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Final Report

Submitted to The Faculty of Operation Catapult LXX Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Terre Haute, Indiana

by Group 19 Randy Hays Kara Jackson Nicole Miller Wissahickon High School Ambler, Pennsylvania Jeffersonville High School Jeffersonville, Indiana Mendham High School Mendham, New Jersey July 27, 2001

Goals For this project. we had many personal goals. we wanted to become acquainted with the different types of circuits and various materials which our project would entail. Primitive men built fence brushes to protect their caves. After rejecting all of the projects lacking these qualities. however. We also needed to decide how long the range of the sound waves could be: across a room or a walkway. we also hoped to obtain some hands on experience with circuits. We wanted our alarm to be small. resistors. the tangible focus of our project was to create a working ultrasonic intruder alarm. Once the construction was completed. we all were looking for a project which would be both challenging and exciting. the Babylonians built walls. In addition to our personal goals. wires. First. our goals shifted to designing the various features on our intruder alarm. Pre Work One of the most important stages in our project occurred before we even touched a breadboard. but for our project we focused on only one: a movement based intruder alarm. portable. This project sparked our interest of construction and challenged us to learn about a new field of engineering. For three weeks. The idea of tackling a project that involved numerous chips. When the three of us entered catapult our knowledge of circuitry was limited to a few weeks of high school physics. the home security system.based system is one of the more complex units. At the beginning of the first week. Along with learning more about the theoretical aspect of electrical engineering. Without these sessions. Choosing a Topic Why did we choose to build the ultrasonic intruder alarm? At the beginning of the program we had a variety of projects to choose from. How does a home security system work? The typical system involves numerous features. Hoover and Dr. We initially were interested in learning more about electrical engineering and circuitry. it would have been extremely difficult to even begin designing . we came down to the ultrasonic intruder alarm. Song learning some of the basics of electrical engineering. and the kings of the Middle Ages built enormous castles.19-1 Introduction Security has been a concern for mankind since the beginning of time. Useful for guarding hallways and other tight spaces the motion -. and capacitors excited us. In modern times we protect ourselves with a new type of defense. we designed built and tested our own version of this typical system. and inconspicuous. we spent several days in a lecture room with Dr.

However. it triggers the alarm. Therefore. If the intruder moves closer to the transmitter.1 . they add at a constant rate and form a continuous sine wave. 19. Likewise. Because they have the same frequency. If the frequency of the secondary pulse is slightly different then they will not add to form a continuous sin wave. As a 40KHz sound wave is emitted it sends out two pulses: one bounces off a wall (the secondary pulse) and the other goes directly to the receiver (the direct pulse). he compresses the sound waves slightly increasing the frequency of the secondary pulse. Another aspect of our pre work was to figure out what smaller components needed to be built in order to complete the alarm successfully. the Doppler effect works as follows. This will result in a resultant wave (fig. if he moves away from the transmitter he decompressed the waves slightly decreasing the frequency.19-2 our circuitry. Figure 19. 19. we focused on planning the order of the processes. How It Works The principle behind the intruder alarm is the Doppler shift. This is because of the Doppler effect. before we began construction. In the intruder alarm.1) . The Doppler effect is a scientific law that explains the relationship between movement and frequency.2) that at times drastically exceeds the voltage of the continuous wave. if an intruder passes through the alarm area the secondary pulse will not return at the same frequency (Fig. When the device senses this excessive voltage.

Because these amplifies are so powerful. we used a 5V converting circuit to run a positive 5V along the second breadboard. When building this chip it was important to use an extra capacitor running from the positive lead to ground to reduce electronic “noise” that could disrupt the other circuits on the board. the wave is then received by a 40 KHz receiver where it is changed into a sinusoidal electric signal. it was necessary to run several capacitors between the circuits as well as from the positive to ground terminals. they magnify on a magnitude of 8000 times. The purpose of the circuit is to transform a 9V DC current into a 40KHz square wave. Each of these circuits is based on a 741 chip. The sine wave is then sent across an area of space and bounces off a stationary object. The basis for this circuit is a 555 chip. the stationary object is a wall. it is run through an amplifying chain consisting of three op-amp circuits connected by capacitors. a large portion of frequencies 20KHz and lower is blocked while the majority of the high frequencies (including 40 KHz) are preserved.2 The Intruder Alarm: A Systematic Break Down The first circuit in our alarm is a signal generator. the signal is passed through a high pass filter with a break frequency of 20KHz. This serves to reduce the effect of outside noise on the circuit. Next. (In our case. As a result. From the amplifying chain. After the signal has been filtered. The signal produced by the generator then goes to a 40KHz transmitter that turns the electric square wave into a sinusoidal sound wave.19-3 Figure 19.) After bouncing off the wall. the signal leaves the first breadboard and travels to the second. . This circuit reduces the voltage of the signal according to a bell curve. We chose 20KHz as the break frequency because that is very close to the upper range of audible noise. While the first breadboard was attached to positive and negative 9V terminals.

capacitors. The hardest part of building the intruder alarm was not building the circuits but checking them. The Result The Intruder Alarm works! We succeeded in creating a small. One of the best parts about learning in this setting was the opportunity to teach each other. a continuous signal is generated that is smaller than the trigger level. The electrical output of the SR Latch is used to power our siren. We also became adept at isolating the problem within a problematic circuit. In essence. once it receives a set pulse the SR Latch will keep giving a steady electrical output. By using a small screwdriver. Another of our main goals at the outset of this project was to learn more about electrical engineering. It compares the incoming signal against a pre set DC voltage level. However. courtesy of Dr. it causes a varying signal part of which is greater than the trigger level. as we progressed we learned to use shorter leads and come up with designs that were less likely to short circuit or otherwise fail. However. If we couldn’t figure out what was wrong this way the chip was usually at fault. there are two Nand Logic gates arranged in such a manner which allows the alarm to be set by the comparator’s 5V output or reset by a similar 5V input from a switch attached to the reset input. When this trigger level is surpassed. Hoover’s lectures but we have gained the hands on experience that one can only obtain through under going a complex project such as the one we attempted. portable. This level is determined by the total resistance of a POT in the circuit. and sensitivity and a reset switch. the signal is run through a comparator. The SR Latch is another key component. Currently it is a small alarm but it can easily be adapted for a more powerful device. Often something that we thought we had come to understand did not become completely clear until we explained it to some one else. At the same time we succeded in our ulterior goal of total group knowledge of the project. In addition. The purpose of this part of the alarm is to create a steady 5V output for the actual siren. With over 40 wires and numerous resistors. inexpensive intruder alarm with an adjustable range. . However. The comparator only outputs 5V when the trigger level is surpassed.19-4 When it arrives on the second breadboard. it enhanced the total enrichment that we received and helped us achieve some of our other goals. While it required that we spend extra time throughout the project stopping to discuss the different aspects of the project amoung the various group members. the comparator releases a 5V DC output. when an intruder is present. The 5V output of the comparator runs to the set input of the SR Latch. chips. Not only have we learned theoretical information about electronics. One of the most useful techniques we learned was checking the output voltage of each pin on a chip against the schematic. This is only stopped by a reset pulse. one can adjust the POT and thus the trigger level for the comparator. When there is no intruder. The comparator is the key component in the alarm. and POTS there were many connections to check. our lack of previous electrical experience lead us to initially design circuits that were often problematic.

Together we learned an immense amount about the field of electrical engineering and succeeded in creating a working intruder alarm. . We focused on acquainting ourselves with circuits as well as building a working intruder alarm.19-5 Conclusion We entered this project unsure of what we would encounter due to our lack of knowledge in the field of electrical engineering. faulty chips. our group worked together as an effective team every step of the way. which ultimately came together to form the intruder alarm. We faced short circuits. However. and incorrect set ups. along the way we had many hurdles to overcome. Yet. We built numerous circuits.