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1
OPINION
provide a definition. The term has long
been understood by the scientific com-
munity to refer to adverse changes in
the abundance and productivity of fish
and other aquatic life.
The problem is this: There is no scien-
tific evidence that shows a reduction in
entrainment and impingement would
lead to measurable improvements in
fish populations. That was the conclu-
sion of a peer-reviewed article authored
by Lawrence Barnthouse and published
in the May issue of Environmental Sci-
ence & Policy.
Any impacts caused by impingement
and entrainment are small compared to
other impacts on fish populations and
communities, including overfishing,
habitat destruction, pollution, and inva-
sive species, wrote Barnthouse, whose
research was sponsored by the Electric
Power Research Institute.
The 316(b) rule was first enacted in
1972 when Congress passed the Federal
Water Pollution Control Act Amend-
ments. Since then, the rule has been sus-
pended and rewritten several times in a
long and drawn out legal battle between
utilities and environmental groups. After
40 years, the EPA is expected to release
the final rule in November.
Interestingly, in the 40 years since
the rules enactment, the EPA has not
performed a single study that shows
entrainment and impingement impact
fish populations any more than recre-
ational fishing.
Adverse impacts have been implic-
itly or explicitly defined as entrainment
and impingement per se, irrespective of
whether any adverse changes in popu-
lations can be demonstrated or predict-
ed, wrote Barnthouse. The rarity of
M
any of you have written a the-
sis, dissertation, essay or aca-
demic paper in support of one
position over another. Providing hard
and persuasive evidence is critical in jus-
tifying your stand and winning consen-
sus on tough issues.
The Environmental Protection
Agency has failed miserably to heed
this precept as it pursues some of the
costliest regulations in U.S. history. In
many instances, the evidence either
does not exist or has not been revealed
to the American people.
The EPA is moving forward on sev-
eral new rules that would impose strict
standards on air emissions and wa-
ter management at U.S. power plants
without providing the evidence or data
to justify the need of more regulation.
The agencys new rule governing wa-
ter intake structures at existing power
plants is a perfect example.
Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act
would affect roughly 670 power plants in
the U.S. It would require plants that draw
more than 2 million gallons a day and use
25 percent of that water for cooling to in-
stall the best technology available (BTA)
to minimize the mortality of aquatic
life. Losses occur when fish and other
organisms become trapped (impinged)
against water intake structures or sucked
(entrained) into the cooling system and
exposed to heat, pressure and machinery.
The rule requires the best technology to
mitigate what it describes as adverse en-
vironmental impact resulting from en-
trainment and impingement.
However, we still dont know what
constitutes an adverse environmen-
tal impact because the rule, which
was first introduced in 1972, does not
documentation of such impacts, after
40 years of operation of large power
plants, some of which have been con-
ducting extensive monitoring pro-
grams for several decades, provides
substantial evidence that impacts re-
lated to entrainment and impingement
are generally small.
Meanwhile, the rule, in its current
form, would require power producers
to install expensive fish-protection
technology and does not recognize the
use of less costly solutions that may
actually be more effective than those
identified in the draft rule.
But the EPAs deception doesnt stop
there. The information used to estab-
lish many of the air-emission standards
promulgated by President Obama and
the EPA has not been released to the
public. The data has been kept secret
as the Obama-run EPA moves forward
with rules that will cost U.S. utilities
and their customers billions.
In a July 29 column he wrote for The
Wall Street Journal, Rep. Lamar Smith,
chairman of Texas House Committee
on Science, Space and Technology, said
the EPA has obstructed the commit-
tees request for this data at every turn.
The costs of these rules will be
borne by American families. They de-
serve to know what they are paying
for, Smith wrote. If the administra-
tion does not provide this data by the
end of July, the science committee will
force its release through a subpoena.
The federal government has no busi-
ness justifying regulations with secret
information.
If you have a question or a comment,
please contact me at russellr@pen-
nwell.com
Wheres the Beef?
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
1308PE_1 1 8/2/13 12:45 PM
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DEPARTMENTS
1 Opinion
4 Clearing the Air
6 Nuclear Reactions
8 View on Renewables
10 Gas Generation
FEATURES
No. 8, August 2013
1
1
7
VOLUME
12 Using Technology to Monitor
& Maintain Wind Turbines
Technology plays an important role in all power plants, but remote
locations and accessibility issues for wind turbines can make its
use especially beneficial in wind power projects.
30 Challenges to Mercury Emissions
Compliance at Coal-Fired Plants
In light of recent revisions to MATS regulations, Power Engineering examines the
difficulty in applying appropriate technologies to existing coal-fired units.
18
A Q
&
A with Tennessee
Valley Authority President
and CEO Bill Johnson
Power Engineering Associate Editor Denver Nicks sat down with TVA
President and CEO Bill Johnson for an exclusive interview about the
utilitys future and the direction of the U.S. power generation market.
52 Valves and Actuators
A look at actuator technology and the opportunities to improve
efficiency and reduce costs.
1308PE_2 2 8/2/13 12:46 PM
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4
CLEARING THE AIR
finding in 2000 that it was appropriate
and necessary to regulate coal- and oil-
fired electric utilities. It may not take that
long for the new regulations to clear all
hurdles, but delays are inevitable. How-
ever, the EPA has been studying carbon
regulation for several years and has met
previous deadlines when pressed.
Many economists believe that putting
a price on carbon is the most effective
and lowest cost means of reducing emis-
sions. EPA lacks the authority to impose
a direct tax on carbon emissions, and
such a tax would require legislative action
by Congress, which is likely.
We anticipate the EPA to propose a
cap and trade system to regulate exist-
ing plants with performance standards
under CAA 111. This approach has been
successfully implemented in the past for
other pollutants and is the basis for the
current Acid Rain and NOx Budget Trad-
ing Programs. A similar market-based
approach was also proposed for both the
Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR).
The EPA could also use the experience
of regional markets such as the Regional
Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI).
There are several issues the EPA needs
to resolve before their regulatory propos-
al in June 2014:
Setting the initial compliance dead-
line and the emissions reduction
schedule, which may include a de-
clining cap
The basis for allocating allowances
to existing units, as well as for future
new units
Possible restrictions on allowance
trading and banking of allowances
F
or the first time in history, the
White House has directed the
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency to propose and implement car-
bon pollution reductions for existing
coal-fired power plants.
In his June 25, 2013 speech, President
Barack Obama outlined his national cli-
mate action plan that includes CO2 limits
for new and existing power plants. The
first part of the plan includes a goal to
double energy production from renew-
able resources. The second part of the
plan initiates steps to strengthen and pro-
tect our infrastructure from the impacts
of climate change. The third and final
part is to work towards building an inter-
national solution to this global problem.
Our focus here is on carbon reduction
from existing power plants.
Concurrent with his June 25
th
speech,
the president issued the EPA a directive
to regulate carbon pollution for Modi-
fied, Reconstructed, and Existing Power
Plants. This directive envisions a mar-
ket-based approach that will have lower
costs than alternative approaches. The
directive does not state a CO2 reduction
target or compliance deadline, but in his
speech, Obama recalled his stated goal of
a 17 percent reduction in greenhouse gas
emissions from 2005 levels by 2020.
The suggested timeline to issue pro-
posed regulations for existing plants is
June 1, 2014, final regulations by June 1,
2015, and State Implementation plans by
June 30, 2016. Delays are almost certain.
It took 22 years from passage of the 1990
Clean Air Act Amendments to the 2012
final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards.
Thirteen years have passed since the EPAs
for future use
Baseline year for the emission alloca-
tion budgets.
Ensuring our electricity supply reli-
ability, e.g., safety valves
Treatment of oil-fired plants
Other trends affecting coal-fired power
plants could potentially have a greater
impact than carbon pollution regulation.
The price of natural gas, compliance with
MATS, and the future of CSAPR have
caused and will continue to cause some
owners to reduce capacity factors or retire
their coal-fired units, thereby reducing
carbon emissions. In a cap and trade pro-
gram, allowances allocated to a unit that
retires could be handled differently than
other allowances.
The exact regulatory structure, carbon
reduction target and budget, and if appli-
cable, the price of carbon allowances are
unknown and could range from being a
minor to a major factor. Of course, the
details of EPAs carbon pollution regula-
tions are only a piece of the puzzle. The
required State Implementation Plans also
represent a significant source of uncer-
tainty.
Although much is unknown about
the proposed regulations, we think
other trends already reducing our coal
use, as well as the EPAs tight schedule,
point to nominal reductions in the
short term. Full-scale carbon capture
and sequestration, still far from be-
ing commercially available on a large
scale, is not expected. Coal plants
will face challenges, but assuming rea-
sonable short-term caps are imposed,
many will continue to operate.
Can Existing Coal Plants
Survive the New Carbon
Pollution Regulation?
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6
NUCLEAR REACTIONS
drew them to the nuclear energy field
and what makes them want to stay in it.
The panelists explained that they pur-
sued careers in nuclear energy primar-
ily because of their concerns about the
quality of the environment combined
with a knack for science and technol-
ogy. They were committed to careers in
nuclear energy and to doing work they
perceive as having a positive impact.
Although the next generation pan-
elists demonstrated commitment to
nuclear, they were not necessarily com-
mitted to any one employer (e.g., at
power labs, academia, institutes and
power companies). Some in the audi-
ence seemed to find their lack of em-
ployer commitment disconcerting, but I
did not. Instead, I was inspired by their
dedication to making a differencein
nuclear energy and the world. Their
movement across employers provides
them valuable experiences and insights.
Employers that want to retain them lon-
ger can do a lot to keep them, such as
providing stimulating opportunities to
grow and be influential, positive men-
tor relationships, and a better synergy
with their personal goals.
The next generations deep commit-
ment to nuclear energy was inspiring.
I believe that they will play a crucial
role in the degree to which nuclear
power thrives. Current nuclear energy
leaders need to re-create the work en-
vironmentand thereby the business
and cultural modelsin order to nur-
ture the essential contributions of the
next generation. Companies that fail
to tap into next generation creativity
and dedication will probably be left
behind.
A
t the American Nuclear Society
(ANS) annual meeting this year
in Atlanta, I did not expect to be
inspired. Southern California Edison
(SCE) had just announced that it would
be permanently retiring Units 2 and 3
at the San Onofre Nuclear Generating
Station (SONGS) due to continuing
regulatory and financial uncertainty.
SCE decided it was better to completely
shut-down both units instead of pursu-
ing the ongoing challenges associated
with actual and potential steam genera-
tor tube leaks. The SONGS shutdown
followed the closings of Dominions
Kewaunee and Dukes Crystal River sta-
tion for financial and regulatory-relat-
ed issues as well.
In the opening plenary at the ANS
meeting, Steve Kuczynski, President and
CEO of Southern Nuclear, rallied the
audience. Kuczynski talked about the
critical need for nuclear energy to play
better offense. That includes being more
proactive and informing and educating
people on all the advances being made
in new nuclear build and new technol-
ogy (e.g., at Vogtle and Summer). He
reminded the industry that it needs to
get out in front and lead change rather
than react and defend. Danny Roderick,
President and CEO of Westinghouse
(builders of the AP1000 in the U.S. and
China), continued on this theme in the
opening plenary, saying we need to re-
think and re-create the business models
of nuclear power in the U.S.
The conversations about re-thinking
nuclear energy and playing better of-
fense continued in the afternoon session
organized by Jeffrey Jay, of CB & I Pow-
er, and at the executive dinner hosted
by the Georgia Institute of Technology
Center for International Strategy, Tech-
nology and Policy. When that many
smart, experienced and well-positioned
people discussed nuclear energys cur-
rent challenges, the problems started to
appear quite surmountable. Joyce Con-
nery, Director of Nuclear Energy Policy
for the National Security Council spoke
at the dinner. Connery reassured the au-
dience that the administration and con-
gress (generally speaking) do support a
continued, important role for nuclear
power nationally and globally, and that
work is being done behind the scenes to
help remove barriers.
ANS members were also encouraged
to see the new documentary film Pan-
doras Promise by environmentalist
filmmaker Robert Stone. Pandoras
Promise tells the stories of influential,
credible environmentalists who evolved
from anti-nuclear activists to staunchly
pro-nuclear advocates. The stories com-
pel the audience with a combination
of climate science and the technical re-
alities of energy resources and waste by-
products. They conclude that, if you are
for the environment, then you must be
for nuclear energy. Pandoras Promise
has the potential to be a conversation
changer and is a great way to inform and
educate in the way Kuczynski described.
The need for new nuclear power mod-
els will likely be implemented, if not
developed by, the next generation of
nuclear energy leaders. Some of these
next generation leaders participated in
a panel at the meeting called, Young
Blood: Integration and Retention of the
Next Generation. These intelligent and
dedicated individuals talked about what
Re-Energizing
Nuclear Power
BY MARY JO ROGERS, PH.D., PARTNER, STRATEGIC TALENT SOLUTIONS
1308PE_6 6 8/2/13 12:48 PM

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BUILDING A
NEW GENERATION
OF NUCLEAR ENERGY
Containment Vessel Bottom Head set at V.C. Summer Unit 2
Westinghouse Electric Company congratulates South Carolina
Electric & Gas Company and Georgia Power Company on the
major milestones recently achieved in constructing new AP1000


nuclear power plants, marking the start of a new generation of
nuclear energy in the United States.
Westinghouse delivered the worlds rst pressurized water reactor
in 1957, and were proud to provide todays most advanced
nuclear energy technology. A new era of safe, clean and reliable
nuclear power is beginning.
For more information, visit us at www.westinghousenuclear.com
W
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8
VIEW ON RENEWABLES
surrounding park and public areas to
make them better for visitors, outdoor
enthusiasts and wildlife, and to celebrate
the history and heritage of the area.
PSE added a number of visitor ame-
nities and park improvements in the
lower, riverside portion of Snoqualmie
Falls Park, and built new hiking trails to
connect the parks upper and lower sec-
tions. New interpretative and education
signage communicates the historical, cul-
tural and environmental significance of
the site. Whitewater enthusiasts now en-
joy improved riverfront access and park
visitors enjoy new landscaping, light-
ing, fencing and viewpoints. Weve also
worked to eliminate invasive plant spe-
cies and replace them with native species
along the rivers shore.
Upstream from Snoqualmie Falls, PSE
renovated the projects original Train De-
pot and Carpenter Shop. The renovated
buildings are now up to code but have
retained their historical elements.
As of early July, Plant 2 was operating
and construction on Plant 1 is 90 per-
cent complete. By late August, we expect
to complete work on the lower park and
the recreation area and re-open all the
remaining hiking trails and visitor areas.
Our obligation as a utility is to not only
deliver safe, reliable power but to do it
in a way that protects and enhances our
environment and community. The rede-
velopment of the Snoqualmie Falls hydro
project is a great example of this principle
in action. The project combines modern-
day engineering with the history and
heritage of the Snoqualmie Falls area and
its people. As we near completion, we are
proud to carry this strong legacy forward
into the next century.
T
hirty miles from Seattle, Wash-
ington in the foothills of the
Cascade Mountains flows Sno-
qualmie Falls, a magnificent 30-story
cascading waterfall that attracts 2 million
visitors each year. Hidden beneath this
natural marvel lies a 115-year-old engi-
neering marvel the worlds first under-
ground hydropower plant.
Puget Sound Energyshistoric Sno-
qualmie Falls hydroelectric project is
home to two power plants. Plant 1 was
built in 1898 inside a bedrock cavity thats
260 feet below ground at the edge of the
falls. The second powerhouse, Plant 2, a
quarter-mile downstream from the falls,
was built in 1910 and expanded in 1957.
The facility is a vital piece of our gener-
ation and renewable energy portfolio. Its
also been our lowest cost power provider,
but like many hydro plants around the
country, it was showing its age. The plant
needed upgrades to improve efficiency,
capacity and safety.
After PSE received a new 40-year fed-
eral operating license in 2004, we began a
collaborative, comprehensive redevelop-
ment process that is now nearing comple-
tion. The project has resulted not only in
additional megawatts of clean, reliable
power, but in an enhanced visitor experi-
ence and better fish protection.
PSEs upgrades to the two power plants
included replacing two turbine genera-
tors and refurbishing the remaining units
to be more efficient and replacing aging
penstocks pipes that carry water to both
powerhouses. One of the larger engineer-
ing feats involved building a new steel
and concrete intake structure that chan-
nels water into the 1,200 foot-long un-
derground tunnel. This 12-foot diameter
tunnel was relined and now delivers wa-
ter to a rebuilt gate house above Plant 2.
The new gate house was outfitted with
automatic shutoff gates to quickly and
safely halt the flow of water if an earth-
quake or other emergency ever caused a
major leak in the penstocks.
Plant 2 went offline for renovation in
2010 and re-started in April of this year.
Once Plant 1 comes back online in late
July, the projects generating capacity will
be 54 megawatts, compared to 44 mega-
watts previously. The 20 percent increase
in rated output will raise the total output
enough to serve about 40,000 homes,
without using any additional water.
Aside from the powerhouse upgrade,
we also refurbished the existing con-
crete diversion dam that spans the Sno-
qualmie River just upstream from the
crest of Snoqualmie Falls. The current
dam, which varies between 5 and 18 feet
high, was lowered by 2 feet and length-
ened by 37 feet. This resizing reduces the
crest of flood waters by 6 to 8 inches in
the upstream city of Snoqualmie while
providing better water conveyance to the
powerhouses.
A new bypass flow-control system was
added to the rebuilt Plant 2. Now if either
generator is shut down abruptly, the sys-
tem transfers water so there is continuity
in water flow and fish (primarily Chi-
nook salmon and Steelhead trout) wont
experience a drop in the river level. To
further protect the fish, we modified the
Plant 1 tailrace at the base of the falls so
there were no pockets or ponds where
fish could get trapped.
Snoqualmie Falls is a scenic and cul-
tural treasure. With the renewed license,
we took the opportunity to reinvent the
Hydro Project Renovation
Marries History, Technology
and Environment
BY PAUL WIEGAND, SENIOR VICE PRESIDENT OF ENERGY OPERATIONS, PUGET SOUND ENERGY
1308PE_8 8 8/2/13 12:48 PM
Powerplant Engineering
DESIGN & EPC CONSTRUCTION
(We team with EPC Contractors selected to suit the project)
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1308PE_9 9 8/2/13 12:48 PM
www.power-eng.com
10
GAS GENERATION
California, however, the characteristics
of natural gas-fired generation might
be an even better fit than most areas for
several reasons.
California law currently has a rela-
tively high renewable energy standard
that requires 33 percent of its power
come from renewable energy by 2020
meaning a large amount of power ca-
pacity in the state will be intermittent.
To succeed at using renewable, it will be
necessary for California to have a de-
cent amount of power generation that
can quickly come onto the grid when
the sun sets or the wind stops blowing.
Natural gas-fired power plants, which
have quick start up times, can deliver
large amounts of power onto the grid in
a short period of time.
In addition, Los Angeles plans to
end the use of coal-fired generation
as a power source by 2025. The move
away from receiving power from the
Navajo Generating Station in Arizona
and the Intermountain Power Plant in
Utah will leave the city, which receives
39 percent of its power from those two
sources, with a need for more capacity.
While some of that power capacity will
come from renewable sources the Los
Angeles Department of Water & Power
is planning to seek bids for 250 MW of
solar power they city has amended its
contract with the Intermountain Power
Plant that would switch the power sup-
plied to Southern California utilities
from the coal-fired plant to a smaller,
natural gas-fired plant.
Unlike many states adding natu-
ral gas, however, California will most
likely have an increase in carbon emis-
sions. Although one of the most-stated
W
ith the unexpected retire-
ment of the San Onofre
Nuclear Generation Sta-
tion in June, utilities in Southern Cali-
fornia are looking to fill a 2,200 MW
power generation hole. For most utili-
ties, the answer is going to be the same
for much of the U.S.s new power gen-
eration: natural gas.
In its 2013 Summer Loads & Resourc-
es Assessment, California Independent
System Operator stated 2,502 MW of
power generation capacity had come
online in the state between June 1, 2012
and April 1, 2013, with more than 70
percent of that capacity coming from
natural gas.
Since April 1, even more natural
gas-fired generation has come online
in California, including the 800 MW
CPV Sentinel Energy Project near Palm
Springs, the 500 MW Walnut Creek
Energy peaking plant in the City of
Industry, the 429 MW Russell Energy
Center near Hayward and the 309 MW
Los Esteros Critical Energy Facility
near San Jose. The El Segundo Energy
Center, a 560 MW power plant, built
at an existing facility, is expected to be
online Aug. 1.
San Diego Gas & Electric is also ex-
pected to revive plans for the Pio Pico
Energy Center, a 300 MW plant that
had previously been rejected by the
California Public Utilities Commission
prior to the announcement of the clo-
sure of SONGS.
Because of the current direction of
the industry, it makes sense that utili-
ties looking to increase their power gen-
eration capacity would do so through
natural gas-fired generation. For
advantages of natural gas is its low
emissions, SONGS provided about 10
percent of Californias power demand
with no emissions. According to the
Breakthrough Institute, a pro-nuclear
environmental group, Californias car-
bon emissions will increase at least 8
million metric tons per year by replac-
ing the power generation of SONGS
with natural gas-fired power.
The move will also make Califor-
nia even more reliant on natural gas-
fired power generation than it has
been in the past. According to a report
from Reuters, gas now provides more
than 60 percent of Californias power,
which is an increase from 50 percent
in 2000. Both numbers are above nat-
ural gas usage for power generation in
the U.S. According to the U.S. Energy
Information Administration, natural
gas peaked at providing 32 percent
of the U.S.s power in April 2012 and
produced about 25 percent in the pe-
riod between November 2012 and last
March.
Despite the challenges, increasing
the states natural gas generation capac-
ity may be Californias only option. The
state is dealing with higher than average
wholesale energy price, with the EIA re-
porting a 59 percent increase in whole-
sale power prices in the state. Prices are
also 12 percent higher in the southern
California electricity grid compared to
the northern California grid because
the nuclear generation from SONGS
had to be replaced with power from
more costly sources.
The bottom line is simple for Cali-
fornia: The state needs to fill a 2,025
MW gap, and gas is the natural fit.
Gas a Natural Fit for
Southern California, but
Comes with Challenges
BY JUSTIN MARTINO, ASSOCIATE EDITOR
1308PE_10 10 8/2/13 12:48 PM
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Renewables, Alternate Technologies,
Fossil Generation, Nuclear, Transmission,
and Operations & Maintenance.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 6
1308PE_11 11 8/2/13 12:48 PM
www.power-eng.com
12
to
Using
Technology
Monitor

&
Maintain
Wind
Turbines
1308PE_12 12 8/2/13 12:48 PM
www.power-eng.com
13
T
he use of technology in
power plants to automati-
cally monitor systems has
become industry stan-
dard, which isnt a sur-
prise in an industry working to cut the
cost of every kilowatt-hour. Although
wind power isnt unique in the use of
technology, the value of that technology
may be more central to efficiently operat-
ing a wind power project.
In the old days, at a big power plant,
you had your boiler operators and
your fire tenders and the people who
actually walked around the plant and
manually recorded temperatures and
pressures and checked on things on
an hourly basis and wrote that infor-
mation down on the logbooks, Greg
Shelton, service director for Alstom
Wind North America said. The evolu-
tion of the industry has been through
technology if we use 25 people to
walk around and do this manually,
can we use 10 people and do it with
technology?
While a natural gas-fired combined cy-
cle power plant may benefit from the use
of automated monitoring to increase ef-
ficiency, the same sort of system becomes
essential at wind power project that may
cover thousands of acres of land.
It was realized very soon that if we
put a utility-scale wind power plant thats
comprised of 200 turbines spread out
over 4,000 acres of land, were going to
need some sort of technology that can
monitor absolutely every aspect of op-
eration of the turbine remotely, just be-
cause the economics of having that many
people climb 400 feet off the ground to
do this kind of stuff would never work,
Shelton said.
Every original equipment
BY JUSTIN MARTINO, ASSOCIATE EDITOR
While sending workers to the top of a wind nacelle may be the
most obvious solution to looking at a problem, its rarely the
safest or most efficient method. Photo courtesy of Alstom.
1308PE_13 13 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
14
head of Siemens Energys Wind Service
Diagnostics Center. In addition, the
company offers a variety of Remote Diag-
nostic Services that allows the customer
a higher element of risk control and the
freedom to choose.
For a customer, it is absolutely crucial
to get diagnostic advice as early as pos-
sible and to have diagnostic experts to re-
spond to technical questions, Hoe said.
Detecting an error before it becomes se-
rious is both a science and an art. With
our data mining diagnostics, we can find
even the smallest indicator that some-
thing may not be operating normally.
As part of the companys RDS services,
it also utilizes 24/7 Remote Monitoring
Centers. Hoe said in 80 percent of all
alarm cases registered in the centers, the
technical support team is able to resolve
the issue remotely without the need for a
visit to the site. The average response time
to an alarm is 10 minutes, with 99 per-
cent receiving a response within an hour.
Siemens Premium RDS package in-
cludes vibration diagnostics, which of-
fer early detection of irregularities before
they can potentially turn into break-
downs. The diagnostic also carries out
precise online vibration measurement on
manufacturer offers some sort of su-
pervisory control and data acquisition
(SCADA) system with its turbine. The job
of the SCADA is to continuously moni-
tor the temperatures and production of
a wind turbine and discover potential
problems before they become large fail-
ures.
Unlike a fossil fuel-fired power plant,
wind power projects do not typically
have an on-site staff on a 24-hour-a-day,
seven-day-a-week basis. For wind power
projects, the first line of defense may be
on the site or hundreds of miles away.
Certain times, if youre troubleshoot-
ing issues or if theres a fault on the tur-
bine, you can stop it, you can reset the
faults, look at the statuses and start the
turbine back up, or attempt to, Shelton
said. Sometimes instead of sending
people out to the turbine, our initial re-
sponse can be through the control sys-
tem remotely. The nice thing about these
systems is you can do it from an office in
Richmond or from the operations build-
ing on site, because the access is web-
based.
Although a SCADA system is used to
monitor systems in real time, the opera-
tion of the system can be much more so-
phisticated. Shelton said the WindAccess
system also includes historical data and
historical data reporting capabilities.
That would allow someone monitoring
the system to not only see the current
temperature of a bearing, but also check
to see what the bearing temperature has
been over the past day or even month.
Allowing the operator to see the per-
formance of a part being monitored over
a longer period of time allows the com-
pany to prioritize when maintenance is
done on a particular turbine in order to
avoid an alarm state that could shut the
turbine down, Shelton said.
WindAccess monitors more than 100
different data points, according to Shel-
ton, and additional modules can be
added in order to provide an even more
detailed analysis. Those modules could
allow for more condition monitoring that
would record vibration and other similar
factors. Although extra modules might
come at a higher cost, Shelton said they
allow the operator to potentially avoid
more problems.
I think it boils down to being as pro-
active as possible, he said. To go to the
next step would require more compre-
hensive data through vibration analysis
and accelerometers, and the real driver
for that is to reduce the cost of energy. If
you can predict or have a better under-
standing of downtime events, then you
can schedule a corrective action when the
wind isnt blowing and have the turbines
be available 100 percent during the times
its possible to generate electricity.
A Siemens wind power site uses the
WebWPS SCADA system, which provides
a web-based interface with a variety of
status views of electrical and mechani-
cal data, operation and fault status, and
weather and grid data, said Merete Hoe,
Wind power projects can often be located in remote locations,
which makes remote access monitoring ideal to check
conditions and predict major failures before they can happen.
Photo courtesy of Alstom.
1308PE_14 14 8/2/13 12:49 PM
2013 Exxon Mobil Corporation.
All trademarks used herein are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries.
Help keep maintenance costs down and send productivity soaring with the complete range of Mobil SHC synthetic lubricants and
greases. Each one is formulated to offer outstanding all-around performance, including equipment protection, keep-clean characteristics,
and oil life. Take Mobilgear SHC XMP. Used in more than 40,000 wind turbine gearboxes worldwide, its trusted by builders, proven in the
eld, and supported by exceptional application expertise. Just a few of the reasons we dont simply make things run. We make them y.
Visit mobilindustrial.com for more.
We can take wind turbines to new heights.
S:7
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:
9
.
5
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 7
1308PE_15 15 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
16
long run when performing tasks such
as sensor deployment.
Its $2,500 a day to bring a lift truck
out there, whereas our robot allows
you to go out there, drive it up, turn it
off, leave it there for a week, and when
you have to move it, you go move it,
he said. So that
machine would
pay for itself in
five days opposed
to renting a lift
truck.
Schlee said he is
also talking with
some companies
about the possibil-
ity of building big-
ger mobile plat-
forms that could
use robotic arms
to perform service
on the blades.
You might be
talking about a
$200,000 robot,
but youre talking
about $250,000
just to mobilize the crane, then you
have to send it from tower to tower, he
said. If the scale is right and you can
use one of our platforms and not have
to mobilize a crane, the platform pays
for itself in a day.
One of the companys mobile plat-
forms can climb a tower in around
three minutes, Schlee said.
As wind power becomes more com-
mon for power generation, it can be ex-
pected the technology used to service it
will become more sophisticated. In an
industry where every dollar is impor-
tant, utilizing the proper technology
can make a major difference for a wind
project operator.
main components, Hoe said.
Hoe expects prognostic services to be a
major focus in the future development of
remote services for wind power projects.
Prognastic services advise precisely
what a customer could do at a recom-
mended time, she said. Like in the
airplane and car industry, effective data
mining and a huge knowledge base will
give the best diagnostic and prognostic
advices. A wind power site in the future
will use remote data mining to make dy-
namic and automatic service planning.
Although the use of technology to
monitor equipment may be an industry
standard, solutions to use technology
to avoid sending people into the tower
if possible is also developing. Helical
Robotics is one company working with
wind project operators to use technol-
ogy to lower costs and increase safety
at sites by using robots to perform tasks
that would otherwise require sending a
person up the tower.
Helical Robotics President and CEO
Bruce Schlee said the company builds
mobile platforms and works with other
companies to design end solutions that
suit a customers needs.
Our business model is to partner
with people from the industry to cocre-
ate solutions as opposed to offer a turn-
key solution for the industry, he said.
Currently, the company offers three
platforms off the shelf with carrying
capacities of five pounds, 20 pounds
and 100 pounds. The platforms can be
developed to perform a variety of tasks,
including monitoring the conditions
of the blades with video, allowing a
picture to be taken from 30 feet away
as opposed to 600 feet away without
climbing the tower, or to place sensors
used for testing.
A mobile platform with a five-pound
capacity sells for $10,000. While Schlee
said that might sound expensive, it
could save thousands of dollars in the
SCADA systems are used by OEMs in order to
remotely monitor and diagnose problems with wind
turbines and, in some cases, can repair a problem
without ever sending a worker to the turbine. Photo
courtesy of Alstom.
1308PE_16 16 8/2/13 12:49 PM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 8
1308PE_17 17 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
18
& Wilcox mPower Inc.] on that. I sort of
grew up in the nuclear business and Ive
been hanging around it thirty years and I
think thats a pretty exciting idea.
And some of the work on smart
grid, in terms of congestion, demand-
response activity, things that are really
on the transmission side of the grid, not
so much the customer side. I would say
those two areas are probably the most
exciting things that were seeing.
Power Engineering: How are things
proceeding with the plans for two
mPower SMRs at the Clinch River
site?
Johnson: Thats the ultimate plan. We
are proceeding into the licensing process
at the NRC, and thats probably first and
foremost what has to happen. There is
work being done at the site, site-charac-
terization, meteorology, those kinds of
things. But really the labor more at the
moment is the NRC licensing process for
a new design and product.
Power Engineering: Can you talk a
little bit more generally, bigger-pic-
ture, about the potential futures you
see for SMR technology in the US or
even globally?
Johnson: Yes, both. There are a cou-
ple things about that are attractive. One
of the things thats happened across
the country and here, is reduction or
flattening of demand, so the idea that
you can add generation or resources in
smaller increments, instead of the large
increments, thats attractive. Its a much
smaller capital commitment. So instead
of building 1,000 megawatts, youre go-
ing to 180 or 200 megawatts at a time.
So the capital commitment and, hence,
the risk, is a lot smaller. And one of the
things I like about the technology is the
export capability. If you think around
the world, new entrants into the nuclear
field, it would be a great technology to
start with, right? So, you start with a
B
ill Johnson is a man of
many interests. He enjoys
spending time in the gar-
den and tinkering on home
improvement projects and
will just as easily slide into the kitchen
to bake you a pastry. A lawyer by train-
ing, his penchant for varied hobbies is
echoed in a breadth of expertise across
the power industry that is rare in todays
world of specialization. As a partner at a
Raleigh law firm, Johnson represented
varied utilities. As President and CEO
of Progress Energy, he oversaw a diverse
power generation portfolio and helped
engineer a merger with Duke Energy
that created the countrys largest utility.
Along the way he served in leadership
roles in both the Nuclear Energy Institute
and the Edison Electric Institute.
Johnsons diversity of experience in the
Inside
the Tennessee
Valley Authority
A Q&A with TVA President and CEO Bill Johnson
BY DENVER NICKS, ASSOCIATE EDITOR
power generation industry makes him
uniquely positioned to serve as president
and CEO of an $11 billion historic insti-
tution like the Tennessee Valley Author-
ity, a role he assumed in November 2012,
with the TVAs expansive dominion over
everything from hiking trails and hydro-
power projects to windmills and nuclear
power plants. Power Engineering caught
up with Johnson to discuss the gamut of
issues he thinks about as CEO of the larg-
est public power utility in America.
Power Engineering: Tell me about
one or two of the most exciting proj-
ects going on right now in energy
research and development.
Johnson: Yea, we have a couple things
that I think are pretty interesting. Obvi-
ously our work on the small modular re-
actor, our partnership [ed: with Babcock
Bill Johnson
EXECUTIVE PROFILE
1308PE_18 18 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 9
small plant and sort of work up to the big
one. Thats what happened in this coun-
try. And I think that would be a good ex-
port product.
Power Engineering: Nuclear pow-
er has taken a string of tough blows
in the U.S., with the closing of San
Onofre and other events. Whats the
non-sugar-coated future look like for
nuclear power in the U.S. Is it on its
way out?
Johnson: Absolutely not. You know,
today, world-wide, something like 12%
of power comes from nuclear. In the U.S.,
its about 19%, and here in the Tennes-
see Valley, about 38 to 40%. It is a really
important resource. The recent events
youve mentioned really are very loca-
tion specific, where
at a single plant an
operator is making
decisions in a mar-
ket where power
prices are depressed.
That explains some
of that.
I really think if we
want to continue to
have low-cost pow-
er, and deal with the environmental is-
sues, and have a say in nuclear matters
around the world, we need to plan on
having nuclear as part of our future. And
I think one of the triggering events that
will lead us in that direction is that the
retirement of many nuclear plants, on
an age-basis, will start in about 2030. I
think we have had some bumps in the
road here, but when those plants start
retiring wed better have replacements
either ready or on the drawing board.
Power Engineering: With natural
gas so inexpensive right now, why
build a nuclear plant?
Johnson: A couple reasons: one, if
youre an old-timer like me, you still be-
lieve in something called fuel diversity. I
know that natural gas is pretty cheap, and
Im a believer in natural gas. I also saw it
go over ten dollars in BTU three times,
I think, in the 2000s. The volatility has
flattened, but there are still events that
could increase volatility. So: fuel diver-
sity, the fact that coal is really not much
of an option anymore to build, and the
longevity of nuclear plants. I think those
support the idea that we should have a
diverse mix, a balanced portfolio, and
nuclear ought to be a big part of it.
Power Engineering: Could you see
TVA building something like an ultra-
super-critical coal plant, or any coal
plant at any time in the future?
Johnson: The future is a long time, so
I cant speak too far out, but in the imme-
diate future, say, in
the next ten years,
I dont see the pos-
sibility, for a couple
reasons: one is that
today, half of our
power comes out
of coal, so we have
a lot of coal assets.
We will be retiring
some of those, but I
think the siting, the licensing, the envi-
ronmental issues around new coal are as
difficult as they are around existing coal.
I dont see that in our ten-year horizon.
Power Engineering: Several units
at the 600 MW Raccoon Mountain
pump storage facility had to be tak-
en offline in 2010 due to rotor cracks.
Can you update us on the status of
the repair work at that plant.
Johnson: Yes, all four of those units
were taken out of service after the dis-
covery of cracks in the rotors, as you
said. Theres a similar plant in Europe
where the cracks were first discovered,
and when we inspected here we found
the same thing. We are having new ro-
tors manufactured in Europe. I would
I know natural gas is
pretty cheap, and Im
a believer in natural
gas. I also saw it go
over $10 in BTU three
times in the 2000s.
- Bill Johnson, Tennessee
Valley Authority
1308PE_19 19 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
20
Power Engineering: Over the long
term, how would a privatization like
that affect operations at TVA?
Johnson: Theres nothing we do at
TVA that somebody else couldnt do.
Whats different about us is that we do
this in an integrated way across-state-
boundaries. So, for example, we run
a very large utilities system of 38,000-
39,000 megawatts of generation, 15,000
miles of transmission lines. We also
manage the Tennessee River, which is a
massive job and very important. We do
tremendous economic development and
new technology innovation. We have
campgrounds and hiking trails. So a lot
of these things that are currently done
out of the electricity revenues, some-
one else would have to do. If you think
about somehow changing TVA, you have
to think about all these other activities:
who would do them, and what the cost-
elements would be.
Power Engineering: Tell me about
the cutbacks the Bellefonte plant?
Johnson: What were doing is looking
at the load forecast, looking at the cus-
tomer usage patterns, and trying to de-
termine when that plant will be needed.
In the meantime, we are focused entirely
on finishing the other nuclear plant,
Watts Bar 2, which really has to be our
primary focus. And at the same time, our
revenues and usage are down consider-
ably over the past couple of years. I will
say that the fundamentals of the busi-
ness are very uncertain here at the time,
as they are across the country, and really
we are husbanding our capital and our
options, as we work through this uncer-
tainty. So we are preserving the option of
Bellefonte, and have to focus our resourc-
es on the immediate needs, the biggest of
which is Watts Bar 2.
Power Engineering: Is Watts Bar 2
on track?
Johnson: Watts Bar 2 has an es-
timated cost of 4 - 4.5 billion, and a
Johnson: No, I have not spoken to
the President about that or any other
topic. Im fairly certain the President
doesnt know who I am.
Power Engineering: Haha, fair
enough. Has that proposal affect-
ed things at TVA to this date?
Johnson: Ill answer those questions
in a series. We have met with OMB [ed
note: US Office of Management and
Budget. Though TVA is a nominally
publicly-owned utility it is self-support-
ing and does not receive funds from the
federal government.]. OMB prepares the
administration budget, so they are the
people leading the review. Weve had
several meetings with them to sort of
figure out what the schedule and the
process and the program are, but theyre
still in the early days, so theres not a lot
to report.
The proposal has had several impacts
on us. The first one is the element of dis-
traction. You know, in any operation,
but particularly in one where you en-
gage with hazardous activities, distrac-
tion is a bad thing, uncertainty is a bad
thing, so weve spent a lot of time, every
day, making sure that people are not dis-
tracted, and focused on the task.
The other thing that the announce-
ment has done is, affected our bond
spread, so that the value of our inves-
tors bonds has decreased. Which is not
a surprising outcome.
expect the first unit to be back online
around July of this year, and the other
three probably in the next ten to twelve
months. Were actively working on that.
While the plant was down, weve done a
lot of other things: replaced transform-
ers, did some other things, but I would
hope that well see the first unit coming
back in the July timeframe.
Power Engineering: Several of
TVAs hydroelectric plants have
passed or are approaching one
hundred years in operation. Do you
have a program in place to address
maintenance needs in those aging
facilities?
Johnson: We have a pretty robust dam
safety program. We have a lot of experi-
enceas you just said, a hundred years
oldsome of those dams have had a lot
of work done over the years. So we keep a
close eye on them. One of the things we
are in the middle at a number of those
dams is a sort of dam health check, so
were actually out boring in some of the
dams to see what the condition of the
internals are. So were working on that,
but were working on those all the time,
because we understand the implications
of owning and operating a dam.
Power Engineering: Have you spo-
ken to the President about the pos-
sibility that TVA may some day in the
future be sold off?
On a visit to Raccoon
Mountain Pumped-
Storage Plant, Bill Johnson
meets employees while
touring the facilities.
1308PE_20 20 8/2/13 12:49 PM
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 10
commercial operation date in the 4th
quarter of 2015. We are tracking on both
the budget and the schedule. This proj-
ect gets the utmost scrutiny from man-
agement, from the board, from external
experts. So I have a fairly high degree of
confidence in our schedule and cost per-
formance at this point. I would say that,
like every other project of that size, there
are always challenges, but I think it is in
good shape, and moving at the pace and
at the cost we expect.
Power Engineering: Plans for new
build or uprates in the TVA fleet?
Johnson: We have no plans to an-
nounce anything new. We have, I would
say, the internal option in planning for
some uprates in the existing fleet. Some
of the preparatory work has been done,
but before we do that, we will finish
Watts Bar 2, and get our operating per-
formance into better shape.
Power Engineering: How much op-
portunity is there left within the TVA
fleet for uprates? Does that reach a
saturation point eventually?
Johnson: You would eventually, but
we havent done many uprates, and we
have those three BWRs at Browns Ferry,
which are the usual place you would start
on the uprates, so there are several hun-
dred megawatts of potential there. And
again, if you go back to whats happening
with demand, whats happening with us-
age, one of the questions is: when do you
need to do it? And when can you afford
to do it? And were not at those points yet.
Weve spent a lot
of time, every day,
making sure that
people are not
distracted, and
focused on the task.
- Bill Johnson, Tennessee
Valley Authority.
1308PE_21 21 8/2/13 12:49 PM
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a near-term phenomenon. I suspect that
in the long-term its a possibility, but I
dont think that near-term theres much
impetus for it.
Power Engineering: What are your
thoughts on the long-term price out-
look for natural gas?
Johnson: Three things that would af-
fect it. One is the regulatory conclusion
that we reach about fracking, and what
needs to be done there. And Im not an
expert in that, but I think that will come
to a reasonable conclusion. Second is the
potential for export. And, again, theres
some concern about that. One of the
concerns is that we have this competitive
advantage as a nation that we would then
export. We are a free-trade nation and I
suspect we will get to the export part. I
really dont think thats going to have a
significant impact on the price of gas, be-
cause, you know, youve got to liquefy it
and take it across the water and whatever
you do with it over there, so I still think it
will be an attractive fuel price. The third
piece is how active the drillers are. Gas is
relatively cheap, but its twice as expen-
sive as it was 18 months ago, and so, the
behavior of the gas exploration drilling
companies has a big bearing on the price.
I think that for the next decade, we have
pretty good stability. The advent of frack-
ing has really decreased the volatility in
the gulf. It used to be that if you had a
hurricane, the prices doubled, but thats
no longer the case.
Power Engineering: Where do re-
newables fit into the TVA portfolio?
And, more generally, the energy
portfolio of North America?
Johnson: We have a lot of renewables
at TVA. We have about 1600 megawatts,
not counting the hydro. If you count
hydro, that number is more like 6500
megawatts of renewable. We have about
1500 megawatts of wind, both in Ten-
nessee and in the Midwest. We have so-
lar and some biomass. I would say that
were one of the more active players in
Power Engineering: What, in your
eyes, are the prospects for some-
thing like a carbon-emissions tax,
putting a price on carbon that
would presumably affect the mar-
ket for nuclear power in the United
States?
Johnson: This is a great question
with no clear answer. Obviously, I think
theres not sufficient political appetite for
it. I think you would have to see a sig-
nificant rebound in the economy, back
to 2007 levels, where people would start
talking about this again. I dont think its
1308PE_22 22 8/2/13 12:49 PM
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23
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Power Engineering: One frequent-
ly mentioned issue with renewables
is intermittency. Long term, how
do you see solar combining with a
load-following plant, or SMR?
Johnson: I think that, long-term,
as we somehow scientifically solve the
intermittency problem, thats exactly
where we need to go, which is either
storage or some kind of backup capability.
For those of us who have to meet the
customers needs every day, what were
interested in is firm capacity so that we
can supply demand instantaneously, and
thats hard with renewables unless you
have storage or backup. The combination
of wind and gas can work, but then you
have to measure the economics, so, what
does it cost to do wind and gas compared
to gas alone. In my experience, customers
still really care a lot about price.
the Southeast in renewables.
Renewables have an important role to
play, but they are still what I would call
a niche player. The example I use is, if
you think of a football team, renewables
are sort of like your place kicker. Your
place kickers cant play offensive tackle.
I think they will
increase, but the
economics and
the governmental
support for them
will have to im-
prove.
In other words,
they have to
become more
economical compared to conventional
forms if theyre going to catch on in a big
way.
I think youll see increased usage, in-
creased development.
But conventional power is going to be
with us a long time.
Bill Johnson talks with
employees at the Kingston
Fossil Plant during his first
100 days on the job.
1308PE_23 23 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
24
reduction for ash streams and certain
low-volume-waste streams.
EPA issued their final report of the
study in 2009. The study was a culmina-
tion of data collection activities includ-
ing: site visits, sampling, consultations
with industry support groups such as the
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
and the Utility Water Action Group
(UWAG), vendors and special consul-
tants as well as coordination with other
regulatory agencies. As a result of the re-
port, EPA concluded there was sufficient
cause to revise the regulation based on
industry and technological changes since
1982, and it initiated further information
gathering as well as commencing eco-
nomic impact studies. All of which has
resulted in the proposed revisions that we
see today.
THE PROPOSED
REGULATION
In developing the proposed ELG, EPA
considered eight different options, rang-
ing from very little change in current
common practices to controls coming
close to zero-liquid-discharge (ZLD). Out
of the study, four options were identified
as preferred. These options ultimately
specify the Best Available Technology
(BAT) and Best Practicable Control Tech-
nology Available (BPT) where noted for
the handling of each of these streams.
(See Table 1 on page 26. )
All of the four options are similar with:
A) establishment of treatment standards
for wet-FGD systems, B) elimination of
wet-flush-ash handling water discharge
in the limited number of facilities still
utilizing the practice, C) continued use
of impoundments for bottom ash water
(Option 4a requires the elimination of
bottom ash water discharges for units
greater-than-or-equal-to 400 megawatts),
D) impoundments for combustion re-
sidual leachate, E) no liquid discharges
for Flue-Gas Mercury Control (FGMC)
wastes, F) vapor-compression evapora-
tion for coal gasification wastewater and
G) chemical precipitation for nonchemi-
cal cleaning wastes. Some of these guide-
lines will have little impact to the major-
ity of the industry such as the guidelines
for fly-ash transport water, gasification,
FGMC and nonchemical cleaning wastes.
The regulations for FGD wastewater and
the potential for Option 4a specifying the
elimination of bottom-ash transport wa-
ters for many facilities have perhaps the
biggest impact.
Based on the options evaluated, EPA
has provided water quality guidance in
the form of concentration limits based on
proven, economically viable technologies
for each of these streams. It is important
to note that EPA specifies the concentra-
tions be met on the individual streams
O
n June 7, 2013, the
Environmental Pro-
tection Agency (EPA)
released its proposed
revision to regulation
40 CFR Part 423, Effluent Limitations
Guidelines and Standards for the Steam
Electric Power Generating Point Source
Category. Known by the acronym ELG
to many in industry, the proposed revi-
sions are a major attempt by the U.S. gov-
ernment to change the way utilities man-
age their water balance, treatment and
entire operations. While these guidelines
do cover all facilities that utilize steam to
generate power for the purposes of selling
electricity, the bulk of the changes impact
coal-fired facilities due to the nature of
their operations.
In 2005, EPA first identified the steam-
electric power industry to study potential
revision to the existing 1982 version of
the ELG regulation. In 1982, little was
known about the composition of blow-
down from wet flue-gas desulfurization
(FGD) systems or the impacts of constitu-
ents in ash handling waters. As such, the
1982 version of the regulation did not
address much of anything in terms of
FGD or ash handling waters. EPA chose
instead to focus on chlorine mitigation,
zinc and chromium reduction from cool-
ing towers and oil-and-grease and TSS
Complying
with
EPAs
Effluent Limitation Guidelines
for
Wastewater
BY JAY HARWOOD, BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER,
GE WATER & PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES
Advanced wastewater treatment plants combining chemical
precipitation with biological technology may become much
more common depending upon the outcome of the EPAs new
Effluent Limitation Guidelines. The treatment of blowdown
from wet flue gas desulfurization systems at a coal-fired
power plant in the Eastern U.S. Photo courtesy of GE
1308PE_24 24 8/2/13 12:49 PM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 13
w
1308PE_25 25 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
26
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 14
Technology basis for ELG
Stream 3a 3b 3 4a
FGD Wastewaterz
Best-Professional Judgement
Determination (BPJ)
Chem Precip + Bio >2,000
MW, BPJ 2,000 MW
Chem Precip + Bio Chem Precip + Bio
Fly Ash Water Dry Handling Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT)
Borrom Ash Water Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT)
No Discharge
>400 MW units,
Impoundment <400
MW units
Combustion
Residue Leachate
Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT) Impoundment (BPT)
FGMC Wastewater Dry Handling Dry Handling Dry Handling Dry Handling
Gasification
Wastewater
Evaporation Evaporation Evaporation Evaporation
Non-Chemical
Cleaning Waste
Chemical Precip Chemical Precip Chemical Precip Chemical Precip
Preferred Alternatives in EPA Draft ELG 1
environmental protection requirements.
As such, some facilities already meet or
exceed the discharge requirements out-
lined in the ELG proposal.
For facilities that do not meet the stan-
dards, in part or whole, the challenges
range from minimal to extensive. For
some facilities, it may mean the addition
of an extra treatment step to an existing
water treatment plant or the addition of
specific treatment chemistry. For others,
it can mean an entire rethink of their wa-
ter management practices.
For any plant impacted, the first steps
are to start identifying the magnitude of
the challenge. Water and mass balance
development will become the basis for
all decisions in achieving compliance. It
is important to ensure that sampling and
generation of the water balance captures
the variability and changes that are seen
in many streams, particularly FGD blow-
down. Changes in fuel, reagent, plant op-
eration and other air emissions controls
technologies can all change the composi-
tion of the wastewater and subsequently,
the approach to treatment.
Once a realistic water and mass balance
are identified, a design basis can be de-
veloped to identify solutions to meet the
goals. The design basis should be as real-
istic as possible. Over-stating constituent
prior to reuse, comingling or discharge.
Comingling of streams can only be used
for the purpose of a common treatment
system and not for any dilution. (See Ta-
ble 2 on page 29).
Not every coal-fired facility is going
to face these challenges. Facilities that
are less than 50 megawatts and facili-
ties which do not produce power for
the purpose of selling electricity are
exempt from
most and all of
these guidelines
respectively.
UNDER-
STANDING
THE CHAL-
LENGE
The ELG sets a
minimum stan-
dard of treatment
that will be re-
quired to be in-
corporated into
NPDES discharge
permit revisions
starting in 2017
and completing
by 2021. Indi-
vidual permit-
ting authorities
are free to set
lower discharge
requirements to
meet local wa-
ter quality and
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(ORP), pH and constituent loadings can
be indicators of changes or issues long
before the plant may see other indicators.
Plants are encouraged to start utilizing
all subject-matter-experts in their day-to-
day operations and encourage timely and
complete communication between all
operations to ensure optimized perfor-
mance and compliance.
FGD TREATMENT
Wet-FGD scrubbers have become
common-place in coal-fired power plants
across the US. These systems use an al-
kaline sorbent, typically as limestone,
in a slurry to react and produce calcium
sulfite (CaSO
3).
The majority of these
systems also use oxidation air to further
convert the CaSO3 to calcium sulfate
(CaSO
4
) or gypsum so that the material
can be disposed of as a saleable product.
Once the gypsum is removed, EPA has
proposed that the remaining wastewa-
ter stream is to be
treated to remove a
number of constit-
uents to very low
levels including:
selenium, mercury,
arsenic and nitrate-
nitrogen. EPA has
identified BAT for
FGD streams as
physical/chemical
precipitation com-
bined with anoxic/
anaerobic biologi-
cal treatment. GEs
ABMet* technol-
ogy is an example
of a commercially
available anoxic/
anaerobic biologi-
cal system.
Physical/chemi-
cal precipitation is
utilized in dozens
of stations across
the US. The basic
process typically
utilizes an alkali
such as hydrated lime to raise the pH of
the stream to a point where metals pre-
cipitate out of solution as metal hydrox-
ides. Additional chemistry, such as ferric
chloride, is often added to aid in further
reductions through iron co-precipitation
as well as acting as a coagulant. Depend-
ing on the loadings and targets of certain
constituents, organo-sulfide chemistry
can also be added to further increase the
removals of constituents such as mercury
to very low, part-per-trillion levels. The
precipitated solids are removed via clari-
fication (either single stage or dual de-
pending on the designing engineer and
vendor) then dewatered and landfilled.
Constituents such as selenium and ni-
trate require further treatment and anox-
ic/anaerobic biological treatment is usu-
ally applied. Systems such as GEs ABMet
utilize naturally-occurring, facultative
anaerobic bacteria to create a reducing
environment. These bacteria are seeded
loadings and variability in the hope of
capturing any potential scenario can re-
sult in a solution that is much more costly
and complicated than is actually neces-
sary. The reverse of not capturing the full
design basis can result in a solution that
does not meet the goals.
Understanding a facilitys full and real-
istic spectrum of flow rates and chemistry
is the only way to ensure that the selected
treatment program will be effective and
capable of achieving its design goals of
meeting regulatory compliance.
CHANGE IN THINKING
As part of the understanding about the
magnitude of treatment required to meet
these new concentrations comes the ne-
cessity for plants to start looking at their
operations much more holistically than
in the past. The coal-fired power industry
has undergone a wide variety of changes
in recent years with new regulations and
requirements addressing all aspects of
plant operations. These changes, coupled
with the eventual added implications of
the ELGs means that now, more than
ever, plants need to start operating as a
single, cohesive entity.
Many facilities operate to maximize
production with minimal direct (fuel)
costs. This philosophy can be trouble-
some for down-stream operations such
as air emission controls, but has an even
larger impact in wastewater management
and control. The days of using the least-
expensive coal regardless of its composi-
tion are behind us.
As we remove more and more pol-
lutants from the flue-gas, we transfer
these pollutants to the water streams.
All water treatment technologies have
limitations. Designing around and
operating within the constraints of
these technologies is essential to meet-
ing the discharge requirements.
Wastewater chemistry can also be
used as a tool in identifying changes or
problems in upstream processes. Often,
certain changes in wastewater chemistry
such as oxidation reduction potential
1308PE_27 27 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
28
Total Se g/L

0.1
1
10
100
1000
Nov-11 Dec-11 Feb-12 Mar-12 May-12 Jun-12 Jul-12 Sep-12 Oct-12 Dec-12 Jan-13 Mar-13
Infuent Effuent
This data illustrates the selenium removal capability of an ABMet bioflter treating FGD blowdown at a
power plant in the Northeast U.S.
practice dictates the use of chemistry
combined with clarification for removal
of constituents. The challenge associated
with extreme flow-rate variations due to
precipitation events can make clarifica-
tion difficult without a significant vol-
ume of equalization storage.
As leachate treatment becomes more
prevalent, alternative approaches com-
bining membrane-based ultrafiltration
(UF) with chemical precipitation may
find a niche in these applications. The
ability of a UF system to rapidly change
flow rates within its design can make it
an attractive alternative to large clarifiers
with significant equalization. An ap-
proach based on ultrafiltration technol-
ogy such as GEs ZeeWeed
*
also allows
for packaged treatment solutions or even
temporary mobile ones as needed.
WATER QUALITY
TRUMPS TECHNOLOGY
The ELGs, as impactful as they may
be to some, still take a back-seat to wa-
ter quality requirements. Regulators
will continue to impose discharge limits
that also factor in local environmental
protection, toxicity and water quality
requirements. For some, this may be
a requirement to treat for a constituent
that is not covered in the ELGs, such as
boron or TDS. For others, it may mean
a requirement to treat streams to lower
standards that the ELG specifies. Further,
local water quality limits may be increas-
ingly more difficult to achieve if power
generators no longer have large volume
low constituent streams such as bottom
ash ponds to blend smaller streams with
prior to an external outfall.
OUTLOOK
As a whole, the coal-fired power in-
dustry is continuing to face a barrage
of new challenges impacting the way
plants operate and the investments
made into these plants. The proposed
ELGs may cause some additional chal-
lenges initially, but the water industry
is adapting rapidly to help its power
brethren meet these challenges head-
on. Proven advanced technologies,
such as GEs ABMet, can be used to
compliment proven physical/chemical
processes to meet many of these chal-
lenges with confidence. Experienced
engineering firms and contractors can
further assist in providing long-term,
into a plug-flow biofilter that utilizes car-
bon media to establish a biofilm for the
bacteria to attached to and thrive. Dosed
with an engineered nutrient solution,
the water flows through the plug-flow
biofilter where it passes through several
different reducing conditions: denitrifi-
cation of nitrate and nitrite to nitrogen
gas, reduction of dissolved selenium to
insoluble elemental particulate, reduc-
tion of mercury, and sulfide generation
for the precipitation of insoluble metal-
sulfides. The constituents are removed
from the biofilter through monthly back-
washes and the solids are often sent to
the physical/chemical system for co-
processing with its solids.
At the time of writing, three facilities
are in operation today that utilize the
combination of physical/chemical treat-
ment coupled with an anoxic/anaerobic
biofilter for selenium and metals remov-
al. An additional two facilities operate a
biofilter with a settling pond as pre-treat-
ment. A sixth facility utilizes an entirely
different configuration for their biore-
actor in attempting to reduce selenium
levels in an FGD blowdown stream. (See
the Figure on this page.)
The combination of these two systems
provides users with the ability to treat
and discharge most FGD streams in
compliance of the proposed ELG.
ASH HANDLING WATERS
The push to eliminate ash sluicing
water discharges is nothing new for the
industry. The more stringent of the EPAs
proposed alternatives calls for zero-pol-
lutant discharge from bottom ash and fly
ash streams. The basic premise is that fa-
cilities would be converted to dry forms
of ash handling with the dry product be-
ing landfilled.
This approach does not entirely limit
wastewater discharges. Landfills will still
need to be lined and utilize a leachate
collection system. EPA has proposed the
leachate from these landfills be treated
for mercury and arsenic. Conventional
1308PE_28 28 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
29
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 16
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References:
Harwood, J., Weimer, L. (2012). Decipher-
ing the Choices in Treatment Required to Meet
EPA Effluent Limitation Guidelines at Coal-Fired
Generating Stations. International Water Con-
ference. San Antonio, TX.
Martini, D., et al. (2013). Update on the
Steam Electric Power Guidelines: Proposed
Rule. Electric Power Conference & Exhibition.
Chicago, IL.
US EPA. (2013). Effluent Limitations Guide-
lines and Standards for the Steam Electric Pow-
er Generating Point Source Category, Federal
Register Vol. 78, No. 110, pg. 34431-34543.
US EPA. (2009). Steam Electric Power Gen-
erating Point Source Category: Final Detailed
Study Report, EPA-821-R-09-008.
* Avg defined as the average of daily values for 30 consecutive days
** Max defined as the Maximum for any single day
Constituent FGD Leachate Gasification
Non-Chem
Cleaning
Selenium (g/L)
Avg 10 227
Max 16 453
Arsenic (g/L)
Avg 6 6 -
Max 8 8 4
Mercury (ng/L)
Avg 119 119 1.29
Max 242 242 1.76
Nitrate (mg/L)
Avg 0.13
Max 0.17
Copper (mg/L)
Avg 1.0
Max 1.0
Iron (mg/L)
Avg 1.0
Max 1.0
Total Dissolved
Solids (mg/L)
Avg 22
Max 38
New Discharge Concentrations Introduced by Draft EPG 2
1308PE_29 29 8/2/13 12:49 PM
www.power-eng.com
30
and reactions in the downstream pro-
cesses. Mercury capture also varies with
control technologies and the application
of those technologies. The relative per-
formance of existing plant air pollution
control equipment for co-benefit mer-
cury capture must be assessed for retro-
fit applications before specification of
additional equipment can be finalized
in order to optimize costs. With multi-
pollutant control, one control technology
can affect a specific pollutant that is be-
ing primarily controlled by another pro-
cess. Substances added to enhance one
mode of control can have unintended
detrimental effects in another part of the
overall system.
In addition to meeting more stringent
air emissions regulations, utilities also
need to meet variable power demand
requirements. Today, in most cases, that
means load following and cycling mode
of operation. Several factors drive the
U
tilities across the
country are making
plans to meet the Mer-
cury and Air Toxics
Standards by 2015.
They can apply for an extension, shut
down those coal-fired units where up-
grades may be deemed to be too costly
to justify, or repower with natural gas for
Rankine Cycle or combined cycle.
All approaches to mercury control start
with consideration of the fuel. Mercury
emissions vary with the mercury content
of the fuel source. Similarly, the amount
of mercury emitted varies with the pro-
duction of its forms during combustion
Challenges
to

Mercury Emissions
Compliance at New
and
Existing Coal Fired
Power Plants
BY MARK R. SANKEY, MICHELLE GOLDEN, AND DONALD KOZA, BECHTEL POWER CORP.
BECHTEL POWER CORPORATION
5275 Westview Drive
Frederick, MD 21703
BASED ON PAPER PRESENTED
AT COAL-GEN CONFERENCE
August 15-17, 2012
Louisville, KY
Revised, Renamed,
& Updated July 10, 2013
AEPs coal-fired Turk power
plant is equipped with emis-
sion controls system to limit
the amount of mercury that
is released into the air.
1308PE_30 30 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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1308PE_31 31 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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32
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process is supported in turn by research
and development activities of the gov-
ernment and industry organizations
and institutes, as well as the regulated
community itself.
In presenting an overview of technol-
ogies for mercury control, critical con-
siderations and interactions will also be
presented for planning emission con-
trol solutions. Since net electrical gen-
eration from oil is less than 1 percent
of the U.S. market, this article narrows
its focus to only coal-fired power plants
making up the greater share, approxi-
mately 45 percent, of net electrical gen-
eration in the U.S.
REGULATIONS
MATS AND CSAPR
Regulation of mercury and other haz-
ardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions
from power plants has followed a long,
winding road over the last two decades
beginning with the revisions to the Clean
Air Act in 1990, which required the
United States Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) to evaluate whether it is ap-
propriate or necessary to regulate these
pollutants. After several years of delay,
EPA agreed to a complete the Utility Air
Toxics Study, which was completed and
sent to Congress in February 1998.
EPA announced the determination
that it is appropriate and necessary to
regulate power plant emissions of these
pollutants on December 15, 2000. This
finding, known as the Utility Air Toxics
Determination, triggered a requirement
for EPA to propose regulations to control
air toxics emissions, including mercury,
from coal- and oil-fired electric utilities
by December 15, 2003.
In 2004, EPA proposed regulations
to control mercury emission from
power plants, offering two approaches
for public comment: (1) MACT stan-
dards, or (2) a market-based cap and
trade program. On March 15, 2005,
EPA issued the final Clean Air Mercury
Rule (CAMR) which established stan-
dards of performance limiting mer-
cury emissions from new and existing
electric utility-size power plants and
created a market-based cap-and-trade
program to reduce nationwide utility
emissions of mercury in two phases.
Primarily due to EPAs market-based
approach, the D.C. Circuit Court vacated
the CAMR and vacated EPAs rule remov-
ing power plants from the Clean Air Act
list of sources of hazardous air pollutants
on February 8, 2008. This led to the de-
velopment of the present day set of regu-
lations, Mercury and Air Toxics Standards
(MATS) that were signed on December
21, 2011 and published in the Federal
Register in February 2012.
Development of the actual emis-
sion limits on hazardous air pollutants
(HAPs) defined in the rules evolved dur-
ing this prolonged regulatory process.
In parallel, some states were developing
their own standards, often due to local
pressure because of the lack of federal
practice of part load operation of coal-
fired power plants. With addition of
renewable generation sources and their
variable contributions to the grid, fos-
sil-fueled power plants will still need to
carry the daytime peak load, while cur-
tailing output during off-peak hours.
The current fuel pricing makes natural
gas-fired combined cycle power plants
more economical for base-load op-
eration than coal-fired power plants.
Therefore coal-fired power plants are
relegated to load-following status to
maintain grid stability. Emissions con-
trol equipment must accommodate
these requirements as well.
EPC Contractors can bring to bear in-
valuable experience, but are dependent
on the various equipment, systems and
process suppliers for firm performance
guarantees as well as development and
definition of technologies to address
the needs of the power industry. This
1308PE_32 32 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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33
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mercury emission regulation. The limits ultimately defined in
MATS are more stringent than some of the intermediate emis-
sion limits previously identified by EPA and by the states.
Following public comments and facing litigation from de-
velopers of new coal generation, EPA found it necessary to re-
consider some of the provisions of MATS. This reconsideration
began on November 16, 2012 and culminated in final rules an-
nounced on March 28, 2013 and published in the Federal Reg-
ister on April 24, 2013.
Incorporated in MATS, the new emissions standards for mer-
cury and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) published as
noted above establish limits separately for new and existing
units by fuel type and include the following:
Mercury limits. For new units (those that commenced con-
struction after May 3, 2011), these are generally an order of
magnitude lower than that for existing units upon startup.
By 2015, all existing plants must emit as little mercury as
the best 12% do today, lowering overall potential emis-
sions by 90%.
PM. This is defined as filterable particulate matter and
serves as a surrogate for non-mercury metals. The final
standard also identifies alternate limits for individual met-
als and excludes condensables, which had earlier been con-
sidered part of a total PM requirement.
HCl (hydrogen chloride). This serves as a surrogate for all
acid gases. The rule also allows SO
2
to serve as a substitute
for HCl for acid gas compliance.
EPA has issued other regulations that will potentially require
the addition of pollution controls much like MATS. One of these
is CSAPR, which addresses NOx and SO
2
emissions. This rule
is stalled in legal challenges and reviews since the U.S. Court
of Appeals had stayed implementation of CSAPR in December
2011. In the meantime, EPA is implementing Clean Air Interstate
Rule (CAIR), which Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) was
to replace. The expectation is that when CSAPR is reinstituted,
little may be changed from the original requirements. CSAPR
requirements impose annual caps on emissions that are expect-
ed to result in 71 percent reduction of SO
2
emissions and 52 per-
cent reduction of NOx emissions from 2005 levels in the covered
states. Similarly, the implementation of Regional Haze regula-
tions will require addition of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as
well as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and PM control, although the af-
fected facilities may not be in the same geographical areas since
the federal regulation requires each state to have filed an indi-
vidual state implementation plan (SIP), obtain federal approval
by 2009 and periodically report progress in achieving certain
milestones. In December 2011, EPA has also updated the new
source performance standards (NSPS) for fossil-fuel-fired power
plants with tighter PM, NOx,and SO
2
limits. Finally EPA con-
tinues to evolve ambient air quality standards which have the
1308PE_33 33 8/2/13 12:53 PM
www.power-eng.com
34
Source:
Electric Generating Unit Mercury
Existing Unit (not low rank virgin coal) 1.2 lb/TBtu (0.013 lb/GWh)
Existing Unit (low rank virgin coal) 4.0 lb/TBtu (0.04 lb/GWh)
New unit (not low rank virgin coal) 0.003 lb/GWh
New unit (low rank virgin coal) 0.040 lb/GWh
Selected MATS Emission Limits for
Coal-fred Electric Generating Units (EGUs)
1
in the ash fraction of the coal. Cleaning
the coal, therefore, not only reduces the
overall ash and sulfur content, increas-
ing the heating value of the coal in the
process; it also reduces the concentra-
tion of mercury in the coal. The starting
point for coals with the highest concen-
trations of mercury, therefore, may be to
clean the coal prior to combustion. The
most predominant range of mercury is
in the range of about 4 to 8 lb/TBtu. To
gain a frame of reference for these values,
a coal mercury content of 0.1 ppm for a
fuel with heating value of 10,000 Btu/lb
would equate to 10 lb/TBtu. This would
require 88 percent removal to achieve
an outlet emission limit of 1.2 lb/TBtu.
When removal rates above 90 percent are
encountered, system guarantees become
riskier for suppliers and more difficult
to obtain. Data at higher removal rates is
limited. Success at higher removal rates is
dependent upon many factors, including
a range of fuel constituents, installation
details, plant operating modes and other
emissions control equipment installed
upstream and downstream that may in-
terfere with mercury collection or may
react to re-release it back into the flue gas
stream. These factors are explained in
more detail below.
Other fuel constituents and charac-
teristics can affect mercury capture. The
most important fuel constituents are
chlorine and sulfur content. Chlorine,
a halogen, can be found in bituminous
coal in sufficient quantities to be effec-
tive in oxidizing mercury, forming a par-
ticulate that is readily captured by flue
gas emission control equipment. Very
low chlorine content in fuels, such as
PRB, does not sufficiently oxidize mer-
cury and most mercury remains in the
elemental vapor phase.
Sulfurs effect on mercury control is
opposite that of chlorine in the sense that
less is better. Sulfur is oxidized to SO
2

during the coal combustion process and
in turn some of the SO
2
is converted to
SO
3
. This latter form of sulfur is also ac-
tively adsorbed by carbon-based sorbents
intended to react with mercury and thus
interferes with the reaction.
The bottom line regarding fuel is the
user needs to know his fuel in detail and
identify the range of mercury, sulfur and
chlorine as accurately as possible for all
fuel sources. Once this is known, blend-
ing of different fuels may be a viable op-
tion, in conjunction with flue gas emis-
sions control equipment, for meeting
mercury emissions limits.
MERCURY RELEASE
AND CHEMICAL FORMS
As with other pollutants, mercury is
released in the combustion of coal. Only
a few forms of mercury exist in the flue
gas. All of these forms are inorganic. Ini-
tially, mercury is in the elemental form as
a vapor, Hg
0
. Changes in the chemical en-
vironment in the boiler system result in
oxidation of some portion of the elemen-
tal vapor to form Hg
2+.
Oxidized mercury
can in turn combine with chlorine in
the flue gas to form mercuric chloride
(HgCl
2
). Various flue gas emissions con-
trol equipment can enhance this reaction,
as explained below. The oxidized form of
mercury is most readily controlled (col-
lected) by downstream processes. The
third form of mercury present in flue
potential to further ratchet down these
pollutants in the future. The convergence
of these overlapping regulations has been
referred to in the power industry as a
regulation train wreck. Planning needs
to include an awareness of the full regula-
tory picture.
That acknowledged, current industry
activity is focused on compliance plans
with the new emissions regulations for
existing units and, as has been widely
reported, to consider retirement of some
plants. While compliance with MATS by
existing power plants is the focus of this
paper, standards for new coal-fired plants
have also been published (See Table 1).
As mentioned above, mercury limits are
very challenging across the board, but
even more so for new plants.
FUEL SOURCE
A basic factor which will influence
the mercury control solution is the coal
source. Ultimately it is the specific chemi-
cal make-up of the coal which is the is-
sue. The amount of mercury in the coal
is obviously a primary concern. There
is significant variability in the amount
of mercury in all three of the main coal
groups. Data cited in papers and reports
show that the majority of coals typically
exhibit a mean concentration between
roughly 2 and 12 lb of mercury per tril-
lion Btu. This is true of each of the three
major coal groups used by utilities, i.e.
bituminous (Eastern, higher sulfur), sub-
bituminous (PRB, low sulfur) and lignite.
Mercury concentration in individual
coal samples can be as high as 25 to 30
lb/TBtu. The higher the fuel mercury
content, of course, the greater perfor-
mance of the mercury removal control
systems is required. To meet the MATS
mercury limit for existing units firing
not low rank virgin coal, achievement
of 90 percent removal is required for 12
lb/TBtu coal mercury content, and 95
percent for a content of 24 lb/TBtu. The
majority of mercury in coal is often asso-
ciated with the pyrites, an inorganic min-
eral form of sulfur that resides primarily
1308PE_34 34 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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Puller-Free
Simplied
Precision
Tensioning!
7FA CASING
TIME STUDY
Number of Fasteners stretched simultaneously to the
desired load: Horizontal Joint: 2 on each side, Vertical
Joint: 2 on each side.
Total Time: 1 hour, 27 Minutes!
Next Time - ZIP IT!
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SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSimmppppppppppppppppppppppppppppplllliiiiiieeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd
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TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeennnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiioooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
TIME STUDY
Number of Fasteners stretched simultaneously to the
desired load: Horizontal Joint: 2 on each side, Vertical
Joint: 2 on each side.
Total Time: 1 hour, 27 Minutes!
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Reliability a Fact!
Switch from hydraulic tensioning or hydraulic torque to
Stretch-to-Load without replacing the bolts. Just click
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1308PE_35 35 8/2/13 12:53 PM
www.power-eng.com
36
conditions.
EPA issued an Information Collection
Request (ICR) for mercury emissions and
received data from 80 coal-fired utility
power plants of various boiler and flue
gas emissions control technologies, fir-
ing a variety of coals. Flue gas emissions
testing for mercury started in 1999. While
this was a requirement of EPA as part of
the long process of developing the MATS
standards, it also provided the means for
individual plants to assess their existing
status for compliance and to get an ac-
curate baseline for design of new equip-
ment. Reports and other literature make
the results and knowledge available to
the industry.
Subsequent testing has been done
with other technologies to demon-
strate their effectiveness. This testing
has included dry sorbent injection
with a variety of sorbents, fuel addi-
tives and beneficiated fuel.
The following comments summa-
rize the general effectiveness of existing
equipment for mercury capture per the
EPA ICR data collected in 1999 and the
early 2000s.
SDA systems were found to be effective
in controlling mercury emissions. In an
SDA, SO
2
is absorbed by the slurry in
that it reacts with the lime slurry reagent
to form solid calcium sulfite and calcium
sulfate. The SDA environment enhances
oxidation of Hg
0
when sufficient chlo-
rine, or other halogen is present. The
resulting Hg
2+
is more readily captured
downstream.
ESPs will collect particle bound mercu-
ry and some oxidized mercury along with
flyash but at a fairly low rate. FFs are more
typically found downstream of SDAs as
they perform considerably better than
ESPs for particulate removal in this situa-
tion; the filter cake helps capture very fine
particulate, including HAPS and Hg2+.
The cake also acts as a fixed bed reactor to
neutralize acid gases via unreacted lime
and capture mercury as well. An SDA-FF
combination was found to be up to 98
percent effective in capturing mercury for
eastern bituminous coals.
WFGD systems can also be an effective
existing technology for mercury capture
as Hg
2+
is soluble and readily captured
in the saturated environment. Mercury
capture by WFGDs was not effective in
all cases. Mercury capture in a WFGD is
enhanced when an SCR is also present,
as it provides a co-benefit of oxidation of
mercury. It was found that in some cases,
chemistry within the absorber results in
re-emission of mercury apparently due to
chemical reduction of Hg
2+
to Hg
0
which
is re-entrained in the flue gas.
Plant operations can also affect mer-
cury emissions. Although poor com-
bustion in the boiler is not desirable,
unburned carbon will act like a carbon
sorbent and capture mercury. On the
negative side, plants which inject SO
3

to enhance ESP performance are add-
ing a substance which hinders mercury
adsorption by carbon.
SOLUTIONS AND CAVEATS
FOR MERCURY CONTROL
SELECTIVE CATALYTIC
REDUCTION (SCR)
SCR catalysts seem to be developing
into multi-pollutant control devices. Not
only do they effectively reduce nitrogen
oxides in the presence of ammonia (NH
3
)
at temperatures above 570F, but they
also oxidize volatile organic compounds
(VOCs) as well as gaseous mercury (Hg
0
)
to the oxidized form (Hg2
+
), particularly
in the presence of HCl or other halogen
compounds. Catalyst formulations are
being developed to enhance these reac-
tions and therefore provide co-benefit
of mercury capture in the SCR catalyst.
Unfortunately, a small percent of SO
2
is
further oxidized to SO
3
in the SCR cata-
lyst. SO
3
will compete with mercury for
adsorption sites on powdered activated
carbon (PAC) or alternate sorbents unless
SO
3
is captured first, as described above.
The Hg
0
to Hg
2+
reaction decreases as the
amount of ammonia slip increases. The
explanation for this effect is the theory
that the Hg
0
competes with NH
3
for
gas is particulate bound and referred to
as Hgp. This last form is collected along
with particulate by electrostatic precipita-
tors, fabric filters and flue gas scrubbers.
When evaluating mercury control re-
quirements, a significant difference be-
tween various generating units is the rela-
tive amount of oxidized mercury present
in the flue gas, as compared to elemental
mercury. Elemental mercury is not easily
captured by current control technologies,
so the goal is to oxidize the elemental
mercury to the maximum extent possible
into a form that is readily collected.
EXISTING CONTROL
EQUIPMENT AND
TECHNOLOGIES
Each plant has its complement of exist-
ing air pollution control equipment. This
includes low NOx burners and selective
catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective
non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx
control, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs)
or fabric filters (FFs) for particulate con-
trol, and dry or wet flue gas desulfuriza-
tion (FGD) scrubbers for acid gas control.
Some dry or semi-dry scrubbers are
also called spray dryer absorbers (SDAs).
They spray a lime slurry into a vessel
through which the flue gas passes where-
by SO
2
reacts with the lime. Another type
of dry scrubber whose development for
utility application is relatively recent, is
known by some as a fluid bed FGD sys-
tem. In this type of scrubber, particulate
captured in a downstream FF, or ESP,
recirculates back into the scrubber ves-
sel. The vessel is configured to develop
a fluidized bed for enhanced residence
time in order to optimize reagent utili-
zation. One advantage of this system
is, that lime slurry is not required. Hy-
drated lime along with a water spray in-
jected into the recirculating particulate
provides SO
2
capture.
Some plants have added dry sorbent
injection for SO
2
and/or SO
3
control.
These systems have varying degrees of
effectiveness in mercury control de-
pending on an assortment of operating
1308PE_36 36 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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7FA COUPLING Next Time - ZIP IT!
HYTORC, Division UNEX Corporation +1 201 512-9500 Sales@HYTORC.com www.HYTORC.com
Make Safety a Habit
Reliability a Fact!
TIME STUDY
Number of Fasteners stretched simultaneously: 2 at a time.
First 12 oclock and 6 oclock and then 9 oclock and 3 oclock
at 50% of the desired load. Then always 2 opposite from each
other at 100% of the desired load, plus one fnal check pass.
Total Time: 1 hour, 43 Minutes!
Switch from conical pullers to no pullers! Leave the bolts,
place reusable and precision weighted nuts on their ends
and stretch the bolts universally to the desired load
within 5% to obtain circumferential even compression
without side load, torsion or bolt relaxation.
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1308PE_37 37 8/2/13 12:53 PM
www.power-eng.com
38
Equipment Lineup with Two Particulate Collection
Devices (TOXECON Process)
Boiler
SC
AH
AH
Dry
ESP
Dry
ESP
Dry
Sorbent
Injection
Powdered
Activated
Carbon
Injection
Pulse
Fabric
Pulse
Fabric
ID
ID
FGD
Absorber
Water and Limestone
Wet
ESP
To
Dewatering
System
Stack
sufficient in some cases. Sufficient length
of ductwork from the PAC injection point
to the ESP, allowing adequate reaction
time in the flue gas stream for adsorp-
tion of mercury is necessary for an ESP to
succeed. Even so, more mercury sorbent
is likely to be required with an ESP than
with a FF. FFs are more effective at col-
lecting fine particulate. They also act to
collect and hold unspent sorbent in the
filter cake where it can continue to adsorb
more vapor phase mercury. Use of an FF
requires less upstream ductwork. Con-
sequently, PAC injection followed by a
pulse jet FF is the most common technol-
ogy applied for mercury control.
All systems for coal-fired power plant
operation, including air emissions con-
trol systems, must be configured for good
sustained operation at part load as well
as at full load due to current market and
electrical grid conditions. For good dis-
tribution across the flue gas breeching
(duct), some PAC injection systems are
typically left to run at full load settings re-
gardless of actual boiler load. To save on
the expense of PAC utilization, the PAC
feed can be configured to follow load
without impacting good distribution into
the flue gas at part load.
Since the PAC is pneumatically con-
veyed, the PAC feed equipment can be
calibrated and set to follow load with
some margin to maintain good capture
efficiency while leaving the conveying
air flow constant at full flow. Experi-
ence has shown that PAC feed equip-
ment should include a gravimetric
feeder for accurate control.
Although there are high tempera-
ture mercury sorbents, most PAC for-
mulations begin to lose their ability
to adsorb mercury in the temperature
range of 333-350F, and the drop off
at more than 350F can be significant.
It may not be enough to maintain the
average flue gas temperature less than
350F for good mercury capture as it
is not uncommon to see temperature
stratification across the boiler air heat-
er flue gas discharge as great as 70F.
Failure to mix the flue gas well prior to
the PAC injection point,can impact the
mercury capture efficiency consider-
ably. PAC injection point downstream
of an SDA or fluid bed FGD system
will both lower the flue gas tempera-
ture and provide good mixing of the
flue gas. Without such effects, some
other means may be required to miti-
gate stratification and/or to maintain
the flue gas temperature across the
entire duct below 350F for good mer-
cury capture.
ACID SORBENTS
The presence of SO
3
hinders PAC
vanadium pentoxide (V
2
O
5
) sites in the
catalyst. Also, as the catalyst ages, fewer
V
2
O
5
sites remain available to support
oxidation of Hg
0
to Hg2+. If the system is
to rely on the co-benefit of the SCR cata-
lyst for oxidation of mercury, the catalyst
must be so specified and maintained.
This may be a worthwhile investment for
certain plant configurations.
MERCURY SORBENTS
Overall, the most cost-effective tech-
nology for mercury control is dry injec-
tion of PAC upstream of a particulate col-
lector. Compared with other approaches
to control of mercury pollution, PAC
injection is relatively simple with low
installed cost, although reagents them-
selves are not inexpensive. Over the last
decade, refinements of PAC sorbents
have increased effectiveness. To offset the
absence of chlorine for oxidation of mer-
cury, halogenated PAC has been devel-
oped and successfully used. Bromine is
the most common halogen used for this
purpose; however, iodine has also been
employed.
Some suppliers have also developed
varieties of non-carbon sorbents with
characteristics that are less deleterious
to the flyash as a cement additive. These
alternative sorbents do not contain sub-
stances such as carbon that drive up the
flyash loss on ignition (LOI), a property
limited by the cement industry. Some
non-carbon sorbents used are:
Amended silicates, substrates
amended with mercury binding sites
Sodium tetrasulfide.
Sodium bicarbonate.
These and other non-carbon sorbents
as well as halogenated PAC formula-
tions are patented and proprietary and
are often targeted toward specific types
of fuel and applications. A survey of the
PAC suppliers and other sorbent suppli-
ers would reveal quite a broad range of
characteristics to address specific needs.
The use of PAC requires a downstream
particulate collector to capture the prod-
uct of the adsorption process. ESPs are
1308PE_38 38 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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downstream collector. This is especially
true at part load operation where there is
even less coal ash particulate in the flue
gas. The effect is aggravated when the
same amount of PAC is injected in order
to maintain good distribution and mer-
cury collection efficiency. Therefore, the
high concentration of activated carbon
collected in the downstream particulate
collector has potential to be ignited by
high hopper heater temperatures.
During EPRI-sponsored testing of a
PAC system at the Presque Isle Generat-
ing Station, autocombustion of the col-
lected particulate (flyash plus PAC) oc-
curred in the baghouse hoppers. Loss on
Ignition (LOI) was measured on select
samples to estimate the amount of un-
burned carbon, and values ranged from
15 to 35 percent. Tests performed on the
PAC and PAC/ash mixture showed an ig-
nition temperature greater than 750F;
however, smoldering can begin at
lower temperatures, and sufficient heat
mercury control is the TOXECONTM
process developed and patented by EPRI.
A pulse jet FF is installed downstream
of another particulate collection device
with sorbent injection in-between. See
Figure 1, below. This technology provides
the benefit of collection of sorbent-free
flyash in the upstream particulate col-
lector while maintaining its potential
marketability for sustainable use. At the
same time it provides control of mercury
and other air toxics. The downstream FF
is sometimes designed with a higher than
normal air-to-cloth (A/C) ratio, providing
some cost saving to offset the cost of the
additional particulate collector. However,
lower A/C ratio will be more effective and
maintain a lower pressure drop across the
FF. One disadvantage of this arrangement
is that without the coal ash that had been
scalped off by the upstream particulate
collector, there is a higher concentration
of injected PAC (sometimes >40%) in the
particulate collected in the hoppers of the
adsorption of mercury since the acti-
vated carbon will preferentially bond
with the acid gases in lieu of mercury.
A common solution has been injection
of an acid gas sorbent, such as pow-
dered hydrated lime, sodium bicar-
bonate, trona or some other acid gas
reagent upstream of the PAC injection
point to neutralize SO
3
. The longer the
run of ductwork between the acid gas
sorbent injection point and PAC in-
jection point, the more effective this
would be. A good rule of thumb for any
such reaction is to allow for at least one
second residence time. With the need
to remove HCl and other air toxics,
use of other alkali sorbents, especially
sodium compounds listed above, has
increased. While these reagents cost
more than lime, the benefits are often
justified and can avoid the need for
more capital intensive equipment.
PARTICULATE COLLECTION
A specific application of FFs for
1308PE_39 39 8/2/13 12:53 PM
www.power-eng.com
40
Hg2+ to Hg0 which is re-entrained in
the flue gas. Chemical additives have
been formulated and demonstrated to
inhibit this reduction reaction, thus
maintaining the desired mercury cap-
ture in the absorber. Provision for use
of additives should be an included de-
sign feature if installing a new WFGD
and a consideration for addition to ex-
isting systems. It has been postulated
that re-emission occurs due to satura-
tion of the WFGD liquor with mercury.
Our opinion is that understanding of
re-emission remains incomplete.
Capturing the mercury compounds
in the WFGD absorber essentially
transfers mercury from an air pollu-
tion issue to a water pollution issue.
Due to the toxicity of mercury, regu-
lation of the discharge of this metal
in wastewaters from coal-fired power
plants has tightened greatly in the past
decade, with discharge limits in the
parts per trillion (ppt) range becom-
ing the norm. The mercury may exist
in the wastewater from a WFGD sys-
tem in varying forms, depending on
the amount and type of chemical ad-
ditives utilized in the WFGD to facili-
tate mercury removal from the flue gas
stream. Depending upon these form(s)
of mercury present in the wastewater
and the required level of removal, the
treatment system for this wastewater
stream can become quite complex,
including physical and chemical treat-
ment processes, such as clarifiers and
filters, as well as biological treatment
or ion exchange systems.
PRE-COMBUSTION
MERCURY CONTROL
Mercury emissions can be reduced
by attacking it pre-combustion. Any
means that can foster oxidation of
mercury helps in its capture. Oxida-
tion of mercury is diminished when
inherent chloride concentration in the
coal is low. This can be overcome by
addition of halogen to the fuel supply.
A common technique is to add a bro-
mine salt to the fuel. There have been
cases where high halogen injection
rates have resulted in high corrosion
rates downstream. This underscores
the need for careful investigation.
Note that in some cases where halogen
fuel additives may not provide suffi-
cient control alone, they can prove to
be economically effective by reducing
the amount of more expensive PAC or
other sorbents required.
Another approach uses coal washing
to lower mercury content of the fuel,
as mentioned earlier. Since mercury
is associated with pyrite in the fuel,
removal of mercury has been found
to be a side benefit when improving
coal quality (heating value) by wash-
ing techniques that remove much of
the inorganic pyrite-containing (rock)
fraction of the fuel.
CONCLUSION
Compliance with MATS presents
significant challenges for existing coal-
fired plants as well as for new-builds.
Analysis of current control equipment,
fuels and modes of operation along
with planning and evaluation of al-
ternative technologies is needed to
determine optimum solutions for each
plants particular situation. Existing
research and products are available to
help meet the challenge when coupled
with awareness of the pitfalls that have
been observed and additional research
and product development are ongoing.
EPC Contractors are dependent on
the various equipment, systems, and
process suppliers for the development
and definition of technologies to ad-
dress the needs of the power industry.
The EPC Contractor consolidates this
information and has responsibility for
selecting and arranging the flue gas
emissions control equipment. In addi-
tion, he is responsible for ensuring all
related systems, such as WFGD waste
water treatment systems to treat various
forms of mercury, are properly speci-
fied and installed to meet all the mer-
cury control needs of the owner.
can be generated at 430F to increase
the temperature of the PAC/ash mixture
to the ignition temperature.
FF hoppers typically have high en-
ergy hopper heaters covering the lower
one-third of the hopper surface to
avoid condensation and to maintain
flyash flowability. High intensity hop-
per heaters that cycle on and off are
capable of reaching over 800F while
they are in the on mode. With PAC
injection, FF hopper heater design,
should allow modulation within a
tight band at or below 400F rather
than using a wide band of on-off con-
trol to avoid risk of fires. Lower in-
tensity heaters that require coverage
of more surface area help achieve this
result. Another means to mitigate the
risk of fire in the hoppers is to run the
flyash removal system in continuous
operation; that is, to continuously cy-
cle the flyash removal system through
all of the hoppers with no long rest pe-
riods. This requirement is now likely
contained in all FF O&M manuals, not
only to mitigate risk of hopper fires,
but to mitigate flyash removal prob-
lems as well.
Other aspects of TOXECON system
operation can be addressed by atten-
tion to some details during design. The
aspect ratio and FF bag fabric selected
affect pressure drop. The maximum
pressure drop expected will influence
design of the ID fan. The impact of fine
particulate entering the FF in combi-
nation with other design features can
drive the pressure drop higher than is
typically expected.
WET FLUE GAS
DESULFURIZATION (WFGD)
Limestone-forced oxidation is the
most popular technology for WFGD
systems in removing SO2 from flue
gas. Such WFGD technology is also ef-
fective in providing a co-benefit of the
capture of soluble Hg2+. A caution here
is that in some cases, chemistry within
the absorber results in reemission of
mercury due to chemical reduction of
1308PE_40 40 8/2/13 12:53 PM
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42
E
xtended power uprate
(EPU) projects on nuclear
power plants deliver sig-
nificant benefits to utilities
and the communities the
plants help power. They increase nuclear
power output from existing facilities and
modernize the plant in a fraction of the
time and cost of a new build. Bechtels
extended power uprate work includes the
completion of more than a dozen units
with over 14 million man hours worked
since 2009. Most recently, Bechtel com-
pleted one of the largest EPU projects of
its kind in U.S. history on behalf of the
NextEra Energy nuclear fleet. Work was
done at the Point Beach nuclear plant in
Wisconsin and at the St. Lucie and Tur-
key Point nuclear plants in Florida. The
projects, were recognized by the Nuclear
Energy Institute with the Best of the Best
Top Industry Practice awards in innova-
tion and excellence. The EPUs increased
generating capacity in Florida by more
than 500 megawatts the equivalent of
building a new mid-size plant and add-
ed enough electricity to provide power to
about 300,000 additional customers.
EPU projects are as complex as they
are desirable and effective. These projects
include major construction activity that
requires highly detailed and complex
planning to meet tight schedules while
maintaining quality and safety. To pro-
duce successful results, EPU projects re-
quire a shift in mindset and approach,
as well as tested teams and processes to
ensure that new megawatts are delivered
Lessons Learned
from Successful Nuclear
Uprate Projects
BY LASZLO VON LAZAR, DEVELOPMENT MANAGER,
BECHTELS POWER GLOBAL BUSINESS UNIT
in a reliable and safe manner.
COMPLEX PROJECTS
WITH TIGHT TIMELINES
Large construction projects are chal-
lenging enough on their own, with com-
plex scopes of work and the need to co-
ordinate significant numbers of manual
and non-manual teams. EPU projects
are particularly challenging because not
only is there a significant amount of
work required, but the work takes place
in a nuclear plant that is already in op-
eration, sometimes on the operating unit
itself, requiring intense focus and care.
When the generation of power from a
nuclear facility is at stake, there simply
isnt room for errors. Utilities depend on
construction companies to maintain the
safety, functionality, and compliance of
its operating units while working on the
other unit, just as people in surrounding
communities depend on the safety of the
plant and the power it generates.
The challenges of EPU projects are gen-
erally met through the use of large teams
of experts. These experts may come from
all over the world, and they may have
different backgrounds in welding, pipe-
fitting, and engineering. However, while
they have the skills required for the proj-
ect, they may not have had prior experi-
ence working in nuclear plants before.
For example, a pipefitter may not typi-
cally deal with the complexity and large
diameter pipe that need to be installed
around existing structures and other
electrical and mechanical components.
In these cases, at Bechtel we evaluate a
workers skills, and provide training and
testing in welding shops, for example,
before work begins inside the operating
facility. The company also provides train-
ing in human performance tools, and
many other specialties demanded by the
work at hand.
Another challenge that can affect
project outcomes is schedule pressure.
The majority of EPU work occurs dur-
ing an outage, which means a significant
amount of planning is required prior to
construction in order to limit the dura-
tion of the outage and/or prevent any
delays. Unlike greenfield projects where
construction might go on for several
months to several years, construction at
EPUs typically happens over the course of
two to four months. The implementation
1308PE_42 42 8/2/13 12:54 PM
www.power-eng.com
43
Carpenters loading a scaffold cart during
the St. Lucie nuclear EPU project.
1308PE_43 43 8/2/13 12:54 PM
www.power-eng.com
44
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Bechtels extended power uprate project with Florida Power
& Light included an incident rate well below the US indus-
try average. This was achievable thanks to specific programs
that kept a constant watch on human behaviors and potential
risks.
One was the Safety Observation Program, which was im-
plemented across all three plants Point Beach, St. Lucie,
and Turkey Point. The program was particularly successful
at the Turkey Point EPU since it represented the culmination
of lessons learned from the earlier Point Beach and St. Lucie
projects.
The team leveraged Florida, Power & Lights existing Safety
Observation Program for maintenance and modification work
and reshaped it to include observations of construction work,
such as rigging and welding. The team believed the program
would help get ahead of any potential injuries from occurring
and maintain the combined projects existing safety record,
which was already better than the industry average for the
number of recordable incidents and lost time injuries. While
the EPU projects in general already have a better-than indus-
try average safety record, Zero Accidents should be the ul-
timate goal
The Safety Observation Program encouraged regular en-
gagement between supervisors in the field and the craft. The
program required supervisors to perform daily observations
in the field for things such as pre-job briefs, work manage-
ment, human error prevention, radiological safety, rigging,
and security, to name a few. Supervisors filled out observa-
tion cards, which were scanned into a system and analyzed
to uncover potential areas for improvement. Every week, the
team would discuss an area that needed attention, thereby
decreasing the potential for an unwelcome surprise. On the
Turkey Point project, for example, supervisors made one mil-
lion observations during the outage (about five months in du-
ration), which was at peak staffing with about 2,000 workers
on site.
Keen observation is the key to safety
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of the scheduling for example, preventing the stack of trades
and the execution of the plan according to the schedule are
critical.
Throughout its 115-year history, Bechtel has built some of the
largest and most complex projects worldwide, including work
at more than 150 nuclear plants around the globe. Based on its
vast nuclear and EPU experience, Bechtel has identified key les-
sons learned that can serve as guidance for similar projects.
Lesson 1: Teams must approach EPUs as
major construction projects not modifica-
tion projects.
At regular intervals, nuclear power plants undergo scheduled
outages for maintenance or for minor modifications to equip-
ment. EPU project outages, however, are typically much bigger
in scope, requiring the significant change-outs or upgrades of
major equipment such as feedwater pumps, heat exchangers,
steam turbines, condensers, and control systems, and piping
and electrical commodities. As mentioned previously, in many
cases, the work is done while other units are still in operation.
Another key difference between modification and construc-
tion projects is staffing. EPU projects require high numbers
View of Turkey Point units 3 & 4 from the
cooling water intake canal.
1308PE_47 47 8/2/13 1:32 PM
www.power-eng.com
48
to the start of construction in order to de-
fine changes that will likely be required
during the outage. However, on an EPU
project, its impossible to fully determine
all existing conditions of a plant and its
equipment until the team is able to go in
and see it during the outage. While engi-
neering teams may have a few months to
perform design for previously identified
changes in a typical maintenance project,
the short duration of an outage acceler-
ates the design schedule for the unexpect-
ed changes by at least several weeks. If
something is found during the discovery
phase of an outage, engineering teams
move into high gear to find the most ap-
propriate and safest solutions possible.
EPU project teams must learn to expect
the unexpected its a given. Naturally,
an experienced EPC team will prepare for
as many project detours and changes as it
can, and mitigate those changes. But the
team also recognizes that it cant antici-
pate all the changes that will occur before
such a project starts.
Teams must design for flexibility based
on the physical conditions they find dur-
ing discovery. For example, it may be
common for engineers to design a pipe
support only to find out that it could
not be attached to the plant structure
due to some as-found condition or due
to anchor bolt interference with con-
crete rebar. Therefore, they have to find
other alternatives that can be quickly
implemented while meeting the design
requirements and maintaining safety. In
another example, teams may map out
electrical configurations and termination
points but the plans wont become firmly
set until the relevant experts can person-
ally open electrical boxes and see the
configurations first-hand. As such, teams
need to plan for validation of physical
conditions as early as possible to allow for
design corrections to be made without af-
fecting the overall schedule.
Sometimes the unexpected isnt re-
lated to construction at all. Sometimes,
the unexpected arises during licensing.
of skilled teams. Many of these team
members may not have worked together
before, and some will be new to nuclear
power projects. In addition, their work
is being done in congested spaces, where
safety and security are always a concern.
EPU projects require a shift in approach
and mindset akin to what is required on
a large-scale engineering, procurement,
and construction (EPC) job. EPUs are not
like maintenance outages; they cannot be
managed to the level of detail typically
required for this kind of project. Rather,
EPUs involve a significant number of po-
tentially complicated modifications and
are better suited with an EPC approach.
An EPC approach requires a carefully
coordinated integration of engineering,
procurement, and construction with the
operator of the plant to ensure that de-
tailed engineering and planning have
been done before construction begins.
This approach ensures large equip-
ment arrives on time and in the right
condition, and the team is well-trained
on tools and processes that will enable
seamless construction so as not to dis-
rupt the operating plant. If managed
like a modifications project or refueling
outage, the success of the EPU could be
severely compromised. During a refuel-
ing outage, for example, the operations
team typically puts clearances on pri-
mary nuclear systems to allow work to
begin on those systems. In an EPU proj-
ect, however, a lot of the work may hap-
pen on secondary non-nuclear systems,
such as feedwater heaters and condens-
ers, and piping systems that support the
steam turbine. If the approach typically
used on a refueling outage is used on
an EPU project, then the project wont
be supporting the most critical areas.
This is why EPU projects require a shift
in approach and focus.
Lesson 2: Teams must pre-
pare for the unexpected.
Engineering teams perform a signifi-
cant amount of preparation work prior
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son, Mississippi. The project increased the energy
output of the plant by more than 13 percent, mak-
ing the Grand Gulf Nuclear Generating Station the
most powerful nuclear reactor in the United States
and one of the most powerful in the entire world
with a total capacity of 1443 MW.
CB&I (then The Shaw Group Inc.) won the
EPC contract for the EPU project and oversaw
most of the work, with the exception of the
steam dryer and turbine components. The up-
rate of the BWR plant involved replacing the
heat exchangers, main feedwater heaters,
moisture separator reheaters and main trans-
formers, as well as enhancing the plants cool-
ing capacity. The main generator and high-
pressure turbine rotor were both replaced as
well, which was completed by Siemens.
Uprates have become a popular method of
expanding nuclear power in a cost effective and
efficient way. According to the NRC, the regula-
tory body has approved uprates adding up to
6,862MW of electricity generating capacity in the
United States, equivalent to constructing a hand-
ful of brand new reactors from the ground up. -Ed.
For example, at the St. Lucie plant, the
EPU project team had to get licensing
amendments approved by the Nuclear
Regulatory Commission before the
plant could come back online. This pro-
cess involved necessary back-and-forth
exchanges that took more time than
anticipated. Therefore, its important
for teams to be flexible and agile so that
questions and comments raised during
the review process can be accommodat-
ed in a timely manner.
One way to cope with these unexpect-
ed issues is to have an issues manager on
site whose sole purpose is to oversee is-
sues so that other project and site manag-
ers, in addition to the project as a whole,
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50
and monitoring programs for utilizing
human performance tools. These tools
helped decrease errors and included
training for situational awareness, self-
checking, procedure use and adherence,
effective communication, and signing
for completed work. The Bechtel team
adopted these processes during work on
the Point Beach project and incorporat-
ed them at the subsequent outages for
the St. Lucie and Turkey Point plants.
The collaborative approach should
extend to other contractors on-site.
Projects of this size will include mul-
tiple vendors, and EPC contractors
should expect to integrate their sched-
ules and estimates with projects being
undertaken by other experts.
The combination of experienced
teams and time-tested tools and pro-
cesses contributes to one of the most
important outcomes of any EPU proj-
ect: a safe working environment for
every member of the team and commu-
nity. No project is considered a success
if its safety record is bad. Safety is a core
value at Bechtel and is best managed
when managers maintain a constant
vigilant toward potential hazards and
mitigate delays that result in work done
too quickly or without proper safe-
guards. The safest environment is one
that is on schedule.
FORMULA FOR SUCCESS:
EXPERIENCE AND
EXPERTISE
EPUs can be viable options for utili-
ties seeking to reduce reliance on fossil
fuels and get more return on investment
from existing facilities. However, these
projects cant come at the expense of
safety to workers and the public, nor can
they impact service to utility customers
by forcing downtimes. An EPC-led ap-
proach that takes into account the true
complexity and scale of extended power
uprate initiatives will go a long way to-
ward achieving safety, timeliness, cost,
and efficiency goals.
Turbine deck during the St. Lucie nuclear EPU project.
can focus on moving the project forward.
The issue managers role is to create a plan
for addressing unexpected events and
progress toward resolution of problems
ensuring that the discovery and the re-
sulting project changes do not adversely
impact outcomes. Issues managers can
also draw on the talents of technical ex-
perts who can solve problems quickly
and efficiently. Of the 1,300 engineers
supporting Bechtels power business,
188 are technical specialists and 185
code committee members, who actively
craft standards/codes for the industry at
large. The team also includes a handful
of Fellows from various global engi-
neering associations, who have earned
a special distinction for outstanding en-
gineering achievements. Bechtel draws
on the strength of its technical experts
to effectively deal with the unexpected
and to predict a successful outcome for
its clients.
Lesson 3: Tools and process-
es must be combined with
an experienced team in
order to complete EPU proj-
ects successfully.
EPU projects present the singular
challenge of maintaining safety in a
complex working environment while
still ensuring the job gets done in a
short time frame, so as to keep the
plant in operation. In order to address
these challenges on the Florida Power
& Light project, for instance, Bechtel
included specific daily schedule and
cost reports that were necessitated by
the massive scope of the project. Tools
like these help the team pinpoint po-
tential issues quickly so that they can
be escalated and dealt with swiftly.
The tools used by EPC companies of-
fer some of the best records of success
with EPU projects, since they can bring
decades of knowledge and their own
carefully-owned processes. Compa-
nies with only engineering expertise,
or only construction, for example, may
not have the breadth of experience nec-
essary for successful outcomes.
Companies undertaking EPU proj-
ects must also have an experienced
team that is skilled at the flexible ap-
plication of their tools and processes.
Nuclear plant owners and regulators
have specific reporting requirements,
not to mention their own detailed pro-
cesses designed to improve safety and
efficiency. These processes need to be
followed even as outside workers begin
the work on-site.
In this sense, EPU projects become
a collaborative effort between the
EPC contractor and the power facility
owner. For example, at Bechtels proj-
ect for Florida Power & Light, the util-
ity had in place very effective training
1308PE_50 50 8/2/13 12:54 PM
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www.power-eng.com
52
T
hey work in harsh environments, and they get little or no recogni-
tion. But their impact on power plant efficiency can be significant.
Valves and actuators are critical in almost every aspect of power
plant operations. They are used in a wide range of applications,
including pollution control, feed water, cooling water, chemical
treatment, bottom ash and steam turbine control systems. They are exposed to
a variety of chemicals, abrasive materials and very high temperatures. They are
Opportunities to
Improve Efficiency
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
The Rotork CVA offers an accurate and responsive method
of automating control valves without the complexity and
cost of a pneumatic supply. Photo courtesy of Rotork
Stephan Schulze of ABB Automation
Products GMBH contributed to this report.
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www.power-eng.com
54
of applications. The benefits include
better efficiency, less maintenance and
enhanced performance of the control
valves.
The electric actuators include a new
technology to meet the specific de-
mands of a constantly modulating
control valve using electricity as the
mode of power.
Like traditional pneumatic actua-
tors, the new electric actuators are ca-
pable of constant modulation for long
periods of time throughout the life of
the valve. The electric actuator has an
advantage in that it does not require
recalibration over time.
Temperature, contaminates and
other factors have no impact on the
units calibration. Once calibrated, the
electric control valve actuator can op-
erate for months, even years, without
adjustment.
ELECTRIC ACTUATORS
Rotork has a line of all-electric, com-
pact modulating actuators known as
the Continuous Duty Modulating Fail-
safe Electric Actuator. The Rotork CVA
is suited for almost all linear, quarter-
turn control valve applications requir-
ing precise position control and con-
tinuous modulation.
There are applications where they
need to move continuously, Said Pete
Kundin, general manager of Rotorks
Eastern U.S. Business Unit.
The electric actuator features a fail-
safe function, allowing the operator to
program the actuator to lock in one of
four positions if there is a loss of pow-
er. If the actuator was halfway open
and you lost power, it would close or
open, depending on how its calibrat-
ed, Kundin said.
The CVA does not require the infra-
structure (piping/tubing to distribute
compressed air) needed to operate a
pneumatic actuator. Whats more, it
is significantly more accurate, Kundin
said.
This electric actuator is extremely
precise, Kundin said. People are us-
ing this in some very arduous applica-
tions in turbine fuel and steam con-
trol.
The move toward electric actuators
has led to the creation of more digital
networks for controlling these types of
actuators. But the transition has been
slow, Kundin said.
The power industry was probably
one of the last industries to embrace
digital networks, he said. Today, its
almost more of a standard to see the
electric actuators controlled over a dig-
ital network than traditional wiring.
The market for Rotork valves and
actuators has been strong in almost
every segment of the power sector, es-
pecially hydropower. Hydroelectric
has really been a nice business for us,
Kundin said. A lot of hydro upgrades
have quietly gone on at a lot of the ex-
isting stations.
PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS
While many pneumatic actuators
have remained unchanged, except
for the addition of smart positioners,
there have been some new innovations
in pneumatic actuation.
A number of piston and rotary ac-
tuators have been creeping into power
critical in optimizing efficiency, and
they are often the final control element
in the operation of a power plant.
Although the basic technology
for most valves and actuators has
remained unchanged, innovative
applications and design modifications
for problem solving have led to notable
improvements in actuator technology.
These improvements can reduce costs
by supporting the control valves
ability to throttle accurately, thereby
providing better performance for
high-pressure steam bypass, turbine
bypass and other critical power plant
operations.
Actuators regulate mass and energy
flows by adjusting valves, flaps and
cocks.
The actuator and valve create a single
unit the control valve. Actuators
perform different motion sequences,
including linear, pivoting and rotating
motions, and they are powered by
pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical
energy.
Actuators receive a control signal
from automation systems. The signal
is converted into a motion so that
the control element of the actuating
element assumes a corresponding
position. With control valves, this is a
stroke motion. With flaps, ball cocks
or rotary plug valves, this is a pivoting
motion.
Power plants have traditionally
used pneumatic actuators to drive the
many control valves throughout their
facilities.
However, major improvements in
electric control-valve actuator tech-
nology are helping power providers
achieve their most important objec-
tives at a lower cost.
The new electric actuators can hold
up to the demands of continuous
movement.
In addition, they work effectively
in harsh environments, and provide
superior performance in a wide range
The electric
actuator is
extremely
precise. People
are using
this in some
very arduous
applications.
- Pete Kundin, Rotork
1308PE_54 54 8/2/13 12:54 PM
www.power-eng.com
55
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 29
VALVTECHNOLOGIES SOLUTIONS FOR THE POWER INDUSTRY
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of the words control and actuator.
The actuator system sets itself apart
with continuous positioning, precise
control, long service intervals,
overload protection in end positions
without torque-dependent cut-off
as well as its high protection class.
The series comprises tried and tested
mechanical components combined
with microprocessor electronics and
is compatible with fieldbuses as well
as conventional control methods. The
devices offer diagnostic options and
parameter settings are performed via
a graphic user interface. The systems
are self-monitoring and offer fail-safe
back-up of technical data.
In the most frequently used
duty, the Contrac actuator follows
an analogue setpoint signal in
continuous operation. As the torque or
plants, which primarily have used dia-
phragm actuators on control valves.
Pneumatic actuators equipped
with smart positioners now function-
ally compete with electric actuators in
terms of fail-in-position operation on
loss of signal at significantly less cost.
HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS
Hydraulic actuators are more popu-
lar because of their ability to achieve
high torque. Some companies offer a
linear actuator that can be modified
for rotary action through a gearbox.
The device has been around for
more than a decade and offers a digi-
tally stepped servomotor pump to pro-
vide higher positioning accuracy than
pneumatic actuators.
Hydraulic actuators have even been
used to position small turbine control
valves. The actuator is connected to a
nearby smart programmable electron-
ic box with an umbilical cable.
Configuration and calibration is
made easy through this box, which
can be mounted away from the process
for convenient access.
CONTINUOUS AND
PRECISE ACTUATION
The Contrac series continuous
electric variable-speed actuators are
the ideal solution for highly precise,
continuous position regulation of
injection control valves and reduce
operating costs.
The intelligent field devices of
Contrac actuator systems are based
upon ABBs family of conventional
rotary and linear actuators. The
name Contrac is an amalgamation
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www.power-eng.com
57
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of each other. The motor is constantly
under voltage, and increases or reduces
the torque gently and in proportion to
the control deviation. The actuator is
always switched on, meaning that no
restrictions are placed on the control
loop, even at the maximum permis-
sible ambient temperature.
force increases or decreases smoothly,
the mechanical components are not
subjected to load peaks. This facilitates
long service intervals and a long service
life of the actuator and actuating
element. In this material-friendly duty,
Contrac systems can also be operated
when control commands are received
as pulses from a step controller. In
this way, the user can benefit from
these unique operating features even
in older plants, which frequently still
use step control or simple open-closed
commands. Torques and forces can be
set independently of each other as well
as the direction of motion. This can
either be set via a constant value or a
torque/force characteristic curve. The
speed settings are made in a similar
manner.
In the Drive to end position duty,
individual settings are available for the
respective end position. Depending on
the settings, the motor either remains
on or is switched off as soon as the
actuator reaches its defined position
and the brake is applied to stop the
motor. With the help of the breakaway
function, the Contrac actuator can
make up to 200% of its rated torque or
rated force available in the end position
areas. This allows jammed actuating
elements to be safely moved out of
their end position. For most control
loops, minimal valve movements
near the end position make little
sense from a technical perspective.
If, however, process variables change
at this actuating element position,
the actuator will follow the resulting
control commands and there is a danger
that the valve final control element
will sustain permanent damage if it
is approached too often. There is also
a danger that valve positions very
close to the end positions will cause
cavitation. ABB actuators avoid this
effect by defining a small area in front
of the end position. As soon as the
actuator reaches this area, it behaves as
if it were set to Drive to end position.
The three-phase asynchronous mo-
tor with cage rotor guarantees safe and
reliable operation. The use of a fre-
quency converter allows the torque and
stroke time of the intelligent actuator
to be varied. This means that both pa-
rameters can be adapted to the actuat-
ing element or process independently
1308PE_57 57 8/2/13 12:54 PM
www.power-eng.com
58
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T|rou| slrale|c parlrers||ps, l33 car oller We|d|r
and heat treating if required
BENEFITS:
E||r|rales |ea|s
Preverls |rproper rac||r|r ol l|are surlaces
Typ|ca| l|alress resu|ls are W|l||r 0.002 - 0.003
Vac||r|r process car oe accorp||s|ed |r
approx|rale|y 1 |ours
0re corlraclor car oller a lurr-|ey |rspecl|or ard
complete the repair
Ta|| lo ore ol our Tec| corsu|larls roW
at 1-855-RING-ISS.
HRSG Elliptical Machining
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#306
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#310 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#309
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#308 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#307
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#311
1308PE_59 59 8/2/13 12:54 PM
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60
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Introducing the
Arrangement 9
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Arrangement 9 motor orientation
offers a reduced fan footprint.
Used as part of a system for
conveying coal dust or incinerating
off a gas in a gas-handling system.
THE NEW YORK BLOWER COMPANY
800.208.7918 | www.nyb.com
2012 The New York Blower Company
Pressure Blower
JEA Northside Generating Station in Jacksonville,
FL, installed 6,000 feet of Viega ProPress 316
stainless steel pipe and over 500 fittings. The
system is easy to work with because of the
consistency of the connections, said Ron Beverly,
CFB Operations Specialist.
For more information: www.ViegaProPress.us
Pipe Joining
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#312 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#314
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#313
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#315
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#316
Silo and Bin
Cleaning Services
and Equipment
Call 800-322-6653
or visit
www.molemaster.com
Silo and Bin Cleaning Sevices
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#317
1308PE_60 60 8/2/13 12:55 PM
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61
BABCOCK POWER INC., with its
cutting-edge subsidiaries in energy
and environmental services, integrates
leading technology resources, advanced
energy products, and an elite corps of
professionals to provide customers with
safe, effcient, environmentally responsible
generation solutions worldwide.
Babcock Power subsidiaries:
Vogt Power International Inc., Babcock Power Services Inc.,
Riley Power Inc., Boiler Tube Company of America, TEi
Construction Services Inc., Welding Technologies, Babcock
Power Environmental Inc., Thermal Engineering International
(USA) Inc., TEi Struthers Wells and TEi Struthers Services
508.852.7100 I www.babcockpower.com
Single-Source Solutions
Design-Build Storage Solutions with
ClearSpan Fabric Structures
ClearSpan Fabric Structures are a fast, economi-
cal solution for equipment and material storage,
warehousing, manufacturing and more. ClearSpan
buildings feature exceptional height and wide-
open spaces with ample clearance for access and
ease of movement. Constructed in the USA from
the highest quality steel and fabric, these buildings
can be built to any length and up to 300 wide.
For more information, visit www.ClearSpan.com/
ADPWRE or call 1.866.643.1010 to speak with
one of our ClearSpan specialists.
Storage Solutions
lT'5 ACUT TlME.
TO THE RESCUE
Michigan Seamless Tube, LLC
800.521.8416 | www.mstube.com
Tube & Pipe, Seamless
Trust your Turbo
Generator Service
to the Manufacturer
with more than 100
years experience.
Electric Machinery Company
(612) 378-8000
www.electricmachinery.com
www.weg.net/us
Turbo Generator Service
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#318
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#321
http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#320 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#319
Are Stray Electrical Currents
Destroying Your Bearings and
Seals?
Sohre Turbomachinery Shaft Riding Brushes
- Are Self Cleaning.
- Operate dry or in oil.

- Use gold/silver
bristles.

- Require little or no
maintenance.

- Can often be
serviced during
operation.

- High performance.
Transmit instrument
signals from a rotor
without special
sliprings.
SOHRE TURBOMACHINERY INC.
MONSON, MASS., USA 413-267-0590
TSOHRE@SOHRETURBO.COM WWW.SOHRETURBO.COM
2010 SOHRE TURBOMACHINERY INC. ABS CERTIFICATE B-568026
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 450
1308PE_61 61 8/2/13 12:55 PM
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For Classifed
Advertising
Rates & Information
Contact
Jenna Hall
Phone: 918-832-9249
Jennah@pennwell.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 455
1319 Macklind Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110
Ph: (314) 781-6100 / Fax: (314) 781-9209
www.ampulverizer.com / E-Mail: sales@ampulverizer.com
Quality and Service Since 1908
Ring Granulators, Reversible Hammermills,
Double Roll Crushers, Frozen Coal Crackers
for crushing coal, limstone and slag.
24 / 7 EMERGENCY SERVICE
BOILERS
20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr.
DIESEL & TURBINE GENERATORS
50 - 25,000 KW
GEARS & TURBINES
25 - 4000 HP
LARGEST INVENTORIES OF:
Air Pre-Heaters Economizers Deaerators
Pumps Motors Fuel Oil Heating & Pump Sets
Valves Tubes Controls Compressors
Pulverizers Rental Boilers & Generators
847-541-5600 FAX: 847-541-1279
visit www.wabashpower.com
FOR SALE/RENT
POWER
EQUIPMENT CO.
444 Carpenter Avenue, Wheeling, IL 60090
wabash
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 457
GEORGE H. BODMAN, INC.
Chemical cleaning advisory services for
boilers and balance of plant systems
George H. Bodman
Pres / Technical Advisor
P.O. Box 5758 Office (281) 359-4006
Kingwood, TX 77325-5758 1-800-286-6069
email: blrclgdr@aol.com Fax (281) 359-4225
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 454
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 451
Tur bine Controls
Woodward, GE, MHC
Parts and Service
Obsolete Parts Inventory
Control System, Modernization
Training, Troubleshooting
(610) 631-3480
www.turbogen.net
info@turbogen.net
TurboGen Consultants, Inc.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 456
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 452
rental
equipment
the steam & power special forces
1-800-990-0374
www.rentalboilers.com
Rental Boilers Deaerator Systems
Economizers Water Softener Systems
24-Hour Emergency Service
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 459
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 458
Get a thorough mix with:
Pugmill Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 60
Columbia, TN 38402 USA
Ph: 931-388-0626 Fax: 931-380-0319
www.pugmillsystems.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 453
1308PE_62 62 8/2/13 12:55 PM
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 463
Get a BoiIer RentaI Quote within one hour at
www.wareinc.com/equipment or caII 800-228-8861
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 466
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 464
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 462
For sale or rent
The worlds very
best portable end
prep tools and
abrasive saws
800-343-6926
www.escotool.com
FOR SALE
CATERPILLAR POWERPLANT
Energy & Industrial Solutions
George Taylor - Owner
321-631-6353 or 321-960-7482
3 - Caterpillar Generator Sets
3.8mw Prime Power, 4.5mw Standby
4160 Volt - Model D-3512B
Less than 800hrs since new
Includes Paralleling Switchgear
1200amp Drawout Breakers
ASCO load management system
1 - Caterpillar G3516 Generator Set
Natural Gas - 800kw - 60hz
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 460
WE ARE
BUYING!!!
ARE YOU SELLING?
VALVES
INSTRUMENTATION
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS
PROCESS EQUIPMENT
PROCESS CONTROLS
PLANT MACHINERY
PSA SNUBBERS, ETC.
VISIT
www.FerncroftManagement.com
email:vavlebuyer@ferncroftmanagement.com
T. 978-815.6185 Fax. 603-814.1031
Ferncroft
Management,LLC
LIMITORQUE OPERATORS WANTED
NOISE?
ho|se 0ootro| og|oeer|ogl0oos0|t|og
ov|roomeota| So0od Leve| S0rveys
workp|ace ho|se xpos0re va|0at|oo
0omm|ss|oo|og & 0omp||aoce Test|og
0omp0ter ho|se Pred|ct|oo & 0ooto0rs
Houston: 713-789-9400
Calgary: 403-259-6600
www.HFPacoustical.com
info@HFPacoustical.com
FIND CONDENSER LEAKS FAST WITH FOAM
METHOD LEAK DETECTION, TUBE PLUGS IN STOCK
John R. Robinson Inc.
Ph# 800-726-1026
Condenser & Heat Exchanger Tools
www.johnrrobinsoninc.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 465
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 461
1308PE_63 63 8/2/13 12:55 PM
www.power-eng.com
64
INDEX
RS# COMPANY PG# SALES OFFICE RS# COMPANY PG#
1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-835-3161, Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: pe@pennwell.com
Sr. Vice President North
American Power Group

Richard Baker
Reprints

Foster Printing Servive
4295 Ohio Street
Michigan City, IN 46360
Phone: 866-879-9144
e-mail: pennwellreprint@fosterprinting.com
National Brand Manager

Rick Huntzicker
Palladian Professional Park
3225 Shallowford Rd., Suite 800
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone: 770-578-2688, Fax: 770-578-2690
e-mail: rickh@pennwell.com
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO,
MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Brand Sales Manager

Dan Idoine
806 Park Village Drive
Louisville, OH 44641
Phone: 330-875-6581, Fax: 330-875-4462
e-mail: dani@pennwell.com
CT, DE, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY,
OH, PA, RI, VT, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Ontario
Brand Sales Manager

Tina Shibley
1421 S. Sheridan Road
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-831-9552; Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: tinas@pennwell.com
AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, IA, ID, MN, MT, ND,
NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD UT, WA, WI, WY,
Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan,
Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory,
Manitoba
International Sales Mgr

Anthony Orfeo
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 609, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: anthonyo@pennwell.com
Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe,
Middle East, South America
European Sales

Asif Yusuf
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 631, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: asify@pennwell.com
Europe and Middle East
Classifieds/Literature Showcase


Account Executive

Jenna Hall
1421 S. Sheridan Rd.
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-832-9249, Fax: 918-831-9834
email: jennah@pennwell.com
27 Nuclear Power International 51
www.nuclearpowerinternational.com
24 POWER-GEN Week 46
www.powergenerationweek.com
30 Renewable Energy World 56
www.renewableenergyworld-events.
com
32 RES Americas, Inc. C3
www.res-americas.com
21 Rotork Controls, Inc. 41
www.rotork.com
26 Sick Maihak, Inc. 49
www.sicknorthamerica.com
2 SIEMENS AG 3
www.siemens.com/
energy/controls
1 Solvay Chemicals, Inc. C2
www.solvair.us
23 Team Industrial Services 45
www.teamindustrialservices.com
11 The Society For Protective Coatings 22
www.sspc.org
10 Tranter Radiator Products, Inc. 21
www.tranter.com
25 Valvtechnologies, Inc. 47
www.valv.com
29 Valvtechnologies, Inc. 55
www.valv.com
20 Victory Energy Operations LLC 39
www.victoryenergy.com
12 Volvo Penta Of The Americas 23
www.volvopenta.com
4 Westinghouse Electric Co. 7
www.westinghousenuclear.com
Advertisers and advertising agencies assume lia-
bility for all contents (including text representation
and illustrations) of advertisements printed, and
also assume responsibility for any claims arising
therefrom made against the publisher. It is the
advertisers or agencys responsibility to obtain
appropriate releases on any items or individuals
pictured in the advertisement.
5 Bibb Engineers, Architects, 9
Constructors
www.bibb-eac.com
Brandenburg Industrial C4
Service Company
www.brandenburg.com
13 CB&I 25
www.cbi.com
22 Check-All Valve Mfg. Co. 44
www.checkall.com
14 Dresser-Rand 26
www.dresser-rand.com/
products/gimpel
9 Fibrwrap 19
www.fibrwrap.com
6 Fluor Corp. 11
www.fluor.com
8 GE 17
www.clearcurrentpro.com
3 Gundlach Crushers / Pennsylvania 5
Crusher
www.terrasource.com
31 HARCO 57
www.harcolabs.com
HYTORC 35
www.hytorc.com
HYTORC 37
www.hytorc.com
15 i2i Events Group 27
www.coilwindingexpo.com/
chicago
17 ICL Industrial Products 31
www.calciumbromides.com
19 Light Engineering 33
www.it-eng.com/products/
find-a-distributor
28 Marrone Bio Innovations 53
www.gotmussels.com
7 Mobil Industrial Lubricants 15
www.mobilindustrial.com
18 Nexus Engineering 32
www.nexus-tech.com
16 NOL-TEC Systems, Inc. 29
www.nol-tec.com
1308PE_64 64 8/2/13 12:55 PM
POWERING CHANGE POWERING SOLUTIONS POWERING TOMORROW
Located approximately 15 miles east of Austin, the $250
million Webberville Solar facility is contracted to Austin Energy
for 25 years, and is expected to generate enough energy to
power 5,000 average homes annually.
One of the challenges presented by this project was the clay
soil located in the northern part of the site. Clay expands and
contracts dramatically as the moisture content changes, which
in turn can work the tracker foundations out of the soil.
To counteract this, RES Americas determined the appropriate
depth for the foundations by conducting extensive pull-out
and lateral load deflection testing on sample foundations at
various locations on the project site.
The logistics of the project were also significant. At one point,
66 Sea-Land containers containing 29,000 PV modules were
received at the site over a nine-day period.
RES Americas successfully managed the scheduling, tracking,
and sequencing the delivery of all the components, and the
project was completed on schedule.
RES BUILDS THE LARGEST
SOLAR PV PROJECT IN TEXAS
Renewable Energy Systems Americas Inc.
11101 W. 120th Ave. | Suite 400
Broomfield, CO 80021 | 303.439.4200
res-americas.com
Clay Soils & Logistic Challenges
Webberville Solar
Developer SunEdison
BOS Contractor RES Americas
Owner MetLife / Longsol
Installed Capacity 30 MW (AC)
Module Technology Trina Solar
Number of Panels 127,728
Year of Operation 2012
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 32
1308PE_C3 3 8/2/13 12:39 PM
1308PE_C4 4 8/2/13 12:40 PM