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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

:

I feel happy in doing my vocational training in Doordarshan Kendra, Bareilly. I am great full to all the staff members of the Doordarshan Kendra who helped me to get the practical knowledge of the transmission of DD National (DD1) and DD News (DD2).

I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. A.K. Pachauri, Mr. Dhruv Chatterrji, and Mr.A.K. Awasthi, Mr. Gupta and to all the staff members of Doordarshan Kendra because, their combine efforts help me out to learn something about the practical work done in the transmission for broadcasting.

Here, I am submitting my report in which I have collected all the data which will represent what I have learnt during my training session. Any errors, suggestions for the improvement of the report, brought to my notice would be gratefully and thankfully acknowledged.

ABSTRACT
Studying LOW POWER TV TRANSMITTER in DOORDARSHAN relay station. In this transmission of signals are possible from cable TV and D.T.H service. Low power transmitter in Kakinada is of two types. Very high frequency and ultra high frequency.

V.H.F (very high frequency) is used within channel 11 for DD1. U.H.F (ultra high frequency) is used within channel 33 for DD NEWS. And here we are studying about three sections respectively Receiving section, Transmission section and Antenna section.

INTRODUCTION
DOORDARSHAN:
The Director General, Doordarshan is responsible for the overall administration of the Doordarshan network which consists of 60 Doordarshan Kendra‟s / Production Centres, 126 Doordarshan Maintenance Centres, 194 High Power Transmitters, 830 Low Power Transmitters and 379 very Low Power Transmitters as on 31.12.2004. Doordarshan is presently operating 26 channels. Doordarshan is divided into four wings: Programme, News, Engineering, and Administration & Finance, Programme Wing deals with all aspects relating to programme conception, production and procurement at the national, regional, and local level. News Wing puts out news bulletins and other current affairs programmes at the national and regional level. Engineering Wing deals with all the hardware requirements of the entire network, including the space segment and the studios, transmitters etc. Administration & Finance Wing deals with the administrative and financial aspects including general administration, personnel management, and budget and plan coordination.

PRASAR BHARATHI:
PrasarBharati (Broadcasting Corporation of India) is the public service broadcaster in the country, with Akashwani (All India Radio) and Doordarshan as its two constituents. It came into existence on 23rd November 1997, with a mandate to organize and conduct public broadcasting services to inform, educate and entertain the public and to ensure a balanced development of broadcasting on radio and television.

OBJECTIVES:
The major objectives of the PrasarBharati Corporation as laid out in the PrasarBharati Act, 1990 are as follows: (i) (ii) (iii) Upholding unity and integrity of the country and the values enshrined in the Constitution. Safeguarding citizens‟ rights to be informed on all matters of public interest and presenting a fair and balanced flow of information. Paying special attention to the fields of education and spread of literacy, agriculture, rural development, environment, health & family welfare and science & technology.

Creating awareness about women‟s issues and taking special steps to protect the interests of children, aged and other vulnerable sections of the society. (v) Providing adequate coverage to the diverse cultures, sports and games and youth affairs. (vi) Promoting social justice, safeguarding the rights of working classes, minorities and tribal communities. (vii) Expanding broadcasting facilities and promoting research and development in broadcast technology. (viii) Promoting national integration (iv)

BEGINNING:
Doordarshan had a modest beginning with the experimental telecast starting in Delhi on 15th September 1959 with a small transmitter and a makeshift studio. The regular daily transmission started in 1965 as a part of All India Radio. The television service was extended to Bombay (now Mumbai) and Amritsar in 1972. Till 1975, seven Indian cities had television service and Doordarshan remained the only television channel in India. Television services were placed under the management of two separate Director Generals in New Delhi. Finally, Doordarshan as a National Broadcaster came into existence.

THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF TELEVISION:
The history of television technology can be divided along two lines: those developments that depended upon both mechanical and electronic principles and those which are purely electronic. From the latter descended all modern televisions, but these would not have been possible without discoveries and insights from the mechanical systems. The word television is a hybrid word, created from both Greek and Latin. Tele- is Greek for “far”, while Vision- is from the Latin Visio, meaning “vision” or “sight”. It is often abbreviated as TV or the Telly.

1.2

Electromechanical television:

The origins of what would become today‟s television system can be traced back to the discovery of the photoconductivity of the element selenium by Willoughby Smith in 1873, and the invention of a scanning disk by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow in 1874.

The German student Paul Nipkow proposed and patented the first electromechanical television system in 1884. Nipkow‟s spinning disk design is credited with being the first television image rasterizier. Constantine Perskyi had coined the word Television in a paper read to the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair in Paris on August 25, 1900. However, it wasn‟t until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology made the design practical. The first demonstration of the instantaneous transmission of still was by Georges Rignoux and A. Fournier in Paris 1909, using a rotating mirror drum as the scanner and a matrix of 64 selenium cells as the receiver. In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Kosma Zworykin created a television system that used a mechanical mirror drum scanner to transmit, in Zworykin‟s words, “Very crude images” over wires to the electronic Braun tube (Cathode ray tube) in the receiver. Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, “The sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy”. In 1927 Baird transmitted a signal over 438 miles of telephone line between London and Glasgoy. In 1928 Baird‟s company (Baird Television Development Company / Cinema Television) broadcast the first transatlantic television signal, between London and New York, and the fist shore to ship transmission. He also demonstrated an electromechanical color, infrared (dubbed “Noctovision”), and stereoscopic television, using additional lenses, disk and filters. In parallel he developed a video disk recording system dubbed “phonovision”; a number of the Phonovision recordings, dating back to 1927, still exist. In 1929 he became involved in the first experiment electromechanical television service in Germany. In 1931 he made the first live transmission, of the Epsom Derby. In 1932 he demonstrated ultra-short wave television. Baird‟s electromechanical system reached a peak of 240 lines of resolution on BBC television broadcast in 1936, before being discontinued in favor of 405 line all-electronic system.

1.3

Electronic television

In 1911, engineer Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton gave a speech in London, reported in The Times, describing in great detail how distant electric vision could be achieved by using cathode ray tubes at both the transmitting and receiving ends. The speech, expanded on a letter he wrote to the journal Nature in 1908, was the first iteration of the electronic television method that is still used today. Others had already experimented with a cathode ray tube as a receiver, but the concept of using one as a transmitter was novel. By the late 1920s‟electromechanical television was still being introduced, inventors Philo Farnsworth and Vladimir Zworykin were already working separately on versions of all electronic transmitting tubes.

The decisive solution-television operating on the basis of continuous electron emission with accumulation and the storage of released secondary electron during the entire scansion cycle-was first described by the Hungarian inventor Kalman Tihanyi in 1926. Color television was demonstrated at the demonstration of a fully electronic color television display. the system was further improved by elimination of motor generation. CHANNELS: Presently. and transmitted from a specially-built mast atop one of the Victorian Building‟s Towers. but was more reliable and visibly superior. with an early patent application in Russia in 1889 for a mechanically-scanned color system showing how early the importance of the color was realized. it alternated for a short time with Baird‟s mechanical system in adjoining studios. 1927. with a commutator to alternate their illumination. so that his television system now had no mechanical moving parts.DD National and DD News. 11 Regional languages Satellite Channels (RLSC). television a motion picture film.two All India channels. using 6 scans to build each picture. which formed the heart of the cameras they designed for the BBC. Using this. The mast still in used today. So began the world‟s first high definition regular service. On September 7. That year Farnsworth transmitted the first live human images by his television system. [2] By 1928. at his laboratory at 202 green street in San Francisco. Philo Farnsworth‟s Image Dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. Farnsworth had developed the system sufficiently to hold a demonstration the press. In 1938 shadow mask technology for color television was patented by Warner Flechsing in Germany. Doordarshan operates 19 channels. 1928. 1. 1936 a 405 line service was started from studios at Alexandra Palace. with further refined versions in 1928. using scanned discs at the transmitting and receiving end with three spirals of aperture each spiral with filters of different primary color.4 Colour Television Most television researcher‟s appreciated the value of color image transmission. John Logi Baird demonstrated the world first color transmission on July 3. His 600 – line color system used triple interfacing.four state . including a three and half-inch image of his wife Pem with her eyes closed (possibly due to the bright lighting required) In Britain Isaac Shoenburg used Zworkin‟s idea to develop Marconi-EMI‟s own Emitron tube. on November 2. In 1929. and three light sources at the receiving end. a simple straight line.

DD-News channel. Regional programs and Local programmes are carried on time-sharing basis.Networks(SN). launched on 3rd November 2003. DOORDARSHAN CHANNELS: DD National DD News DD Sports DD Bharati DD Gyandarshan DD Rajya Sabha DD Lok Sabha DD India DD Bengali DD Chandana (Kannada) DD Gujarati DD Kashir DD Malayalam DD North East DD Oriya DD Podhigai (Tamil) DD Punjabi DD Sahyadri (Marathi) DD Saptagiri (Telugu) . provides 24-hour news service. an International channel. a Sports Channel and two channels(DD-RS & DD-LS) for live broadcast of parliamentary proceedings. On DD National (DD-1). which replaced the DD-Metro Entertainment channel.

Latitude (in deg/min/sec) : 16°24‟43” 2. Longitude (in deg/min/sec) : 82°14‟50” 3. Complete postal address : K-105 near fire station DM colony .p) Pin-205001 TECHNICAL: (A)Power supply: 1.STATE NETWORKS (8) Rajasthan Madhya Pradesh Uttar Pradesh Bihar Jharkhand Chattisgarh Haryana Himachal Pradesh Information sheet on LPT (mainpuri) GENERAL: 1. Maximum demand/capacity : 30KW . Name of the DMC 5.by pass road mainpuri(u. Ownership of the building : govt. District : DD-I on 07-12-1982 : ETAH : mainpuri 6. building 7. Date of commissioning 4.

Year of installation : 2001 : 70mtrs : Flange 3.per month : Stable. 30. type & length of cable 4. Comment on stability : 6. video. Average hourly consumption SATELLITE COMMUNICATION In telecommunications. Satellite orientated to : 07-02-1982(GCEL 121) : INSAT 3A INSAT 3C INSAT 4B (D) Antenna and tower: DD1 DD NEWS SCALA-PARASLOT 2002 1. Approximately 2. unless a special power cut Imposed (B) Transmitter: DD1 DD News 1. and data to and from one or many locations worldwide. Year of installation : KIRLOSKAR.000 artificial satellites orbiting Earth relay analog and digital signals carrying voice. Satellite communications play a vital role in the global telecommunications system. Make. Make and type of transmitter: GCEL-121 2.5 Liters / hr 3.000 units : Rs. Monthly average consumption 3. Monthly average expenditure 4. 35KVA : 18-05-2003 : 3. Type of connection (N/Flange) 70mtrs Flange (E) DG Set: 1. Make and type of antenna : GCEL-V type 2. type & capacity 2. the use of artificial satellites to provide communication links between various points on Earth.2. Make.000/. Year of installation 4. . Power and channel number : 100W CH=11 3.

and hand held devices. mobile reception equipment in aircraft.1-Satellite Communication . satellite telephones. Figure 3. and the space segment. reception. which primarily is the satellite itself. which consists of fixed or mobile transmission. where it is received and re-amplified by Earth stations and terminals. The satellite then receives and amplifies the signal and retransmits it back to Earth. Satellite receivers on the ground include direct-to-home (DTH) satellite equipment.Satellite communication has two main components: the ground segment. A typical satellite link involves the transmission or uplinking of a signal from an Earth station to a satellite. and ancillary equipment.

Started in India in 1975. Gulf War brought satellite television to prominence.1 Satellite communication 1.3. Uses Geo Stationary Satellite. 6. 3. Frequency band C-band X-band Ku-band Ka-band Up Link 6 GHz 8 GHz 14 GHz 30 GHz Down Link 4 GHz 7GHz 11 GHz 20 GHz TABLE-1 Satellite Transmission Frequency bands Satellite Transmissio n Frequency bands Satellite Transmissio n Frequency bands . Operates in C-Band & Ku-Band. 5. 2. Started in 1960. 4. First Indian Satellite INSAT launched in 1982.

1 GROUNGD WAVW PROPAGATION FIGURE-4.2 SKY WAVE PROPAGATION .2 4.6 meter One High Very easy PROPAGATION MODES 4.3 Ground-wave propagation Sky-wave propagation Line-of-sight propagation FIGURE-4. of dishes 4/6 GHz 2 -3 meter Multiple since received from different satellites Rain attenuation Individual reception direct Low Not so easy Ku-band 11/14 GHz 0.1 4.C-band Frequency band Receive dish size No.

3 LINE OF SIGHT PROPOGATION THE EARTH STATION 5.5MHz Down link frequency .horizontal Downlink polarization . Specifications of doordarshan earth station          Up link frequency .vertical Satellite FEC Compression format Coded standard .5 MHz Symbol rate Uplink polarization .insat-3A in geosynchronous orbit -¾ .5974.3749.MPEG2 BASIC TELEVISION SYSTEMS .25MBPS .FIGURE-4.4:2:2 .6.1 EARTH STATION: Earth station is the main part which communicates with satellite in which up linking and down linking the signal into/from the satellite.

either because of distance or shadow areas in which the signals was too weak. Points to be discussed in cable channel are: • Block Diagram of Cable TV Transmission • Cable Channels • The Head End • Cable Distribution 2. DIRECT TO HOME (DTH): Satellite TV a direct to home (DTH) from the signals we can receive directly from the satellite through set-top box. power outages. It offers up to 36 channels so many programs that not available on broadcast television reach the cable operator via satellite transmission. not . Transmitter service 1. The RF carrier signal are supplied so that a tuner can be used to select the desired channel cable TV has become popular because more channels are provided and strong signals can be supplied for areas in which the antenna signal is not good enough cable television started as a means by providing signals to communities that could not receive broadcast stations. the cable TV system provides a distribution system with coaxial cables. CABLE TRANSMISSION : In addition to wireless transmission by broadcast stations. that means there is no middle man (cable operator).1. Cable transmission 2. cable operator‟s strike. Direct to home (DTH) 3. Today cable TV has developed far beyond that into huge systems that covers huge areas even for locations having good reception the reason is that cable TV does not have restrictions of channel allocation for broadcasting. It is similar to wired telephone system but it is used for TV programs.so DTH puts an end to all the problems like unreasonable charges.

The programmed can be directly received at homes. DTH service is the one in which a large number of channels are digitally compressed. DTH broadcast operators worldwide have been able to introduce a large number of new interactive applications in the television market besides a large number of entertainments programmed over a single delivery platform. since digital technology permits a highly efficient exploitation of the frequency spectrum. . Points to be discussed in cable channel are: • What is D.T. encrypted and beamed from very high power satellites. In general.H What is DTH? Direct-to-Home (DTH) satellite television is becoming a buzzword in the satellite broadcast industry due to the fact that DTH offers immense opportunities to both broadcasters and viewers.getting your favorite channels and channels shifting their channel number position‟s. This mode of reception facilitates the use of small receive dish antennas of 60 to 90 cm diameter installed at convenient location in individual buildings without needing elaborate foundation /space etc.H • Block Diagram of D.T. Thanks to the rapid development of digital technology.H? • How It Works • Advantages of D. In addition.T. the number of TV channels that can be broadcast using digital technology is significantly higher than with analogue technology. The increased number of television channels allows the operator to satisfy the demand of a number of niche markets with dedicated transmissions.

. All the advantages of the digital transmission. So if you have got have got a home theatre. Digital audio: You get the stereo phonic sound. Electronic program Guide (EPG): It‟s an on-screen guide that shows the program schedule or listing of all channels. connect it to your set-top box you will get better sound effects. You can also set remainders for program‟s you wish to watch and get synopses of the program. Transmission in Ku band is most appropriate and widely used for the purpose. all the encoded transmission signals are digital . ADVANTAGES OF DTH TV: Digital picture: The picture quality in DTH is much better. DTH. since an individual user is directly connected to the service providers.thus providing higher resolution picture quality and better audio than traditional analog signals. So you become the master of your entertainment and watch the channel you wish and pay for only those channels which you wish to watch. The set-top box in turn connects to your TV. This signal is decoded by a set-top box. lends itself to easy monitoring and control. a digital receiver is needed to receive the multiplexed signals and view them on a TV. So you can find out what‟s playing on any channel. The quality of picture is uniform across all channels. which is provided by the broadcaster and connects to the dish antenna directly with a cable.Also. As mentioned above. However. as applicable to the terrestrial transmission are relevant in the satellite transmission also. DTH transmission eliminates local cable operator completely. HOW IT WORKS: In DTH you receive the signals from satellite to a small dish antenna installed at the roof top of your house. in sharp contrast to Cable TV.

however this signal would be fully demodulated to baseband first. and then remodulated for transmission.the unsymmetrical signal thus has a continous component.this technique is used in high power TV transmission on the same line and antenna. Recharge is easy with various sources like the internet.the two signal modulates the carrier waves frequencies and type of modulation are as per established standards.e transmitter operating at snyc peak power less than 1KW.these modulated carriers are further amplified and then diplexed for transmission on the same line and antenna.the audio signals is a symmetrical signal without continous current but the frequency does not exceed 20Khz. Usually main stations operate at high power and large areas. Relay stations take an already modulated input signal usually by direct reception of a parent station (off-air) and simply shift (translate) its frequency before rebroadcasting. the sync and the field sync and an analogue part according to the line picture scanning. Note that a main station may also take its input signal directly off-air from another station. Usually relay stations operate at medium or low power. or at the fringe of. Main stations are defined as those that generate their own modulated output signal from a baseband (unmodulated) input. mobile phones. The frequency bandwidth also extend from 0 to 5Mhz. in TV broadcast both the sound signal and the video signal are to be conveyed to the viewer using radio frequency these two signals have very distinct features. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DTH: VIDEO RECEIVER DISH FEED LNBC TV RECEIVER TRANSMITTERS: Main and relay (repeater) transmitters Transmitting stations are usually either classified as main stations or relay stations (also known as repeaters or translators). and are used to fill in pockets of poor reception within. The videosignal consist of a logical component. both the signals are modulated separately .howevwr for LPT‟s i.Payment modes: You pay for only for what you watch. the service area of a parent main station. vouchers from vendor‟s etc. Payment is in advance. processed.

hence . through frequency modulation has certain advantage over amplitude modulation. This black noise is less objectionable compared to noise in white picture region. which is not possible due to very limited channel space available in VHF\UHF bands.the increase in picture brightness causes reduction in carrier amplitude i.picture locking is insured .the peak power is radiated during the sync-tip.thereby providing a reference for AGC in the receiver. Advantage of negative modulation: 1) Impulse noise peaks appearonly in black region in negative modulation. 4) The peak level representing the blanking or sync level may be maintained constant.which will we very disturbing.its use for picture transmission is not permitted due to large bandwidth requirement.as such in case f fringe area reception.thus AM is invariably used for picture transmission which frequency modulation is generally usedmin sound transmission.while in negative modulation. In the first case special group delay equailisation circuit is needed because of errors caused by diplexer while in the second case inter modulation products are more prominent and special filters for suppressing them are required.secondly as the power of the carrier and side band component go on varying with modulation in the case of FM.techniques of joint amplification is suitable only for LPT‟s and not for HPT‟s.both of these systems have merits and demerits. There are two types of modulation1) Positive modulation. 5) In negative modulation . 2) Best linearity can be maintained for picture region and non-linearity aeffects can be corrected easily. In positine modulation the increase in picture brightness cuases increase in amplitude of modulation envelope.the signal with frequency modulation after reflection from nearly structures at the recievings end will variable multiple ghosts.negative modulation are generally used. 3) The efficiency of transmitter is better as the peak power is radiated during sync duration only.e the carrier amplitude will be maximum corresponding to sync tip and minimum corresponding to peak white.and deviation of inter carrier is also ensured. Vestigial sideband transmission: . 2) Negative modulation.but amplified jointly using common vision and aural mplifiers.

c) The lower side bands contains frequencies upto 0.75Khz by using single side band AM technique.25Mhz.this attenuation characterstics. If these frequencies are removed.notch filters are used in receivers as aural traps in the vision IF and video amplifier stages.TV receivers have nyquist characterstics for reception which introducrs group delay errors in the low frequency region.thus as a compromise only a part of lower sideband is suppressed while taking full advantage of the fact thata) Visual disturbance due to phase errors are severe and acceptable where lare pictures areas are concerned. Since the two sidebands have the same signal content.in order to equalize the amplitude the receiver response is desined to have an attenuation characterstics over the double sideband region appropriate to compensate for the two to one relationship. The transmission BW could be reduced to around 5.it causes objectionable phase distortion at these frequencies which will effect picture quality.because in principle oneside band of the double sideband (dsb)AM could be suppressed.5Mhz so that final cutoff is at1.the resulting signal amplitude during the double sideband portion of VSB is exactly twice the amplitude during the SSB transmission.if normal amplitude modulation technology is used for picture transmission. is assumed to be in the form of a linear slope over the 750Khz with the visual carrier located at the midpoint relative to SSB portion of the band such a characterstics exactly compensates the amplitude response non-symmetry due to VSB.25Mhz. b) Phase errors become difficult to see on small details in the picture.75Mhz with a slope of 0.called nyquist slope. using such large transmission BW will limit the number in the spectrum allotted for TV transmission.Another feature of present day TV transmitters is vestigial sideband transmission.so that economical receiver filter design is possible. It was not considered fesible to suppress one complete side band due to difficulties in ideal filter design in the case of TV signals as most of energy is contained in lower frequencies contain the most important information of the picture. Toaccomodate large number of channel in the allotted spectrim reduction in transmission bandwidth was considered necessary.the group delay errors are pre-corrected in the TV transmitters . .the minimum channel bandwidth should be around 11Mhz taking in the account the space for sound carrier and a small guard band of around 0. Reception of vestigial side band signals: When the radiated signal is demodulated with an idealized detector the response is not flat.thus low modulating frequencies must minimize phase distortions as they are very difficult to see.

having a finite gain.12.the maximum depth of modulation of the vision carrier by peak white ignal values is specified as being 87.5% residual carrier is required because of the inter carrier sound methord used in TV receiver.therefore to prevent this effect.the inter carrier i.5% of residual carrier is left so that sound can be extracted even at the peak white level.the 12.68 to get the peak power radiated.the power is measured by using a thruline power meter after isolating the aural carrier.5%. Power output: The peak power radiated during the sync tip or sometime the carrier powe corresponding to black level in desiginated as the vision transmitter power.Depth of modulation: Care must be taken to avoid over modulation at peak-luminance signal values to avoid picture distorsions and interruptions in vision carrier.accorsing to or system.where the carrier power is minimum.5Mhz.the depth of modulation is set by using a ramp signal or step signal as given in the manual . it is to be ensured that even when the modulating video signal is at white peak.5% for 100% modulation.the power read on thruline meter is multiplied by a factor 1. hence.e the difference between the vision transmitter frequency is 5.the effective radiated . Inter carrier: The TV receiver incorporate inter carrier principle.it should be 87.as transmitter output is connected to an antenna.the peak white levels when overmodulated tends to reduce the vision carrier power and even cause interruptions of vision carrier.the periodic interruptions due to accidental over modulation results in interruptions of the sound carrier in in inter carrier receiver system which produces undesired sound buzz in the receiver output.

a special group delay equalization circuit is needed in the .the number and type of amplifier stages. an acceptance signal is available. the sound signal is transmitted by frequency modulating the RF sound carrier in accordance with the standards.5Mhz above the associated vision carrier. Vision and sound signal amplification: In HPT‟s the vision and sound carrier can be generated.it contains pre-corrector units both at base band as well as at IF stage.TRANSMITTER: High power TV Transmitters: All the TV transmitter have the same basic design.power is obtained by multiplying the peak power by the antenna gain.this is known as common vision and aural amplification.they consist of an exicter followed by power amplifier which boost the exicter power to the required level. the maximum deviation permissible is +/-25Khz . so that after passing though all subsequent transmitter stages.since.the sound carrier is 5. 1.modulated and amplified separately and then combined in the diplexer at the transmitter output. Exicter: The exicter stage determines the quality of transmitter.vision are modulated seperatly but amplified combinedly.may differ according to the requirement output power . In TV broadcasting.the characterstics of pre-corrector circuits can be varied over a wide range. the maximum frequency deviation is +/-50Khz which is defined as 100 percent modulation in PAL-Bsystem.hence a 100W LPT using transmitting antenna having a gain of 3db with respect to a half wave dipole will have an ERP of 200W or 53db.in LPT‟s sound. In the case of NTSC.

If modulation: It is used in correcting distortion:    Ease of correcting distortion Ease in vestigial sideband shaping.as it is difficult to meet the intermodulation requirements particular at high power rating. IF modulation is available easily and economically. Delay equalizer:group delay introduced by LPF is corrected.in VHF transmitter LPF. Video chain:The input video signal is fed to a video processor.in the second case the intermodulation products are more prominent and special filters for suppressing them is required.saperate amplification is used in HPT‟s through combined amplifications require fewer amplifier stages.first case because of error caused by TV diplexer. Low pass filter:it is used to limit incoming video signal to 5Mhz. VHL low power transmitter(VHF range-54 to 216 Mhz): .delay equalizer and receiver pre-correcor proceed the video process.it also pre-distorts the video for compensate group delay errors introduced in the subsequent stages and diplexer.

9mhz respectively.the output of video processor is fed to visual modulater where the same is amplitude modulated with negative polarity at 38.the audio signal is frequency modulated at if of 33.the video signal polaity is reversd and modulates the if frequency .Functioning of PLL : . at if frequency of 38.the information contained in the amplitude variation of audio is converted into frequency variation in the VCO. Now .the output signal is passed through balanced to unbalanced transformer and pre-emphasised in a 50micro second network.9mhz IF and amplified.the resulted is subjected to dc restoration by clamping at back porch amplified and inverted in video processor. 1v peak to peak input video signal is limited to 5mhz in LPF and is compensated for group delay in delay equalizer and receiver pre-corrector unit.rf is finally routed at antenna through channel filter and directional coupler .new generation transmitter have 1+1 redundant exciter unit.in new generation exicter. a).this signal is upconverted to desired channel frequency and amplified in linear power amplifier to obtain 100w visual power and 10w aural power .the transmitter design is based on solid state techniques and employs modular construction.the lpf deq and video processosor is intregated resuting into a single and compact video processing unit.the modulator used is a ring modulater instead of double diode balance modulator .the centre frequency of VCO is maintained at 33.this if signal are combined and passed though if corrector and vsb filter saw filter is used for vestigial sideband shaping .4 Mhz in a varactor VCO modulator.4Mhz by the means of PLL. the video and audio signals are processed in the exciter electronics and modulated at low level.

the mixer output is passed through a high pass filter and amplified.IF cominer .9Mhz using a transistorized mixer.a crystal oscillator of suitable frequency 1.10 watt driver amplifier: the RF output from exicter is raised to 10W in driver amplifier. The error signal is used to kept VCO frequency under control.16. So the error signal is generated when there is a drift of centre frequency.the LO signal corresponding to a particular channel in old exicters is obtained by generating a Fo/4 signal in Tcxo.dividers are 5.output fom VCO 33. d). b).the above two signal are fed to comparator ckt.5Mhz is reduced to 537Hz. Circulator is used .the VSBF and mixer network contains a SAW filter for VSB shaping and ALC amplifier for automatic level control.genrerally.4Mhz is mixed with vision IF of 38.the correcting signal is fed to VSBF and mixer unit for up-conversion by mixing the same with local oscillator signal.IF corrector and up-converter : the modulated aural IF and vision IF are combined in a wide band amplifier and passed through if corrector for pre-correcting DP/DG and response error.128.e.local oscillator: local oscillator frequency required for up-conversion is given by Fo=Fc+Fvif. multiplying the same by 4 in a harmonic multiplier and then mixing the resulting signal siin a mixer with avision IF sample.1Mhz is used as standard oscillato is also divided by 16 and 128 to make it similar to above value i.thus the 5.5 Mhz is shaped for square pulse and using suitable dividers the frequency is reduced to a low value.the resultin difference signalof 5. Transistor biasing is used for operating the RF device on constant current and constant voltage.537Hz.step attenuator is used at the input to set the output level. c).the drive is capable of giving 25w power output.the power amplification is achieved in 3 class A stages.

each employing four RF transistor. In BEL power amplifier two dual pushpull balanced RF devices each capable of giving 50W RF power are mounted on a common PCB.if any of the parameter is out of operating limit.these signals are amplified into two separate 50W amplifier modules and then combined by a3db hybrid coupler to obtain 100W power.circulator provides protection against accidental short protected against over temperature by thermal switchmounted on heat sink.this is accomplished by sensing forward reflected power and heat sink temperature and deriving corres ponding voltages.where it get the signal and further down convert and demodulates the signal to provide two video .7 Ghz and convert them into 1150 to 950Mhz in the S-band low noise block convertor.each 50W unit is protected for over driver/mismatch and over temperature. In GCEL power amplifier uses two separate 50W modules.at the output for protection against mismatch.the driver is protected against over temperature by mounting a thermal switch on heat sink of RF transistor.mounted inside the LNBC unit .100 watt power amplifier: splitting and combining technique using 3db.the corresponding LED glows and a relay switch off the bias supply.switch cuts off the bais supply in case the heat sink and hence the transistor temperature is beyond state limit p/s is also cut off in case the heat sink temperature of BEL 100w PA is beyond sae limit.5 to 2. LNBC(low noise block convertor): The synthesized TVRO system signal in the range of 2.90degree hybrid coupler/coxial transformer is employed on power amplifier as the amplifying capacity of single RF device is limited at VF frequencies.the combined output is routed through a circulator and direction coupler.the down converted signal is then fed to the satellite system unit . e).

AUDIO-VIDEO SWITCHER: A audio video switcher is used inany video system to receive the video signal and audio signals from different sources.7Ghz from the feed and down converts the signal into RF range of 1150Mhz to 950 MHZ which is then fed to satellite system unit through a 75 m length RF cable . acoustic transducer etc. AUDIO OSCILLATOR: RADART type (opt.for video UHF low power transmitter(UHF band-479 to 890Mhz): TV transmitter supplied by BEL differ from those working at VHF frequencies.they are widely used in developed production.they are use to drive impedance bridge. It has multi impedance balanced output with excellent frequency response.control and monitoring and finl power amplification. further processing with minimum distortion in the characterstics of the signal.IF frequencies generation of local oscillator frequencies.01) low distortion audio oscillator is a solid state portable audio source with 0. APPLICATIONS: This is extreamly usefull in high quality acoustics and Hifi technology and broadcasting . .separate balanced audio output the low noise block converter receiver the RF signals of the range of 2.medical process control processes.the 600 ohm unbalanced position ohas an attenuation to obtain signals down to 62 ohms.the same RF cable provides the required DC voltage to (LNBC) from satellite system unit .selects any of them for transmission.5 to2.5W output power at a very low distortion of 0.”PARA SLOT ANTENNAS” are used. research and training of AF .circuitary aspects for protection.1% this is highly stable and very accurate with digit display.in a number of aspects like generation of video and sound.

this unit also provides 500Khz reference signal to modulator unit.4Mhz. Up-converter module: The up-converter module comprises of local oscillator module and IF\RF converters to generate RF at channel frequency.modulation depth is determined offset is programmed.vision carrier is produced by aVcxo which is phase locked to the 500Khz reference signal from LO of up-converter module. It contains logic circuitary to provide AGC/limiter output to modulator and drive to meter and LED. Power supply and metering module: This has 28v. AGC and muting control is introduced.IF output level is set.in this unit IF gain and slope is set.group delay equalization and amplitude precorrection of done. Power amplifier: .4Amps switched mode power supply unit with a regulator to provide DC power requirement of all the above modules and metering facilities for the above unit. Local oscillator is mixed with IF to produce RF.9Mhz and frequency modulated audio carrier of 33. Half watt amplifier: RF is amplified to 500mv at three stages.Modulator module: It is aIF modulator which receives the video and audio signal and generates a modulated IF signal containing an amplitude modulated video carrier of 38.inputs are processed and carrier are generated.

‘S’ amplifier: This has a typical gain of 16-18db. driving a further four in the second stage eachRF transistor are protected against over voltage and over temperature by control PCB. RF transistors are protected against over voltages and over temperature b control PCB. The operational state is monitored by 8 LEDs mounted on front panel.Power amplifier are used to amplify the power. . Control and logic unit: This unit provides automatic start-up an shut-down with manual control for test purpose.it also controls a output meter to indicate output power of the transmitter two sockets for monitoring „forward‟ and reverse RF power are also provided.a „reset‟switch demotes the amplifier by reseting the over tempraturelatch in the respective amplifier control circuit in case any one of the same has operated and switched off the amplifier. so that the system is able to drive the load connected to the system. This has a typical gain of 8db and can provide 15w into a 50 ohms load.if the power deviates from the normal rated power(+/-3db aprox. „Q’ amplifier: This unit serve as a driver amplifier to „S‟ amplifier.) power alarm LEDglows after 1 to 2 minute delay and a sound alarm is alarm is also switched on.the RF circuit of this amplifier uses two dual transistor in first stage. This unit can be used alone ar in parallel with similar units of form a higher powered amplifier.following power amplifier are used : ‘B’ amplifier(linearity precorrector): This unit generates over all distortion products of low power level of correct phase and amplitude to cancel out those produced by the subsequent power amplifier stages control PCB protects RF transistors against over voltage and over temperature.

DTH 6. 8W Monitoring Amplifier 3. JVR. Driver Unit 11. 50Hz mains supply. JVC 5. P1 and P2 acts as gain control. It consists of four stages: Input stage Line output stage VU Meter stage Power supply The equipment is self contained and works on 230V. 6X2 Audio video switcher 7. Programme Amplifier 2. Power Amplifier 100W 10. Driver Combiner Unit 9. This amplifier . Insat 3A 4. A level indicator (VU Meter) to show the output level is also provided. DC Power Supply 1) PROGRAMME AMPLIFIER: Programme Amplifier is 19” rack mounting equipment with one input and two independent outputs with presentable gain controls. This unbalanced signal is distributed to two amplifiers U2A and U3A. Exciter Unit 12. Block Diagram of Programme Amplifier: Circuit Description: At the input the 600Ω balanced signal input is converted into unbalanced signal by IC U1. IF Oscillator 8.RECEVING SECTION Receiving section of doordarshan relay center consists of: 1.

The output from pin6 of Z1 passes through a low pass filter R 57. Zero in vu meter corresponds to +9dbm which is the normal input level to the transmitter for 30 kHz deviation at 400Hz modulation frequency. It is a self contained 19” rack mountain unit having built in power supply for directing 230V is its main operation.5 KHz. U5B are used to drive the voltmeter. Power amplifier stage iii. This conversion is done by IC U2B. IC U4B. The cross over frequency is approximately 5. Preamp stage ii. It comprises of 3 main sections i. PROGRAM AMPLIFIER: Output impedance Nominal input level Frequency response Distortion over 100Hz Noise Output level : 600Ω : +9dbm : |1db| from 30Hz to 15 KHz : <0.5% up to +15dbm level 10KHZ : -70db at 10dbm output : 0 to +15dbm adjustable 2)8W MONITORING AMPLIFIER: The 8W monitoring amplifier is a high quality monitoring amplifier is to be used in broadcast network. When the SW1 is depressed the passive low pass filter comes in the circuit which passes only low frequencies. capacitance 33 to a low pass filter section LP comprising of C35 . U4A. and U3B. The potentiometer RV 1 is connected across the . The regulator transistors Q15 and Q16 along with zeners D17 and D18 and associated components provided regulated |12V | to the ICZ1. R59 and R47 and bypass switch SWR . Power supply CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: i) Preamp stage: IC Z1 and associated components from a differential amplifier and balanced to unbalanced converter along with impedance conversion. U5A.unbalanced signal is again converted into balanced signal output.

Q17 is class A driver power transistors Q1 and Q6. This unit can be fitted into 19” standard rack. ii) POWER AMPLIFIER STAGE: This part of circuit uses all discrete components and semiconductors. 3)6x2 AUDIO. Q7 is used to set the bias current in output transistors to drive them into class AB operation. The power amplifier employees a quassi complementary output stage driven by class A driver stage and differential input stage.output of this LP filter and feeds the controlled audio signal to the power amplifier stage. Q18. A auxiliary 15V regulator along with its bridge rectifier Smoothing capacitor is located on this PCB No: 960202 the secondary 2 from the mains transformer is connected to the bridge D5-D8. SPECIFICATIONS: MECHANICLE: 1. The raw DC is then coupled to 3pin regulator IC Z3 which gives + 15V output on TB 1 through fuse F2.The ratio of R 29 to R 44 decides the gain of the power amplifier. C4 provide high frequency stability. POWER SUPPLY SECTION: A centre tapped secondary of mains transformer TX1 and a bridge rectifier comprising of D1 to D4 along with capacitors C2 and C3 from a dual raw DC supply. This switcher has 6 independent video inputs and 6 audio inputs. R29 provides a feedback from output to the base of Q18. Q19 form input differential amplifier. iii. Two 75Ω video outputs and two 600Ω outputs are available.1MM . It can be set by preset RT4. It is rated for 1A max. They are located on rear panel of the unit.VIDEO SOLID STATE SWITCHER AVS 6X2 SL GENERAL DESCRIPTION: 6x2 audio video switcher unit is multipurpose solid state switcher designed and developed by ARRVI enterprises. Horizontal mounting module 2. Height : 88. A short circuit protection is provided by transistors Q8 and Q9 and associated components. Diodes D7 and D11 are connected across collector-emitter of Q1 and Q6 respectively for surge current protection R1.

Weight : 482. AUDIO SWITCHING AND AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: . The selected channel from Switches S1 to S6 are inverted and fed to the gates U3 and U4 which in turn enables flip-flop U7 and U8.width 4.3 .5% : 0.00Kgs ELECTRICAL: Power supply Input (video) Impedance: 75Ω Video return loss: Differential gain Differential phase Audio cross talk : 230V±10% 50Hz : input (audio) :600Ω : better than 36db : better than 0. The selected flip-flop also lights up selected indicator through drivers U1. A RESET MODE is also provided to facilitate ALL CLEAR CONDITION of the switcher. Output connectors are to be accordingly connected. LOGIC CIRCUIT: Logic circuit enables selection of required channel using Flip-Flop and TTL Gates from U2 to U8. the corresponding video and audio output are available on the output sockets.6MM : 425.0MM : 5. When the function of the switch is interrupted due to the power failure ALL CLEAR CONDITION appears on the switcher. When any 1 channel selector push button switch is pressed. Depth 5. On restoration of power the interrupted channel is to be reselected. Video switching and amplifier PCB (Audio PCB) and Power supply PCB. Connect the various input sources to the VIDEO INPUT with 75Ω terminations and the AUDIO INPUT connectors located on the rear panel of the unit. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: The main unit consists of Logic Circuits PCB. The selected input channel is well defined by particular LED of the push button switch.34 degrees : better than 70db OPERATION: Power on the unit after ensuring the physical and electrical readiness of the unit.

when the button1 is pressed the selected signal command goes to U3 through the inverter U2.Audio switching is done by solid state switches U7 to U9. These two unbalanced signals are converted into two balanced signals and amplified by U11 to U12 in Audio PCB. The enabled flip-flop will in turn select the respective audio and video inputs through audio and video PCB respectively. The switching process takes place as follows: On selection of a particular channel. VIDEO SWITCHING AND AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS: Video signals are pre amplified by video amplifier circuit consisting of transistors Q1 to Q6. The selected channel is indicated by LED provided on the switch. The selected video input is amplified through transistors Q7 to Q11. The selected unbalanced signal is split into two outputs by U10. in air. These signals are fed to solid state switches U1 to U3. and a part from that at a distance a feed arm is held with support. Then U 3 will enable the flip-flop U7 in logic PCB. The selected channel gain can be adjusted through presetPR1 and voltage offset can be adjusted through PR2. The balanced input is converted as unbalanced by U1 to U6 and this unbalanced signals are fed to solid state switches U7 to U9. The parabolic dish antenna is metal structure with a shape of half circle. The selected audio input is amplified and then balanced by ICs U10 to U12 in audio PCB. To which a low noise amplifier in addition to the low noise block convertor and the internal relay station there is a digital broadcast receiver in for monitoring and later on re-transmission of the signal is done in the transmitting section. RECEIVING SECTION BLOCK DIAGRAM Parabolic dish antenna Low noise amplifier Low noise block converter Digital video broadcast receiver .

. PDA(parabolic dish antenna). 5. 4. and apart from that at a distance a feed arm is held with support.1. 2.1 COMPONENTS: 1. 3. LNA(Low noise amplifier)/ LNBC(low noise block converter). IRD(Integrator receiver decoder). Encoder. Multiplexer. 1. in air to which a low noise amplifier in addition to the low noise block convertor and the internal relay station there is a digital broadcast receiver in for monitoring and later on re-transmission of the signal is done in the transmitting section.The parabolic dish antenna is metal structure with a shape of half circle.

FIGURE-5. or vice versa.FIGURE 5.2 Antennas: Antenna (or aerial) is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves.2 ANTENNA Types of antenna:  Isotropic antenna (idealized)  Radiates power equally in all directions  Dipole antennas  Half-wave dipole antenna (or Hertz antenna)  Quarter-wave vertical antenna (or Marconi antenna)  Parabolic Reflective Antenna . Antennas generally deal in the transmission and reception of radio waves. In other words. antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electrical current.1-EARTH STATION 5.

When the reflected beam is parallel. television and data communications.3 A Parabolic Antenna PDA is a high-gain reflector antenna used for radio. . The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic radiation at these frequencies allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the desired highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting. To find the focus. A typical parabolic antenna consists of a parabolic reflector with a small feed antenna at its focus.5. This paraboloid possesses a distinct focal point by virtue of having the reflective property of parabolas in that a point light source at this focus produces a parallel light beam aligned with the axis of revolution. The feed antenna at the reflector‟s focus is typically a low-gain type such as a half-wave dipole or a small waveguide horn. and also for radiolocation (radar). The reflector is a metallic surface formed into a paraboloid of revolution and (usually) truncated in a circular rim that forms the diameter of the antenna. reflect the light of a flashlight off of the dish. on the UHF and SHF parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. the flashlight is at the focus.

mounted exactly at this point in front of the parabolic dish.4 LNBC(Low Noise Block Convertor): A signal form satellite is a very low power signal.3 PDA 5. The LNB. The satellite reception dish does a first amplification by reflecting and concentrating the signal received into one focus point.FIGURE 5. further .

amplifies this signal because this is still weak.LNBC . Due to still very high frequency(10 to 13 Ghz)sending this signal directly in to coax cable would result in very high signal loss. FIGURE 5. This is why the LNB also converts the signal into a lower frequency. The LNB frequency determines over how many Mhz the signal is converted downwards. The amplified satellite signal can‟t be send directly through a coax cable.4.

Audio & video decoding.5 IRD . Satellite distribution. Frame synchronization of digital video output to analogue input. 5. 4.5 IRD (INTEGRATED RECEIVER DECODER): An IRD is generally used for the reception of contribution feeds that are intended for re-broadcasting. 3.5. Radio reception. The IRD is the interface between a receiving satellite dish networks and a broadcasting facility video/audio infrastructure. 2. Video test pattern generator.1 FEATURES OF IRD: 1. 5. FIGURE 5.5.

Base Band Corrector Unit consists of 2 PCBs. Upconverter Unit 3.2 (a) TV EXCITER (IF UNIT) The IF unit comprises of the following PCBs: 1.14. Exciter consists of a. IF unit b. The video input is also fed to a clamping stage which comprises of a sync separator and clamping transistor 6. 2-way combiner 8. 26V/33V SMPS Power supply units 11. Control unit 7. VSB modulator 3.6.14 DETAILED CIRCUIT THEORY The composition of transmitter is as follows: 1.14. IF synthesizer 4. Linearity corrector unit 4. video processor 2. 28V linear Power supply units 12. 6-way splitter 5. Fan unit Now we will analyze each part of the Transmitter in detail: 6. Base Band Corrector 2. The video input is fed to corrector unit directly and enters to a boot strap circuit to meet the input return loss specification. differential gain and luminance non linearity encountered in the power amplifiers without introducing any frequency response group delay. Output filter 9. Dual direction coupler 10. ICPM corrector . 150 W power amplifier 6.1 Base Band Corrector Unit The unit accepts the video signal and introduces the required pre correction in the differential phase.

the sync separator will not function.14. transmitter delay equalizer and receiver pre.3 IF SYNTHESIZER The IF Synthesizer is a multifunction PCB.9 MHz IF synthesizer 5.5 MHz sound inter-carrier Synthesizer and FM Modulator MHz IF SYNTHESIZER 6.2.1 . The filtered video signal is fed to a sync separator stage. The video signal is applied in parallel to the modulator while the IF carrier is applied in push-pull 6. the main signal path and the limiting signal generator path. The video signal to the video processor board first enters the input buffer for good input return loss and then passes through a variable video amplifier.5. The IF signal at 38.3. Following is a buffer amplifier.2.corrector.9 MHz the IF synthesizer output is also fed to this video processor PCB as the IF carrier.1 VIDEO PROCESSOR: The video processor consists of four main sections – input buffer. Rectifier and regulator board 6.2 VSB MODULATOR The VSB modulator generates the amplitude modulated vision signal at the IF of 38. In case of absence of input e video. The video signal then enters the peak white limiter section where it is split into 2 paths viz. This stage acts as an amplitude limiter and maintains a constant output even with variations in IF synthesizer output level. The limiting signal path takes the video through a gain stage where in video is amplified. The separated sync pulses are passed through a shaping circuit.2. The video signal is first fed to the boot strap buffer circuit. The balanced modulator has the clamped video signal and the buffered IF carrier signal at its inputs.14.2. peak white limiter .14. The input video signal is also fed to 1 MHz active low pass filter stage.14. It consists of the following two sections: a) b) 38.9 MHz is fed from the the IF synthesizer PCB to the first section. 6.

PLL IC and low pass filter. a diode for clipping and a differential amplifier for amplifying the sliced signal. one to the slicing circuit white and the other to the slicing circuit black and slicing circuit sync.3.9 MHz signal from IF synthesizer is also fed to the mixer.2 MHz SOUND INTERCARRIER FM MODULATOR 5. frequency pre-scalar . Slicing circuits consist of an active reference voltage generator. The phase modulator consists of a 90 degree splitter. The reference voltage determines the level at which video slicing takes place and hence the type of correction. It is an NPN transistor with variables bias.2. The IF output can be changed by +/. The sync and black slice circuit is inverted and then buffered. 38. It consists of following blocks: a) Input video amplifier b) Sync separator c) Slicer circuit-Sync level d) Slicer circuit-white level e) Slicer circuit-black level f) Video adder and phased modulator The video signal before reaching The input video signal is amplified by the video amplifier.14. The PLL circuit consists of a voltage controlled oscillator.It is locked to a 500 kHz signal derived from the upconverter unit.9 MHz tuned amplifier.5 MHz PLL. The video IF signal from IF signal from . The gain of the differential amplifier determines the level of video fed to the phase modulator and hence the amount of correction. The 3 sliced signals are added in the video adder and fed to the phase modulator. 6.2/3 line frequency offset to provide channel frequency. The 38. The reference voltage generator provides for variable reference voltage generation. for getting the variable reference voltage.14. The output of the video amplifier is split into 2 paths. 6.2.5 MHz FM modulator is based around a 5.4 ICPM CORRECTOR BOARD This PCB pre-corrects the phase of the vision IF signal depending on the video signal.

LO sample is brought to front panel of unit for monitoring purpose. With the above circuitry PCB generates a stable LO signal required for up conversion.2 (b) UPCONVERTER UNIT The up converter unit combines modulated vision IF(V. The status and fault information are displayed on front panel of the unit.IF) signals and translates to respective channel frequencies suitable for transmission. The mixer PCB sends out DC voltages corresponding to VIF & AIF signals to front panel metering circuit. It‟s output is fed to channel filter. divider loop filter & OCXO of 16 MHz . The unit has inbuilt power supply. VCO. The mixer circuit is built with dual mixer IC to form a balanced mixer.IF) and aural IF(A. The up converter consists of following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) LO synthesizer PCB Mixer PCB Band Pass filter Amplifier and coupler PCB AGC PCB Regulator PCB Display PCB-1 Display PCB-2 +5 V regulator PCB 28 V SMPS supply The VIF & AIF signals are fed to up converter unit. The mixer output . 6. The VIF & AIF signals at output PIN switches are combined & are mixed with LO signal fed from LO PCB. The VIF & AIF are fed to a mixer PCB.IF synthesizer is phase modulated here and then amplified to the required level of +13 dBi. The LO synthesizer.14. The generated signal is fed to mixer PCB. The frequency of this signal can be programmed by setting switches provided on PCB.

when this switch is put in AGC position. the AGC control voltage is applied to PIN attenuator circuit of amplifier & coupler. The output filter is fed to amplifier & coupler PCB. The AGC PCB gives out metering signal corresponding to the RF output of the upconverter. On front panel PCB. The mixed RF is fed to filter and is rejected for its image frequency. AGC voltage is set by AGC potentiometer. The upconverter works with 230 V AC (single phase) which is fed to connector.which is fed to channel filter is rejected for it‟s image frequency. the comparator output is AGC control voltage. The amplifier & coupler PCB also houses a strip line coupler which couples a sample of RF & this sample is detected by the diode.IF signals aimed signals with and then mixes the combined signals with local oscillator signals. For PCB’s Upconverter Unit: The audio IF input is passed through AURAL level control PCB for its level adjustment. The sample of final RF signal is brought to front panel up converter unit for monitoring purpose. The control voltage is applied to AGC/MGC switch. PCB which in turn controls the RF output of the upconverter in AGC mode. Local oscillator PCB gives KHz signals which is fed to IF unit as reference signal to IF synthesizer PCB. The difference voltage is fed to window comparator circuit whose upper & lower limits are set by potentiometer. The detected DC is fed to AGC PCB. Local Oscillator PCB-1 The Local Oscillator module is a fractional N Type synthesizer which is phase locked to a 16 MHz crystal Oscillator MIXER PCB . The AGC PCB also sends out final power metering signal to front panel. The detected DC is fed to AGC PCB. This PCB compares the detected DC voltages with reference voltage set. The audio IF output is applied at connector of mixer PCB and the mixer PCB combines the V.IF and A. The AGC PCB compares this voltage with the reference. If the difference voltage is in the set limit. The AGC PCB gives out AGC unlock signal when AGC voltage goes out of range. The difference voltage is compared in window comparator circuit. The amplifier and coupler PCB consisting of strip line coupler which samples RF and detects it.

When this switch is in MGC position. when AGC switch on front panel of unit is in AGC position. This PCB also has a directional coupler & detector circuit at the output circuitry. This in turn controls the input RF level to gain stages in amplifier & coupler PCB & maintains the RF output of upconverter constant. the MGC control voltage is directly fed from front panel PCB to amplifier & . The Video IF and Audio IF input to this PCB can be selected independently by a front panel vision carrier ON/OFF and aural carrier ON/OFF switch. Aural Level Control PCB The audio IF signal input is fed to upconverter unit is passed through this PCB.IF signal is passed through aural level control PCB. This PCB also provides metering signals to front panel to indicate video IF and audio IF levels by selection of switch. The detected dc voltage is fed to AGC PCB which in turn feeds back the AGC control voltage onto pin attenuator circuit to have AGC control action for the gain stages of this PCB. received from band pass filter in upconverter. The PCB takes in detected dc voltages from amplifier & coupler PCB & compares with reference. The RF signal is coupled by coupler & detected by detector circuit. The difference voltage is fed to control the PIN attenuator circuit on the amplifier coupler PCB. AGC PCB: It has an inbuilt AGC circuit which is interfaced with amplifier coupler PCB to keep the upconverter power output constant. Finally. The amplified signal is made available at the output of upconverter. this RF is made available. The comparator circuit gives the power normal high signal when the detected dc is within the set limits. The combined signal is amplified and mixed with LO signal received from LO PCB(suitable required channel) in a balanced mixer. The A.The function of this PCB is to combine Vision IF and Aural IF signal. received from IF unit. AMPLIFIER & COUPLER PCB: This PCB is housed with pin attenuator circuit & two low gain hybrid amplifier amplifies the low level RF. The AGC control voltage is applied to amplifier & coupler PCB. The detected dc voltage is also fed to window comparator circuit. The output of balanced mixer consists of two side bands.

However. Since the coolant directly touches the high-voltage anodes of the tubes. Any 8MHz TV channel within the UHF band. BAND PASS FILTER: It is a tunable four element combination line filter. The +28 V dc is fed to this PCB from SMPS which in turn get converted to +24 V required by circuitry. deionised water or a special dielectric coolant can also be used in the cooling circuit. where the second cooling circuit can use water of ordinary quality because it not in contact with energized parts. Cooling of final stages Low-power transmitters do not require special cooling equipment. This high purity coolant is in turn cooled by a heat exchanger. the output stage is cooled by a forced liquid cooling system analogous to an automobile cooling system. a broadcast transmitter with a megawatt power stage transferring 98% of that into the antenna can also be viewed as a 20 kilowatt electric heater. The detected dc from amplifier & coupler PCB is fed to AGC PCB at E1 & is amplified using OPAMP U3/A. The production of steam allows a high heat flow in a small space TV demodulator: . up to a few hundred watts. featuring additional trap resonators to provide greater than 30dB rejection at Fv-5.coupler PCB. For medium-power transmitter. with efficiencies exceeding 98 percent. the combined frequency range (channels 21 to 68) can be selected. only distilled. The output of this amplifier is split into 3 paths. At power levels over a few kilowatts.5MHz & Fv+11MHz. POWER SUPPLY UNIT: It consists of variable voltage regulator circuit which converts +28 V fed to this PCB from SMPS into +18 V dc required by local oscillator PCB. Modern transmitters can be incredibly efficient. air cooling with fans is used. Very high power tubes of small physical size may use evaporative cooling by water in contact with anode.

Indication of input voltage and sound deviation. Depth of modulation. General applications:     Deviation measurement. . Signal to noise ratio measurement.the function of the TVDM is to recover the picture and sound signals from the carrier output. Salient features:     Selection of envelope or synchronous detector. Monitoring picture and sound quanlity.Tv demodulators is a precision monitoring equipment for cheching the quality of a TV transmitter in VHF and UHF bands. Group delay.it is similar to a precision TV receiver in many respects. Automatic and manual level control Zero reference pulse for checking depth of modulation.

hence the most accurate recovery of the original modulating waveform.major advantages of synchronous detectors are1. Low level input considerably reduce undesired bea generation.4 to 38. Higher gain than diode detector.this situation can also be helped by attenuating the sub-carrier by 6db or more with respect to the top of the response.Envelope detector: This is simplest type of envelope detector consisting of a rectifying diode driving a parallel RC network.9Mhz.9 Mhz) undesirable beat products can be generated during the process(33.with all these deficiencies the diode envelope detector has been used in a great many monochrome and color receivers.with full bandwidth signal present (33.receiver the sound carrier is attenuated by more than 20db and and the color sub-carrier is attenuated from 10 to 15db to alleviate these effects.this approach gives the ideal reference waveform.one of the common spurious products is produced by the combination of 33.4 to 38. Reduces IF harmonics by greater 20db.this circuit has a significant insertion loss there must be driven by an addition amplifier with signal levels of several volts peak to peak in order to recover 1v of video. 2).47Mhz chroma sub carrier. Synchronous detector: the synchronous demodulator in which the modulated carrier is sampled by a pure unmodulated carrier generated by a VCO at 38.the inherent non-linearity of this circuit along with its large input signal leads to several design problems and receiver performance deficiencies as shown below1).quadrature distortion caused by VSB nature of the signal and receiver nyquist slope can cause a luminance shift towards black of up to 10% as well as asymmetric transient response. .9Mhz) undesirable beat products can be generated during the process of demodulation.resulting in a 12 Mhz picture beat interference and sound buzz.in monochrome.4Mhz sound IF signal and the 34. 3. 2.

4.an improved form of diode demodulator uses a balanced full wave configuration with a like element in a feedback loop. And the word „mast‟ means that a supporting structure. Less or no quadrature distortion depending upon the purity of the reference carrier. Where the VHF and UHF transmissions are different Here the antennas are of two types where are propagation of the signal is done. 1. Self Supporting Mast: . ANTENNA SECTION For the propagation the electrical energy is converted into electro-magnetic wave.excellent linearity and low beat product equivalent to the synchronous demodulator tpes have been achieved.

It is general broadcasting purpose antenna here the antenna is held at height so that the transmission of the signals would be without any obstacles it is generally almost used in all media using sectors. also called a doublet. This antenna. with a center-fed driven element for transmitting or receiving radio frequency energy. TYPES OF ANTENNAE: Based on these there are different types of antennae. Guided Wire Mast: The mast here is suspended from the ground and it is supported by some wires so that it would withstand to the climatic conditions. But basically used types of antennae are as follows: Dipole antenna Folded dipole antenna Helical antenna Parabolic antenna Satellite dish antenna Yagi-uda antenna Horn antenna DIPOLE ANTENNA: A dipole antenna is an antenna that can be made by a simple wire. the current . 2. These antennae are the simplest practical antennae from a theoretical point of view.

Additionally the RF antenna has a wider bandwidth. If the conductors in the main dipole and the second or "fold" conductor are the same diameter. The folded dipole is formed by taking a standard dipole and then taking a second conductor and joining the two ends. can be used. this gives a feed impedance of around 300 ohms. FOLDED DIPOLE ANTENNA: A variation of the dipole can be a solution to the problems caused due to dipoles. such as coaxial cable. In this way a complete loop is made as shown. but to ensure optimum RF current distribution on the antenna element and in the feed line. an RF transformer called a balun (contraction of the words "balanced" and "unbalanced") should be inserted in the system at the point where the feed line joins the antenna.amplitude on such an antenna decreases uniformly from maximum at the center to zero at the ends. It is a straight electrical conductor measuring 1/2 wavelength from end to end and connected at the center to a radio-frequency (RF) feed line. HELICAL ANTENNA: A helical antenna is an antenna consisting of a conducting wire wound in the form of a helix. because it is bilaterally symmetrical. this type of line is not common. However. An unbalanced feed line. then it is found that there is a fourfold increase in the feed impedance. parallel-wire RF transmission line. Ideally. In free space. The dipole is inherently a balanced antenna. It is a simple way of obtaining high-gain and a . a dipole antenna is fed with a balanced. offering a wider bandwidth and a considerable increase in feed impedance.

one should find that the strength of the signal will remain the same as long as the dipole is perpendicular to the axis of the Helix. Therefore. This antenna is mainly directional.e. The radiation from a helical antenna is circularly polarized. When using Helical Antennae it is very important to make sure that both antennae have the same thread orientation (i. If one were to explore the field from a helical antenna in the direction of maximum radiation with a simple monopole or dipole antenna. The relatively short wavelength of electromagnetic (radio) energy at these frequencies allows reasonably sized reflectors to exhibit the very desirable highly directional response for both receiving and transmitting. on the UHF and SHF parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. SATELLITE DISH ANTENNA: .broad band of frequency characteristics. that is to say that the Electromagnetic field rotates about the axis of the helix in the direction of the helix turn. On the side of a helical antenna. Therefore. television and data communications. A helical antenna radiates when the circumference of the helix is of the order of one wavelength and radiation along the axis of the helix is found to be the strongest. the radiation is either circularly polarized clockwise or counter-clockwise. the horizontal and vertical portions of the signal will not be of equal proportions. and also for radiolocation (radar). PARABOLIC ANTENNA: A parabolic antenna is a high-gain reflector antenna used for radio. both clockwise) otherwise the received signal will be significantly decreased. the field is elliptically polarized.

and another element. from the reflector through the driven element and out via the director(s). which transmit data transmissions or broadcasts. Yagis are directional along the axis perpendicular to the dipole in the plane of the elements. such as satellite television. are also commonly referred to as beam antennas or high-gain antennas. Other shorter parasitic elements are typically added in front of the dipole as directors. This arrangement gives the antenna directionality that a single dipole lacks. The dipole in the array is driven. YAGI-UDA ANTENNA: A Yagi-Uda Antenna. such as the Yagi-Uda. is a directional antenna system consisting of an array of a dipole and additional closely coupled parasitic elements (usually a reflector and one or more directors). HORN ANTENNA: .A satellite dish is a type of parabolic antenna designed to receive microwaves from communications satellites. 10% longer. operates as a reflector. commonly known simply as a Yagi antenna or Yagi. Directional antennas.

half wave dipole V antenna. Basic Horn Concept: When a wave guide is terminated by a horn the abrupt discontinuity that existed is replaced by a gradual transformation. Antenna panels are stacked vertically and mounted on a tower having some 30 meter height.the transmitter power is first taken to a power is first taken to a power divider through a low low loss feeder cabls. b) Crossed folded dipole halios make band-3 antenna. The radiation through this feared out wave guide is more than through that of a transmission line. All the energy travelling forward in the wave guide will now be radiated. Branch feeder cables from driver feed te antenna panels.this may be obtained b increasing the electrical lengh of on set of the branch feeder cable with respect to that of other set by quarter wavelength.the BHEL „V‟ antenna consist of four quadrant dipole arranged vertically in two stacks.a stack contains two quadrant dipole spaced at half wave length on a common balance feeder line made by aluminium tubes.A wave guide is capable of radiating radiation into open space provided the same is excited at one end and opened at other end. Both the stack are fed with equal amplitude and phase current by connecting the branch feeder cable at the center of the stack. c) Folded dipole scala make band-1 antenna. provided impedance matching is correct VHF TV LPT antenna: Following types of LPT antenna are being used in doordarshan network: a) Band3 BEL make.the feed arrangement including branch feeder cables is entirely concealed to prevent entry of moisture.the crossed folded dipoles in scala and halios antenna are required to be fed in quardaturre as explained earlier for an omni-direction pattern in horizontal plane.the tubes are exended a quater wavelength beyond each stack and short circuited resulting in a quaer wave stub appearing as high impedance at the eed points. UHF LPT antenna’s: .the resultant radiation pattern in horizontal plane is almost omni-directional as claimed by the manufacturer.

cut in metal sheet are used as electromagnetic waves radiator at UHF frequencies.if the slot is horizontal. The feed point impedance of such a antenna element is of the order of 50ohms.the slot antenna can be easily with a coaxial transmission line by connecting the outer conductor to the sheet.fed at centre.the radiation is normal to the sheet and vertically polarized.the long side of the slot carry current of opposite phase and because current are not only confined to the edges of slot but spread out over the sheet. UHF LPT paraslot antenna: . Asimilar half wavelength slot cut in a flat metal sheet.power is radiated equally from both sides of the sheet.inner conductor is connected to the centre of the slot.Slot antenna elements .

The main RF barrel is actually a special coaxial line segment with a 50 ohms characteristic impedance. thruline power meter: the thruline power meter is the most powerful meter for measuring RF powers in doordarshan and AIR.the radiation pattern in horizontal plane is off set omni directional.heavy make aluminium pipe and the same from 24 feet to 30 feet which is mounted on a mast of 30m height.maximum radiation occurs in the direction that faces the slot area .symmetrical parallel feed system completely oused within the centre of the antenna is employed for feeding the slots.the UHF LPT paraslot antenna manufactured by SCALA is an array of slot antenna.the heart of the thruline meter is the directional coupler transmission line assembly. . The thruline sensor works due to the mutual inductance between the sampling loop and the centre conductor of the coaxial elements.it is connected in series with the measure both forward and reserve power levels.slot windows are cut in a cylindrical. A sample loop and diode element are contained within each plug in element.

THANK YOU… .voltage Er created by the voltage divider action of R and C on transmission line voltage E.to get the peak power value in case of TV signals that is block power is to be multiplied by a factor of 1. reception and strengthening of the signal and retransmitting the signal into space for the broadcast around the range of propagation.it may also be noted that audio drive is also present during normal transmission . The transmitter service involves great equipment that deals with monitoring section exciting system and we learn about the equipment of the doordarshan relay center and its working. CONCLUSION We would like to conclude this training as a very great and enriching the experience to learn about the LOW POWER TV TRANSMITTER.As it is using a special taking power measurement of TV signal the RF input to the thruline power should be power during normal transmission will vary with video signal and the meter indication not be taken as the real output power .674 the output value from the sample(E)r is the sum of the two voltages Er andEm. We also learned about the procedure of transmission.

I have gained useful knowledge which will surely be of great help in future. In my Industrial training at Doordarshan Kendra.CONCLUSION Doordarshan. is devoted to public service broadcasting. Aligarh. the national television service of India. It is one of the largest terrestrial networks in the world. This training gave me an opportunity to learn the practical aspects of the knowledge of my field of interest .