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Jose Protacio Rizal (Laong-Laan

)

The national hero, was born in Calamba, Laguna on June 19, 1861 to Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonso. Rizal went on to Ateneo Municipal de Manila and finished Bachelor of Arts with highes honours on March 23, 1876 at the University of Santo Tomas.

Rizal studied medicine. He then went to Europe and finished medicine and philosophy at the Central University of Madrid in 1885. He took up graduate studies in France. Rizal became a linguist and learnt Greek and Latin. During his time in Europe, He wrote Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not) and El Filibusterismo (The Rebel), which told of the oppression by Spanish colonial rule.

Rizal returned to the Philippines in June 1892. He founded La Liga Filipina, a forum for Filipinos to express their hopes for feedom from Spanish rule. His writings and La Liga Filipina were banned. Rizal was arrested as a revolutionary and imprisoned in Fort Santiago on July 6,1892. On July 14 he was exiled to Dapitan. He stayed there for four years, treating the sick, opened up a school and tried to make the place beautiful and safe.In order to escape his exile, Rizal volunteered to serve as a doctor for the Spanish forces with the breakout of the Cuban revolution for independence.

Rizal was arrested while in transit to Cuba and sent back to the Philippines. Again, he was jailed in Fort Santiago and on December 26,1896, the Spanish authorities tried him and found Rizal guilty of inciting rebellion and sedition. Rizal was executed by a firing squad on December 30,1896 at Bagumbayan (now Luneta) at the age of 35. On the eve of his execution,Rizal wrote his most famous poem Mi Ultimo Adios (My Last Farewell).

Andres Bonifacio (Agap-ito Bagumbayan) was born to Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro, a Spanish mestiza, in Tondo, Manila on November 30, 1863. He supplemented his low education through reading and self-study. Among the books he read were Rizal's novels, the lives of presidents, Victor Hugo's Le Miserables, the ruins of Palmyra, and the French Revolution. Those books prodded his spirit of rebellion and gave him impulse to organize the Katipunan. This organization spread rapidly in 1894 in many parts of the Philippines. He felt that he was about ready to lead a successful revolt in May 1896. However, before he could act, the Katipunan was discovered by the authorities.

He obtained his Bachelor of Arts in 1881. He was not sympathetic to the Katipunan but advocated liberalism which caused his imprisonment in Madrid. He arrived at the Cabanatuan Catholic Church Convent only to learn that Aguinaldo had left for Pampanga.More than 1. Juan. The second son of Inocencio Mabini and Dionisia Maranan. In 1899. In 1898. he received a telegram from Aguinaldo ordering him to go to Cabanatuan for a conference.000 Katipuneros assembled with him at Pugad Lawin. 1864. he was appointed Chief of War Operations with the rank of Brigadier General. he returned to the Philippines where he wrote less but was more vocal in advocating that the Philippines be made a province of Spain with the Filipinos enjoying the rights and privileges of Spanish citizens. Aguinaldo's men executed him in the mountains of Maragondon. He got a Licentiate in Pharmacy at the University of Barcelona. He continues to fight in the fields of Pampanga.” on the occasion of the elevation of Fr. he was crushed not only by the defeat but by the lack of discipline among the Filipino troops. Greatly provoked. he surveyed the Manila-Dagupan terrain for possible defense perimeter against the American troops. After the fall of Marilao. he left for Belgium where he studied the art of military strategy under General Leman. The Central University of Madrid conferred him his Doctor of Pharmacy in 1890. Bonifacio with his family and men left Naic for Indang. In Spain he wrote El Hematozoario Paludismo. He faced a trial for acts inimical to the existence of the new government and was given the death sentence by a military tribunal. he saw the urgency of reorganizing the army. Mabini won first prize. After his release. on August 23. Caloocan.1987.1899. Officers of the 1896 revolution were recruited. After he was buried in the churchyard. a silver medal and a diploma of honor for the course in Universal History. He tendered his resignation but Aguinaldo did not accept. He entered the Ateneo de Manila where he began to take interest in literature and chemistry. 1899. Aguinaldo sent men to arrest him. Ceferino Gonzales to the Cardinalate.Batangas on July 23. of Badoc. the assassins riddles him with bullets and he was stabbed. Apolinario Mabini (Dimlas-ilaw) was born of Tanauan. in a competition for scholarship conducted by the college of San Juan de Letran in Manila. He was able to obtain a new teaching position in . After the fall of La Loma on February 5. he uttered insults at the President and berated the guards who were the same men he disarmed after the battle of Caloocan. A Red Cross chapter was also organized. Using the pen name Taga -Ilog. On June 4. 1896 and tore their cedulas. On his return from Montalban. on August 23. acclaimed by leading bacteriologist in Europe as thorough and exhaustive scientific work. Tarlac and Pangasinan against the Americans. he won first prize for his composition “Dos Cuerpos Fundamentales de Quimica. More than 1.000 Katipuneros assembled with him at Pugad Lawin. A military academy was created at Malolos to train officers for field command. At the invitation of his brother. · Antonio Luna (taga-ilog) Born in Binondo. Bulacan on March 29. 1896 and tore their cedulas. but Bonifacio resisted arrest and was wounded. Ilocos Norte. Manila on October 29. he left for Europe. Caloocan. he published in the La Solidaridad “Impresiones” a satirical observation of Spanish customs and idiosyncracies. 1899. During his third year in high school. At the University of Santo Tomas. Aguinaldo took command of the troops and relieved Luna’s officers and men of their duties in the field. When going down the stairs of the headquarters. 1856 to Don Joaquin Luna and Doña Laureana Novicio. Cavite on May 10.

It was signed "Dimas-Ilaw"his pen name. It was in January 1896 that he contracted a severe fever which resulted in his permanent paralysis. He edited the Katipunan's newspaper "Ang Kalayaan". the organization established by Jose Rizal in 1892. He was enrolled at the San Juan de Letran College. The truth was that the pass really belonged to a Filipino spy named Florentine Reyes whom Jacinto captured in Pasig some weeks before the battle in Maimpis. Mabini was captured by the American's in December 1899. he obtained the grade of 'excellent '.His parents were Mariano Jacinto and Josefa Dizon. He was released from prison on October 3. During this combat. He was taken to the church of Santa Cruz where a Spanish surgeon kindly ministered to his wound. his earlier political exposure was through the revived La Liga Filipina. Magdalena. Despite of his physical condition . At the age of 19.1900. Laguna. (El Simil de Alejandro) prompted the Americans to exile him to the island of Guam.obtaining the degree of Bachelor Of Arts completed the course in 1894. A poet. He also supervised the manufacture of gunpowder. Not withstanding his physical handicap. inspired by Rizals' My Ultimo Adios. his readings about the Spanish injustices." · Emilio Jacinto (Dimas-Ilaw) was born on December 15. where he was mercilessly dumped on the brickpaved platform of the stairway with his bleeding wound unattended. He wrote the "Kartilla" the primer of the Katipunan where rules and regulations are contained.1894. He lived in a small nipa house in Manila where he barely supported himself writing a political articles. he fought the Spanish cazadores (riflemen) in Maimpis. after 17 months. His works earned revolutionary congress elected him chief justice of the supreme court. Mabini took and passed the required examination at the University os Santo Tomas.At the start of the Phillippine Revolution in the year 1896. He took the pass and kept it in his pocket so that in case he should fall to the hands of the enemy. The bad experiences he had with his Spanish classmates. Because of hard life he was forced to live with her uncle. Mabini died of cholera in Manila on May 13. He occupied the constitutional de la Republica Filipina was one of the models of the Malolos constitution. He was known in the Katipunan as Pingkian. he could identify himself as a spy in the service of Spain. Aporlinario Mabini was called the "Sublime Paralytic . desirous of continuing his studies. He was reffered to as the "Brain of the Katipunan".1875 in Trozo. and fiscal to Bonifacio. From his hideout. produced a pass from his pocket which identified him as Florentine Reyes. Emilio gave up his studies and joined the Katipunan.the school of Sebatian Virrey. Mabini played a prominent part in the second period of revolution. In February 1898. Emilio Aguinaldo recognized his brilliance and named him his chief adviser. he wrote Apolinario Mabini in Malolos to express his plan to continue his law studies in the newly established Literary University of the Philippines. His thinking shaped the constitutional and political basis of the Philippine Republic. In the examination for Licentiate in Jurisprudence om March 2.S. Don Jose Dizon. Emilio's greatest poem was A La Patria. Mabini was happy . then he transferred to the University of Santo Tomas where he took up law. After August 1901. Manila. He became a copyist in the court of first Instance of Manila. and the sufferings of the Filipino people made a mark in his heart. he was convinced of the sincerity of American's good intension's in his country. This saved his life. secretary. he became one of the ablest leaders of Katipunan. because of his refusal to sign the required oath of allegiance to the U. He planned the revolutionary government and acted as the Prime Minister of Pres. 1903 at the age of 39. Pres. Emilio Aguinaldo. In March 1887. thus earning him the title the "Brains of the Revolution. A lawyer by profession. He served as an adviser." having been paralyzed by a fatal illness which struck his lower limps in 1894. he was wounded in the thigh and was taken to the Catholic church of Magdalena.His intelligence was of great use to the Katipunan. leading him to go against the will of his loved ones and become a katipunero. His physical condition prevented him fir taking a more active part in revolutionary movement. he agreed to take the required oath.

Jacinto established his secret headquarters in the hills of Majayjay. · Graciano Lopez Jaena (Diego Laura) is a Philippine writer more known for his literary Fray Butod . They had seven children. Jose Flores. direct and forceful. for he returned to Laguna upon the urgent appeal of the fighting patriots of the province who wanted him as their leader. Aguinaldo welcomed Jacinto's coming to Malolos because of his remarkable intelligence. 1899. Unlike Rizal who wrote his novels in Spanish. he undertook propaganda campaigns in Spain. Spain. Del Pilar. del Pilar (Plaridel) started school in the College of Mr. Jacinto was unable to proceed to Malolos. · · Marcelo H. 1896 in Barcelona. He succeeded Lopez-Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad.In Spain. There he contacted the malignant malaria which caused his death on April 6. and the corner tiendas of his native Bulacan. Panganiban (Jomapa) . 1898. which became the vehicle of expression for Filipino propaganda in Spain. del Pilar's reputation as a propagandist was already established before an order for his arrest forced him to flee the country in 1880. on December 18.lucid.He died a poor man on July 4. He transferred to the College of San Jose in Manila. He later married his cousin Marciana del Pilar in 1878. saying that Aguinaldo approved of his request and that the last day of enrolment in the University was December 1.1856 Founder and first editor of the newspaper La Solidaridad. a fact which cut him off from most Filipinos who did not know the language. he and Graciano Lopez-Jaena published the "La Solidaridad" which was the organ which contained their desires in improving the Philippine Government. he found ready audiences in the cockpits. Marcelo H. He finished law in 1880. Marcelo H.to receive his letter and speedily consulted Aguinaldo about this plan. He was only 24 years old.Plaridel established the Diariong Tagalog in 1882 to publish observations and criticisms on how the Spanish government in the Philippines was run.Iloilo.Unfortunately. the plazas. Gifted with the common touch. del Pilar wrote his propaganda pamphlets in simple Tagalog -.'Butod' the word Hiligaynon for "bat" and it also slang equivalent to "tabatsoy". Graciano Lopez Jaena was born in Jaro. Mabini wrote him. del Pilar was more popularly known as Plaridel.Pedro Serrano Laktaw helped him in publishing "Dasalan at Tuksuhan" and the "Pasyong Dapat Ipa-alab ng Puso ng Taong Bayan". Together wtih Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. · Jose Ma.

. 1858. Died on April 26.M. · Pedro Paterno (Justo Desiderio Magalang) Statesman. Spain. 1911. He wrote articles for La Solidaridad. 1863. on August 19. on February 1. He was Bicolandia's greatest contribution to the historic campaign for reforms. Born in Manila on February 27. writer. 1890. poet.Avenger of Filipino honor. He used " Justo Desiderio Magalang" as his pen name when he wrote Ninay the very first filipino novel written in tagalong. Died in Barcelona. and peacemaker. under the pen names Jomapa and J. Camarines Norte.P. more popularly called the Propaganda Movement. He was the negotiator/mediator of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato. A good friend and co-worker of Rizal. He helped prepare the Malolos constitution. Born in Mambulao.