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1. Prove the uniqueness of multiplicative inverses in any ﬁeld F ; i.e., let a ∈ F and let b, c ∈ F satisfy a · b = a · c = 1. Using the ﬁeld axioms, show that b = c. Solution: We have c = 1 · c = (b · a) · c = b · (a · c) = b · 1 = b. 2. Let F be a ﬁeld. Using the ﬁeld axioms, prove that 0 · a = 0 for every a ∈ F. Solution: We have 0 = 0 + 0 and hence a · 0 = a · (0 + 0) = a · 0 + a · 0. Thus 0 = = = = = 3. Let F be any ﬁeld. (a) If a, b, c ∈ F with b, c = 0, show that a ac = . b bc (b) If a, b, c, d ∈ F with b, d = 0 show that a c ad + bc + = . b d bd Solution: (a) First observe that for any x, y ∈ F , (xy )−1 = y −1 x−1 since (xy )(y −1 x−1 ) = x(y · y −1 )x−1 = x · 1 · x−1 = x · x−1 = 1. Thus ac a = (ac)(bc)−1 = (ac)(c−1 b−1 ) = a(c · c−1 )b−1 = ab−1 = . bc b a · 0 + (−a · 0) (a · 0 + a · 0) + (−a · 0) a · 0 + (a · 0 + (−a · 0)) a·0+0 a · 0.

(b) Recall from class that if x. 5. then x y x+y + = . in view of the above. since adding −a to both sides would imply 1 = 0. Finally. 6. Suppose that ab = 0. we have a2 = 2a = 2 · (−1) = −2 = −a = 1. Let F be the set of all 2 × 2 matrices of the form a −b b a where a. So b = 0 and we’re done. We eliminate the last two possibilities. Next we can eliminate the possibilities 1 + 1 = 0 (which implies 1 = −1 = a) and 1 + 1 = 1 (which implies 1 = 0) to deduce that 1 + 1 = a. 1 + 1 = a and a2 = a + a = 1. b ∈ R. But a−1 ab = 1 · b = b. Using the ﬁeld axioms. and in this case we must show that this forces b = 0: Now a = 0 =⇒ a−1 exists. we can’t have a + 1 = a. If a = 0 we’re done. Prove that either a = 0 or b = 0 (possibly both). The other possibility is that a = 0. 1 or a. for adding −1 to both sides gives a = 0. Thus a = 2 = −1 in our ﬁeld. which is impossible. Thus. prove that we must have a + 1 = 0. So we can conclude that a + 1 = 1 + a = 0. Let F be a ﬁeld with exactly 3 elements. and we have assumed 0. Similarly. Denote the third by a. yz ∈ F and z = 0. and thus a = −1 and 1 = − a. Solution: Suppose that ab = 0. multiplying both sides of ab = 0 by a−1 give a−1 ab = a−1 · 0 = 0 (by problem 2). z z z We have a c ad bc + = + (using (a)) b d bd bd ad + bc = . thus proving the ﬁrst: We can’t have a + 1 = 1. bd 4. 0 = 1 are necessarily two of the elements. 1 and a are distinct. . Solution: a + 1 is equal to either 0. Let F be a ﬁeld and let a. b ∈ F .

x −y y x .] Solution: (a) Let X= Then X +Y = x + z −y − w y+w x+z = a −b b a with a = x+z. The multiplication in F is commutative. Observe also that X · Y = Y · X . (Axioms (1) and (2)). The 2 × 2 identity matrix I belongs to F . If X ∈ F .Y = z −w w z ∈ F. (c) (F.(a) If X. then −X ∈ F . If not. (b) Again. b = y +w. determine which of the nine ﬁeld axioms fail to hold for (F. b = xw+yz. ·). Y ∈ F . show that X + Y ∈ F (where + denotes matrix addition). prove it. b = 0 (Axiom (7)). (c) Is F a ﬁeld? If so. +.Y = z −w w z ∈ F. [Note: You may assume. as observed above (Axiom (5)). ·) is a ﬁeld: The addition is commutative and associative since this is in general true of matrix addition. that matrix addition and multiplication are associative. +. x −y y x . take a = 1. The multiplication is associative. show that X · Y ∈ F . let X= Then X ·Y = xz − yw −xw − yz yz + xw xz − yw = a −b b a with a = xz −yw. So X + Y ∈ F . Y ∈ F . so that X · Y ∈ F . . just replace a by −a and b by −b (Axiom (4)). since this is in general true for matrix multiplication (Axiom (6)). The Zero matrix belongs to F (take a = b = 0) and is an additive identity (Axiom (3)). (b) If X. without proving it.

Find all roots of the polynomial x3 + x + 1 = 0 in the ﬁeld F9 := F3 (i). we have 33 = 27 = 6. Then (a + bi)3 = a3 + 3a2 bi − 3ab2 − b3 i = a − bi (since a3 = a. . then x3 + x + 1 = a − bi + a + bi + 1 = 2a + 1. 53 = (−2)3 = −8 = 6 and 63 = (−1)3 = −1 = 6. Solution: In F7 . 5 and 6 are the roots of x3 − 6 in F7 . while 03 = 0. 8. Solution: 24 = 5 in F11 . Finally. Thus the three roots are x = 1. Show that 5 is a fourth power in the ﬁeld F11 . 23 = 1 43 = (23 )2 = 1. since matrix multiplication generally distributes over matrix addition. x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2 Thus X −1 ∈ F and axiom (8) holds. Solution: Observe that for all a ∈ F3 we have a3 = a. not both of x. 7. Find all roots of the polynomial x3 − 6 in the ﬁeld F7 . if x = a + bi. b = . So 3. Hence 1 x y a −b = X −1 = 2 2 − y x b a x +y with a= x −y . Thus. 9.Now let 0=X= x −y y x ∈F Since X = 0. Solving this for a gives a = −1/2 = −2 = 1. So x3 + x + 1 = 0 if and only if 2a + 1 = 0 in F3 . y are 0 and thus det(X ) = x2 +y 2 > 0. 13 = 1. b3 = b and 3 = 0). axiom (9) also holds. x = 1 + i and x = 1 + 2i . Suppose that a + bi ∈ F3 (i).

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