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CHAPTER – 1 INDIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND The first bank of limited liability managed by Indians was Oudh Commercial Bank founded in 1881. Punjab National Bank was established in 1894. Swadeshi movement, which began in 1906, encouraged the formation of a number of commercial banks. Banking crisis during 1913-1917 and failure of 588 banks in various States during the decade ended 1949 underlined the need for regulating and controlling commercial banks. The Banking Companies Act. Was passed in February 1949, which was subsequently amended to read as Banking regulation Act, 1949. This Act provided the legal framework for regulation of the banking system by RBI. The largest bank – Imperial Bank of India – was nationalized in 1955 and rechristened as State Bank of India, followed by formation of its 7 Associate Banks in 1959. With a view to bring commercial banks into the mainstream of economic development with definite social obligations and objectives, the Government issued an ordinance on 19 July 1969 acquiring ownership and control of 14 major banks in the country. Six more commercial banks were nationalized from 15 April 1980. Meaning of Bank Bank is alawful organization, which accepts deposits that can be withdrawn on demand. If also lends money to individuals and business houses that need it. Role of Banking Banks provide funds for business as well as personal needs of individuals. They play a significant role in the economy of a nation. Let us know about the role of banking. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. It encourages savings habit amongst people and thereby makes funds available for productive use. It acts as an intermediary between people having surplus money and those requiring money for various business activities. It facilitates business transactions through receipts and payments by cheques instead of currency. It provides loans and advances to businessmen for short term and long-term purposes. It also facilitates import export transactions. It helps in national development by providing credit to farmers, small-scale industries and self-employed people as well as to large business houses which lead to balanced economic development in the country. It helps in raising the standard of living of people in general by providing loans for purchase of consumer durable goods, houses, automobiles, etc.

Types of Banks

NABARD) 3. Public sector banks. SFCs) Co-operative Banks a. Types of Commercial banks: Commercial banks are of three types i. Commercial Banks Commercial Banks are banking institutions that accept deposits and grant short-term loans.There are various types of banks which operate in our country to meet the financial requirements of different categories of people engaged in agriculture. etc. Now-a-days some of the commercial banks are also providing housing loan on a long-term basis to individuals. Corporation Bank. etc. Public Sector Banks b. State Co-operative Banks Specialised Banks (EXIM Bank. Central Bank (RBI. maintain deposit accounts of all other banks and advances money to other banks. It is therefore known as the baker’s bank. There are also many other functions of commercial banks. In addition. Public Sector Banks: These are banks where majority stake is held by the Government of India or Reserve Bank of India. Central bank A bank which is entrusted with the functions of guiding and regulating the banking system of a country is known as its Central bank. Such a bank does not d e al with the general public. regulation their circulation in the country by different methods. Private sector banks and Foreign banks. business. in India) Commercial Banks a. Private Sectors Banks: . when needed. The Central Bank maintains record of Government revenue and expenditure under various heads. it also advises the Government on monetary and credit policies and decides on the interest rates for bank deposits and bank loans. profession. Private Sector Banks c. No error bank than the Central Bank can issue currency. foreign exchange rates are also determined by the central bank. commercial banks also give medium-term and longterm loan to business enterprises. and advances to their customers. Bank of Baroda and Dena Bank. 4. 5. which are discussed later in this lesson. It acts essentially as Government’s banker. Another important function of the Central Bank is the issuance of currency notes. In addition to giving short-term loans. 2. Primary Credit Societies b. Example of public sector banks are: State Bank of India. 1. SIDBI. The Central Bank provides guidance to other banks whenever they face any problem. The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of our country. On the basis of functions. the banking institutions in India may be divided into the following types.e. Foreign Banks Development Banks (IFCI. Central Co-operative Banks c.

Development Banks: Business often requires nedium and long-term capital for purchase of machinery and equipment. Development Credit Bank Ltd. Types of co operative Banks There are three types of co-operative banks operating in our country. Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI) and State Financial Corporations (SFCs) are examples of development banks in India.. Primary Credit Societies: These are formed at the village or town level with borrower and non-borrower members residing in one locality. Bharat Overseas Bank Ltd.In case of private sector banks majority of share capital of the bank is held by private individuals. The number of foreign banks operating in our country has increased since the financial sector reforms of 1991. Standard & Charted Bank. district level and state level.. These banks are organized at three levels. Some of the foreign banks operating in our country are Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC).. primary credit societies) and function as a lin between the primary credit societies and state co-operative banks. When a co-operative society engages itself in banking business it is called a Cooperative Bank.. For example: The Jammu and Kashmir Bank Ltd. Such financial assistance is provided by Development Banks. or for expansion and modernization. the society must follow the guidelines set and issued by the Reserve Bank of India. Citibank. These banks are registered as companies with limited liability.. They also undertake other development measures like subscribing to the shares and debentures issued by companes. Lord Krishna Bank Ltd.e.. State Co-operative Banks: . The operations of each society are restricted to a small area so that the members know each other and are able to watch over the activities of all members to prevent frauds. Global Trust Bank. The society has to obtain a licence from the Reserve Bank of India before starting banking business. Grindlay’s Bank. As regards banking business. Any co-operative bank as a society is to function under the overall supervision of the Registrar. for using latest technology. Co-operative Banks People who come together to jointly serve their common interest often form a co-operative society under the Co-operative Societies Act. etc. Cooperative Societies of the State. village or town level. Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. Central Co-operative Banks: These banks operate at the district level having some of the primary credit societies belonging to the same district as their members. American Express Bank. They are primary credit societies central cooperative banks and state cooperative banks. Vysys Bank. etc. Foreign Bank: These banks are registered and have their headquarters in a foreign country but operate their branches in our country. in case of under subscription of the issue by the pulic. These banks provide loans to their members (i.

Let us know about them. It provides financial assistance. etc. cottage and village industries handicrafts and allied economic activities in rural areas. which cater to the requirement and provide overall support for setting up business in specific are as of activity. loan on easy terms can be available through SIDBI. use of new technology and market activities. small-scale industries. both short-term and long-term. The money reaches the individual borrowers from the state co-operaive banks through the central co-operative banks and the primary credit societies. They engage themselves in some specific area or activity ad thus . National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) It is a central or apex institution for financing agricultural and rural sectors. through regional rural banks. The aim and focus of SIDBI is to promote. Functions of Commercial Banks The functions of commercial banks are of two types. EXIM bank can provide you the required support and assistance. Primary functions The primary functions of a commercial bank include: Accepting deposits. People who have surplus income and savings find it convenient to deposit the amounts with banks. Depending upon the nature of deposits. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI): If you want to establish a small-scale business unit or industry. The bank grants loans to exporters and importers and also provides information about the international market. finance and develop small-scale industries. It also finances modernization of small-scale industrial units. deposits with the bank grow along with the . They mobilize funds and help in its proper channelization among various sectors. and Granting loans and advance. in the field of agriculture. Export Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank) If you want to set up a business for exporting products abroad or importing products from foreign countries for sale in our country. Primary functions. If a person is engaged in agriculture or other activities like handloom weaving. NABARD can provide credit. Thus. fishing. etc. to co-operative credit. EXIM Bank. SIDBI and NABARD are examples of such banks. a. Accepting deposits The most important activity of a commercial bank is to mobilize deposits from the public. and b. are caked specialised banks. funds deposited with bank also earn interest. especially. Specialised Banks There are some banks. Secondary functions.These are the apex (highest level) co-operative banks in all the states of the country. It gives guidance about the opportunities for export. the risks involved in it and the competition to be faced.

or both. A loan is normally rapid in installments. loans A loan is granted for a specific time period. making payment of the amount before the due date of the bills after deducting a certain rate of discount. that is. There is also safety of funds deposited with the bank. public are motivated to deposit more funds with the bank. The customer can withdraw this amount as and when he requires. Advances An advances is a credit facility provided by the bank to its customers. However. or on personal security.interest earned.. Cash Credit is granted as per terms and conditions agreed with the customers.e. Such loans and advances are given to members of the public and to the business community at a higher rate of interest then allowed by banks on various deposit accounts. Overdraft facility with a specified limit may be allowed either on the security of assets. The borrower may be given the entire amount in lump sum or in installments. Cash card Cash credit is an arrangement whereby the bank allows the borrower to draw amount upto a specified limit. but advances are normally granted for a short period of time. i. The amount is credited to the account of the customer. The rate of interest charged on advances varies from bank to bank. Further the purpose of granting advances is to meet the day-to-day requirements of business. It is a temporary arrangement. loans for more than a year may also be granted. Interest is charged only on the amount withdrawn and not on the sanctioned amount. Loans are generally granted against the security of certain assets. Internet is charged on the amount actually withdrawn. Grant of loans and advances: The second important function of a commercial bank is to grant loans and advances. If the rate of interest in higher. It differs from loan in the sense that loans may be granted for longer period. Types of Advances Banks grant short-term financial assistance by way of cash credit. A customer who has a current account with the bank is allowed to withdraw more than the amount of credit balance in his account. it may also be rapid in lump sum. Discounting of Bills Banks provide short-term finance by discounting bills. But term loans. Generally commercial banks provide short-term loans. The rate of interest changed on loans and advances varies according to the purpose and period of loan and also the mode of repayment. Overdraft Overdraft is also a credit facility granted by bank. overdraft and bill discounting. The party gets the funds without waiting .

etc. Debit Card Banks are now providing Debit Cards to their customers having saving or current account in the banks. especially for professional courses. customers can deposit or withdraw money from their own account any time. These are as follows:  Issuing letters of credit.  Providing consumer finance for individuals by way of loans on easy terms for purchase of consumer durables like televisions. Banking services are also made available through computer.  Standing guarantee on behalf of its customers. machinery. and from one branch to another branch of the bank through cheque. travellers cheque. for making payment for purchase of goods. banks perform a number of other functions. . in most of the branches you see computers being used to record banking transactions.  Providing customers with facilities of foreign exchange dealings.  Transferring money from one account to another. By using this. Information about the balance in your deposit account can be known through computers.  Providing reports on the credit worthiness of customers. important document and securities by providing safe deposit vaults of lockers. etc. demand draft. The customers can use this card for purchasing goods and services at different places in lieu of cash. The amount paid through debit card is automatically debited (deducted) from the customers’ account. refrigerators. the bank can recover the amount from the customer.  Educational loans to students at reasonable rate of interest for higher studies.for the date maturity of the bills. In most banks now a days human or manual teller counter is being replaced by the Automated Teller Machine (ATM). E-banking (Electronic Banking) With advancement in information and communication technology. vehicles etc. Now. In case any bill is dishonoured on the due date. Secondary functions In addition o the primary functions of accepting deposits and lending money.  Collecting and supplying business information. Banking activity carried on through computers and other electronic means of communication is called ‘electronic banking’ or ‘e-banking’. pay order. which are called secondary functions.  Undertaking safe custody of valuables. Automated Teller Machine Banks have now installed their own Automated Teller Machine (ATM) throughout the country at convenient locations.

A minimum balance has to be maintained in the account as prescribed by the bank. money transfers. phone banking is possible through mobile phones. a customer of the bank having an account can get information of his account. In mobile phone a customer can receive and sent massages (SMS) from and to the bank in addition to all the functions possible through phone banking. As more and more people are now using mobile phones. The rate of interest on savings bank account varies from bank to bank and also changes from time to time. demand draft. Phone Banking In case of phone banking. the Saving Bank Account is most suited for his purpose. Interest is allowed on the balance of deposit in the account. Banks allow certain credit period to the credit card holder to make payment of the credit amount. credit cards are used to make payments for purchase. The customer having an account in the bank can log into the bank’s website and access his bank account. Current Deposit Account: . fixed deposits and collection of bill. Bank Deposit Account Types of Bank Deposit Accounts On the basis of purpose they serve. Net Banking With the extensive use of computer and Internet. etc.Credit Card Credit cards are issued by the bank to persons who may or may not have an account in the bank. Normally banks put some restriction on the number of withdrawal from his account. bank deposit accounts may be classified as follows: Savings Bank Account Current Deposit Account Fixed Deposit Account Recurring Deposit Account Savings Bank Account: If a person has limited income and wants to save money for future needs. give instructions for money transfers. Interest is charged if a cardholder is not able to pay back the credit extended to him within a stipulated period. fixed deposits. He can make payments for bills. by using telephone. etc. Just like debit cards. collection and payment of bills. Money can be deposited any time in this account. so that the individual does not have to carry cash. banks have now started transactions over Internet. This interest rate is generally quite high. Withdrawals can be made either by signing a withdrawal form or by issuing a cheque or by using ATM card. This type of account can be opened with a minimum initial deposit that varies from bank to bank. make banking transactions like.

They need to have an account form which withdrawal can be make any number of times. The rate of interest allowed on the deposits inn higher than that on a savings bank deposit but lower than the rate allowed on a fixed deposit for the same period. colleges. Recurring Deposit Account This type of account is suitable for those who can save regularly and expect to earn a fair return on the deposits over a period of time. on request. or jointly with another. the depositor can also be allowed to close the account before its maturity and get back the money along with the interest till that period. The account remains out of order for a period of more than 90 days. or by the guardian in the name of a minor. If money is deposited in savings bank account. However. the deposit may be withdrawn or renewed for a further period. this account also requires certain minimum amount of deposit while opening the account. Ninety Days Overdue: With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency. The total deposit along with the interest therein is payable on maturity. Banks open current account for them. This period of deposit may range from 7 days to 10 years or more during which no withdrawal is allowed. This facility is known as overdraft facility. Therefore money is deposited in a fixed deposit account to earn a interest at a higher rate. On this deposit bank does not pay any interest on the balances. Rather the accountholder pays certain amount each year as operational charge. The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in case of the bill purchase and discounted. the depositor can encash the amount before its maturity. At the end of the period. that type of account is not suitable for them. doubtful or loss asset. like savings bank account. It is allowed to some specific customers and upto a certain limit subject to previous agreement with the bank concerned. Non Performing Asset: Non Performing Asset means an asset or account of borrower. The interest on fixed deposit account can be withdrawn at certain intervals of time. Since there are restriction on number of withdrawals form savings bank account. However. banks allow a lower rate of interest. in accordance with the directions or guidelines relation to asset classification issued by the Reserve Bank of India. . from the year ending March 31. in respect of an Overdraft/ Cash Credit. which has been classified by a bank or financial institution as sub-standard.Big businessmen. This type of deposit account allows deposit to be made of an amount for a specified period. Banks also grant loan on the security of fixed deposit receipt. it has been decided to adopt the ‘90 days overdue’ norm for identification of NPAs. Fixed Deposit Account (also known as Term Deposit Account ): Many a time people want to save money for long period.    Interest and/ or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term Loan. and hospitals have to make payment through their bank accounts . 2004. In that case banks give lower interest than what was agreed upon. While opening the account a person has to agree to deposit a fixed amount once in a month for a certain period. companies and institutions such as schools. For the convenience of the accountholders banks also allow withdrawal of amounts in excess of the balance of deposit. The account can be opened by a person individually.

Answer the following questions: 1. . Any amount to be received remains over-due for a period of more than 90 days in respect of the other accounts.  Interest and/ or installment of principal remain overdue for two harvest season but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purpose.