd. 1. A spirantic pronunciation oi tf) ^ ^ is unmistakeably described by the Byzantine scholiast of Dionysius Thrax. 10. In the numerous words borrowed from the 1 Foy p. when they devised a new alphabet. de la Soc. who brings into prominence the decisive absence of closure in contrast to tt «■ t'. estsextanostrarum. mainly borrowed from the Greek. on the other hand for the sounds / and ch. 20 holds its ground and adds : quae si nostris litteris aeriaccording to Psichari {Mem. qua servum 0) — .d.

Severus ; after that however the alternations become numerous, and after the middle of the fourth century there is no longer any distinction even in the best documents*. Before this and 1 Lepaius Stand. Alph. p. 202 ; ^ B. A. 11. p. 810, on x * » suoSchwartze Kopt. Gramm. p. 79 ff. ; cession. 11 is pronounced with Stem Copt. Gr. 16 f. On hierogly- closure of the lips; 6,voi.yoiiiv(,iv Sk tuv phics the name of Philip Aridseus was x^'^^^"" Ta&gt;'i', tai Trvev/iaros iroWov written according to Lepsius with D in i^i-bvTos, iK^oiveirai. to 0. In the case ph, at a later period ^iXaripa, T/ii^aiva of k the tongue is pressed against only with p. tlie palate, in t against the teeth ; x "^ 2 Prise. I. 13 : quare cum / loco the other hand is pronounced t^s mutae ponatur (in fama &lt;pi}iJ.i] etc.), 7Xi6tt7;s /nr; TrpocnrCKovuhris mS' o \m miror hanc inter semivocales posuisse trvvairTOftivris ry oipavlo-Kiji, and 8 ai roartium scriptores — (14) sciendum ta- x'^po'^'V^ '^V^ yXtia-a-ris tuv dddvTOii' Ka l men, quod hie quoque error a quibus- irapexoiirvs l^oSov ti? toXKv ^ryev/iari. dam antiqnis Graecorum grammaticis v. Eaumer puts a right value on this invasit Latinos, qui (p et 8 ei x semi- testimony, p. 103 f. vocales putabant.— Hoc tamen scire * W. Schmitz p. 122 f. ; Th. Mommoportet, quod non fixis labris est pro- sen Herin. xiv. 70 ff. The graffiti of nuntianda /, quomodo ph, atque hoc Pompeii furnish only four exx. Orsolum interest. This sounds quite thographic precepts on / ph are given differently from what Quintilian says, by Caper vii. p. 95 K. (time of Trajan although Priscian also, true to his but not preserved in its genuine form) predecessors, makes (p pronounced and Diomedes p. 423 f. K. (4th. cent.), with closed lips. Schmitz p. 126 ; cp. also Mar. Plot.

lo8 THE PRONUNCIATION OF as long as ph and / were distinguished ph and p, th and t, ch and c had been liable to be interchanged: the contrast between the earlier and later pronunciation is therefore evident. This later pronunciation however will not have arisen all at once, it must have needed time to have made its way from the lower to the upper stratum of the people and to have become general. But its beginning or, if you prefer it, its prelude, is perhaps already to be found in the ancient Greek dialects ; on this point we go on to speak in connection with the transformation of the mediae.

Section 29.

Pronunciation of the Mediae ; dialectal pronunciation of the Mediae and Aspirates. We have seen above, that the name media denotes a half aspirated sound, and not by any means a weak or voiced sound, with which names h d g are now denoted in contradistinction to p t k. The Greeks then heard a certain breathing in their /3 7 S ; and who shall maintain, that their ears deceived them ? Moreover there is this confirmatory fact, that the mediae as well as the aspirates became spirants. It certainly may be maintained that the name mediae suits the present pronunciation also, in so far as the breathing in /3 « is really weaker than in ^ /'. On the other hand, since Latin hgd and Greek /3 7 S correspond to one another with perfect regularity, and the value of the Latin mediae is certainly identical with that of the present Romance and German, the pronunciation of Greek /3 7 S must have been approximately the same as that of our mediae. In the case of S this is made especially clear by the fact, that it is so frequently confused with t by Egyptian scribes ; consequently there can have been no such wide difference as that between

Sacerdos (3rd. cent.) K. vi. 451. — notae Tironianae, also Sehuderico for Schmitz p. 134 furnishes examples for Theoderico on an inscrip, the confusion of th and s from the ^ Cp. also B, A. 810, u. 2.

ANCIENT GREEK. 109 modem Greek t and S*. Strangely enough it is only the pronunciation of the /8 which has really been made a matter of controversy. However that this was during the Attic period not V appears sufficiently proven, in case there is still any doubt, by Plato ^ who calls it a mute, and by the ^rj ^rj of the comic dramatists, and it is by no means the case, as has been stated, that in the Roman period it was employed without scruple for v. On the contrary the inscriptions of the time of the republic shew almost without exception OvaXepio&lt;i, fp6\ovi,o&lt;;, and this mode of writing, tedious though it was, even in the period of the empire was never quite ousted by the far more convenient /3'. There existed then a pretty considerable difference between /3 and v, greater than that between semi vocalic v (English w) and consonantal v (English v), for this would not have prevented the universal adoption of the writing with j8. In the time of the Empire, especially from the second century onwards, this difference must have become smaller; otherwise the earlier usage would have been preserved. The Latin b too in many places had a similar development, being pronounced in the same way that survives at the present day among the Spaniards and many of the French of the south, whose vivere is according to the well known witticism hihere*. This indistinguishable confusion of the two sounds gave rise next to such spellings as 1,eovaaT6&lt;:, which is often met with on Greek inscriptions in Italy ^ But in the fact, that even at the present day ^ is an explosive sound when following

' See Plat. Crat. 427 a: t^s toB ly. The same writing was used in S/Xto avinrUffeuK xal rod rav KaX arepet- verse also ; C, I. Gr. 67 sq. SiXouiou (reus rrjs y\wTTi)s. ei^aufvos with consonantal pronunoia* Theaet. 203 b: toS S' o? /S^to tion. The name of L. Verus is comoffre (puvii otre \j/iit&gt;oi (cp. Dion. awe. monly written OiTjpos, much more 72). rarely B^pos, Dittenberger p. 304. In 3 S. Dittenberger Herm. vi. 302 ff., many exx. also v internal is omitted, who has only two exx. from the time iaiiyios, Bo'iWai, in short it is quite of the republic of ;8 for v (yet in Delos evident that the Greeks possessed no about 180 B.C. Bull, de corr. h. vi. 38, quite appropriate expression for v. 43, Dittenb. Syll. no. 367, 86, 130 ■&gt; Oorssen 1^, 131; Diez Gr. 1, 280. AijSfou Bt/Siou) ; the Monumentum An- 376 ; Seelmann p. 239 f. eyranum also still shews on consistent- ° Dittenberger p. 304.

no THE PRONUNCIATION OF a nasal, Psichari' rightly finds a proof, that it was originally this in all cases ; for komvos could not have produced kombos, but an original v would have done away with the nasal. As regards 7, this letter seems at all events when between vowels to have become a spirant at a very early period in the popular pronunciation. For a frequent misuse of it on papyrus is to bridge over a hiatus : vyL'yaivi&lt;; = vyiaLvei&lt;;, KXauyo) = KKaito, Tavyrj's Tayrji; for TavT}&lt;! Tdr]&lt;;, 'ZapaTTiyfjov', and conversely it is frequently wrongly omitted : viaivrj&lt;;, dA,to?', which latter form is also attested as Tarentine and is cited by the Attic comic poets as a barbarism of the demagogue Hyperbolus*. Compare further ^laXeLa = ^tyaXeia, ayijo-xa for diy/jyoxa, Boeotian laiv for iyoo, ayedXa in Pamphylian°. All this points to a softening of the guttural explosive to a y, or in the case of a back-vowel to the g, which the Germans usually pronounce in Tage; but the sound was so undefined and weak, that it was thrust in and left out at will". The phenomenon was however in any case strange to the standard Attic, as is shewn by the sneer at Hyperbolus and probably neither Hyperbolus nor any one else at Athens who pronounced oXio'i, on the same principle pronounced Xe-yaj as Xem, any more than a Boeotian said Xift) because he had uov for eywv. Such cases as these have their source in isolated words of frequent occurrence — compare Italian io from ego, but not lio from lego — and may subsequently develope into a principle of universal application. In some of the dialects however other mediae also and not less other aspirates to all appearance became at an early period 1 Psich. Rev. crit. 1887, 267. 39 1. 22 (Peiraieua, decree of Mace2 Pap. L. 63 col. 1 iYiYttfi/is and donian Period) ; Bull. vil. 166 (Im-

that the Athenians should have represented the strange spirant in Laconian words by the allied sound of a. " Cp. of Chersonesos on tiona or suggestions of such a prothe Crimean Peninsula (Bull. while it is quite natural. v. if it had been a real o. The indioaAleo on the inscr.C. T appears ' Inser. opOpiai). Taytis 23. But here period??). 41. The other in- . had not the appropriate symbol ceased to be indispensable owing to the similar sound of ^. 55 Bis . I i r spirantic. 168 K. 505 1.1884 p. that 7 was pronounced like y Herwerden 60 (C I. ANCIENT GREEK. p. This mode of writing has also made its way into ■ Alcman's poems. de corr. Taiyi]! bros) Meisterhans. com. Further E^/SiiXkijs ib. nunoiation are however found with hell. We must accordingly believe this to have been the case. 594. In the first place so early as the pre -Roman period Laconian employs /3 in the place of the digamma : BoweftSa?]. is the wellib. 218 . than the later period. 197. Bao-rias e/tlroX^MO^ here as the dedicator. 1882 * Herodian 1. 26 twice. after v (eiravOel and four other examples). 6\(os 63. where the next syllable begins with o. 926) . 84 case the Maohanidas.or I-sound. Sapoir. we find also AviBriKe. ii. These same Laconians had a 6. Bao-Tt'a? (from aoTv Facrru)'. iyLfaivris. to make out the limits of the phonetic change: d remains after a {iTOTr]a-do}).r. 8). In the latter instances it might have been used as a matter of necessity. who draws the general confrg.7i(o^. Meyer Gr. A. ' G. It can hardly be doubted that this was at least for a time the modern Greek spirant. before X and p (ded\o(j)6pov. (in Herod. no. but which the other Greeks at an early time represented with &lt.??). 40. 59-. cipx. which they themselves wrote certainly for a long period with the old symbol. 78 (epitaph of one fallen in war . Wessely Wiener Stud. before an E. who appears (fifth cent. 19. as in the well known vaX too &lt. Eohl no. known tyrant 210 — 207 B. 11.it would have been so written by the Laconians themselves. and we are able here. of Taenarum B. 24. p.{6(oaTr)piay. 70 Dittenb. 10. after ^ {(pOeyyerai). as the Heracleots of Italy did. 33. aveflXo 3 vMlvoiiev and uioins 42. the scribes who wrote at the dictation of the populace not possessing the usual symbol for the digamma : but the Laconians themselves must have preserved the symbol with the sound. it also appears with this function in numerous Laconian glosses'. V. see further 'Bi^. 6\lo}i is found much greater frequency in the earlier at 1. Plat. 252). 4. elusion. KXaiyia 51.^ p. 141. in the Egyptian fragment. p.conj.

among whom judging by the character of the quotations we must understand Alcman to be included. KdWiar viravXiv^. that in this case the tenuis should not become a spirant.) . why should not the same be true of ^ j^ ? Moreover oyp^o/)??? (oi5% opfj&lt. with a in proper names (not killed at Mantinea) .C. In the next place Apollonius testifies. but should remain. infinitive in -eo-rai.)^ on the AlcmanPapyrus goes against the argument taken from Apollonius.. in no. 1 (Bfi(£X«. i. I would therefore prefer the following explanation. If on the other hand the aspirates had become spirants. for in that dialect the spiritus had disappeared. epitaph of a warrior scrip.KKa\avalp (dracfluXMs) in Hesychius 3 The first instance of this a is in shews change after v . the tenuis in elision and crasis is ' times without number ' not altered before the spiritus asper : kw ro^ora'i. Cretan. Bi6Xas "Eipv^d. But if was still often an aspirate. vMcra Ei/J(£\Keo! Le Bas ii. Eh. we Save on the 'WKevalt} = "EiKev6i(i. 335 (Bergk Lyr. B. In the other fragments . 6prj&lt. other hand a proper name in -vdls E ohl Keil). ' Rohl no. Did the Laconian dialect then really have the modern Greek sound-system ? We cannot reconcile this view with the phenomena we have described in Alcman. especially as we know it from the Gortynian inscription. D. Similar phenomena are to be found also in other Doric dialects. The Lakon. Miillensiefen de titul. &amp.C. Syll.7js 77'. so that the sound must be considered as the aspirate which has stood its ground in these cases. p. instead of as in other dialects changing its place . According to this there remains for this dialect a spirantic /3 and a partly spirantic 6. 72. = 'ElXeiBvlg.. 66). aspiration naturally took place. (Ahrens D.. exception in Cramer An. (Boss. 197. D. that in Doric poets. are placed by Foucart in the second or ^i^ei/vos a Lacedaemonian Delphi first century B. where there is no elision. p. . 112 THE PRONUNCIATION OF to be found for 6 after cr on an old Laconian inscription'. in Laconian it was still living when medial.. Ox. gloss 2 Ahrens D. 7 Lacon. 2) obviously 2 Apoll.n. Dittenb. xl. stands apart. 46 f. 189 (beginning of 2nd * The last ease is attested as an cent. In Laconian in cases of elision and crasis the breathing might disappear together with the elided vowel. it would be quite natural. Now this cannot be explained in the same way in the Laconian dialect as the same phenomenon in Ionic . for we do not find there anything like eiravrei.without exception) Le Bas 163"'" etc. 191. 163°".C. Synt. 72. Lenis. Le Bas 162= = Dittenb. corresponding. with the cultivated Laconian of about the fourth or third century B. dial. op. Mils. tjiTeyyerai. in oiJpj. 424 ff. as we must assume.

p to hwpmk there are not very many example s for Stk ij/iXCiv i. e. Ital.f&gt. and that this was the only one which had a special symbol in the national alphabet. anciennes. it is however absolutely wrong. irda-Koi also for iraaxoi appears ' KaraOW. II.\a/«:t (cp. 635 .VTinTolx'i'v Tos (rwaXoi^cts the one or the other . avrpanro'i. 678. which they certainly would not have done. fin-!ri6i6era)\ If then 6 was a spirant. Comparetti Mus.III. 4 . ^Uaia.a-aadai.. Gortyn. 119 i. but the ms s. rervaKbs guistique vi.. n. for modern Greek also knows forms like ^^ac^rw (Kdirrco).Kts y&amp. II3 entirely ignores the usual and well-founded rules. KdX. according to which the aspirate is neither doubled. which can only signify the spirant: ^e. 60 Be rgk TToieiTai. who sums up as rervaicTji. Kuxd^fo). which again agrees admirably. 43 . on the older inscriptions on the other hand or appears regularly for a-d: Xva-da-TO).0!iXXtt 6' ipirerd 8' oacra.. Bergk refers at &lt. ANCIENT GREEK. B ut . if they had been / and ch. Here then we seem to be really on safe ground. But 76 j^wirrf pav least the first three fragments to =Kal iiriipav (op. ^ Psiohari Mem. for the Cretans wrote for these right on to a rather late period TT K. ^oiKia on the great Damocrates inscription belonging to the Hellenistic period^ The latter has also irotriacrarai for ttow. di6€fiivai.'iiinB.* p.24 . /3 also occurs for F in the same dialect : BaBv place-name = ■^Sv^. ii.) seems to be rightly pre' Col. -xu. 7 (with served. TervaK6&lt.v\A re ipirera 8' Sua. nor does it begin two syllables in succession : -a-Q is assimilated to 66. le traitement inverse dans les aspWes 0iBrji Biffe/i. Rh. Gortyn. to go further and explain ^ % as spirants. %opt. 6. insor. Gort. It is evidently rather the case that the one dental aspirate had become a spirant.Kill To^dras "HpaK\iris.'. 303 f. v. 697) : &amp. all is perfectly clear . 'OXvvTrid^mv. and the forms from neivai always shew repeated aspirates : 616^1. On the other hand a spirantic S appears certainly to have existed in Elean: for many of the old Olympian inscriptions use ^ for S. 39 . KaxXd^a). avrptomva. inscr.xXa^) etc' The Gortynian inscription has T for @ before and after v.. With regard to the mediae we have not sufficient material for drawing any conclusion . for even the replacing of F by y8 only occurs in isolated instances*. de la soe. TvarQv ib. xo-X^avi^m (cp. but never t^. ^ 'kvrp. x. 16 . for which we have sometimes 6. nian insor. Mus. xi. K&amp.Treip6. 'Oirapis on a LaeoAloman. Xiar iiravXh Kri. in frg. Cnossus ib. wit' dKiov II. KaTaeieee6ai. de lin. Got^i. ^^a^wtt® (cp.

avBpaTOi Cnossus Mus. the grammarians on the other hand unanimously consider this first. 632: (avyciation as in modern Greek. are found in both places quite as usual. Section 30. 552 (D. 111. p. Kari'iofievov KaOLKOfievov^. Gomp. Hal. ctt is found just as regularly in Lokrian. 3. 82 e ri Also 321". 1157. 262 is much too ^ E. QeBixhv 121 (D. 112 [D. precipitate: "which proves a pronun. Nous avons " Dial. tt rai &lt. p. 1161. with regard to Lokrian to maintain nothing and with regard to Elean only a spirantic S and fi.follows : — en gree moderne. in Olympia we have for the same word @E@TMON with one of those perplexing errors which characterise these bronzes*. Pronunciation of S '^■ Of the three double-consonants B '^ Z the two first demand but very little discussion. 8 114 THE PRONUNCIATION OF to be a corresponding instance*. 1152). It might be safer. 76 n. the tenuis is never aspirated in cases of elision and crasis. Epidaurus 'B^^/x. but always &lt. rants gourdes s'attirent au commence.r. 1168). that is to say although the symbol for the aspirate is in use. Meyer=^ p.li ix toO 8 E. Meyer assumes ment de deux syllabes oonsfioutives .-I. 11. 117. la seconde se change en I'ex. 119. 1172^'. member to have been a tenuis k tt*. The older Greek races.as spirant op. 1885. the reformer of Attic orthography in the archonship of Euclides'. viffKoi B. A. 65/66. 291. and according to Theophrastus this was done even by Archinus. 322 {D. 1161). G. On the other hand v6 etc.-I. 262 (on Cret. 1478. and sporadically also on Phokian and Boeotian inscriptions. Thrax B. 226. as for instance H0PK02 irevropKia. gnes.* See p. 321. HAPEN {(I'yeLv) OnAPON anrap/wv.' Ahrens D.' Dion. 1159. eeefidv twice . Whether this err ctk is an indication of spirantic pronunciation. 677/8. Finally here also OiOfiiov occurs with doubled aspirate. p. 261). employed as has been mentioned above •X^a &lt. rb Bh &lt.pa for the symbols which they did not yet possess. at K . Meyer^ p. In the case of Lokrian we again find the same apparent indication which we found in Alcman . I do not know". Dion. as the Athenians and Boeotians.-Inschr. P. iwcuyeiv. quand les deux spirantes sont eonti. G.rB." Keiroi) tJ J iK tov k xal a. which is allied to Elean. and on an inscription which is apparently Elean tvtOov^. A. les spi. Ital. plosive correspondante. 2 G. spirantic 5 2nd ed.-I. 109.-I. 1147. hut the aspirate is J dih rod k khI to \j/ Sik tov t t6v avpt- . ib. 1479). S being a jpa/ifia 1 ST E6M no.

. the ancients from the time of Archinus and Aristotle* always regard it as a double-consonant. Ar. uairep t6 d."' ^ T(f KVftT(p Kal vieiofiivif ix TOV ((TX^TOV. p. on the island of Amorgos. on inscriptions in the same alphabet the tenuis occurs in the case of f as well as ^Ir : k&lt. oBcV TO f vpoiivai (op. wa-irep to t. as laid down by Aristotle himself Metaph. (E. In modern Greek this is always a simple sound. 144 does not tell us much).pOT 4puv article.. Tois dSovTas. no. tto-'. Kal 8(4 toOto to f Korct touttji' yevpSffSai.never found written in the case of the y/wv aToSlSoun. 321«. 1093 A. but that actual assimilation also took place dialectically and absolutely destroyed the explosive. 23) Kal 'Apx^ms ixPV''&gt. amypinrijiai Mykale B. Kal Sii. 115 ■n-vevfiarwSe^^. German sagen.and S° (in three double consonants. and Styra Beohtel 19"^ Xopoirs. tovto to \p irpos T(f axpif yevvaaSai. 113" {D. fi\Sip ovroiv afj. uaTCp TO K.^wveiadoA. "' uTTopel OeoippaffTos • IXeye ykp 6 'A. 68) touVj. owing to the three positions of articulation. which was colonised by Naxians. ^ ^ were liable to be heard instead of «7r. rrjv xiipa. Met. Pronunciation of Z. 1154). just as much as ^ i/r . (op. 79). namely a soft or sonant s (French zdro.-I. 5i tJ airodia-ei.. 7) f^ia Ti Trapi riji/ iwaiv tQiv ^eiXfiv ^k&lt. for inscriptional forms note 4 below. though on 263 MotpalSris . Nal-o-w (Na^tou) are written with the symbol for the spiritus a8per^ Unfortunately •\|r or a substitute for it does not occur on the inscription . Section 31.t. 78. ttis •yKuTrris us (k toS vr a avyKelfievov • TJ t$ TrXoTei t^s yXiMriis irapi. p. The third double-consonant Z presents a most difficult problem. « E. (that these are ANCIENT GREEK. 940: Also on the Xnthias insorip..&gt. English zeal) . is shewn by the ancient boustrophedon inscription of Naxos where e[-a-oxo&lt.&lt. and indeed the grammarians make it consist of o. ? Syrian Schol.

' Plato, op. p. 105 n. 2 above. 2 Eohl no. 407=Bechtel no. 23. 8 Beohtel Inschr. d. ion. Dial. no. 29 Aap.ir(ray6peui ; ib. note (Diimmler Mitth. XI. 99) 'A\eKa-oi. * Aristot. Metaph. 1093 a, 20: ^Trei

Kal ri S^Z av/Mfiuvias ipaalv etvai (the three double consonants are compared with the three musical chords, octave, fifth and fourth), Kal Srri iKetvai TpSs, Kal TavTa TpLa, Sti di fivpta av elr] toiaSra (that the possible number of double consonants would be countless) oiSiv yU^Xer t4 yli,p V Kal P efij av h&gt; ariixetov (a simple symbol might be devised for yp). el S' on SiirXiAnov twv dWuji (as the others) iKatTTov (soil, of those three), S.\\o S oO, aXnov S' on Tpi&amp;v ovTuv kv iip' iKasTov ivi,&lt;t&gt;ipeTai Tiff a (v.l. Tb (7, cp. Sohol. p. 381), Sib, TOVTO Tpla libvov icHv, dXX' oix on a! aviupavlai. TpeU (the construction and argument are confused here, the schol. certainly had a different reading). " Dion. Thr. I.e. : to ^ ix toO a xal S; op. Sohol. p. 780, 814, 815. Dionys. Halio. p. 78: SitXS 5^ X^ovnr aiT&amp; ■iJTOi dia TO aivBera elvai, to fih f Sid to" (T Kal S, t6 Si f Sia toB k Kal it, to 5^ ^ Sii, ToO IT Kal &lt;r &lt;rw6(j&gt;Bapfiiviav ISlav ipuiriiv 8—2

Ii6 THE PRONUNCIATION OF this order). Archinus also says that it contains a S, and on this point certainly there ought to be no dispute. The German pronunciation giving it the sound (te) of their own z is of course a mere misuse and is not defended, but many modern philologists imagine its sound to have been somewhat like zz (double sonant s) and endeavour not without a little violence to bring the authorities into harmony with their theory\ Such speculations as these I cannot follow but rather believe, that the sound, which men like Aristotle and Dionysius of Halicarnassus heard, must have really existed. But with reference to the sequence of the two elements G. Curtius also has entered the lists against the ancients supporting the pronunciation ds (more correctly dz, with the French value of zy. This pronunciation too can be designated as traditional; for in Italian the z of Greek words has still this sound {zelo, zeta), and it is easy

to shew that the tradition goes back to an early period'. On the other hand, according to that excellent authority Psichari, the pronunciation of f as dz which is at present current among the Greek islands is not to be regarded as in any way traditional, any more than the pronunciation of crtr a- as ts (reTcrapa, drcrijfii = ao-. "silver"). Psichari states that in Chios, the various stages of this modern development may be observed side by side : nomi^zo, nominzo, nomindzo^. Moreover, as dy is etymoXay-pavovTa, rj Sid to x'^P"'" ^Trix^iv dveiv &lt;rvyKe!ff6ai, oiS4TroTe St X^fi s 'BXXijwK^ ypafifwTOjp iv TOLs (rvWa^ais TapaKafi- els dcpuvov KaToKrjyeL). The evidence * pav6/iemv SKa&lt;TTov. — p. 82 : rpiui' Si from Greek sources is therefore unTuiv AWav ypajxiMTav a Sij Si?rX2 KoKel- animous except the scholia on Aristotle , TOi TO f fiaXKov T]Sivei, t^v Ako^v tuv in which certainly (p. 331 n, 33, 42) eripinv • to lihv yap f Sid toO k Kal to \j/ the o- is denoted as the second sound Sia ToC TV Tov (xvpiyimv iiroSlSiaai., ypiXQw for all three douhle letters. For the ovTav A/j,^oT4p&lt;av, tovto S' rja-vxv ti? Scholiast thus understands the iinTTpeu/iOTi SaavveraL (on account of the (piperai. of Arist., which however in media S contained in it), Kal icrn twh this author (s. Bouitz Index) by no i/j.oyei'wv yepvaibraTov (the noblest, most means has the later meaning ' follow '. euphonious sound). This passage is ^ Ascoli (see preceding note), wrongly interpreted by Ascoli Krit. ''■ Curtius Grrdlr^ p. 615. Stud. p. 365 f. of the German trans., ' We have also the testimony of who finds in it an indication of the the Latin grammarians, see below, sound 2V). — Sext. Empir. p. 662, Bk.; * Mondry Beaudouin Bull, de corr. Bekk. Anec. p. 1175 (f cannot like ^\p hell. iv. p. 366 (Carpathus). stand as a final, Silm i(t tov a koX 8 Sok^I

ANCIENT CREEK. 1 17 logically at the root of f, dz may easily have been developed from this just as in Italian mezzo i.e. meddzo comes from medius (medyus), orzo from hordeum (ordyum); diurnus giorno {dzorno) also is essentially analogous. Accordingly this pronunciation too has its claims, and moreover the origin of the modern Greek pronunciation as simple z requires illustration; the third and not the least warranted pronunciation is that maintained by the grammarians, namely sd or more accurately, since s must be soft before the media, zd. Let us endeavour then to

do justice to each one, assigning to it its province and period. It is a well known rule that in Attic and Hellenistic Greek the preposition a-vv loses its v in combination with initial f : (Tv^TiTelv, a-v^evyvvvai, trv^rjv. If now d was the prior element in the compound letter ^ (syn-dsen), there was no reason for the rejection of the v ; we find a-vy^io), criifji,-\lr7j^o&lt;!. But if the pronunciation in Attic was sd, sy(n)sden is perfectly analogous to (rv{v)(nrav, &lt;rv(y)&lt;TKevd^ei,v. Here then we have our first confirmation of the tradition of the grammarians'. In the next place the preposition e^ must of necessity lose its s before S; before o- it need not. Now we find on the Attic maritime documents in big letters as a title e'f Zea?, i.e. eks sdeas^. Moreover the distortion of w Zev BecnroTa into w BSev hea-iroTa by an Attic comic poet would be very harsh if the pronunciation were Ao-ei), but quite easy if it were %Bev. We often find in Attica, Bceotia, Delphi, that is in central Greece generally, the spelling cr^for ^: Bva^dvTioi,, crvvayaivicr^oiievoi,, eTre-yjnj^ia-^ev^. If 5' = cS, this is analogous to the spellings mentioned above AeVcr/Sov, ypay^aaadat etc. ; for o-f is then equal to o-o-S. We 1 C.I. A.n. 793 f. 54. I can not "■ Meineke Frg. Com. iv. 688. appeal to i!^ fu^s Kaibel Epigr. no. ' Thebes Dial.-Insckr. 705, 20; 155, since judging by the very late C /. A. 11. 352, 315 ; KaTaSovXltrj^otTo date of the epigram we must rather Delphi W. F. 218, 11. Cp. my Miscell. suppose the simplified pronunciation epigraph.in the SaturaphilologaHerm. as z to have belonged to the f. It can- Sauppio oblata p. 124 f. {Kapirla-teadai . not be denied however, that the as- consular letter to the Oropians, 'E^. similation of ^f sometimes does not ipx- 1884 p. 101 ff. 1. 28 ; also Monum. take place or takes place wrongly : i^ Ancyr. /jtcla-tova, col. 15, 15 ; other "P6S0V ^1 'Privelas G. I. A. i. 259; 11. later exx. G. Meyer^ 225.) (Old Attic 814, 27 ; ^7 Ucipatm often 834'' 11. (ib. ff in Bi^ffai'Tioi, EXoffo/iei/toi, 'A ffeiot, Va(Sera). C. I. A. I. 230, 238.)

Il8 THE PRONUNCIATION OF find similar pleonasms in ef? on an inscription of Chios' and the xs which is so common in Latin for simple x ; sx and o-f on the other hand still require authentication, as also }^a. The s-sound then preceded in ^, while in ^ it followed. — e^wv for e(7T(ov on a Delphian inscription is a very instructive error in writing, which would be impossible if the pronunciation of ^ had been ds, but is easily intelligible supposing it to have been crh'^. In the next place in cases of contact o- + S frequently become f^. It is true that as a rule Bioa-SoTO'i 6e6ahoTo&lt;i are written just as eKtrm^co not e^(p^(o ; but we find on Boeotian

33 e. /3e^v&lt. 5 (Beohtel d. 122 a. Plat. 3136. 21.. For if this supposed ^e had been added. "A^ano'i Ashdod. Eokhel D.D... N. Cp. also in the other form xaMa'Sev (from x^AiaO 253. « 'Opo/i.-I. Kopai 556 .. Accord1 Eohl no. Artavasdes. Mazdak head of a sect 500 a. Thebes 708. just as 'OXvfiiriacTi. although now there is a tendency to analyze them rather into ^v-^Tjv.(Lentz Herodian 499) have been foimd Iiischr. 369 d . ©eoo-^oTo? AtofoTo?^. cp. ©eo^oTbBrj'i^. MiH/tcii. Inst. Here ep^m is found . 13 . found on the stone. 821. Inschr. had the sound of zd. and 'AO^jva^e -x^afid^e epa^e ffvpa^e to 'A6i]vaaSe Ovpacrhe etc.i Auramazda. dvaypaTrfat « x^lMBev (Att. Thessaly 345". 157). 300). 700 (R. 596 S.ion. the word would have been ^A6r]vr)^e just as 'A0ijvr]6ev and in Homer Ovprj^e like 0vp7j&lt. 914 col. " Dem. 3 (=E. Bohl no. 59 sq. in Plato. 1 ff.appears to me correct (accordingly at tion gives.. iv. Forms like 'Axap^fe ^ Qei6(rd.. d. 567 . might be cited in opposition. 226 . A. According to our view epa^e 'x^afia^e are formed on false analogy. n. arch. from the singular 'OXvfnrla.d. i. Apol. 807' . 151=Dial. C. Aiof. ^v^rjv also appears to me to be undoubtedly equal to ^vaSrjv. with f Tanagra D. 714. I. Dial.e etc. see ANCIENT GREEK.Dial. But we must now go back to the oldest form of Greek and especially of Ionic. so far as it occurred in the dialects. But '■' Wescher-Foueart 189. i.T/jLai and -jrXiySriv. as we find it in Homer. 'ApTaovd^r)&lt. II9 ingly from all this I infer that in Attica and central Greece generally f. Plut. No|(r(oc (=lwv) on G. — Lastly we find the zd sd of foreign names represented by ^: 'ilpofia^7j&lt.f)i Ovprjde^. n. Perf. Cp. Thebes Mor. Thesp..-Insehr. I. OsthofE. yet. ®io^6ra ®e^0T0&lt.Vli). Ale. an old coin of the Sicilian Naxians. 11 not ETO which the transcrip. 39. 944 A. ar. but BIO no doubt is to be most xo^W^ep). Meyapoi from the plural Miyapa. Plat. ntD coins of the Satraps.d. 1043 (-o-f-) . Ch: 2909 (Beolitel 144). Ion. 381 A. Gesch. 'A6riva-t. 982 neither in authors nor inscriptions as two sepulchral pillars . 1889.inscriptions side by side with @€i6aZoTo&lt. Herodotus and later writers''. 59.. not in Homer) Mykale G. and in Attic inscriptions as well as in authors ®e6^oTo&lt. 3130. I. and that this pronunciation was circulated and maintained at least in the case of the grammarians in the Hellenistic period up to the second century A.

19. I think. Graux. in Homer as in Attic. 414 f.e. 55). time of Herodotus downwards.j}. just as ZukwOo^ and a-Sda-Kio&lt. where likewise. ecrSofiTjv which are analogous to 'la-'x^io. since it is a fact that in old Noldeke Ber. epBco at all events is used by Herodotus. and i/Tretp HXa KlBvarai tJojs is read universally. e^6fiT)v i. if the sound was shd and Greek f was ds or z. 0. a-ha&lt. p. I do not think its omission in Aa-dKvv6o&lt. 42 f. from metrical necessity . is difiScult to pronounce. Mafo? is the Homeric and Ionic form for /xaaTo?. (Germ. Akad. Unters. a-Ki. 22. Paris ' Cp. the same is true of ctk in XKa/j. Gr.often falls out before tt and &lt.i].dvBpiov.. if ^=ds'i. "A^Tos universal from . if fa = a-Sa.rxov. — Aa stands in the place of the prefix fa in Satjioivo^ and Bd(yKio'.. cording to ood. N Matrit. de Plut. 8. and the latter writes "AfwTOT. according to my view there is here no change of sound whatsoever. Moreover initial f does not make length by position in Zekeia ZuKwdoi. codice Matrit. — Also it is admitted by all that 6^0^ comes from oaSo'. n. would be so easy.. Wien. p.. 1. where. 6&lt.. It is on the other assumption quite intelligible'. Ast). 1880. Thiersch Gr. 'Apraovdiris Plut. icrSco. and accordingly it could easily be dropped in XSd. ao. Now here the reading KafidvSpiov has authority". it would at once be easy to shew that zd too may originate in this.should fall out. why not ep^w.{ of other dialects : the former is fj.1 Osthoff Perf. (see Charles ^ La Eoche Horn. Crass. in Ionic also.Kvvdo'} also'. § 146. If the undoubted origin of z in dy be brought forward in opposition to this view. 596. And.j)oiv6&lt. that epahm should not remain.aaS6&lt. This is quite natural and easy. 1888.beside pe^w from the stem Fe/j^.. but that the o. the original sound has simply remained. We must add ifw i. there was nothing certainly to prevent him writing "Ao-Sojto?. fiaa06&lt. a-Keirapvov. moreover a.e.

Lautl. ion. although it preferred tt to (j&lt. Boeotian. and according to Eohl's instances. d. p. 316. also on coins of the Thracian Me.) : AAIKAPNAT[Efi]N arity of Euboea and Oropus.to. Dial. tries to institute is doubtful. it has (at least universally) admitted even dz. Dial. For in these Carian proper ^ Ahrens D. 239. On this side then there is really no obstacle. that the a-ir are all of a very problematical sound ts is hidden beneath the writing character. the rule which Ahrens (Bechtel 104. Cp.382 are too obscure in sembria: MBTAMBPIANfiN (Kirch.do. i.and Kkto.t. 122.Bechtel Insclir. It is true that there tya also becomes sta. OATATIOS. Attic might very well reject SS. 45 ff. Kicrus Styra no 19.Greek rya becomes -rra or -cro-a according to the dialect. This usage is not -airo-is -afis is written for -ATIS. But those who adopt Curtius' assumption are equally unable to shew any analogy between the treatment of ty in Greek and that of dy. Bull. A. 275. . which occurs in HaUoarnassus E. might nevertheless avoid the corresponding assimilation in the case of dz. Be it remarked however. not on in1 Miklosioh Altsloven. that tt and &lt. 139) in SAAATHS Tecs below. It seems to me also sufST. since not only has this in many dialects become S SS. and the Doric of Delphi. 580. the Attic sound of ^. HANTATIOS. 12). on the other hand it is certainly perplexing to meet with crB. Ascoli's proofs of the origin of tt in '■' I would however suggest. p. 37.for ty ts. as a dialectic peculiarity of the Lesbian and some other poets as Alcman and Theocritus*. especially as the sound of the soft s only existed in the language in combination with a consonant. but also other dialects have transposed the two elements. 191 in Theocritus. stiU doubts it. that tt was a peonli500 (5th cent. while here it would have been independent. 4 suggestion (p. to be of any use as hoff* p. hell. although and AAIKA[PNH]SSEfiN AAIKAPN. i.e. as ts has become tt in Thessalian. 23. — On Crete see p. n. constant either in the Aeolic poets o r de corr. Attic' and also Cretan. namely that the same language admitted dz but not fe" According to my view. whilst in . . 13. Meister names on other later inscriptions Gr. this is only in books.their derivation.I20 THE PRONUNCIATION OF Slovenian dya regularly becomes zda^.383 b. which had aa. eiently certain. 497 B. 129.both go bact to ts. HSSON. vi. v. 240). and they have to explain what is absolutely surprising. iv.

1. D. 311) is 'B0.) and in spite x. 13.Bull. 31 fE. Keil Bullet.8 I stUl have no doubt in spite of Morsbach dial. For ^fivpva did not represent the actual pronunciation zmyrna (with soft s) with greater propriety than Z/Mvpva. on 1 Tpotrovv/jii/TSeffBai on an inscrip. I would suggest however.415. that ^fi appears so often subsequently. v.*. Stud. where f = zd. y. p. in which latter spelling the d became mute spontaneously. iEolic Kffivos n^XoTTs UpaKs (Ahrens p.^ 666) ANCIENT GREEK. in itself however it by no means proves the simplification of the f. Schneider 1888. 'Bpoo-fAtfa of course only an affected archaism. Meister 127. as xPV'^-^l^l"')putting it in the same category virith ' Coins of the Satraps 1t331Q. de. Doric (Ahrens D. which in their dialect arose from St. 1857.-IracAr. 127=Dia«. and for such a f no one cites any instance of the writing a^. evidently pronounced -zmoi.. 1t3nn. h. corr. as was mentioned under a. It is however noteworthy. the Lesbian inscriptions as early as the fourth century have always f'. 121 scriptions. Tipl^a^o&lt. . de St Pet. 228 (to be divided gard it merely as a matter of spelling. we cannot yet expect a satisfactory solution of this riddle.and ^ are not entirely limited to this case. ^apva^a^o&lt. E. 38 f. 12. A. but wrote this with two symbols. xpijcrf/ito Cos 2 The grammarians themselves re." a-f also occurs occasionally before tion of Cyme of the Eoman period /i : hSfa^iiovi Ath.. BodUiana-p. with f = Persian z". 324 ff. This orthography Zfivpva ^^evvvvai is. Curtius' recantation (Etym. 125 f. iii. Gurtivs Stud.). C.. in a dialect which we have claimed for the pronunciation zd. But an antiquated spelling might easily be transmitted in the manuscripts of poets ^ and be adopted by artificial poets like Theocritus. of G. de I'acad. Noldeke Ber.}. very widely circulated in the Hellenistic and Roman period °. that the ^olians pronounced sd as the Athenians. 179 {Mel. Wien. Titt {Hva) H in exx. a few other 3 With Sid — fi£ op. this sound must have been z {dzY. and moreover the alternations between o. 1553 . We find on an inscription of Cnidus l^rj^ai/a {^i^a-aa-ay . 1883. 204''. 43). Greco-rom. A difficulty of a different sort is the Delphian /caraBovKi^fjifSi. 48 f. 277). 4 Wesoher-Foucart 433.before a vowel : ^a = Sni. Akad. ii.. ' Kaibel Epigr. (Macedonian period) (Cauer no. Theocr. Thus in the Attic period also we find beside 'ilpofid^i]'. Kap^a . that considering the few fragments which we possess of the Lesbian poets and the almost entire want of early ^olian inscriptions. employing f for that sound. I. Asooli (Krit. It appears to me.419.

0/(reo-eat also C. and I think the Atheaveragely faulty .— 'Opo/i(«r5ou Inscr. the Papyrus of nians wrote it thus. L. is certainly strange.) 'A. Boeckh See-Urkunden p. for in the case of ks ps ^ yjr are always used in these transliterations and adaptations.—'Apio^ap^dviis is to throw light on ^Xifiat (=ii\iKt&lt.) 719. Further discoveries are PnchBteinJ3«ri. 172. (from OTyo&lt. pap.) 467 does not exist.. dvSd^adai = dvSdrcraOai dv{a)Bd(T(Taa-0ai (f«(j5= ^(oov)*. 194. 6.122 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ordinary papyri v^pi^av. 11 Artavazdis * Comparetti Mus. 14 . Meister writes here 'A(&lt. ii. ii 481 o'. see G. here. Ital.i/ tppovH. (The attic ^?. 142.g.C. 162.find in the texts 'A/jio/3apf.r5/))oi5^w. and TT or 88 according to the circumstances. n. 212. while for the preceding era we have as yet only found the sound zd. 1st.! = 6Tcro&lt. B. oaroi. The inflection according to the 2nd col. A. later on we 1 Pap.. 202 f. for -^eadai. Now f occurs to all appearance with such a value. certainly pressingly wanted. 131. 2 f. 1 .e.) on a Theban inscription is really AIPOTBH". 224. ts or dz.s. A.In Herodotus however (7. 110. in order col.). 2 We find on the Monum. All these pieces are more than ('Ap7-o)j3of(li'7.. But this disappeared in Crete at an early date. "Eo-Spa?. 40. II" lO. 809\35. and initially 8 was written for it. 'Aprapdtov. I. 6 above.j&gt. And certainly zd could be simplified to z by a gradually weakened pronunciation of the d. 5. p. as a general rule it is true the writers of the papyri know how to distinguish the two letters. 'Ao-SooS. Cretan iuscr. though now we Hyperides on the contrary shews no.!. In the next place. cent. e. 29 Artaba{zi) 'Apra^dtov. the claims of which must now be put to the test. against the value zd we have the Hellenistic spellings 'Ao-Spou/Sa?. 26 Artavasdis Greek 'Apraovdj. vasdi 'ApTaovda-Sri. 3 Nci^w (Accus. col.C.) we find (Tw. the pronunciation was probably forms. that the presumably Carthaginian name ASIOTBO (gen. (the latter thing of the kind. Ancyr. on old Cretan inscriptions : o^o^ i. 49ff. ib. 5.).beside NiS/Sax. Weil position-length. especially Sou. Dial. I.-Imehr. of hitherto f had not occurred on old Antiochus of Commagene (69—34 B. 1 &lt. and I would also confidently suggest. 210. ia-vyr} {e^vyvvY . 674.deol. Cp. Mommsen p.opvTl^€i. 'Apraovda-Sr]&lt.) .Momfs6fir. generally simplified. Thus the Gortynian inscription. 'npofidaSov' . 1883. 118.f) written by Greeks and Latins with Fol^rja { = FolK7ia) and such monstrous z . 41 (S^p. So far then we should conclude that the modern Greek pronunciation prevailed in the Hellenistic popular language. where in any case there was . but this is true to a still greater degree of dz. 30 Arta. 4. 1" 19. ii.

-amm -arum. for ds ts . Meyer. The Latin Grammarians. is ex395 (Osk. 196.) discussed he gives as the fourth and ' Victorin. far-fetched solutions of the riddle as Mommsen Unterital. with a stronger articulation of the initial letter. and this must be the more original.ANCIENT GREEK.l/. Corssen Auspr. but only on Italian. horz hortus. knowledge of this to a kind communi. on the most universal zz. if they do not actually deny altogether the compound . Oscans and Umbrians. I23 find also OdXaOOa and also Trjva Trfiva Arjva {Zrjvay. employ Z always either for the soft (S-sound or. Havet. Of these dakaOOa with spirantic 6 appears to be a sort of compromise between real Cretic daXarra and the ordinary daXacrara. Umbr. whatever the Chalcidians did. who brought the alphabet to them. although sometimes under Greek influence they resolve z into sd'. The best however not to venture on such curious Oscan Niii/w5ii. consequently those Greeks too.is (Messana. Mgmoires de la soeiSU de Greeks not possessing the simple z linguist. 1" Nivmsi-. but the first syllable long by position : qua e 124 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ds (ts). (For (rS cation of the author himself. Dial. that is especially the Ghalcidians. Whether they { retained it with this value. nevertheless maintain elsewhere. It is this I cannot at once follow. pihaz piatm. sound (the name is written elsewhere 2 On this cp. Niumpsius. 192—196. Faliscans. The whole subject of f in the become the simple sounds. or later on like the Cretans rejected \ the sound-combination dz. I owe my without S interpolated a d after it. is of course another question. For the Italian peoples. on the same inscr.zd being famiUar to them. 256. TSi(ii)\pi. p. m. and this would explain the fact. the Latins. 192). menzaru mensa. but Trfjva might be something like ddena. plained by Havet by the assumption. that this value appeared again in the time of the Empire and has continued to the present day. as an instance of Virgilian Mezentius with the vowel of which he gives the Latin badiseo . that it is equivalent to 1 Meyer^ p.that with certain Greeks aS too had rum). It is quite Italian languages has been worked out as possible however to say that the by L.os). in Italy however z may have been maintained as ds ts. the three values of f which we have ttit in ovwireiis for &gt. and where in the Greek-speaking world can it be said to have continued its existence ? As a matter of fact we find no trace of it on Greek soil. must j have possessed the ^ with the value of dz^. Besides instead of f op. 217. 273. In any case the original ts dz in Crete disappeared in later times without leaving any trace. vi. to express which the tenuis was brought into requisition. who finds a palatal S ^'^ ^^^ where aS represents the simple soft sinitial sound of Trijeo. K.

34). quo- . Moreover in the vulgar writing of the later empire z appears representing di followed by a vowel : Aziabenicus or Azabenicus.. — Martian. 239. wanting in Greek. does not refer to f and u. vii. and in doing so speaks of / (and u) as compensatory letters belonging to Latin. (z) si adsumpta non esset. V. no doubt in the same way and having the same value as in the common Italian mezzo and the Venetian mazore. The latter sound-combinations however did not hold their ground. but to and v : qtios mutuari solemus refers to speaking. For the very reason that z in itself was not a double consonant. the latter from norrddzo. which in Semitic signifies simple z (soft s). In those places where dz idem dioant. § 257 considers the sound of Greek f to be TS. So Spalding and before him Gesner. and also for j (y) : — cozugi. K. to which corresponded a ts from ty. To sum up then. 320 ft. 380. in. similarly Samech (s) had to serve for ks. Verrio Flacco (time of Augustus) placet mutas esse. the result being that hizdo and nomizdo.. He goes on to deny that s is according to its actual sound a double consonant . the former original. '' Corsseu 1^. per d et s litteras faceremus (obscurely p.nature of the letter'. zeta (diaeta). a distinct sound at the beginning and end of its utterance. some wished to write Mezzentius in Virgil. 27 f. that the passage Quintil. 6. per s et d Mesdentium scriberemus. p. Cp. like x. In ancient times the Greeks possessed the sound-combination zd. K. for it is. in o^o'i i^o/jLrjv etc. 308 I remark. 215 f. Viotorin. partly also as it seems dz . Zanuari^. Terent. L. si modo latino sermoni necessaria esset. 10. Schneider p. 51 : atq^ue has [tres] litteras (x also as well as z) semivocales plerique tradiderunt. Vel. coincided in sound. XII. sic et z. while he comes afterwards to writing. the following seems to be the result of the whole investigation. K. 921. This grammarian then (time of Trajan) evidently pronounced a simple modern Greek f. 1 Mar. vi. susceptible of being doubled and in pronunciation it has not. Seelmann p. Long. To denote zd the Phoenician Sain was taken. and beside it a ds which was developed from dy. Maur. he says. — Against Seelmann Auspr. Cap.

0. a p). nee eandem potestatem nee eundem sonum esse." inquit "z litteram per sd scribi ab iis qui putant iUam ex s et d oonstare. Hiatus. una a c. the sibilant must have been doubled. possibly the Macedonians were the originators and propagators of the change. alii BiXaTTav.niam a mutis incipiant. where the single word is modified by the surrounding words in the main in the same way. sed secundum diversas dialeotos enuntiari. cent.j)a\i]v. and this certainly presents difficulties in the cases where it was initial. quod in semivocalem desinant. In other localities it was otherwise. probably this was carried out still more in pronunciation than in writing. '' mihi videtur esse aliud z. "sciant. aliud (rly/^a. With regard to the first point the Greek language appears to stand midway between the Sanskritic method. entire independence. according to the wants of the dialect . alios IxeSl^eiv. as in Va^a and the numerous Hebrew names such as Za^x^apia^. as long as it held its ground. Assimilation in Word-neayus . quodsi quos movet. On the other hand in the case of final p and a. if we find f for Sain in transliterations. 113 above. ut sine dubio muta finiatur. During this period there is no cause for surprise. e. altera a d (mss. it too and also ts were represented by Sain = Zeta . cum ANCIENT GREEK. the sound zd being strange to them. assimilation does not take 1 See p. and indeed any separable parts of a word. and the method of our own language. neo ideo tamen eadem littera est. with this value it reached the Italians. There is however no reason to assume that the simplification of the compound took place before the Hellenistic period . Dores enim scimus dicere neXia-dav. alii Strxara alii o/iiMTa. as the elements of a single word are modified by one another. which allows single words. alii 8aKa(rirav dicunt. Kal S^Xra. We have yet to make some general remarks on the combination of words and on their accentuation. alii Ke&lt. I 25 was in use. Correspondingly on a bilingual Attic inscription we find Sain as the Phoenician equivalent of 5" in Bv^avrlai Section 32. We have spoken above of the assimilation of the final nasal. as well as ^ and i/r. non magis quam cum alii Kc^aKfiv.?): Wtl n^l?3 Nnn = E(i)- . in Indian names such as 'O^Tjvrj Ujjayini. if in spite of this the sound continued to form length by position. in Elis Z was used for spirantic S\ In the pronunciation zd however the sibilant gradually overpowered and extinguished the d. or for English j = dz.

—Cp. 123.7 Mayvqirias Ditt. 1. namely in the case of e^ and at most also in ef irv^ \a^.and the intermediate form iKy: e. dpx. . for instance not infrequently that of .. 1 27 oftener written ef According to a similar rule we have \aKirareiv from \d^. e? rot epyoi Arcadian. certainly not to be pronounced engonos and derived from eV. the prepositions compounded with the " ''Evydi'ois. For instance the combination k(t6 is not suffered in the interior of words. that it is found regularly even on the papyri. ITl^'s. blunder due to l^-y. Semitic.The Boeotians and Arcadians however assimilated the f in quite a different way. 369 iKvidov^ . eySdKTvXo&lt. The absence of the preposition eh i&lt. 126 THE PRONUNCIATION OF place or only in a very slight degree. ANCIENT GREEK. i. 84). Syll. and Meist. — Since assimilation went no further than this. in Latin also &amp. And this was so established as a usage in writing. for which eV Arcad. Index p. in the case of final ^ however this takes place only in very close combination. Lebadea 1. Before p * Cauer Curt.^ 863 ft. ^7 "Pu/ioO Athens 'E^. : iaBeWeiv (iK^dWetv). The numeral 6^ can in Attic in like manner become e/c ey: sk ttoSwv. or sion of consonant before ax mi Sjtrfpou.is rejected {Tre-irKej^^dai for TreirXeKaQai) . i. p. 1883.^ was written. where of ej (above) . where we write one word. and that with a noun. eKyovo'i. tv was employed. 123 Meisterh. but the Greeks even in writing assimilated the mute to the following sound with great regularity. apx. and at an earlier period before cr also.^5 is a verb. frfjvri Bvi^avrla.* . los. the preposition is never separ.' Corp. on the other hand it is extended to Athens 'E0. iyypi^pa&lt. 125. there was the same close connection and consequently the same assimilation^. e. ed. 126.e. to reject the cr .. made no distinction between their combination with a verb. ii.. Dittenb. namely by rejection of the a. As regards the prepositions we must remark beforehand that the language. 781. Inscr. ■irvyiJ. Dittenb. p. 1. Oorssen Auspr.appear (ib. made this possible without ambiguity. other irregularities also the words are still separated by puno.1883. . 85. before media or liquid e^"". very harsh consonantal contacts always remain possible in Greek. 2ud ed. ecryovo'i and also before a vowel ia-crdpxi' {e^dpxeC) Boeotian. The only way in which we practise this in the case of e^. 120 (3rd. "Eyyovo'i also comes under this head. 62. tuation. V.^ = ixyp.dxo'! from nv^. p.T0ai 2 Meisterhans 2nd ed. but o. is to write 6« before a consonant. 2nd. omissuoh separation is often omitted. and this is true of Latin as well as Greek. Stud. though there in the case of ev and avv contrary to our custom the assimilation is omitted. ib. 63.s. no. 294 f. 132. 82-4. iv. vm. ated from the noun .. 58. on the other hand two instances (Vulgar dialect) 'AB'^v. the tenuis only standing before k t tt % o-.g. still even in composition it is just as often or 1 On those early inscriptions.e. before 6 (j).

but 'Apia-roreKT)'. forma et mu.names. awBiaews. but when the prose writers began to pay attention to this point. that of Nonnus. an inscription of Chios has ^'?. x&amp. (Altenburg) 1880. cjid. later on they thought more of clearness ^ Thus even in poems we frequently find such combinations written in extenso on old manuscripts and inscriptions. 39 : dper^i re oix. 11. 53 yvvaiKl commonly not elided before proper icrSXiiv. * Kaibel Epigr. p. in the case of which elision or crasis was possible . how far these processes appear in writing.with ttt. 381" 2. and the Romans always write in extenso. 5 ft. 52 di (pfybiv. but according to strict observance nothing like eKTija-ar 'ApiaroTe\.rj(. contented to allow only those vowels to come into contact. so that the hiatus did not present itself at all. I. 32. S'. Kaari. or BrjXoocrai/j. Moreover . where in pronunciation elision must have taken place*. leaving all words that had any importance and independence separated. also before titles of office. after Geyer 05s. ravr. kt. that is they slurred so quickly over the first vowel. epigr. they went farther and put limits even to this kind of combination of distinct words. in the earlier period men preferred to spare their material and trouble. an Attic inscription oKTm '/3oXcov\ Proper contraction generally takes place in the case of preceding monosyllabic words. iv avrw.^ dv. that it formed one syllable with that following and a 1 Dionysius of Halioarnassus in. It is quite another question. But they avoided a very close combination of words by contraction of the vowels which came in contact.. The same punctiliousness as is well known characterised the Roman poets from the time of Augustus onwards. a contact which even in composition the language has no means of obviating : irpoavTalo}. Short initial vowels disappeared after long ones in the case of such words and in familiar daily combinations. Lpz. so that in the case of prepositions and such small words it entirely disappeared : nrdpeaTi. and thus give to his composition either a harsher and stronger or a softer and more polished character'. A. eKTrjaaro was substituted. 834'' II. and preferred to slur quickly over the first vowel. vestigates this point in his treatise irefil Meisterhans p.final o. as was the practice in the interior of words. The author however was to a great extent at liberty either to avoid or to permit such contacts. de praep. 2 Eohl no. ' For this reason the preposition is 49 re iralpomv. 128 THE PRONUNCIATION OF hiatus did not take place \ The Greek poets were at all periods except the latest one. 55 di dpeT^s etc. but according to the testimony of Cicero pronounced in ordinary conversation just as in verse. Accordingly we find oXX'. which in any case are closely dependent but whose presence must somehow be made evident : rovpyov.The Greeks were in general far more sensitive about the contact of vowels. Gr. C. 70. was readily allowed.

Section 33. § 18 : fngiemus orebras vocalium quidem distrahere voces (i. at all events in speaking. nevertheless in the nexus of early Latin neither the quantity of the vowels nor their quality made any appreciable difference. who allowed this in speaking and did not get rid of it by synalepha. the people however no doubt even at that period pronounced in the latter way. discriminating between the several cases . 129 case must have been the same with the Greek of that period. ut haec est : Baccae ipsae horridulae Catonis (in which etc. This is faciunt orationem.al diountur. e. Indicant orationes illa. Dionysius of Halicamassus found the hiatus fiSXKov U okov in his Demosthenes. than with synalepha Ka\d 'a-riv'. Quintilian gives rules as to how far the use of hiatus is permitted to a speaker. pulchra oratione acta^.ev to via koX KaXa iariv.e orationem reddunt. except that in an example such as that cited in the ad Herennium as to be avoided. The 1 Cio. For even the Greeks of the present day are accustomed to annul the hiatus. 33 f Ad Berenn. jungere (in pronunciation). vocales) couoursiones. baccae aeriae amoenissumae impendebant. quam si omnia ANCIENT GREEK. the occasional advantage of which he allows. Graeoi viderint : nobis ne si cupiamus iv. Orat. 152 : sed ^ Quintil. Demetrius who is somewhat later considers it actually more euphonious. the pronunciation at that time must have been. qui vocalis nolit con. people in ordinary conversation must have omitted the harsh combination and allowed hiatus I But Quintilian cites as an example of dexterous hiatus in opposition to synalepha. (rvva\oi(j&gt. while the hiatus on the other hand was no longer avoided. therefore a hiatus must frequently ^ § 36: et coeuutes litterae. Transference of final consonants. . etc. 150 : quod quidem scarcely contradictory to § 77 (on the Latina lingua sic observat. so to speak.orator). purer giving every word and every syllable of a word its proper expression and value. evidently only because there were speakers at that period. quae have been suppressed even in script). which had been customary before. quae vastam et hiantem conceditur. etiam leviorem indicant omnes poetae. ix. no less in ordinary conversation. nemo ut occasional use of hiatus by the humUis tarn rusticus sit. i.it appears that in the time of the empire the Romans avoided this combination of vowels. and imagined that this was really intended by the orator'. to pronounce the vowels separate in the sentence -n-avTa /j.

on the other hand. BivTa eitpoivbrepa. a \ irayovra. crvvy).Beitrage p.. the right analysis even in the case of simple words was a matter of doubt. Vid. A transference between article and noun (tc!) | vep'^mv) and also between other looser connections may have taken place frequently*. \ aSe (beside TO. which sing the praises of the miracles of healing worked by Apollo and Asclepius with classic mendacity. (is to TrovTa Kri.rji. 1127 f.In ancient Greek. Su-o-eX-Trt?. wvvdv. is the doubling of final v in short words in close connection. I think that this pronuncia- . but he writes more frequently eia-ayyeXia than el-crayye\ia. just as in French en-tretuv. In the case of a. e'f | ek&amp..e. 11. whether the pronunciation really was so entirely established and certainly whether it continued the same through the different periods.. Sv(t ^uv6qnam hiulca etiam decent faciuntque repov (trrai to \ey6fi. but they did not divide so (in writing) except in rare instances. v. Lentz Herodian. as has been already remarked. The pronunciation and separation ov I KecTTi. Schmidt iiatjiuva tjv. 134 ff.ttu&gt. E. Dem. i \ vvirviov.evoii Kai cireX^irampliora quaedam : ut Pulchra etc. thus i-^c-evai. diacpeSivTa di Kal iTxr/Kpovts. rjvvej((ov^. Artec. and moreover sometimes rav \ tou%. repov. avvvfji (i. Kal &amp. A peculiarity worthy of mention.ffucaXel^os elirois Ka\a '&lt. The writer of the great Hyperides manuscript indeed always separates d \ ireariWere and so on where the line breaks off. which appears on the Gortynian inscription and elsewhere sporadically. ov I yrfKiaTo!^ was certainly established.7-o9 of equally little significance. so that it belongs to both syllables : ravvrifilvav. verba Buo fine eludantur. final consonants were liable to be carried on. . 42. § 70: iroWii. 62. just as in French. the final consonant remains with the preceding vowel . 407 f. Wherever in composition a consonant comes before a vowel it belongs to this vowel without any exception. p. though hardly to such an extent.. but Sva--fiop-(f)o&lt. 9 I30 THE PRONUNCIATION OF We are at liberty to doubt. a-Tre-Kel-vov. K. et 5e P. ^ Theodosius Bekk.cr \ ra yaa.indeed.\\a h awaXoi^v M^" ^cyi/ieva 390 ff. et nonnun. that where elision of a final vowel has taken place the consonant preceding this must be given to the following syllable : Ka-re-fiov. even in the case of e^ et? tt/jot Sva-. Si ed. ip/i. 2 Demetr. which are paralleled by instances of the opposite such as o&lt. e | ktovtov. the following examples of line-division occur: a&gt. The teaching of the grammarians is°.\ rpi' o | o-rpaKo). hence these rules. sometimes ouS' | ocrTt?'. Gbttl. A.'x^i. On the long Epidaurian inscriptions.. Although Bucheler is of a different opinion. if a consonant follow. ' Dionys. which were of course capricious.

17 i \ k tuv. also v crff 469. 10. 9). 3 oi) | KdXlya. n. 131 Section 34. not voice-stress and still less voice-duration. 16.1883 p. 81 oi \ p. 199 . Hyperides mss. 15.) . and finally almost to banish them. Ii/o^Xt??. at which this extraordinarily important transformation took place. but even tunes. Insc. With regard to the accent of words it is well known. which also finish ^ Gortyn. For the versification of the classical period makes no account whatever of word-accent". 148 (Biichfrom T etc. Praefat. i." 23 irpo I abSovi .. Accent. 49. to enter on 211 ff. later Attic inscr. 467.^a\\bvTavi 7. 35 ^ I c ao-rei. * Several occur in the second 2 'E0.iEolian dialect: — da-vvenjiii. this inscription o. But in the postChristian period we find it the rule inBabrius' fables. — in TbvaaiTi.. avv oXiytp". of Antioohus (p. 9 . that is the tune (cp. iv. unaccented short : x^'Hs (^evov&lt. 403. — Samos Dittenb. 2. the line with a complete syllable : ii. I cannot however regard his . and Nonnus (end of the 4th century) never ends a hexameter with a proparoxyton'. since the accent was purely musical. p. 122. there was not the slightest reason why it should. 15. eler Rh. In the case of the pentameter an ever-increasihg effort can be traced right on from the Alexandrine period. and this was done for the most part in favour of the paroxyton termination which prevailed also in the Byzantine trimeter'. I. were set without regard to the accent. Cp. 1885 p. Dial. accentus) of ordinary speech'. apx. and indeed. Kidaas. vi. according to the testimony of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 41. 9 .° 15 irpoa \ (cap. A. The period. xl. ANCIENT GREEK. additional fasciculus 3 ib.is always separated " Meister Gr. For the Greek of the present day pronounces accented vowels long. II. Museo Jtal. Mus. In just the same way in the Latin of the ' This is not the place. 599 col. ix. Syll. that the penultimate syllable of the choliambic always bears the accent. Praef. to limit accented final syllables. 379. because on 12.tion gives the explanation for corresponding instances of licence in prosody in the . that in Greek this consisted in voice-pitch. 132. ii. irpoa-fpSia.iKairTio. ddrdpds. may be to a certain extent ascertained from prosody.s). but not Insor. which comes from II. p. 2 above) avv€(r(r6icu 3. TepelTiaffav is necessary. yimtd (yevoiTo). C. 1 Hyper.. xvi. although in both the classical languages the latter was united with voice-pitch in the period of their degeneration'. adrdpUs.

high pitch (o^eta TrpoawSla). Orest.the contrary. Cp. Schmidt Metr. 1874. the circumflexed by the combination of the two symbols A. 441 ff. Hannsen Rh. ' Dionys. occurs in modern languages also . Hilberg. p. based on the statements of Dionysius Thrax. by Nigidius. Gompoi. Since the time of Aristophanes of Byzantium the low pitch syllables have been denoted by ^. Jahrb. Originally every syllable had its accent: AErOMENOI . Heinr. With regard to pitch and tone we are told by Dionysius.55 ff. 240 ff. H. H. -n-epia-'Trm/jLevr). appeals (28 f. to shew that there was some such 226. Weilof the grammarians. J. to which he Benloew Accentuat. Further accurate observation of the Greek poets has of late led to the assumption.). are certainly all late. for instance the ancient circumflex is heard in Italian in the case of double consonants (donna. and see little for which Seelmann also maintains an trace of anything of the kind in Latin original predominance of the factor of versification. that there existed in the language from the earliest period side by side with the variety of pitch a variety of stress following laws coinciding with those of Latin accentuation: namely the stress is said never to have rested on the last syllable and on the last but two only when the penultimate was short". afterwards page 62 : rj S^ . Weil GSttiiiger stress over the musical. that the interval between high pitch and low pitch syllables amounts pretty nearly to a fifth ^ Now our accentual system. das Prinzip der Sil.the controyersy with regard to Latin. 2.). 66 ff. x"/*'"" roirov r\eioi&gt. . (1852) p. 2 Attempts have indeed been made " F. This kind of accentuation or that corresponding to it. M to ^api. exclusively) is testified to so early as * This law was discovered by A. the high pitch by -^. 9—2 132 THE PRONUNCIATION OF same period the transformatioB in the pronunciation may be ascertained from the metrical phenomena'. attempts as successful. The evidences Philologenvers. It appears to me however still doubtful whether this is the true significance of the observations. regard (v. in which the sequence is from low to high.. Ludwioh (Fleckeis. 85 ff. distinguishes only three kinds of syllables. p. 63 E. Mm. On ' Isid. xxxviii. so called from the ' drawing round ' the accent from high to low)*. lat. Stella). with while the musical factor (and that examples from Eurip. gradually became rounded. low pitch {^apeia irpoa-wSio) and those in which high and low pitch are united (in that order) (irpocr. which . but in course of time the notation 1 Weil-Benloew p. Dionysius of Halicamassus and others.

i dv^p del.ilKcc. Wien.evTj and a sixth accent. iirneTafievri (= of eta). this middle pitch probably comprised besides the final syllables which properly speaking were oxytone all syllables following next after a high pitch and likewise the second half of a syllable having the circumflex I Glaucus of Samos made the number as many as six : dveijievrj (= ^apela). is iyyi-cTa. For example many distinguish a fj^ear]. XXXVII. p. of which not even the name or indeed anything else concerning it is established.. 1879. oi rif Sia irhre agreeing in principle. Dion. where the high pitch was partially suppressed in the speaker's context. the penultimate. all the syllables do not really have the same pitch. t&amp.Tanv h t^ 6idq. makes the law 1161/01'.v iv t^ irepLavuifihri. . 531 ) aire inTeberai iripq.Kal dSergii] explan. though re xPVtu irXdoirw.v rprnv Tovuni hands down to us several other names Kal iiiuTovlov iirl rb d^ii. p.. and since the high pitch never occupied more than one mora.v6. except that it belonged to the subdivisions of the circumflex''.iri ixria^s stress . confirmation able. aifivXcKTo i etc. irivre.. . if long. in Don. ANCIENT GREEK. appears to have been the 1 SeeBefcft. oixsCKusjmv h tiJ jSa/je/ji. who. Accordingly even in ancient times more accurate systems were put forward. dhovos. Cp. 629 Bk. Here the imperfection of this accentual system becomes evident. Hal. we may say. rj Karh i. that this gravis is often pushed of the ancient writing in the Egyptian so far to the right . or on final syllables.benwagwng. ij Kwra fiiv atni /iiXos hi iierpeiTai StacrT'fiiian ireplKh. 58 : 5ia\4KTOv yj Kwrb. has the strong p. iv. 3 Dionys. for it is obvious that in K ar/ad6&lt. Mus. the gravis being placed only on the penultimate syllables of oxytones and perispomena instead of those accents being used. 60 ff. •• Dion. The dvTavaKkwiiivri however has its origin in the union of gravis and acute on the same syllable : Sai? 809. ktL of accentuation run quite differently. which was recognized also by the Roman Varro . : tocos iarl (puvrji i. which. dvTavaKXo)/j. ivapiiovlov. Varro Tip Xeyoii^vip dii. K. if not.aai. oSre Avlerai toO for Trepijir. Hannsen ipyavm-f] re Koi (jJSi/c^ ixoma 5iao-Ti)/ia(r ( Rh. Thrax the last syllable. to serve to denote such suppression'. 252. but this must not . 1 33 was simplified . 674. KSKXaa-fievrj (= TrepKrirco/ievrj). Covip. edv ^v. /Mea-rj. fortunately never attained general circulation. but unfortunately have not even been properly handed down to us".

J. XnOAPXi. Our position is easier.fragment of Alcman. the following syllable : A^NEIOT. The grammarians.. ATTAP. preceding word). p.. vi. Keil TrepiKeKXaa/j. The papyri of lead us to suppose that it belongs to the Iliad in London (Pap. prepared by himself. Stud. if I give this translation here. accentuation of all long vowels to which we give the acute'. 528 f. and in the fragment of the Iliad in the " See Varro 1. Misteli employed to represent the oxytone or Ueher gr. 47.). born in Chios like M. p. but T*OT (Pap. PsiCHARi of Paris has placed at my disposal.) . BIIEI (Pap. and in words with more than one EniiCCETONTO. together with an accurate phonetic transliteration. still both in them gravis AMOIBHAIC. 3) the ^apeio is principally ■' Weil-Benloew p. Corssen ii-' p. Psichari. Bankes and the last syllable . which is fundamentally the pronunciation of a Greek. circumflex which properly belongs to J. 1875). Louvre (Pap. APPENDIX. 803. Weil-Benloew p.) . In these instances it is remark- 134 THE PRONUNCIATION OF ANCIENT GREEK. with the necessary explanations which also I owe to M.. AA^OINEON. since no one can control us. Weil H. but the real language may nevertheless have been still more complicated in this respect. B. L. Psichari himself. ■* The mss. 13 ff.^fri. and this illustrates well. 9 ff.). there is no need on the other hand to be pedantic. who only employed the accent for the texts of poets who wrote in some particular dialect. It will be of interest. eNHTOI. 1 Boeokhdc metr. In order to remove any ambiguity I have myself changed the transliteration into . 0. 417 ff. for we also find Pap. suggests fen. early editions give EIIEIAH.. virri after a conjecture of Wase. M. Harris) have likewise examples HOAIONTB (the symbol being over of several accents on the same word: 10). has spent ten years in Athens and speaks the common language of Greece. besides other abundant information as to the pronunciation of the Greeks of the present day. who. rightly considered the system of Glaucus too complicated . what terrible difficulties Greek pronunciation must have presented to foreigners. E*ETMaC (Pap. v. as though the ancient Greeks might some day rise from their graves and call us to account for murdering their beautiful language. and though perhaps it is not right to be entirely indifferent as regards a better or worse pronunciation. Betonung (Paderb. give HC (joined to the Aoioi. Hadley Curt. Find. 12 ff. niP&amp. 52. a translation of the Lord's Prayer (Matth.

in the case oifterS (irTepov) he leaves the e without designation. As regards matters of detail I add (after Psichari) the following definitions and rules of pronunciation : (a) is in general open . koX &lt. sabu k'6 ml si. which are spoken too quickly to allow of their exact quality being observed ("voyelles reduites"). fj. whether accented or notj oktoj S^t^. s5sg mSs S. but Psichari states that this pronunciation of final as is very widely spread. when it is itself unaccented and follows an accented syllable. narSi vasIlIS su. the former is predominant throughout. nSyasti tSnSma sfi. Trrepov /'tero. opSs tSn urSnQ. though he uses an analogous pronunciation in the case of e : hly l^w.d (r&lt. This as will be seen does not agree with the notation given above. It will be seen that Psichari distinguishes the open (a) and the closed sound (a) in the other vowels also. Transliteration. cTtri Kal crn. — The quantity is however according to our authority just as fluctuating as the quality .^pyi f£ ireipatriJio. that it would be more correctly represented by mas. tou curat trTdi/ ovpavo. mS. except in the case of i. vayiaa-rfj Tovojxa aov.S(Ti fxas aird tov Tr ovr/po' A/i-qv. vapBy rj ^aiTikua crou. k' expresses the palatal k (ky. nayfnt ^Sllsi su.(5rndmS tSn ilSnon (alSng) dis Smartfes. articulated in the middle of the palate) . (7av voS Kal /A«ts trup^wpvoD/xe Tfuv aWun'mv Tts dixapTiK. To ij/m[ii //. on context. a word may have a different quantity and quality of its vowel when isolated to that which it. .Tv^u &gt. mas ferl s6 plrlzmo.p t3n bSnIrS. the a here inclining towards the e. it depends on quickness of pronunciation. In his own pronunciation he gives the closed sound to final o. Ami. on the intention of the speaker. German ach). e o. On the other hand he gives ftep as his pronunciation of TTTaio) .i&gt.pv6 SoiTixa^ to CT7)ii. thus in all cases above with the exception of the final syllable of aXKuivwv. va yivrj rj 6e\rj&lt. Psichari himself however does not pronounce so. P5t|rS mas. M. k'8 sjxorSsB mas tis Smartigs mS. With regard to mas (plural of oblique cases of iyto).apTi£S /ias. T6 psSmi mas t6 kS.(. but Sev Tpixia. s and z the hard (voiceless) and soft (voiced) sounds.ipa.ri^ crov. Psichari remarks. oircos cttov ovpavo. — a I denote nasal vowels similar to the French sound. IlaTepa /las.%nSrn6 86zmSs tS simgra. yts. itittto) jie/to. think. has in connected speech. and not only in the case of 136 APPENDIX. the sound became closed in the pronunciation of ttie individual taken as a standard. pwIsS stSn firSno. Myj ftas &lt. Stsi k'S sti yls.as to Ka6r]jj.s. where owing to the nasalized sound (-rao dis) produced by the closely connected Tts (dis).pi(Ti fia^ Tts a//. — In the case of the consonants I have made use of the Greek letters 8 5 x *" denote the spirants (English this. Those vowels remain without any special designation in this respect.Roman letters.

(d) Both ^aa-ikda and dfiaprCa remain free from the detrition of I before a vowel following. . — No exception is taken to the collision of voiced spirants (such as ^S. "EXXei/es etc. 108) are very accurate. The reason again appears to be. just as two tenues. Meyer (Gramm. where such phenomena occur. which terminate with two consonants in the nominative. On the other hand &lt. not as a survival from an older period. a-xtovpa a\vpa. not tiiri but tsiiri with palatalisation of the t. when unaccented it appears to fluctuate. e&lt.) is perfectly indifferent. might rest on modern phonetic laws. Kiovpro's Kvpro^. 'Op0es. is not known with sufficient accuracy to render that possible. for the popular pronunciation of the first century a. are not tolerated in immediate proximity. The apparent ■retention of the e-sound of rj in the dialect of Trapezus is much doubted by Psichari : tcV = ttJi/. (c) The transcription Trovrjpov bonird militates against the rule we have mentioned above. With reference to the dialectal pronunciation of v (01) as m noticed above Psichari remarks that the statements of G. SovXiij/io.^ p. In order to place in a true light the contrast of the old and the n?w. according to which unaccented ir (tp. I add myself a transliteration of the Lord's Prayer. amartyd). is in general extended to tr also. koiXiA. vp) must become er. 137 from the dialect of Attica klovXio. in both cases the origin of i (from I r) V etc.is not allowable (except in the artificial pronunciation of the educated) : So-uXtuVto pr. which has been referred to above {vasUyd. becomes es : /SatrcXc's.e.^o. without however venturing to denote the quality of the vowels . The rule that two voiceless spirants. according to the original text. Only in the case of 01 I have given the closed pronunciation of the o. M. speaks there of the pronunciation as iu and gives as examples APPENDIX. in the Hellenistic pronunciation of that period. I assume that the Chiot thought it necessary to pronounce this word with its ecclesiastical associations ("the Evil One") in accordance with the writing. i. that they are ecclesiastical words. Psichari however is inclined to regard this u in all cases as a modern development after palatals. and so always in the interior of words. except that the ordinary pronunciation does not follow this out consistently in the case of cr&lt. while in the case of final syllables evs. TIP. though as a rule in such cases the written form contrary to the pronunciation retains the 6. which are not subject to popular treatment.^s. There are indeed no words. Tupt will be found to be in the dialect.^. (e) NayiacTTjj nayasti is written by Psichari with t. I denote the 138 APPENDIX.(6) Accented i is almost always given as closed. evS ev8).d. a scientific investigation of the matter has yet to be undertaken.

hos kai hemls (k'emis?) ap'ekamgn t9is Sp'illtais hem6n.. became later Alyls ib. change of ai to a before a vowel 52 . kai me isSnlnkes hemfts IS pirazmon. 45 . ai seldom confused with e in script 65 AI diphth. PatSr hem6n h6 8n tois uranois. 88 o7ee\o (ieOXa) 110 07U Locrian for dyoi 96 AE Boeot.. di before vowel becomes d 52 Alali) 66 Alyeis for Alygs 47. A/3aeASopos (Tanagra) 56 &amp. p + h. except that I dispense with the grave in the case of monosyllabic words. kai ap'Ss hemin ta op'llemata hem&amp.y{y)lJia. 122 'Aff^Kofc 118 AI diphth.n (top'Illmat'em6n ?). phonetic value and history 43 ff .. 5 . phonetic value and history 52 ft. Atytpa not Atyetpa 59 n.= ai 56 AB diphth. 1 AIH (AIE) for AH (AE) Ionic 53 ai/iiaSla not ijfji. ai for at Bceot. 64 ff . its phonetic value and history 67 ft Af Ef for au cv 75 ff Af TTO a^oC Naxian inscr. p\ t' {=k + h. name of nasal 7 85. s and z are the hard and soft s-sounds. I give the accents in the ordinary manner. etc. 70 .aspirates by U. t + h). 01 in verb-endings 65 . alia rhiisai (rhiisfi'!) hemas apo tu pSneru. elt'lto he basilea (basilla) su. GEEEK INDEX... genet'eto tS t'llema su hos 6n urano kai gpi g6s. not oeros 53 n. 47 n. 2 oieT6s Att. T6n artSn hemon tSn SpiusKn dSs hemin semgr8n. 76 •AfuTos *A(rSii« 118. Alyrits poet. ha(g)iast'eto to 6n6ma (tonSma ?) su.

ire\i^Tcpos 84 ' ApuTTfilSrii -dSyji 48 'Apla-Tirxpos (Bceot.s 104 d/MrXa/tei.) 52 ■aa-t (diiri) dat.) 77 afiffUToC (Dor.a\ e\ in Cretan became 01.) 113 iiio) not iSli'if) 50 n. aieipo/iivai. 2 'AMTi9dX?. 57 'ApKeipwv 104 Apovpa with real ov 73 ' Appevriidris -hSris 48 iaiiXea (Dor.TOU iarov for airoO iavToS 79 ff irinjfu 116 AT diphth.8\.) 27.) 52 AAHON {iWioiv) 26 AAIKAPNATEUN 120 n.) 80 .' and d|U. dxSdi-oeot (Cret. Att. ao contracted to au 74 AOr for AT 83 &amp. av contracted to u 80 aidra. 97 d. ailios 78 oi5(cd (d\(c^) 80 otfpijKTOs (Lesb. plur. 45 &amp. 1 AO EO Ionic for AT ET 74 . ev 80 dXd«ea (Lesb. .) 122 Aveo {ev) 75 ivrpuwos (Cret.vaipalpriiiM'! Thasos 64 f. phonetic value and history 73 ff .

109 n. p for Latin v 109 /3o8i) 113 /SairiXefa (ace.'A^irplra 87 d^ris (ai)T6s) 73 axupa 21. distortion of ZeO 117 140 GREEK INDEX. 42 n. (3u/3Woi' 41 n. 3 BoXoePTtot ('OXoi/Woi) 76 Ppa-X^a Ion. the same after en 77 .) 97 ^ovriebv 53 BiiXXoi. (rare) for Boiwrfix 58 n. j3 for f dialect 76. ^rj pij 16. 111. 1 pX^ireif. 2 r its phonetic value and history 108 ff . 3 B B its phonetic value and history 108 ff . 109 /SijSXi'oi'. 7 between vowels 110 f r nasal = n 85 ff TepouTTds 53 ypi yv pronunciation 88 f . for ^paxeta 52 jSiifT/j/ 118 BuMTUK Boeot. 113 . 27. of panXeis) 34 fiaffrtas 111 ^5cu. PaWrjvaSe (Aristoph. in the dialects 111 ff .

their oldest development and representation 24 ff . 31. ei in Eoman (Hellenistic) period written for I 10. later history of ei 59 ff . ei for Tji (middle and late Attic. for -g 47 el p. ) 47 f. sporadic 35 . 53. 2 . change in BcEotian 56.A. later development 33 ff £ for Latin i 35 ipSiv {eOdeiy) 73 ^770^05 126 IF&lt. 57 .rii' 34 eiavTov (Attic) 34 d&lt.fia 97 AHMOAIKHO (^-qiwSUeu) 26 M for Aii 18 dia^eiwdfji^vos 76 diapavffiji 26 n. phonetic value and treatment of real EI 52 ff. 56 .[baffKios. uncertain representation in Latin before vowels 61 -ei 2 pers. ei for e (before vowels. 29 ff. real and unreal 25. ei and iji confused in Ceos 26 n.. 60 f.p. ei for 01 (late Boeotian and late Attic) 57. 5 Ao/ifrios 35 SoOXos with real ou 72 Suety 58 E E-sounds. Doric etc. before cr) 34 f. for r) p. nom.•(() 50 n. of -eis 33 EI. datpOLvds) 119 f Satri) yp6. its phonetic value and history 108 ff . el p. midd.-qv Hellenist.dv Dor. ei Boeot. in the dialects (Elis) 113 5a.for fa. plur.T0X0S 113 iSmiaro (Ion.) 54 #fwj' for laraiv 118 -^i. and Thessal. 1 . from 77 28. 2 divdpia 37 n.s Att.TO} not £&amp.

Bceot.^f. £u from TIM 44 f.elr^a E^reatot 63 ^Xaa 52 l\av for ^XoioK 65 'BXetfSwa 'EXeuSci for EtXdevia 73. ESTfBAIITS ('Ao-TT^vSios) 77 ET phonetic value and history 73 3. 77 eSSo/ios (g/35.) 87 IpSia from ^/jcrSo) = ?pfw 119 f ipiKTjj ^EpUeia 63 iff.) 81 e^fiijc (ASew) 80 . 2 ivupbata 34 heurav 34 iifveia 53 ei'TeX^X^"' ^^^ ^I'SeXex'is 97 i^evixBet 26 n. 54 iincjTTiixri ^Tr-iaTTjfn] Plato 95 iTTwams (Boeot.8X^^.126 f. 7.Tv Cypr. 'BXeuffia 'EXei«7(o 73 n. Corinth. Arc. 111 n. in Cretan ou 80 efaSe Horn..iaa. 2 EO Ion. 81 n. 82 iouTiiv 44 iwelKeta 63 eTTitrr^aTat Ion. for BT once in Attic 74 EOT for BT Ion. eu before a vowel becoming e 80 . 74 .p\eii(ravTes for ^/i.Boeot. 78 e(i)Fpr)Td(ra. in Eoman period 75. for &amp. 3 'EXevvvia 41 efi. ci)i£Xw(ce Lesb. Lacon. 75 . 29.

125 fd Lesb. ij Boeot. (Elean) 113 Zfidprn {tii for (t/j. HI. 121 H H in ordinary Greek. 77 eu0ii|8oi(rt in Attic epigr. tji dat. of Eoman period 82 GREEK INDEX. phonetic value and history 43 fl . soft s in Hellenistic and modern Greek 115. ij from ei before vowel (p) 60. 57. 121 ZiKvuBos.ei3|i)(ra (aiildyu) eu^oiJ/iiji' (aux^u) 44 Eu'puriXaos Lesb. 3rd deel. 25 . from 771 46 f . zd in Attic etc. phonetic value and history 43 ff . 141 Z. 123. 117 ff . spirantio 5 in Elean 113. 2 . Doric from ew 74 vxof for erxo"" (strict Dorism) 28 . represented by E in Ceos etc. (jtoXtji. 122 fl . for 01 27.) 91. ypa/i/iaT^t) 48 HKHBOAOI 26 n. phonetic value ts ds in old Cretan and Italian 116. supposed double value of 9) in Ionic 26 n. ZAeia 119 Zdeis 117 ZeD dXcf^To/3 (Sophocles) 78 ^Kaia etc. 2 TlHeptirios not ^/lep^irios 39 Tliuaiai 52 V'^wo 100 ^/ivffv 41 HT.

4 l^a (fo-Sw) 119 lOT Boeot. in more modern 59 ff . 52 . GeiifffoTos etc. 13.6.) 40 . see AI. from ei in Boeot. in the 16th century 98 xaBiincptaio! 89 KaXeSvres (Dor. 38 n. 1 and 3 Fi^iKapridTjs 76 Ixi'eiui' (Pindar) 78 liiv 110 K K modern Greek pron. 118 Bept {Briplov) 21 BripeSei 78 ft9?i etc.^. fil Upiiov 45 IHPON 26 n.) 74 Kdfupos not Kd/ieipos 63 KaiTTruTos (Dor. for T 42. 36 f. 3 i adscriptum 50 . modern Greek 42 'lovKi^Tox and tovKoi 33 n. ) SO xdpfa 121 Kdpova (Lacon. (Ion. 56. 85 . 98 . HI. 80. I before vowel becomes y in modern Greek 13. (Cretan) 113 Gfi^eiffTos 34 epaoi)SI02 83 Bpaaia 52 fli.) 27 I. sporadic change with u 40 f . before p becomes e in modern Greek 21. according to ancient ideas not a pleasing sound 17. outside Bceotia in older period 59. its phonetic value in the dialects 111 BoKaSea 123 Bdrepov 55 6e6foTos.

2 A pronunciation 89 . 1 Kpifmio in Aristophanes 54 ^vviyeipo^ not 'Kwa. MHTEP (Ceos) 28 fielym/ii not /i(7i'. 4 \ioiKo for Xii/cos Tzakonian 42 Xoi7os.iy. 62 METAMBPIANON 120 n. 49 n. aspirated when initial (Me/fios) 88 fidyetpoSi fidyipos 63 n.KaresKi^aae 84 kAtu not K&amp. XivTiov (linteum) 35 XrjTovpyla (Ken. 5 . efai' 61 Mo^pixos (Tanagra) 57 . 3 KpaiiriXri (crapula) 67 n. X became v (Cret. 78 (fi} B030t. 1 /caoi.. 2 M^TuiKos (?) for -o(KO! 58 n. Khaiii 52 Kevevpbv Cypr.e. \vyp6s 71 M M pronunciation 85 f. 2 Kuiix (Kal oiK) 44 n. 70 Kx in the perfect in late Greek for x 103 n.) 80 AHABON 89 142 GREEK INDEX. and Thess. fia(TT6s 119 fiaPTcda 56 MATEIP (Boeot.).) 40 n. 27 K(o&gt. Kipios 71 Kovoovpeis { = Kvvocr.U. Xdpiaunv 46 Xeyediv. \rp:) 47 n.'£s=Ki'oWs39 Kiovpi (Tvpbi) Tzakonian 42 KKalyia 110 -kMSijs (in proper names) 59 Kolpavos. 5 fiTjvL-^av i.af4s.Tif 50 n. 5 .

later development 35 f for Latin it 35 'OoXfSios 'AXIS. etc.written for I 118 lei.'' fl-nd Movvvxt-tjjv 41 N N 85 f . its phonetic value and history 51 ff. their oldest development and representation 24 ff.) 55 olKripo) not olKTetpio 63 .pe\KvimK6v 87 f ISafiraKTitjjv 75 Nof (rio (Nafi'ou) 115 vaOos (Lesb. (=faX.) 122 01 diphthong.Mou»'txit&amp.) 78 VVKTepitTlOS 39 KiJ^i. 3 "Oa|os 76 iySolrjs 53 OB Bceot. oi confused with ui 46 . 45 f .sounds. 87 S pronunciation 114 f . confused with u 72 n.) 76 n. I. not fi 63 |e/)6s 21 ^ov66s with real ou 72 O 0. f o. 1 oCda (Lesb.) 55 OIH for ov 53 dtKiiv {oiKeTu Lesb.f&lt. oi before vowel becomes o 53 . 70 f . for 01 57 'O^rjvTi (Ujjayini) 125 6^05 (branch) 119 ofos {oryos Cret. oi for m Boeot.

of TToXis 48 TTo'Xi from TToXii 18 noXioiiffTpoTos (Boeot. 37 n. 1 . 3 6\los for 6\lyo5 110 'OXvwwlxa 87 OT real and unreal 24. 41. from «/ in Cretan 80 . both sorts of ou become m 32f. 63 ireTolKei. (Laoon.e. 5 irp^^ouTiv 46 n. 3 irpoawSla ^CKij 93 n. 4 ttoXtji dat. for ordinary Greek u 28. u 40 . Upaixa 74 vpia^aa (ea) 34 n. 6 iroetv iroTjTijS 53 voiaai for voiriaai. sporadic for o 35 . for Latin v 109 oiiSs (Bceot.) 42 noaiSeihv (month) 59 HordSaM not IIotIS. 37 n.) written for V i. 29 ff . phonetic value and extension of real OT 72 ft. ov Thessal.) 51 o^is 103 n TraXaffTi) not iraXaio-T^ 53 IXaouXXij-a 83 Tarpouiav 45 Trei not irl 63 Tretv for vLetv 18.Skxos 103 gXeifoi. ov in later Boeot. 5 TToX^os 26 n. ov from uv (?) 44 .30 n. 63 no7-ei8eSTot not -oiSrat 54 f.

5 (rrmeia not arinata 70 SiXijfds not ZeiX.vporipu not irporipip 50 n. for $ lllf.) 71 ff(ti!ir0os 103 ffir. 143 P pronunciation 89 f 'PSpos 91 jimSoi. &lt. 91 f .r Laoon. TTl20f. 1 ttCs 51 GREEK INDEX. 121 n. . 66 DauKpdrets 74 0-5 Lesbian for f 120 SeouaffT^s 109 Xeouiipos. aspirating power 105. . Xemjpos 82 fff written for f 117. 122 2T(i7ipos not STd7eipos 63 dTivojiai [alffSdvo/iai) 106 ffTod from ffTotd 53 STpar^s (-^as) 27 ffUi'TeXetTai (conjunct. 108. a doubled in writing before k t etc. 114 f. 63 (Ttpos not aeip6s 63 (TIU 111 SfciiXX?. Sapairi^v for •TneToi&gt. fiavTOS for fidpSos 81 S pronunciation 91 f.) 24 auw 46 T T for d in Egyptian frequent 97 i. KoiXijs (Horn.

. italvris {iyialvccs) 110 'Tddpvqs Vidarna 41 vipyav (fipyiav) 76 TI diphthong. the same in modern Greek 106 ra/ieioK for TaiuSov 18. 3 0iXd(ro0os 103 . 39 'tardairris Vistaspa 41 iiis (ul us) ancient for uiAs 41. 61 iyiyatvis. generally modified at early period to ii ib. T^/3epis 35 Tfi and tC for rip (late Boeot. 61 Taws (Attic) 96 Tepipios. in diphthongs {av tv etc. 96 n.) remained u 43. 1/ for f 76 . 53 Tr^ptt Cret. 51 ff uf vis (Dor. 'whither') 51 'T&lt.ios 109 n.) 57 Teipeiv 34 Ttiffu ^Teiaa not rfffu 62 rh-aapa 115 TwSaplSai 40 Tioiix'* (ti'X'! Boeot. for Z^va 123 Tupt (rupo's) 21 Y T phonetic value originally m 39 ff. ancient not Tpot^.) 42 TotoVTOS 53 TOTON (Toiiruv) 32.'o='I(r/t7)i'). for vi in foreign names 41 iyeta. 3 * *(£|3evcos 111 n. 41 Tpofiji'.awi&gt.r/iHj&gt. 113. 73 roivTi (Lacon.r for after o. 73 .) 40 rpipXiov for rpi)/3X. its phonetic value and history 41 f. 1 iapvA^a^os 121 4&gt.in dialects 111. iytla from iykta {-lela) 18.

3 Aldus Manutius on pronuuo. 3rd decl. 52 . 1 ni diphthong. phonetic value and history 43 ff.yKoiva) 71 Arohinos on the double consonants 113 ff Aristides Quintilianus. his period 69 aspirates. Accent 130 ff AEI Lat. Grk. 1 a il from au 80 wSe not ifiSe 50 n. for ai ae 67.$Xc(oCs not *Xto5s 62 *(iXowos (Fnlvius) 109 (ppoupbi real or unreal ou ? 73 X Xa(peXi)iSi. 45 'fipO|iidfi)s -jidffSris 118.e. 2.) 118 Xei not X' 63 Xlpiav not Xelpiov 59 *^ pronunciation 114 f \pLK6s meaning 93 n. aei 30. (mod. of similar phonetic value to Corinthian AE i. their phonetic value and . 122 fiT phonetic value and history 43 ENGLISH AND LATIN INDEX. confused with 01 46 -til ancient for -w nom.) 71 XdtpTiii etc. from XaXit^a 27 xdpvpSts avappoipdet (Hom.s -Xci5))s 48 XaXifJ Dor. 66 Alexandria and Alexandrea 61 anquina (S. becomes u before vowel 46. 57 Aeneas 61 Agaue 81 Agustus Agosto 79 Alcman 40 n.

phonetic value and history 75 f. pronunc. in word-nexus 125 f AV Latin diphthong 81 f Aunisimus Gothic for 'Ocijrrijuos 37 n. 3. 5. on pronunc. epigram 64 cauneas = cave ne eas 81 Ceratinus. of medial 86. G. 120 Cyprian mode of writing 55 Diaeresis. 116. various arrangements 21 ff . 4.. ausculum 68 B B Lat. S.. 63 n.7. 79 C Lat. in the dialects 118 ff aspiration of initial consonants in modem German 90 n. on pronunc. do. (Catullus) 93 comoedia 50 consonants. written for u 75 f.. 101 fi. 5 Bursian on pronunc. 1. 8 Cheke. 9 Bloch. 37 n. . Jac. . 5. do. 15 Callimachus. Th. phonetic value and history 43 . in ancient and modern Greek 84 f Coptic h 94 Corinthian dialect.. on pronunc.history 98 ff. EI and OT in 29. 12. 5. J. aspirated when initial 90 diphthongs. development to v 109 f Beza. system of. in Lesbian 55 digamma. 2 assimilation of final nasal 85 f. 55. 4 austrum (ostrum daTpuov). N. 56 Curtius. 3.16 chommoda etc.

Grk. 85 . gradual disappearance of . 4 giorno in Italian from diurnus 117 Gothic representation of av ev 84. 98 n. 4 French orthography and pronuno. 2 E Egypt. 89 Kpsilon. 15 n. 5. 12 G Gardiner. a misusage 20 Erasmus on pronuno. confusion of t and S in 97 . Bishop. fresh development in dialects 85 n. 3. edict on pronuno.etc. labial and dentilabial 103 faeneratrix (faenus.. 16 English orthography and pronuno. and e 107 H H in Latin. of Greek 3. 7 f enoe Euander 81 exhedra 96 F. employment of 6 * X to express native aspirates 106 ENGLISH AND LATIN INDEX. mode of writing in Cyprian 55 doubling of consonants given up in mod. 145 Ellissen on pronuno. of 4. 1. 8. 99 u. faenum) 67 f Filippisians for ^CKnrwrialov% in Gothic 37 n. the name. 1.

F.. 4. 4 mezzo in Italian from medius 117 myuro (fiipov) Church Slavonic 42 n. Dion. nasal not admitted in mod. media for tenuis in mod. Omega. late designations 20 ominem for hominem mentioned by Augustine 94 orzo in Italian from hordeum 117 Oscan. A. r. mediae 98 f .) 123 n. z for U (horz =hortus etc.. 2 . 5. 3 N Nasals 85 fi . its treatment 128 f hinsidiae (Catullus) 93 Hyginus i. after nasals 97 Metaro (Metaurus) 79 Metherke. 5 media. . 2 LambinuB. n. E. 77 fcyllus of Epidaurus. 106. 87 n. 4 Liscovius. van. on pronuno.v6i 63 Interaspiration 96 f interpolation of /3 or /" in Cyprus etc. on pronuno. op. on pronuno. A'gpendix M Martin. with spirant following 13.e. B. on pronuno. diphthongs -|A &gt. Grk. 113 Omicron. Grk. 5 Lord's Prayer as pronounced in ancient and modern Grk. his period 63. meaning of term 108. Ad.93 f Henrichsen. 64 Herodian gives no rule to distinguish ai and e 69 biat^us. 108 f. on pronuno. iyL€i. 110. J. H V in 57 . Greg.

of 67 ke-ne-u-vo-n(e) Kevevbv (icaiebv) Cyprian 78 Eoppa. ciudad from civitat — cautivo from oaptivus etc. their representation of Lat. ecaeptrnm 67 f Schmidt. on pronuno. Pablo 84 10 146 ENGLISH AND LATIN INDEX. n. Sanskrit.sound. 4 Septuagint. oe and ae 71. P. when written 39 f. genuine aspirates in 101 scaena. unknown in Greek 92 . do. Erasm. 13 and passim Ptolemy's son. 4 Bomance languages. confusion of « and i on 60 parhippus 96 pa-si-le-u-s(e) (j3ao-i\ei)s) Cyprian 77 Phaethon dissyllable. Bamns. 2 K Kaiser. 68 Psalterium Veronense 38 Psichari. 4 Beuchlin. Joh..Papyri. modern German pronunc. 81. 98 kyuminu (xiiuvov) Church Slavonic 42 n. transliterations in 69 Seyffarth on pronuno. 6 . J. hermit of Serapeum 81 n. on pronunc. 5 sh. 3 P. on modern Greek pronuno.

) 104. their pronuno. 5 vivere=bibere 109 vowel-triangle. 97 f . ei 77 and s in 69 syllables. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy. phonetic value 82 n. 8 Suidas' Lexicon. dialectically not regarded in elision 109 f. spiritus + 0. the name a misusage 20 Latin v. early pronunoiation 12 f spirants formed from aspirates in modern Greek 101. 13. phonetic value 76. &amp. SOME PUBLICATIONS OF THE oramijritige mnibersitg Itess. on pronuno. 3. in compounds 96 f . Part I.Smith. spirant for tenuis before tenuis in mod.. 81 Vav Hebr. The Archaic .. J.. R. tenuis Zaragoza (Caesar Augusta) 79 CAMBRIDGE: PBINTED BY u. Greek names of 20 w Welsh.in Laconian 96. on pronuno. Grk. CLAlf. in modern Greek for spirants 106 Thraex. vowel-line 18 f vowels. 91 for aspirate (rWrifa etc. also from medial in ancient Greek dialects and in colloquial language 110 f.A. aspiration of initial liquids 88 Wetstein. 5 Tenues. SONS. represents o. form of 9/)§| 50 tragoedia 50 transference of final consonants 129 f u TJpsilon. M. 7 Spanish x. 113 . AT THE UNIVEKSITT FKESS. Lat. J. Henr. on pronuno.for J in old Naxian 115 Stephanus. oe in 57 . diphthongs ae. division into 89. Thomas. 106 spiritus asper 92 ff. 4.

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