You are on page 1of 5

Approach Theory of language The theory of language underlying Audiolingualism was derived from structural linguistic view.

Linguistics backbone is the structural theory of language constituted. Structural linguistics had developed in part as a reaction to traditional grammar. Linguists discovered new sound types and new patterns of linguistic invention and organization, a new interest in phonetics, phonology, morphology, and syntax developed. A sophisticated methodology for collecting and analyzing data developed, which involved transcribing spoken utterances in a language phonetically and later working out the phonemic, morphological (stems, prefixes, suffixes, etc.), and syntactic (phrases, clauses, sentence types) systems underlying the grammar of the language. Language was viewed as a system of structurally related elements for the encoding of meaning, the elements being phonemes, morphemes, words, structures, and sentence types. The term structural referred to (a) Elements in a language were thought of as being linearly produced in a structured way; (b) Language samples could be described at any structural level of description (phonetic, phonemic, morphological, etc.); (c) Linguistic levels were thought of as systems within systems (pyramidally structured. Learning a language, it was assumed, entails mastering the elements or building blocks of the language and learning the rules by which these elements are combined. The phonological system defines those sound elements that contrast meaningfully with one another in the language (phonemes), their phonetic realizations in specific environments (allophones), and their permissible sequences (phonotactics). The phonological and grammatical systems constitute the organization of language and by implication the units of production and comprehension. An important tenet of structural linguistics was that the primary medium of language is oral: Speech is language. Since many languages do not have a written form and we learn to speak before we learn to read or write, it was argued that language is "primarily what is spoken and only secondarily what is written" (Brooks 1964). Therefore, it was assumed that speech had a priority in language teaching.

Theory of learning The language teaching theoreticians and methodologists who developed Audiolingualism had a convincing and powerful theory of learning to draw upon known as behavioural psychology - claimed to have tapped the secrets of all human learning, including language learning.. To the behaviourist, the human being is an organism capable of a wide repertoire of behaviours. The occurrence of these behaviours is dependent on three crucial elements in learning: a stimulus, a response and reinforcement. To apply this theory to language learning is to identify the organism as the foreign language learner, the behavior as verbal behavior, the stimulus as what is taught or presented of the

grammar. There must be some knowledge of a second language as it is possessed by a true bilingualist In practice this means that the focus in the early stages is on oral skills. Objectives Short-range objectives: Training in listening comprehension. Design Audiolingualists demanded a complete reorientation of the foreign language curriculum. 4.foreign language. Drills can enable learners to form correct analogies. The meanings that the words of a language have for the native speaker can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context. They advocated a return to speech-based instruction with the primary objective of oral proficiency. and the reinforcement as the extrinsic approval and praise of the teacher or the Intrinsic selfsatisfaction of target language use. and dismissed the study of grammar or literature as the goal of foreign language teaching. and ability to reproduce these symbols in writing. Accurate pronunciation Recognition of speech symbols as graphic signs on the printed page. Analogy provides a better foundation for language learning than analysis. the response as the learner's reaction to the stimulus.      . Hence the approach to the teaching of grammar is essentially inductive rather than deductive. Foreign language learning is basically a process of mechanical habit formation. 3. and vocabulary are all related to development of oral fluency. Long-range objectives: Must be language as the native speaker uses it. Oral proficiency is equated with accurate pronunciation and grammar and the ability to respond quickly and accurately. Language mastery is represented as acquiring a set of appropriate language stimulus-response chains. Analogy involves the processes of generalization and discrimination. early practice5 should focus on mastery of phonological and grammatical structures rather than on mastery of vocabulary. The teaching of listening comprehension. It was assumed that language teaching should focus on mastery of speech and that writing or even written prompts should be withheld until reasonably late in the language learning process. Good habits are formed by giving correct responses rather than by making mistakes. Psychological foundations of Audiolingualism are: 1. 2. pronunciation. Language skills are learned more effectively if the Items are presented in spoke form before they are seen in written form. with gradual links to other skills.

stress. Repetition. rhythm. Sound is as important as form and order. -This is the seventh month. An attempt is made to minimize the possibilities for making mistakes in both speaking and writing. The learner's activities must at first be confined to the audiolingual and gestural-visual bands of language behavior. which contains the key items of phonology. fluency in the use of the key grammatical patterns. I used to know him years ago. morphology. reading. repetition and memorization. The language skills are taught in the order of listening. Listening is viewed largely as training in aural discrimination of basic sound patterns. The student repeats an utterance aloud as soon as he has heard it. The syllabus Audiolingualism is a linguistic or structure-based approach. and writing. Only when he is thoroughly familiar with sounds. students are taught to read and write what they have already learned to say orally. Dialogues are used for repetition and memorization. The use of drills and pattern practice is a distinctive feature of the Audiolingual Method. he may repeat it again and add a few words. He does this without looking at the printed text. 1. and syntax of the language arranged according to their order of presentation. After a student has repeated an utterance. These may have been derived in part from a contrastive analysis of the differences between the native language and the target language.Reading and writing skills are dependent on prior oral skills. speaking. Types of learning and teaching activities Dialogues and drills form the basis of audiolingual classroom practices. EXAMPLE: This is the seventh month. and forms does he center his attention on enlarging his vocabulary When reading and writing are introduced. EXAMPLE: I used to know him. . Speaking skills are themselves dependent on the ability to accurately perceive and produce the major phonological features. Recognition and discrimination are followed by imitation. and intonation are emphasized. and knowledge of sufficient vocabulary to use with these patterns. vocabulary items are usually specified in advance. Specific grammatical patterns in the dialogue are selected and become the focus of drill and pattern-practice exercises. Dialogues provide the means of contextualizing key structures and illustrate situations in which structures might be used. Correct pronunciation. arrangements. In addition. The language may be presented entirely orally at first. The starting point is a linguistic syllabus.

. or modality. One word in an utterance is replaced by another. He is told in advance to respond in one of the following ways: Be polite: thank you. EXAMPLES: I bought the ticket. A single word stands for a phrase or clause. aspect. When a word is added it takes a certain place in the sequence. voice. . EXAMPLE: I'll go my way and you go.Integration. Transposition. Contraction. Agree. Restatement. 10. A change in word order is necessary when a word is added. -I hardly know him. Replacement. EXAMPLES: They must be honest. Completion. 5. and Express surprise. -Wait for me. 4. The student rephrases an utterance and addresses it to someone else. Answer the question: what is your name? My name is Smith. –I`ll go my way and you go yours. Rejoinder. -Put your hand there. Express regret. One word in an utterance appears in another form when repeated.2. 11. EXAMPLE: Tell him to wait for you. EXAMPLE: I`m hungry. 3. (So) -So am I. Inflection. A sentence is transformed by being made negative or interrogative or through changes in tense. EXAMPLE: I know him. -He bought it cheap. Two separate utterances are integrated into one. . EXAMPLE: He knows my address/ He doesn't know my address/ Does he know my address? /He used to know my address/ If he had known my address. . -I bought the tickets. (Hardly). EXAMPLE: Put your hand on the table. Disagree. The student hears an utterance that is complete except for one word. and then repeats the utterance in completed form. agree emphatically. 8. 7. . Transformation. mood. This is important. 9. 6. your welcome.. according to instructions. Expansion. EXAMPLES: He bought this house cheap. -It is important that they be honest. The student makes an appropriate rejoinder to a given utterance.

Students first hear a model dialogue containing key structures that are the focus of a lesson. The teacher models the target language. It provides the opportunity for further drill work and to receive controlled error-free practice of basic structures. 5. and thus have little control over the content. and monitors and corrects the learner´s attentive by varying drills and tasks and choosing relevant situations to practice structures.12. it is a teacher-dominated method.The dialogue is adapted to the students´ interest or situation.Certain key structures from the dialogue are selected and used as the basis for pattern drills of different kinds. EXAMPLE: students/waiting/bus: the students are waiting for the bus. He uses these words with a minimum of changes and additions to restore the sentence to its original form. through changing certain key words or phrases. Restoration: the student is given a sequence of words. Correction of mistakes of pronunciation or grammar is direct and immediate. 3. LEARNERS ROLE Learners are viewed as organisms that can be directed by skilled training techniques to produce correct responses. where further dialogue and drill work is carried out. | . and follow-up reading. and other practice activities. PROCEDURES 1. or style of learning. they provide the text of dialogues and cues needed drills and exercises. and fluency. Learners play a reactive role by responding to stimuli.The students may refer to their textbook. pace. controls the direction and pace of learning. 4.Follow-up activities may take place in the language laboratory. When textbooks and printed materials are introduced to the student. TEACHERS ROLE The teacher´s role is central and active. The teacher pays attention to pronunciation. drills. Teacher has access to a teacher´s book that contains the structured sequence of lessons to be followed and the dialogues. They repeat each line of the dialogue. A language laboratory may also be considered essential. He may be told what time he must use. 2. writing. THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS They are primarily teacher oriented. or vocabulary activities based on the dialogue may be introduces. intonation.