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# ENSC 805 Midterm Oct 21, 2010

School of Engineering Science Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC Canada

INSTRUCTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. Open book. Answer both questions. They are of equal value. Time allowed: 1 hour 30 minutes. Most definitions/notations in this paper are consistent with those in the lecture notes and are thus not repeated here. 5. You may find the following formulae useful e jθ = cos θ + j sin θ ;
cos θ = e jθ + e − jθ , 2

j 2 = −1
sin θ = e jθ − e − jθ 2j

∫e
a
T

b

βx

dx =

(e β
1

βb

− eβ a ) ,

∫e
0

j 2π ft

dt =

sin(π fT ) jπ fT e = T ⋅ e jπ fT ⋅ sinc ( fT ) πf 1

∫ cos(2π ft )dt = 2π f ( sin(2π fb) − sin(2π fa ) ) ,
a

b

∫ sin(2π ft )dt = 2π f ( cos(2π fa ) − cos(2π fb) )
a

b

1

1

s4 (t ). s3 = ⎢ ⎥ . what is the average signal energy. s5 = ⎢ ⎥ . s2 = ⎢ ⎥ . s4 = ⎢ ⎥ .. E4 = 4. E2 = 4. s5 (t ) and a corresponding signal constellation shown in the diagram below. Since the signal vectors are ⎡1⎤ ⎡2⎤ ⎡2⎤ ⎡0⎤ ⎡0⎤ s1 = ⎢ ⎥ . s3 (t ). where s k is the vector representation of sk (t ) ..6 5 k =1 (20 marks) 2 . the average signal energy is thus Es = 1 5 ∑ Ek = 3.. ⎣1⎦ ⎣0⎦ ⎣2⎦ ⎣2⎦ ⎣0⎦ with corresponding magnitude squares of E1 = 2.. s2 (t ). Es ? (b) What is the Gram matrix of these modulation waveforms? (c) Express s1 (t ) as a linear combination of the other modulation waveforms. 2. Solution (a) The energy of a waveform is the magnitude square of the corresponding signal vector.Question 1 Consider a 2-dimensional modulation scheme with modulation waveforms s1 (t ). E3 = 8.5 . E5 = 0 . k = 1. (a) Assuming the waveforms are sent with equal probability.

n = ∫ sk (t ) sn (t )dt = sT k sn .n)-th entry of the Gram matrix G is the integral Gk . we can deduce that s1 (t ) = 1 ( s2 (t ) + s4 (t ) ) 2 1 = s3 (t ) 2 (10 marks) 3 . the (k. 0 T Thus ⎡2 ⎢2 ⎢ G = ⎢4 ⎢ ⎢2 ⎢ ⎣0 2 4 4 0 0 4 4 8 4 0 2 0 4 4 0 0⎤ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ ⎥ 0⎥ 0⎥ ⎦ (20 marks) (c) From the signal constellation.(b) According to our lecture notes.

z2 . where z1 . i. z3 are the correlators’ output. To extract the sufficient statistics from the received signal for demodulation purpose. 2b is employed. and s3 (t ) of a ternary modulation scheme.e. and s3 (t ) ) to determine the orthonormal basis functions. that describe these waveforms. 2a (b) When the above modulation scheme is used to send data over an AWGN channel. s2 (t ) . φ2 (t ). zk = xk + nk .Question 2 (a) Fig. s2 (t ) . φ3 (t ) . Each zk has a signal component xk and a noise component nk . 2a below depicts the waveforms s1 (t ) . s3 (t )} is the transmitted signal and n (t ) is the channel’s AWGN whose power spectral density is N 0 . φ1 (t ). Please pay attention to the signal amplitudes in the diagram s1 (t ) 4/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t s2 (t ) 2/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t s3 (t ) 4/T 0 T 2T 3T 4T t Fig. 4 . Use the Gram-Schmidt procedure (in the order of s1 (t ) . s2 (t ). the receiver structure in Fig. the received signal is of the form r (t ) = x (t ) + n (t ) where x (t ) ∈ {s1 (t ).

I will use the notation v (t ) = [ w x y z] to represent a piecewise constant waveform with amplitudes w. and s3 (t ) can be described as s1 (t ) = a ⋅ [1 1 0 0] . [T. n2 .where 4T xk = ∫ 0 x (t )φk (t )dt . s2 (t ) . in the intervals [0.3T]. s3 (t ) = a ⋅ [0 0 1 1] . According to this notation.4T] respectively. k 0 What are the xk ’s when x (t ) = s2 (t ) ? What is the covariance matrix of the noise terms n1 . [2T. z. b = 2 / T . a = 4 / T . and zero otherwise. y. the waveforms s1 (t ) . x. c = 4 / T 5 . s2 (t ) = b ⋅ [0 1 1 0] .2T]. 4T nk = ∫ n(t )φ (t )dt. n3 ? 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z1 4T φ1 (t ) r (t ) 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z2 4T φ2 (t ) 4T ∫ (•)dt 0 z3 4T φ3 (t ) Fig 2b Solution In the solution to this problem. and [3T.T].

the signal vectors corresponding to s1 (t ).In addition. s3 (t ) are s1 . s2 (t ). s3 respectively. (a) First step of GS procedure Es1 = 2a 2T = 8 . φ1 (t ) = s1 (t ) 1 = [1 1 0 0] Es1 2T s1 (t ) = Es1 φ1 (t ) ⇒ s1 = ( 8 0 0 ) T Second Step of GS Procedure c21 = 4T ∫ s2 (t )φ1 (t )dt = b 0 T =1 2 T 1 ⋅ ⋅ [1 1 0 0] 2 2T e2 (t ) = s2 (t ) − c21φ1 (t ) = b ⋅ [ 0 1 1 0] − b ⋅ = b ⋅ [ − 1 −1 2 0 ] 2 3b2T Ee2 = =3 2 e (t ) 1 φ2 (t ) = 2 = [ −1 1 2 0 ] Ee2 6T s2 (t ) = c21φ1 (t ) + e2 (t ) = φ1 (t ) + Ee2 φ2 (t ) = φ1 (t ) + 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) Last Step of GS Procedure c31 = c32 = 4T ⇒ s2 = 1 ( 3 0 ) T ∫ s3 (t )φ1 (t )dt = 0 0 4T ∫ s3 (t )φ2 (t )dt = c ⋅ 0 2T 8 = 3 3 6 . s2 .

(10 marks) 7 .e3 (t ) = s3 (t ) − c31φ1 (t ) − c32φ2 (t ) = c ⋅ [0 0 1 1] − c ⋅ = c ⋅ [1 −1 1 3] 3 2T 1 ⋅ ⋅ [ −1 1 2 0] 3 6T 4c 2T 16 Ee3 = = 3 3 e (t ) 1 φ3 (t ) = 3 = [1 −1 1 3] Ee3 2 3T s3 (t ) = c31φ1 (t ) + c32φ2 (t ) + e3 (t ) = 8 / 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + Ee3 φ3 (t ) = 8 / 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + 16 / 3 ⋅ φ3 (t ) ⇒ s3 = 0 ( 8/3 16 / 3 ) T (30 marks) (b) Since r (t ) = s2 (t ) + n(t ) = φ1 (t ) + 3 ⋅ φ2 (t ) + n(t ) . in matrix form. { } where ⎡1⎤ ⎡ x1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ x = ⎢ x2 ⎥ = s 2 = ⎢ 3 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0⎥ ⎢ ⎣ x3 ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ is the signal component and ⎡ n1 ⎤ n = ⎢ n2 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ n3 ⎥ ⎦ (10 marks) is the noise component. is z =x+n. the output of the correlators. As shown in the notes. the covariance matrix of the noise component is N 0I .