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School of Engineering Science Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC Canada

INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Open book. Answer both questions. They are of equal value. Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes. Most definitions/notations in this paper are consistent with those in the lecture notes and are thus not repeated here. 5. You may find the following formulae useful e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ ;

cos θ = e jθ + e − jθ , 2

j 2 = −1

sin θ = e jθ − e − jθ 2j

∫e

a

T

b

βx

dx =

(e β

1

βb

− eβ a ) ,

∫e

0

j 2π ft

dt =

sin(π fT ) jπ fT e = T ⋅ e jπ fT ⋅ sinc ( fT ) πf 1

**∫ cos(2π ft )dt = 2π f ( sin(2π fb) − sin(2π fa ) ) ,
**

a

b

**∫ sin(2π ft )dt = 2π f ( cos(2π fa ) − cos(2π fb) )
**

a

b

1

1

s4 (t ). s3 = ⎢ ⎥ . what is the average signal energy. s5 = ⎢ ⎥ . s2 = ⎢ ⎥ . s4 = ⎢ ⎥ .. E4 = 4. E2 = 4. s5 (t ) and a corresponding signal constellation shown in the diagram below. Since the signal vectors are ⎡1⎤ ⎡2⎤ ⎡2⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎡0⎤ s1 = ⎢ ⎥ . s3 (t ). where s k is the vector representation of sk (t ) ..6 5 k =1 (20 marks) 2 . the average signal energy is thus Es = 1 5 ∑ Ek = 3.. ⎣1⎦ ⎣0⎦ ⎣2⎦ ⎣2⎦ ⎣0⎦ with corresponding magnitude squares of E1 = 2.. s2 (t ). Es ? (b) What is the Gram matrix of these modulation waveforms? (c) Express s1 (t ) as a linear combination of the other modulation waveforms. 2. Solution (a) The energy of a waveform is the magnitude square of the corresponding signal vector.Question 1 Consider a 2-dimensional modulation scheme with modulation waveforms s1 (t ). E3 = 8.5 . E5 = 0 . k = 1. (a) Assuming the waveforms are sent with equal probability.

n = ∫ sk (t ) sn (t )dt = sT k sn .n)-th entry of the Gram matrix G is the integral Gk . we can deduce that s1 (t ) = 1 ( s2 (t ) + s4 (t ) ) 2 1 = s3 (t ) 2 (10 marks) 3 . the (k. 0 T Thus ⎡2 ⎢2 ⎢ G = ⎢4 ⎢ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎣0 2 4 4 0 0 4 4 8 4 0 2 0 4 4 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ (20 marks) (c) From the signal constellation.(b) According to our lecture notes.

z2 . where z1 . i. z3 are the correlators’ output. To extract the sufficient statistics from the received signal for demodulation purpose. 2b is employed. and s3 (t ) of a ternary modulation scheme.e. and s3 (t ) ) to determine the orthonormal basis functions. that describe these waveforms. 2a (b) When the above modulation scheme is used to send data over an AWGN channel. s2 (t ) . φ2 (t ). zk = xk + nk .Question 2 (a) Fig. s2 (t ) . φ3 (t ) . Each zk has a signal component xk and a noise component nk . 2a below depicts the waveforms s1 (t ) . s3 (t )} is the transmitted signal and n (t ) is the channel’s AWGN whose power spectral density is N 0 . φ1 (t ). Please pay attention to the signal amplitudes in the diagram s1 (t ) 4/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t s2 (t ) 2/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t s3 (t ) 4/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t Fig. 4 . Use the Gram-Schmidt procedure (in the order of s1 (t ) . s2 (t ). the receiver structure in Fig. the received signal is of the form r (t ) = x (t ) + n (t ) where x (t ) ∈ {s1 (t ).

I will use the notation v (t ) = [ w x y z] to represent a piecewise constant waveform with amplitudes w. and s3 (t ) can be described as s1 (t ) = a ⋅ [1 1 0 0] . [T. n2 .where 4T xk = ∫ 0 x (t )φk (t )dt . s2 (t ) . in the intervals [0.3T]. s3 (t ) = a ⋅ [0 0 1 1] . According to this notation.4T] respectively. k 0 What are the xk ’s when x (t ) = s2 (t ) ? What is the covariance matrix of the noise terms n1 . [2T. z. b = 2 / T . a = 4 / T . and zero otherwise. y. the waveforms s1 (t ) . x. c = 4 / T 5 . s2 (t ) = b ⋅ [0 1 1 0] .2T]. 4T nk = ∫ n(t )φ (t )dt. n3 ? 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z1 4T φ1 (t ) r (t ) 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z2 4T φ2 (t ) 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z3 4T φ3 (t ) Fig 2b Solution In the solution to this problem. and [3T.T].

the signal vectors corresponding to s1 (t ).In addition. s3 (t ) are s1 . s2 (t ). s3 respectively. (a) First step of GS procedure Es1 = 2a 2T = 8 . φ1 (t ) = s1 (t ) 1 = [1 1 0 0] Es1 2T s1 (t ) = Es1 φ1 (t ) ⇒ s1 = ( 8 0 0 ) T Second Step of GS Procedure c21 = 4T ∫ s2 (t )φ1 (t )dt = b 0 T =1 2 T 1 ⋅ ⋅ [1 1 0 0] 2 2T e2 (t ) = s2 (t ) − c21φ1 (t ) = b ⋅ [ 0 1 1 0] − b ⋅ = b ⋅ [ − 1 −1 2 0 ] 2 3b2T Ee2 = =3 2 e (t ) 1 φ2 (t ) = 2 = [ −1 1 2 0 ] Ee2 6T s2 (t ) = c21φ1 (t ) + e2 (t ) = φ1 (t ) + Ee2 φ2 (t ) = φ1 (t ) + 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) Last Step of GS Procedure c31 = c32 = 4T ⇒ s2 = 1 ( 3 0 ) T ∫ s3 (t )φ1 (t )dt = 0 0 4T ∫ s3 (t )φ2 (t )dt = c ⋅ 0 2T 8 = 3 3 6 . s2 .

(10 marks) 7 .e3 (t ) = s3 (t ) − c31φ1 (t ) − c32φ2 (t ) = c ⋅ [0 0 1 1] − c ⋅ = c ⋅ [1 −1 1 3] 3 2T 1 ⋅ ⋅ [ −1 1 2 0] 3 6T 4c 2T 16 Ee3 = = 3 3 e (t ) 1 φ3 (t ) = 3 = [1 −1 1 3] Ee3 2 3T s3 (t ) = c31φ1 (t ) + c32φ2 (t ) + e3 (t ) = 8 / 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + Ee3 φ3 (t ) = 8 / 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + 16 / 3 ⋅ φ3 (t ) ⇒ s3 = 0 ( 8/3 16 / 3 ) T (30 marks) (b) Since r (t ) = s2 (t ) + n(t ) = φ1 (t ) + 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + n(t ) . in matrix form. { } where ⎡1⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ = s 2 = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎣ x3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ is the signal component and ⎡ n1 ⎤ n = ⎢ n2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n3 ⎥ ⎦ (10 marks) is the noise component. is z =x+n. the output of the correlators. As shown in the notes. the covariance matrix of the noise component is N 0I .

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