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one opponent's staminafails him andthe other fighter cango for the kill. being more lightly armed than other soldiers. evenin the peacetulEnglandof chaucer\ time. ever'thing was cast to the wind! But. than by the lather unglamourous tuI of nainly fightened men (trying hard not to g€t hurt). will the weaponsemployed. basedthemselves in an abbey.the 6ght can only b€comemore hesitant. Thrcughout the Middle Ages. to a lesserextent.the more mundanebut equally bloody business day-to-dayskirmish. men went fully armed about iheir travels for fear of outlaws atrd otheN who might feel they could put a man'sgoodsto better us€ than he. Thosewho havehadthe misfortuneto be involvedin or watch a real knife fight. Someof these outlaw bandscould reach large numbers with sophisticatedorganisation. Thus we are faced with pedods of careful fighting. interspacedwith bursts of frerEied combat as some €vent renders numben of men vulnerable to swift assaultat a reducedrisk to the attacker.Smallscale combatIn the mlddleages by PeterMorrison Two aspects of medi€valwadare appealto the wargamer. safelyunder cover. but thosewill be dealtwith h another anicle. MAN TO MAN Matry historians and wargamershave disruss€dat length the ar€ aimedat theory of combat. This leavesthe limbs to be considered. will know that the reality is long careful manoeuwes by the antagonists. whilst at the sametime trying to deal some out.' whilst OId Ned tendsthesheep and Waheris ploughing. Firstly because theseareashad lessprotection. The next placesomeone will strite at is the headandthe h€ad is rulnerable. It $ould also be reasonableto €xpect somelarge proportion of thesewoundsto be on the legs.A footsoldier hasto carry aI his gear and march to battle.From there. the feud was common and disputesover land and livestock were ftequent events. Not for nothing did the laws of England state that foliage shouldbe cut back ftom the highwayat leasta hundred fe€t. the. So. This short burst of activity wi[ alsobe shownin singlecombat when a man is unbalancedor w€akened. with the seried ranks of knightsand soldiery arrayedto facetheir foeswith galantry. One story rccounts how a band of renegades somehundred strong.Abo\et Jill complainsto Grcnny P. combats werc seldomsettledswiftly in ordinary fights. History is replete with TIIE WISBY GRAVES If the theory advanced earlier is corect. blow until both retum to the careful jockelng for position or anoth€. significant blow is struck. or the Scot$^Yelshcrossedthe borders. PROTECTION How do the factsavailablefit in with this conceptionof combat? FiNdy. all but the poorestclasses of soldierswould havesome form of body protection if they plaoned to get involved in a melee. All too often our conceptionsof singlecombat are coloured by the exploits of Hollywood film stars or great herces of reality oI a wild melee fiction.) Whengreaternumben ofcombatantsareadded. Naturally. that 'Nothing evet happens arcund here. when the law usuallyrestedin tbe handsof the strong. This should mean that a fighter wil try for these areas initially and move on to other targets when his opponent is weakened.because thesewould be areaswhere low risk attrition wounds could be struck. by their comrades. they cancomefrom any direction forget about chivalryl This has always been so. Body woundsin closecombat t€nd to be lethal and. .First the glittering pageantryof pitched battle.with menshufflingaroundtrying to avoid blows. unlike the knife fight nentioned earlier.who haveconcentrat€d too much on the kill and neglectedtheir own defence. but usuallytheir considerations of pitchedbattle andlessat the more spectacular circumstances the problemsof a singleman besetby a variety of foes. Conversely. contrasted by the occasionalnatual fighting nan (psycho?) loving €very miDute of it. and body armour and shieldsare intended to cover againstthis happening. they sallied forth to institute a region of tefior throughout the region. lt is no accidentthat helmetsare the next most popular protection after shields. either singly or at onc€. v./or suddendeath. This Iucrative arrangementcameto ao of the large end when a visitor to the abbeybecamesuspicious numberof'desperate' looking monksaboutthe placeandraised the alarm. by degrees. (There areexceptions to this mle. Secondly. designedto cmsh his opponent's resistance. a man will occasionaly recover and trade blow fo.only outside intervention will usually save the losingmanfrom captureand. of the Second. Once this cou6e of aclion has commenced.2l AFFRAY . A fact which hasalways mad€ limb protection less popular with infantry than with mounted troops. Any weaknesson a fighterh part might bring a number of oppon€nts do*n on him. Of couse./hichis why armour goesaI the way round the torso. It goeswithout saying that the fighting skil of€achfghter wil have a significanleffect on the outcomeof the contest as. Opposire. especiallywhen a king wasweak. the combatsconsideredherecanmngefrom three or four of swirling sword play to men involved in a few hectic seconds more than a hundredmen involved in a dour brawl resultins in hieh loss of life. Below: Nextday: opposing de forcesoJthoseh'ickedmanuding barcnsJacques Wulieand Hugh Felpe ham clashovet their loot! 25nm WdrganesFoundrj & CitadelMiniaturc: frguresltun the co ectionol designe6AIan & Michael PeftJ who dlso did the te ain.sincea crippled manis lessable to so over to the offensive. when civil war broke out.Two shotsof medievalBorsetshirc. His opponent wil immediately launch a seriesof brutal blows. examples of menin difficulties beingrescued often with fatal resultsfor the attackers.Most arche$ pref€rredto avoidcrudebrawlingandkeop their distance. with both parties trying to inflict woundson eachother until.mounted toops are irlnerable to limb wounds in combat with infantry and thus will tend to wear limb protection when they can get it. At the same time. a large numberof wounds would be i licted on legs and arms.

.. .... This is a priDciple that applies at all levels of warfare. . . TIIE HUMAN ELEMENT Any rational pefton.probably as much a result of judicious use of shield and weapon as the popularity of gauntlets...5.. SEQUENCEOF PLAY Move Shoot Determine damage Melee Detemine damage Morale Breaks Routs COMBAT FACTORS All figuresarc assigned an offensivecapabilitylevel or Fighting Ski (FS). Shieldsonly give protection ro rhe front and lefr side. Tums: Each rcpresentsa few s€conds of real time.. .... ... .. A selectionof figures all showingihe correct type of armour. The equestdan origin of these victims is often indicated by the preservationof spurs with the remains.. ........with a high numberofthese injuries on the left l€9... .. Far atrdawaythe Iargestproportion of woundswere received on the lower legs....... In this respect.. . Taking all thes€factors into considerarionperhapsthe time hascome to lay out somewargamesnrles....9.. .. . ... . .. This figure is the sum of the man's experienc€aDd dexterity. . . . A tu(her accuracylevel Ballistic Ski[ (BS) rnay be assigned to alchen and men armed with thowins weaDons. .when a series of blows were hard to achieve.. Ir goes without saying that the loss of such a persoDwould have a crushingeffect on hisfollows. some of the haplesscasualtieshaving been sfiuck in the headmore than once. will feel a justifiable urge to leave the vicinity with impressivespe€d.. Consequ€ntly......... A noticeablething wasthe force of someof the blows which had sheered though armour. . .Significantly. ... Thus our considerationscan encompass the poems of Homer and Mallory as well as the graphic accountsof such battles as Hastingsor Morgarten.. With the lossof the manwho held them together.Thoush it must be admitted that this is not conclusiveproof. Wounds struck in an upwards direction are most often inflicted on the right leg.. .. Ituight. .. concemed with gettingawayftom the field. . ...... .... although every gamer must be assigned a leader figur€.Fbr convenience assume the averagefigure to be 6 feet high. ..... .. Fina y.. whilst deep€rgroupedwounds were proportionally geater....... . . No doubt. . obstinacy.7..most of the woundswere iDflictedon the upper arm with very few hand wounds.... ... Add the following factor for weaponsto the Fighting Ski[. ......22 On the Swedishisland of cotland in 1361 the Danes and Swedes fougbi a battle that wasto leavea legacyof skeletonand armour remainsburied at Wisby.........I... -l smallshield.7 Soldien... A suitable table and plenty of terrain.. . . probably by someoneon foot attacking a horseman already etrgaged to his left..... ... .ho had experiencedthe rigoun of combat with an edg€d weapon... ..... .....8... On the arms..... the deeperculs in all areas tended lo be morc closely grouped than single cuts. .... tr'igurerrtio = one figure to one man Groutrd scde: According to the figures used.. -2 largeshield. .. flesh and bone alike... 0.. FightingSkiU Balistic SkiI I r r d .. 60% were singleaDdlighter cuts. . .. . A fact consistentwith lhe way amred m€n tond to stand.. sugges! ing that the head was a popular place to deliver tb€ coup-cle-grace. Consultthis chart anddice for the Fighing Sii[ of the menat eachlevel.....3. The number of playersinvolved is not crucial... Perhaps this indicat€s lhat armourwill soakup or blunt blowsrarbei than stop them. . or at bestdepartingin the company of his own little group/unit...This undentandabledesire can be countered by many factors. On the whole..... much more effort than usual will b€ put into preservingrhem. facedwith a manwith a metrelong knife or somemadmanwith an axe. . ......._......... . . Subsequent despoilingof the gravesby archeologistsand pathologists has revealed much infomation of rclevanceher€. Rememberthat these lays were created for men s.4. F. .. . Light head wounds were fewer and usualy single.. suggesting that thesewer€struck in generalcombat.....1 .Thosewishingfurther confirmationof this hypothesis might tum to the historic descriptions of the savageryof hand-to-handcombat.. Deduct -3 ftom the Fighting Skill iJ the man receiveda melee or missile wounddurins the lastoeriod.... Even in combat involving a few peoplethis principle oi the need for supportholdstme.. these men will engendertrcmendous loyalty in those who follow them and Spear^-anc€ Sword Are/Mace BilYHalberd PoleAre 4 3 2 I 0 When a man is using a shield this will reduce the initial dic! throw againsthim. manyof the corpses shoq/ed evidence of woundingby oossbow bolts and a significant proportion of these had multiple wounds.... .6. .one need not ignore the poemsand songsof earlier times......9. Yet unit groupitrgis usuallyth€ first casualty of any skirmish rules. anger.. someone woundedby a deadlyflying object would continueto fight for his life or at leaststay with his comrades.. Peasants....7.8.. wherehe had somecbatrceof fiotection.. including pride. which suggests a succ€ssion of hea\y blows designedto basten an ememy'sdemise. suggesting that riders were most oft€n attacked from this direction. ...... it seeds possiblethat arrow woundsdo not necessarily take a man out of a fight....6. As an encowagement to groupsof mento win (a saJer aswell asa more profitable result to a fight!) leadersare a tremeodous asset to a gmup of soldiers.quipmeneA six sideddice (D6) and a decimaldice (D10)..... . Of the l€g cuts.. Most men becomebraver if they are pan of a goup andor havea leaderwho can inspirc them to hold their ground. each becomesan individual.... ... .. .8. Sergeants..ihe scenariodoesappearto bebome out by the evidence..discipline and hero worship.

Defcnce Instead of attacking a figurc nay defend. Pu3hBeck If a fighter receives a wound he may not strike a blow during the MOVEMEI{T following tum and he will be pushedback 2'.ia P*i@h..r Er€s . Thus the figure itsef shouldindicatethe level of endurance. A @ 6rEe or qdbnl Nrpoldic . Each man is alocated a number of points at the start of until0 is rcached.nd F. stipulated. vl'l d. 9.Galop. Cant€r.consultthe list below.Us€ th€ sametestfor A figure may only deliver one attackof any kind in a move.rgF €id a6rriiE. Endunnce levcl Fu[ PlateArmour Partial PlateArmour BreastPlateandMail Full Mail or Breastplate Mail shirt kather or paddedprotection Armoured Litrtbs Endurance l. N.3 Halberd.10.ry fi9u6.. dt*. RANGE PENALTIES Bows and Crossbows l-ongbow and Arbalast Thrown missiles EAGLE MINIAIT'RES NEWt Ikvid A&ini V d Acfe.. Trot:1 =2 Canter Galop/Charge = 4 : Fjder killed. the combatantmay attemptto parry up to three attacks by matching his Eghting skill againsl his attackers' fighting skils.Mln. GL6 Tel M'j 8j5?82 94| 25mm WHITE METAL WARGAME FIGURES ACW & SYW rangas now avallabl.But any other typ€ of fall abovesix feet. Deduct haif a movewh€ncrosshga linear obstacleor enteringa building or mounting.sElbow. f6d€ etneri* ed@@.8. but double the penalty for one figure in ev€ry force may be destnated a champion. after which it slowsto a tlot for one period. AustlHurudie ui6 arld G@adio6 and un{@Jaogel Ru$to ard Fddr Rewrurio. Sp. 1 : Stunnedfor one move. A 4 horceman with a spearor lanc! may chargeat a galop or cantet A horsemay only gallop for one move. At this the gamethat areerodedby damage point he faints or dies.r. thow agah. -1 per4 inches. man mav attack trvice in a melee Deriod.. DAMAGE Whena hit is scoredby combator missile. ari&h in P€nhsl. Un€ 0n empsign d|s and'psads') ar{ eporb Cui@ie. The man with the higher scorestrikes home. dismounting from a horse. Spear.Ecl6l l.. So. Instead of stdking a blow..voMion.. Next deductthe penaltiesfor the distancebetweenshooterand target. If there is b worn.may dsk falling from his steed. exchange blows (the rider strikesfi$t.Consultthe Endurancelevel chart for the initial total. An unmodified I is alwaysa hit.. -2 per3 inches..Msy frglE b.e. Hiqhl.4Op indivirual fg!E... -1 per3 inches. = 3 moves. A figure with no armour sho$n on it (EL 4) may not count as having leather protection(EL 6).. .ScoreofoneD10dividedby2 : Stunnedfor two moves. in a straightline.B. If a 6 is thrown on either type of dice. Horse Tmt Cant€r Gallop Mov€Raie 1g 6' 4 8' tl' l8' l1 l0 9 8 1 6 Chalge 5 A charge is any infa ry movement that €trds in combat.ScoreofoneD6dividedby2 Ttuow the D10 again. unDrotected and a levelof 11 whenDrotection insufficientroom to do this without tuming.6.9. rq |iali:m Mp.. 2.rxrarq Rii€lM. the horseis halted. (Armour is hea\y).$d Frcu6 ro od.sword. FEfth Gu.htnhrnton.10 on a D10 kils the victim outright..rd.missile. Missiles:The shooterthrows oDeD 10andaddshis balistic skill to the result. H€€vyArlih|y. Horsesbuild up speedby degees. This every six feet above this height. '7. Tmt. hoNeback.nbh. EI\DT]RANCE The effect of armour is reflected in the ability of the better amoured man to €ndure gr€ater damagebefore he is beaten down.PoleAxe . 5.a5€d.iadoo. A scoreof 6 A stunned figure may trot move or fight during the period on a D6 or 9.rd.. CadbiM ard tffi fguB. alco P@t@..nd w. dd R€voMih€ry psiod in biffi.23 M€lec: Wten two hostile figures are in base-to-base contact both throw one D10 and add their Fighting SkiI to tbe score. standingsta( to a galop accelerates i.ider hasfallen from his steed. then the Horses arc assumedto have an endurancelevel of 8 when foot man) and passon to the limit of his full move. e. This thrcw or lessindicatesthe. cloucesrersblr€. Falls Any rider who los€smore than hali his remaidng endurance points in one move or attempts to jump an obstacle on Double the range penalty if a target is behind cover. 4 (Round up any fractions). fighting man. The enduance chosen must be in accodance with the armour shown on the figure in use. lsmm an96 jusr 6r.ry fuuE.D€rll. n<t 5mm Eng6 .Bdriehin B€lgicsh3ko€ld l. If tbe remainderexceeds 0 the missilestdkes its talget. Throw one D10 and comparethe numberfor the speedof the hone. The rate of movementis affectedby the endurance level of each He may still defend himself howeve. a horsegoing ftom a at a speedlevel a nove. axe.11..evel Inlentry 4.

unit.Spearand shield x 2 4 soldierswith crossbows and a sergeant N. If it fails. there is no reasonwhy a force of doul Scotsor wild Welsh camot be employedBasicmorale It is advisable to alwaysput a sergeant wiih a unit of peasants.9 Sergeant 7. A leader with a lower morale level. move the sub unit will make no further advancetowards anv One 6fth or more casualties Fallen below half strencth.may commandit in slaying an opponent who waits too long to sunender! but cannot give the men more €nthusiasmthan he possesses.10(+3) If the better figuresare in tmuble. kdghts and se4eantsleading units have a numberitr attack.Halbeds Ran awaylastmove 5 sergeants Irrd down (seenote) 4 soldiersand a sergeant. add Morrle Modifiers togetherFighting Skill + Ballistic Skill + Enduranc€+ Mo.s operateaspafi of a brcaks and nms awayftom the enemyfor one full move. or equalto. Any horseman who .This numberis addedto the alone. Those that rcmain t€st again. lt givesa good impr€ssionof the camagel . EnemyIrrd down + l Double the poinls for all but p€asantsand soldiers. lf their unmodified This force shouldgive a good evening'splay. which may be them. If the lrrd is down (unconscious or d€ad)the whole force 15 p€asants and a sergeant inmediately tests. If Unit leader slain. Equally. If the a(acker is Here thenis a medievalskirmishthat consideIsthe norc humatr on the same level he will not see any troops behind those iII Iace of minor combat.ale modifieN to the total. The hrghestone caseof outlawsand suchlike. A Lord or his knights may operate independently of any Lost that round of melee. A[ self rcspectingopponentsshouldauempt to deny them this Evrde right! Ratherthan standand fight. Next move. Atry unitvfigur€s that fail this test mut off the table. must facethe att€ntionsof sevemlopponentsnext time. It is a goodidea to scoreis 9 or more. Add any leadershipbonuses. don't l€avethem ro it. but if these arc r€quired. suffer an adversemomle checkfor this udlessthe unit already wlr€n to tesl has another leader. the *hole A unit must have a leader. can €xpect to be hung if caught! There's no future in crime! At no time can a figure's morale level be higher than 10. falls) and the horsemancan ride on. On a positivercsult the Morsle Saor€: unit wil halt.ides down the ftont ranl of a unit bracketsbehindtheir basicmoral€. I. th€y wil ignore any further morale testsatrd lay casualties on thefusides'wherethey fell' rather than remove will attempt to r€cover the fa en man's body. who may be a L-ord. or Irrd at the end of any move during which he rcceived The total cantrotbe addedto a unit to raise its momle level damage. Thus a leader with the field forthwith. lndividual targetsmay not b€ shot at if a unit containsmore thanfive figures. noD-routjDg enemytroopsand wiu testtor moraleat + l. knight or unit will rout off the table.eadelshavea percentage chance of beinghit. morale. though a unit will need more than one raDt to stal a cavalry Lords.ord 9. penod.6 Points values are not given. the unit may attempt to rally. may not side. Aftempting to rally. The only exception to this is the sergeant. ff a separatedbody camot establish contact next Friends of sameor higher basic morale break within 12".8 (+1) Soldier 7 POINTSVALUFS Peasant 5.24 unlessthe rider woundsan infantry opponent. foot soldier is knocked down and stu red for one move (see Havidg dono this they wil carry the body ftom the field. other troops or combine into a unit. Though the lead€rof a force is ref€rred to as a Irrd. resistingall attacks. send Knight 8. He will not. direct line of sight. but may not fight or shoot until the folowing Take the basicmorale. which must beginthe gamebetween5 and20 menstrong. leader) they must attempt to recover contact as soon as is Cavalry aftempting ro chargespear armed iDfantry.the carried 4"/moveby two men or more.B. of course. If the dice scorcis higherthan. soldiersandseryeants mustalwa. the unit/figue Peasants. this move. The hight will of coursehaveno hesitation the samemorale as the troops he commands. A lord or knight may leavehis assigned unit. a commonercanbe leader of the wi[ b€ used. If the score is los.ale Routedenemylastmove + 1 : Points.b€ offered the samecounesy and commaDd a unit at all. practical.In this case.but not to their own and may not dde out agaiIl.The formation adoptedis not imponatrt.They must a univfigure may run away. the morale total the MORALE unirfigue carries on. iD lhe Nor can two leadershipvaluesbe combined. who wi[ alwaysattempt to rally at the end of eacbmove. -l Peasants attackedby morethanone knighr -l A good skirmish force mighi be: Irader killed -l Eachfifth of unit lostthis move -l Friendsofsameor highermoralerunningaway I Lord -1 2 Knights I-eadedess unit . Figuresmust b€ within Z'of the nearestfigure of their unit. Throw 2 D6 and add or subtract any in the hont lank of the unit to A knight or lnrd may attempt to surrenderto anotherknight give this benefrt. basicmomle of the unit they are with . l. but it will Irrd.At the end of eachmove test againstMonle. they becomeseparatedfrom the main body (the part *ith the lrrd down.His nobl€ foe mus! acc€ptandhavehim escortedhom higher than that of the leadercontrolling it. CIIIVALRY? Count only thoseffoops visible to the shooter.