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**A standard conical point drill grinding machine
**

M.A. Fugelso

*

Industrial Engineering Department, The University of Minnesota, 176 Engineering Building, Duluth, MN 55812, USA Received 13 August 1999; received in revised form 7 July 2000; accepted 13 July 2000

Abstract This paper describes a drill grinding machine that can produce conical twist drill points with very accurately speciﬁed point shapes. The machine is adjusted by precise orthogonal movements using shims and gages to make sure that the drill parameters are set precisely. The conﬁdence in the point shape produced is high enough that inspection of the points produced is not necessary. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Drill grinding; Drill sharpening; Cone model drill point; Twist drill grinding

1. Introduction There are some problems in the adjustment of existing simple conical twist drill grinding machines. Many of these machines allow the operator to easily vary point parameters that are not very important as far as drilling performance is concerned, such as point angle, and at the same time do not allow straightforward adjustment of parameters that have a very powerful effect on performance, such as skew distance, d parameter described by Tsai and Wu [1,2] and w parameter described by Fugelso [3,4]. Most machines adjust w in a trial-and-error manner until an acceptable but uncharacterized drill is produced. This leads to variations in batches of drill points produced. After a conical drill point has been produced it is very difﬁcult to measure the point and ascertain its model parameters. It is easy to ﬁnd the sum of q and f because twice that sum is the easily measured point angle, but separating q and f is difﬁcult. The measured chisel edge angle contains the w parameter and w cannot easily be separated from the chisel edge angle. While the d parameter cannot be measured directly, Tsai and Wu [1] showed that it can be inferred

* Fax: +1-218-726-8596. E-mail address: mfugelso@d.umn.edu (M.A. Fugelso).

0890-6955/01/$ - see front matter © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PII: S 0 8 9 0 - 6 9 5 5 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 6 8 - 7

a chisel edge angle less than 120° sacriﬁces potential drill performance. but not too large a chisel edge angle. This is because they are set directly from ﬁrst principles using shims and gage blocks to position the drill blank precisely. 2 drill web thickness grinding cone half angle angle between drill axis and grinding cone axis rotation of drill blank about its own axis before grinding from the chisel edge angle if the other parameters are known. 1 shows the cone model of a twist drill point with the parameters cone half angle (q). 2 shows the conﬁguration of the standard conical drill grinder. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 Nomenclature d D HR HS L P P0 Q Q0 QC R R0 S w w0 W q f w distance between tip of drill and tip of grinding cone measured parallel to cone axis drill diameter height of calibrating rod tip over the base height of contact point of square calibrating bar and grinding wheel over the base a calibration distance skew distance adjusting shim thickness thickness of shim P that causes the drill axis to intersect the cone axis AAЈ a parameter adjusting shim thickness shim thickness required to produce d=0 on a drill of diameter D=0 thickness of shim Q in place during Q0 calibration. 2. Description of grinder Fig. The axis AAЈ is the axis of the cone model. skew distance (S) and distance from cone tip to drill tip (d) as described by Tsai and Wu [1]. and it is therefore important to produce the points correctly in the ﬁrst place. The angle q is set at 30° as this gives a good distribution of relief angle along the cutting edge. drill axis to cone axis angle (f).916 M. And it can be calibrated with as little knowledge of grinder part dimensions as possible. any thickness will do distance from base to top side of gage G distance from base to tip of calibrating rod skew distance between drill axis and grinding cone axis width of gage block to set w parameter width of gage block that lines up with cone axis in side view. Fig. The angle f is ﬁxed at 29° to give a standard . This confounding of cone model parameters makes it difﬁcult to inspect points. Fig. This paper describes a twist drill grinding machine that allows the setting of all of the cone drill point parameters and makes sure that these parameters are well known and repeatable.A. see Fugelso [4].

Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 917 Fig.M.A. 1. Fig. but the above values should be adequate for a wide range of applications. point angle of 118°. If desired q and f could be different. Side view of the standard conical twist drill grinder. Skew distance has a great effect on drill geometry. 2. Cone model of a twist drill point. An increase in skew distance results in a uniform . A small change in skew distance changes the relief angles as deﬁned in [5] a great deal. the point angle being double the sum of f and q.

A. The value of d should be equal to 60–90% of the drill diameter. Typically the skew distance is about equal to the web thickness. Most existing drill grinders do not allow adjustment of this parameter and have a built-in ﬁxed d value that is marginally acceptable for large drills and much too large for smaller drills. 3. The top side of gage G must be at a distance J from the cone tip to properly align w. 3. d would not be a function of drill diameter. Fig. 3. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 increase in relief angle over the entire length of the cutting edge of the drill. The skew distance S can be accurately adjusted by varying the thickness of shim P. greater than 133°. 2. The shim Q causes displacements at right angles to the displacements caused by shim P. i. . The shim thickness Q is given by the following equation that is a function of drill diameter D and the d parameter: QϭQ0Ϫ D d Ϫ . 2 sin(q+f) (2) Then distance R would be: RϭR0ϪJ.. (3) Fig. Fig.918 M. The value of skew distance is equal to a machine constant P0 determined after construction minus the shim thickness P. Fig. The d parameter can be adjusted with shim Q. J is given by: Jϭdϩ d cos q . If the drill were held in a chuck.e. Isometric view of the standard conical twist drill grinder. as small as possible without making the chisel edge angle too large. raising and lowering the drill blank. This results in the relief angle increasing as much as possible along the cutting edge traveling toward the drill axis. 2 sin 45° sin(q+f) cos q (1) The d parameter is a function of the drill diameter because the drill is held in a ‘V’ groove.

w is given by the following equation: Fig. but this is not a precision adjustment because of the concave shape of the ﬂute. Setting drill point w parameter.M. 4 and 5. The gage G must be positioned along the Z axis of the ﬂute stop. 5. This results in setting w from ﬁrst principles. Setting distance R. Then the gage contacts the point on the drill where the cutting edge will reach the outside diameter after grinding has taken place. Fig. 4 shows the distance R from gage G to the base. Fig. 5. so that it engages the ﬂute of the drill. The w parameter is adjusted by the width (w) of gage G. 4. The drill holder rotates 90° about the cone axis AAЈ. . Figs.A. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 919 Fig. with drill rotated 90° about cone axis.

⌬R0ϭ⌬L/sin q. see Fugelso [3. Calibration It is desirable to calibrate the machine without explicitly knowing the dimensions of the grinder because then the calibration is not affected by inaccurately formed or measured parts. Q0 may be found by placing a square calibrating bar on the ‘V’ groove and measuring the height HS from the base to the point of contact of the square bar and the grinding wheel. and the drill holder is rotated forward 90°. encountering the grinding wheel and forming half the point. After touching off the drill ﬂute on the gage G as shown in Fig. dashed lines in Fig. 2. 2 2 (4) The w parameter ranges from zero to a small positive angle. it is possible to calibrate without knowing many of the linear dimensions. Increasing w by 1° increases the chisel edge angle by 1°. the range of shim Q thicknesses required may be inconveniently large. Fig. dashed lines in Fig. The grinding wheel may be translated to the left increasing L. Increasing L from its originally measured value will increase d and three of the calibration constants according to the following relations: ⌬dϭ[⌬L/tan qϪ⌬L tan(90ϪqϪf)] cos q. ⌬HS (6) . as demonstrated by Fugelso [3]. 4. 2. R0 may be found by replacing the rotating part of the grinder with a conical pointed calibrating rod.4]. (5) In a grinding machine intended to produce a wide range of drill diameters. the drill is clamped in the ‘V’ groove drill holder and the drill holder is rotated backward by 90° on the cone axis. Then: Q0ϭHRϪHSϩQC. While there is no easy way to get around measuring the angular dimensions. R0 is the distance from the base to the tip of the rod when the side of the cone touches the grinding wheel. Also.A. The height HR from the tip of the rod to the base must be recorded to use in the calibration of Q0. The drill is then loosened and rotated about 180°. The chisel edge angle must be less than about 133° or the chisel edge will be too long. Then the drill holder is rotated back again. Often the w parameter is increased to compensate for a built-in d parameter that is too large. ⌬HRϭ⌬L/tan q.920 M. HR only needs to measured once because it has a constant ratio with R0. But doing this increases chisel edge angle. The calibration of Q0 and R0 assumes that the grinding wheel can be moved along its axis of rotation and returned to a previous axial position accurately. 2. Increasing w has a beneﬁcial effect on the distribution of relief angle along the cutting edge. the distance L should be measured at this point for future recalibrations. For clarity the clamps and AAЈ axis rotation stops are not shown on the ﬁgures. not more than +15°. forming the second half of the point. ﬁnding P0 is very simple and may be found utilizing ordinary measuring tools. The second ﬂute is touched off on gage G to line up the second half of the point and the drill is reclamped. 3. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 W D wϭw0Ϫ Ϫ tan w. But.

This gap increases with increasing skew distance. Accuracy When the ‘V’ groove drill holder is in the position shown in Fig. The drills produced by the standard grinder are intended to provide a geometric benchmark for tests of new drill point shapes. The surface of the drill ﬂank and its edges could be measured with a coordinate-measuring machine (CMM) to compare the point produced by a production grinder with a standard point.0 as the skew distance approaches its lower limit of W/2. The effect of wheel dressing is to create a small ⌬L. These angles are critical to drill performance. This could result in a fraction of a degree error in the w parameter.A. the drill . 2. it would be good for the comparison if the drill parameters of the point could be extracted from the ﬂank surface points measured by the CMM. Discussion The drill points created by this standard drill grinder can be compared with drills produced by other grinders in a number of ways. Eq. This would tell if the two points were the same. but the problem is that the cutting performance could be quite similar for points that had different shapes. Neglecting this gap produces a small error in of the second term of Eq. there is a very small gap between the drill point and the grinding wheel. 6. A third comparison would be to check the relief angle of the two drill points at the outer diameter (OD) and at a point near the end of the chisel edge. 4. However. Another comparison would be to conduct tool life tests of the standard point and the production point. This approach would yield good drilling performance but still leave the shape of the production drill incompletely speciﬁed. The gap width is given by: Gap widthϭ [S−(W/2)]2 . D (7) The gap width approaches 0. (2) of about 1%. This is acceptable because w is normally speciﬁed in whole degrees. Then the production drill grinder could be adjusted in a rational way so that it produces points the same as the standard drill grinder. Conclusions While cam-driven mechanical grinding machines and computer-controlled grinders can produce a wide variety of points with programmed changeover from one point shape to another. 5. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 921 ϭ⌬L tan(90ϪqϪf). (6) also may be used to recalibrate the machine after dressing the side of the grinding wheel. The relief angle near the chisel edge should be larger than at the OD. not fractions.M.

S. Tsai. These drills can be used for benchmark tests of common conical drill point performance for comparison with more complex points produced for research. References [1] W. International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research 19 (2) (1979) 95–108. Fugelso / International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 41 (2001) 915–922 grinder proposed in this paper.922 M. Cylindrical ﬂank twist drill points. This is especially important for very small diameter drills because they are difﬁcult to inspect. with this grinder providing the ﬁrst step toward rational comparisons of drilling performance.M.M. although somewhat tedious to set up.A. Fugelso. Wu.D. Tsai. Reference Systems. Part 1: General Term. Future work would include designing measuring techniques for production drill ﬂank shapes. Wu. ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry 105 (1983) 183–186.D. A mathematical model for drill point design and grinding. [2] W. Computer analysis of drill point geometry. can produce large batches of identical cone points with high conﬁdence in the point shape being produced.A. S.A. . [5] ISO 3002/I-1977(e): Geometry of the Active Part of Cutting Tools. Conical ﬂank twist drill points. ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry 101 (1979) 330–340. [4] M. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture 30 (2) (1990) 291–295. Fugelso. Tool and Working Angles. [3] M.

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