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Nursing Research, Leadership and Management I. Nursing Research a. Definition of terms b. Characteristics c. Purpose d. Ethics of Scientific Research e.

Steps in Nursing Research II. Nursing Leadership a. Definition of terms b. Elements of leadership c. Nursing leadership d. Reasons for the study of nursing leadership e. Theories of leadership f. Leadership styles g. Powers of a leader h. Skills and qualities of a leader III. Nursing management a. Definition of terms b. Theories of management c. Manager/types d. Management process  Nursing Research: Definition: according to Kerlinger, nursing research is the: a. b. c. d. Systematic Empirical Controlled, and Critical investigation of a hypothetical proportion in relation with a phenomenon

*first thing to do in nursing research is to choose a problem related to the phenomenon Nursing problem: is anything that influences the human lives/existence Ex: diseases, infection, pollution etc Example of a problem: tuberculosis 1. You need to apply a hypothetical proposition Hypothesis: represents not the final answer to the nursing problem being studied BUT is: a. An educated guess

Systemic: the study must follow a step-by-step process/procedure (CBQ) 2. the study is done for richer familiarity and is carried out by mere active observation of a phenomenon. 4. *The main purpose of nursing research is to improve the quality of patient care (CBQ) Ethics of Good Scientific Research (SCIENTIFIC)   Scientific objective: the study should have an objective beneficial to your patients Consent: consent should be secured when obtaining all data needed in the study. Controlled/appropriate research design: study should be directed. no “short-cuts. A tentative answer only *is a big question mark in the researchers’ mind. 2. A scientific guess c. **CBQ: if the patient is dead: the hospital legally owns the records The information in the patient’s records: owned by the patient.   . Hypothesis for the problem of TB: “Environmental pollution in manila increases the cases of TB at San Lazaro General Hospital”. Developmental purpose: done to improve the system or quality of care for our patients. Integrity: should be based on honesty and soundness. Based on a Critical investigation: the study should be a fact-finding investigation on a population or human beings to gather data to answer the hypothesis: Four Basic Purposes of Nursing Research: 1. Experimental purpose: you determine the cause and effect ratio by applying active manipulation because you are doing active intervention. no withholding of information for personal benefit. 4. method or process to control all variables of the study. Four Major Characteristics of a Scientific Research: 1. Empirical/Empiricism: the study should be dealt with objectivity: the data r/t the problem should be readily observable or gathered through the senses 3. CBQ: plagiarism/illegal replication: unauthorized use of another’s work/study. designed or manipulated by appropriate system. 3. prognosis and treatment etc. If the patient wants an explanation about information on his chart. 2. Descriptive purpose: 100% knowledge on the subject. Exploratory purpose: 50% of the answer is already known.b. ONLY the physician is legally allowed to explain the diagnosis. Equity/ Equitable: it should include spaces for appropriate acknowledgement for the contribution of others as well as consent for references used.

Protection of client b. the researcher is very careful not to disclose the name of her subjects. Anonymity: refers to the privacy as regards the identity of the informant. **CBQ: in the process of doing the research. Ex: omitting to do CPR to someone who fainted in your presence *CPR: Adult: compression-blow ratio: 15:2 Infants: compression blow ratio: 5:1 I. The right to privacy may either be: a. II. Right to self-determination 3. Noble/Nobility: the researcher must respect the rights of his/her subjects: Three basics rights of a research participant: 1. b. mental: may be two kinds: a. or recorded. Informed consent  Truthfulness: should only contain facts not mere fabrication  Importance: significance to the nursing profession  Factual: a nursing research is a fact-finding study (facts not fiction)  Ideal: must proceed following the 10 formal steps in nursing process.  Courageous: the researcher should embody the courage to get all the pertinent facrts/data.g. battery: forcible or illegal physical introduction of a substance e. Physical: may happen during experimental process through negligence: a. slander: when you orally destroy the moral reputation of the pt b. written. assault: subjecting one to mere mental fear or threat b. identity may not be disclosed. Confidentiality: refers to privacy as regard to the information or data obtained. by omission: by not doing what was rightfully expected of him/her from the very start. Confidentiality c. information acquired must not be disclosed. moral: may be either be: a. Right not to be harmed 2. libel: when the defamation is published. by commission: through performance of wrong intervention b. This is: a. Anonymity d. . an invalid adm of a drug or injection 3. 2. Right to privacy Types of harm/injury: 1.

Sources of problems for nursing research: C: different nursing concepts.*CBQ: the main contribution of research towards the improvement of nursing profession is a. 1. 5. 9. 10. Identification of problem. L: health literature I: issues affecting profession N: nursing assessment T: nursing theories (**CBQ) Characteristics of a good nursing research problem General applicability-the study is helpful and advantageous for the common good and not just for selected few. Determine research design 5. Make conclusions and recommendations Identification of a research problem: A. 2.  Research problem is anything that requires solution through a scientific investigation. Analyze data 4. Review literature information 3.      2. 3. 8. Review of related literature Formulation of conceptual and theoretical framework Choose an appropriate hypothesis Choose an appropriate research design Sampling or obtaining a sample from the population Collection of data phase Analysis of data phase Interpretation of data Dissemination of conclusion or recommendations. Ten Major Steps in Nursing Research: 1. 6. Formulate problem information 2. 4. **CBQ: the correct sequence of steps in research process is: 1. 7. provide a scientific basis for nursing care. Based on applicability .