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MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

NO 1. a) b)

SECTION A MARKING CRITERIA P1 Cell is a basic unit of living things i. Level T : tissue ii. Level U : organ iii. Level V : system P1 P2 V is formed from different organs working together to carry out specific function

MARKS 1

c)

d) i)

R : blood tissue S : heart Body Defense mechanism/ ingest bacteria by phagocytosis// produce antibodies P1 Cell Q/white blood cell can change shape for phagocytosis P2 They moves to the pathogen and engulf them P3 It is independent movement

2 1

e) i) ii)

NO 2(a) (b) (c) (d)

MARKING CRITERIA Carrier protein 1 : Active transport 2 : Facilitated diffusion Substances transported : Na+/K+/Ca+/Glucose/Amino acids Characteristics : Big/ large polar molecules P1 : The Na+ ions inside the cell attached themselves on the binding sites of carrier protein. P2: ATP releasing phosphate and energy which is used to change the shape of the carrier protein. P3 : The carrier protein released Na+ outside the cell. Similarities : Both are cell transport process. Both are requires carrier protein. Both occurs through a plasma membrane Any 2 Differences :
Facilitated diffusion Particles moves down Active transport Particles moves against

MARKS 1m 2m 2m

3m (e) 2m

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

concentration gradient Does not require an input of energy from cell Can take place in living cells or non living physical condition The process continues until a dynamic equilibrium is reached

concentration gradient Require an input of energy from cell respiration Only takes place in living cells The process results in the accumulation of or elimination of substances from the cell

Max 2m

4m
Any 2

TOTAL
No. 3 (a) (i) (ii) (iii) Marking Criteria P : Inhalation Q : Exhalation In P, R is flatten but in Q, R is dome shape

12m
Mark 1 1 1 1

(b)

External intercostal muscle relax, internal intercostal muscle contract Diaphram muscle relax Ribcage move inwards and downwards Volume of thoracic cavity decrease, pressure of thoracic cavity increase Air is forced out of lungs

1 1 1 1 1 Any 3

(c)

Anaerobic respiration C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 210kJ energy

1 1

(d)

Respiratory structures of a cockroach consists of trachea and spiracles while the respiratory structures of human consists of a trachea and a pair of lungs Trachea of cockroch are branched into tracheoles while trache of human are branched into 2 bronchi.

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

Tracheoles of cockroach are directly touched with body tissues and organs but bronchi of human branched into branchioles and end into alveoli. TOTAL

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NO. 4.(a)

MARKING CRITERIA X : Secondary Phloem Y : secondary Xylem Growth means P1 Producing a new cell by mitosis P2 it involves increasing in size P3 and the cell undergo differentiation to form specific function P4 the process is irreversible

MARKS 1 1

(b)

1 1 1 1 Any 3 1 1 1 Any 2 1 1 1 1

(c) P1 P2 P3 (d) P1 P2 P3 (e) P1 Primary Growth process occur after germination while Secondary Growth occurs after primary growth Primary growth involves cells differentiation while secondary growth involves lateral meristem divides Total NO 5 (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) (i) (ii) MARKING CRITERIA The third line of defense Antibody Diagram 5.1: Artificial Passive immunity Diagram 5.2: Artificial Active immunity Vaccine F -Vaccine is the preparation of dead or weakened antigen/pathogen E -It stimulates the immune system in the body to reach the level of immunity F -The first dose results in the production of low level of Has potential as timber Produce fruits such as durian and mango The bark of Merawan and Meranti produce rasin and oil Give more support Increases the opportunities to produce seeds Live longer

P2

12 MARKS 1 1 2 1

(iii)

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

antibody -Second dose is needed to increase the production of antibody until it reaches the immunity level

(d) (i) (ii)

Serum//Anti-serum FEThe body cannot produce its own antibody To have immediate treatment to fight the infection

TOTAL MARKS 12 SECTION B No Marking Criteria 6 (i) Able to explain the phenomenon. Sample answer When the shoot is in a horizontal position:
- Auxin produced at the shoot tip accumulates on the lower side of the shoot. - Auxin causes the cells in lower side of the shoot to elongate faster than those on the upper side. - This difference in cell elongation bends the shoot upwards, against gravity.

Mark

When the root is in a horizontal position:


- Auxin produced at the root tip accumulates along the lower side of the root. - Cell elongation at the lower side of the root is inhibited by a high auxin concentration, but the cells on the upper side of the root elongate faster. - This difference in the cell elongation bends the root downwards in the direction of the gravitational pull.

Max 6

6(ii)

Able to discuss how the responses of the root and shoot are different from one another. Sample answer Differences between responses of the root and the shoot: Shoot Root Phototropism Type of stimulus Geotropism Shoot tip Region of plant Root tip affected Positive Phototropism Response of Positive plant Geotropism Increase in the auxin Effects of auxin Increase in the auxin concentration, increase concentration, retards 4

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

the rate of cell elongation in shoot tip.

elongation in root tip. Max 4

6 (b)

Able to explain how the formation of the embryo sac and pollen grain process occurs. Sample answer The formation of the embryo sac - The ovule develops from the ovarian tissue. It has a diploid embryo sac mother cell(2n) - Embryo sac mother cell undergoes meiosis to form four haploid cells called megaspores - Three of the four megaspores degenerated, leaving one in the ovule - (The megaspore continues to grow and enlarges, filling up most of the ovule). The nucleus of the megaspore then undergoes mitosis three times to form eight haploid nuclei. Among the eight nuclei; - three nuclei migrate to one end of the cell to form antipodal cells - two nuclei move to the centre of the cell and are called polar nuclei - three migrate to the opening of the ovule that is micropyle. One of them develops into egg cell / ovum (female gamete) flanked by two synergid cells. The formation of pollen grain - Pollen grain are formed in the anther, an anther has four pollen sacs. - Each pollen sac contains hundreds of cells called pollen mother cells (2n) - Each pollen mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid microspores(n) - The nucleus of each microspores then divided by mitosis to form a tube nucleus and generative nucleus.
- The microspores develop into pollen grains

Max 10

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

No

Mark Scheme

Total Mark

7(a) Able to explain how earth worm support itself. F1 Has a hydrostatic skeleton E1 Body cavity is filled with a fluid ( which is held in compartments) F2 consost of two muscles : longitudinal muscle and circular muscle. E2 . The muscles act antagonistic // if longitudinal muscle contract, circular muscle relax ( or vice versa) 7(b) Able to explain the role of muscles, tendons , ligaments and bones in the movement of forearms. E1 The forearm is being bent E2 - biceps contract and triceps relax // muscles acts antagonistically E3 The radius is pulled upward and the forearm is bent. E4 - muscles are connected to bones by tendons. E5- Tendon is inelastic E6 Tendon can transmit the contracting force from the muscle to the bone. E7 Bones are held together by ligaments E8- Ligaments are elastic . Any 6 7(c) Able to explain the adaptation of the plant which enable it to float on water surface. F1 Stem and enlarged petiole with many air sacs E1 to provide buoyancy F2 Many fibrous roots can trap air E2 to allow the plant to float F3 Stem and roots have aerenchyma tissues E3 makes the plants light and enable plants to float. 6 6

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

Any 2F 7(d) Able to explain the modification found in the woody plant tissues which giving support to the plant. F1 Xylem tissues consist of vessels and trakeid E1 (Vessels and tracheids) are strengthened with lignin // for mechanical support. F2 Parenchyma tissues E2 Store starch , sugar and water. E3 Turgid cells give support to the plant. F3 Collenchyma tissues E4 Walls thickened with cellulose and pectin F5 Schlerenchyma tissues E5 Wall thickened with lignin to provide support

And 2E 4

Any 3F and 3E NO MARKING CRITERIA 8(a) Based on Diagram 8.1, explain the fuction of structure labelled P and Q in photosynthesis.
Structure P is palisade mesophyll cells. P are packed tightly together in an upright arrangement near the upper surface of the leaf. To receive maximum amount of light. P also have high density of chloroplast. Q is spongy mesophyll cells. Q have irregular shapes and with fewer chloroplast. Q are loosely arranged and between each of them are air spaces that connect the mesophyll with the stomata. These large spaces allow easy diffusion of water and carbon dioxide.

MARKS

1 1 1 1 Max: 2 1 1 1 1 Max: 2 Total : 4

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

8(b) Based on Diagram 8.2, explain the mechanism of photosynthesis that occur in reaction X and Y. Reaction X
X is light reaction Occurs in grana. Chlorophyll traps light energy and release electrons. Light are used to split the water molecules into hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions.// photolysis of water The hydrogen ions then combine with the electrons released by chlorophyll to form hydrogen atoms. The hydroxyl ions loses electron to form a hydroxyl group. The hydroxyl groups then combine to form water and gaseous oxygen..

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Reaction Y
Y is dark reaction Y occur in stroma The hydrogen atoms are used to fixed carbon dioxide in a series of reaction catalyst by photosynthetic enzyme. The reduction of carbon dioxide form glucose.

1 1 1 1 Max: 8

8(c) Based on Diagram 8.3(a) and 8.3(b), explain the method used and discuss the advantages of the methods.
Method used in Diagram 8.3(a) is aeroponics. The plants are suspended in a special chamber with the roots exposed to the air Nutrient solution are sprayed onto the roots of plants at suitable intervals. This enables the plants roots to absorb more oxygen in the between the periods of spraying. Method used in Diagram 8.3(b) is hydroponics. The roots of the plants are immersed in a solution which contains all the macronutrients and micronutrients required by the plants in the correct proportion. The plants are support by medium such as pebbles. The cultured solution is aerated to provided sufficient oxygen for respiration.

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The advantages of both methods.


Light intensity and temperature can be controlled to ensure that the

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

environmental factors are at optimum level for maximum growth. The plants can be grown all year around and higher yields can be obtained. The culture solutions provide nutrients in a form that can be readily absorbed by the roots and used by the plants .

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Max: 8 NO 9) a) Human activities P1 Deforestation-for development/plantation 1 E1 will cause soil erosion/landslides/flash floods/loss of Any two biodiversity/ extinction of plants and animals through the loss of examples habitats/global climatic changes/global warming -1 mark P2 Overuse of fertilizers in intensive farming E2 Leaching of Nitrates and phosphate nutrients causes eutrophication//water pollution which are harmful to aquatic life P3 Dumping of domestic and industrial waste E3 Causes toxic substances to be easily absorbed into the ground and finally to water sources leads to water pollution P4 CFC// cooling agents in refrigerators,air conditioners,air sprays E4 Causes thinning of ozone layer P5 Burning of fossil fuels E5 lead to greenhouse effects//global warming//air pollution 1 1 1 1 MARKING CRITERIA MARKS

1 1 1 1 Any 5 P/E

Ways on how a balance nature is maintained W1 Implementation of laws to reduce/control pollution W2 Formal and informal education stressing on the concept of recycling ,reducing and reusing W3 Preservation and conservation// to reduce environmental pollution and protect plants and animals species W4 Biological control to avoid/reduce excessive usage of pesticides W5 Efficient use of energy//using renewable energy W6 Use of technology such as the use of unleaded petrol, use of catalytic converters in vehicles. b) 9

1 1 1 1 1 1 Any 5

MODUL PECUTAN JPN KELANTAN 2012 BIOLOGI

SET 2 SKEMA

P1 Industries, factories and vehicles contribute to air pollution P2 when they discharge pollutants such as sulphur dioxide/ oxides of nitrogen/smoke / fine solid particles which can cause respiratory problems P3 Oxides of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide dissolve in rain water to form acid rain P4 Acid rain may lead to a problem such as causing the soil more acidic and unsuitable for cultivation of crops//leaching of minerals//the corrosion of metal railings and bridges P5 agrochemicals such as pesticides and insecticides can flow into the river and can lead to poisoning aquatic organisms P6 Excessive fertilizers such as nitrates can cause eutrophication P7 Effluents from electric factories contains heavy metals such as mercury/cadmium that can kill aquatic organisms and harm humans P8 Thermal pollution caused by discharging hot water from the factory cause thermal pollution /reduced the solubility of oxygen in the river P9 Deforestation can cause soil erosion which may lead to flash floods P10 Construction work causes hazy air and noise pollution

1 1Any two

1 1

1 1 1 1 1 1

END OF MARKING SCHEME TAMAT SKEMA PEMARKAHAN

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