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BSC4040: Satellite Abis

DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en

© Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential

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BSC4040: Satellite Abis

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Networks Oy 2001. All rights reserved.

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© Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential

DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en

3.2 6.1 6.2 6 6.3.4.1.4 6.1 6.1 5.1 Introduction to Satellite Abis 7 Operator interface to Satellite Abis 9 BSC 9 TCSM1 9 TCSM2 9 DE21/DF12 (Nokia 2nd generation base stations) 9 DE34/DF34 and DE45/DF45 9 Alarm descriptions in Satellite Abis 11 Effects on interfaces in Satellite Abis 13 File descriptions in Satellite Abis 15 DE21/DF12 15 DE34/DF34 or DE45/DF45 15 Satellite Abis installation and testing 17 Configuration requirements 17 Hardware effects 17 Firmware effects 18 Remarks 18 Installation and activation 19 BSC 19 TCSM1 20 TCSM2 20 DE21/DF12 21 DE34/DF34 22 Testing 22 Test environment 22 Deactivation of the feature 23 Testing of deactivation 24 DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 3 (24) .1 6.3.3.1 6.2 2.5 6.1 2.3 6.5.5 3 4 5 5.4 2.2 6.3.Contents Contents 3 List of figures 4 Summary of changes 5 1 2 2.3 6.4 6.2 6.3 2.1.5 6.

Satellite link in the Abis interface 7 4 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .BSC4040: Satellite Abis List of figures Figure 1.

Changes made between issues 2 and 1 Chapter Satellite Abis installation and testing. the latest document issue contains all changes made to previous issues. Therefore. section Remarks In the ways to reduce the signalling load. section Installation and activation The value of the parameter Number of Slots Spread Transmission (SLO) has been changed from 50 to 32. and a fourth way has been added: Disable queuing (MQL = 0%). Omit intra-BTS handovers has been changed to Disable intra-BTS handovers. Chapter Satellite Abis installation and testing.Summary of changes Changes between document issues are cumulative. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 5 (24) .

BSC4040: Satellite Abis 6 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .

The general arrangement of the Satellite Abis connection is presented in Figure 1 . The Satellite Abis is an optional feature intended for connecting the BSC to remote BTSs. the satellite circuits behave as radio links with a possibility of deep fades even down to the total loss of the signal. Satellite link in the Abis interface The main drawback of a (geostationary) satellite circuit is the relatively long oneway end-to-end delay of approximately 260 . Typically. Satellite BTS BSC TC MSC HLR BTS Abis interface A Ater interface interface MSC-HLR interface Figure 1. Tests using satellite circuits have shown the following: DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 7 (24) . As for bit error (BER) performance. these remote BTSs are used in special low-capacity and temporary applications. but also when no other transmission means exist.280 ms. Long delay together with bit errors decreases signalling message throughput.Introduction to Satellite Abis 1 Introduction to Satellite Abis Satellite circuits are useful when connecting extremely remote locations.

· The feature is introduced per BSS. · Standard mobile phones are used. The time alignment function forms a control loop between the transcoder and the BTS. In TCSM2. The Satellite Abis feature in ETSI and ANSI networks Mainly networks based on European ETSI standards are discussed here. · The feature is activated by a parameter switch in the BSC and the BTS. and with excessive delay this control loop becomes unstable. The feature is also available in networks based on American ANSI standards. · Standard MSC is used. Where differences arise because of ANSI standards. 2. these are separately mentioned. a parameter switch is used. and they must be set correctly. The Satellite Abis feature in summary · The feature is optional. GSM system timers are not designed for long delays. · Satellite Abis specific TCSM1 transcoder firmware is necessary.BSC4040: Satellite Abis 1. The TRAU frame time alignment function does not tolerate long delays. 8 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en . Delay slows down all signalling traffic which needs frequent handshakes.

2. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 9 (24) . 2.5 DE34/DF34 and DE45/DF45 DE34/DF34 signifies Nokia Talk-family of base stations. In the HW database. Normally T200 = 240 ms. give the System defs / LAPD T200 timer the value 1000 ms. 2. and DE45/DF45 is Nokia PrimeSite.3 TCSM2 Use a remote session at the BSC to access the TCSM2.1 Operator interface to Satellite Abis BSC The Satellite Abis feature is optional. The user can control the use of the feature with the parameter satell_abis_in_use which toggles the feature on or off as needed. 2.2 TCSM1 No operator interface.Operator interface to Satellite Abis 2 2. which is the value used when T200 has been selected as 0.4 DE21/DF12 (Nokia 2nd generation base stations) Remote BTSs must be configured for satellite use by editing the HW database.

10 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en . Abis type is normal and T200 = 240 ms. In the HW database. After this the HW database must be saved and activated. select the BCF / Units window .BSC4040: Satellite Abis Remote BTSs must be configured for satellite use by editing the HW database. Normally. Select the Abis type as Satellite . This will further show the default satellite Abis value for LAPD T200 timer = 1000 ms.

DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 11 (24) .Alarm descriptions in Satellite Abis 3 Alarm descriptions in Satellite Abis No alarms are involved in this feature.

BSC4040: Satellite Abis 12 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .

This timer is increased from 240 ms to 1000 ms. For call handling. the most important change concerns the LAPD layer L2 timer T200 (see ETSI Recommendation ETS 300 595). Maximum number of outstanding frames. The changes are caused by the increased delay which can disturb procedures relying on handshakings or timers. Timers supervising BTS software downloading are increased to handle the increased delay. is modified from K=2 to K=7. Note that this timer affects both the telecommunications and OMU signalling channels in the whole BSS. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 13 (24) . Also the LAPD parameter K.Effects on interfaces in Satellite Abis 4 Effects on interfaces in Satellite Abis Only the Abis interface is affected by this feature. Timers at both ends (BSC and BTS ends) of the link are modified. This applies only to LAPD frames whose SAPI value is 0.

BSC4040: Satellite Abis 14 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .

the first is BTS_S301. GSM/DCS BTS SW B10. Also FUC configuration files are different for normal and Satellite Abis. intended for Satellite Abis. The decision between the normal or the satellite build is made when the BTS build is set at the BSC. For example. The BTS SW Release Note contains the file list.1 File descriptions in Satellite Abis DE21/DF12 From the version B10. CFG_S301.0 onward a special Satellite Abis software build is needed. The BTS SW Release Note contains the file list.1 onward a special Satellite Abis software build is needed. GSM/DCS BTS SW DF3.2 DE34/DF34 or DE45/DF45 From the version DF2. Also FUC configuration files are different for normal and Satellite Abis.101 which is intended for normal Abis. for example. For example.File descriptions in Satellite Abis 5 5.18F is for normal Abis. CFG_S301. and the second is BTS_S301.033.19B. the first is BTS_S301.0 contains two master files. for example.180 which is intended for normal Abis. The decision between the normal or the satellite build is made when the BTS build is set at the BSC. intended for Satellite Abis. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 15 (24) .033 is for Satellite Abis. and CFG_S301. and the second is BTS_S301.0 contains two master files.101 is for normal Abis. but CFG_S301. 5.199 is for Satellite Abis.

BSC4040: Satellite Abis 16 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .

The bit error ratio (BER) must always be better than 3x10E-5 over the BTS . The minimum transmission capacity requirement is two 64 kbit/s time slots per one TRX. and satellite transmission capacity is reserved only for these time slots.BSC connection is transparent for these time slots. HDB3 line coding must be used. Typically only some time slots of the 2 Mbit/s trunk carry traffic. The BTS . Typically only some time slots of this trunk carry traffic. The use of CRC-4 error detection is recommended. The normal requirement is two and a half time slots per one TRX.5 Mbit/s. The minimum transmission capacity requirement is two 64 kbit/s time slots per one TRX. Interface must comply with ITU-T Recommendation G.403. Interface and framing must comply with ANSI Recommendation T1. The normal requirement is two and a half time slots per one TRX. • • • • • • Networks based on ANSI standards • Interfaces operate at the bit rate 1. and satellite transmission capacity is reserved only for these time slots.BSC connection is transparent for these time slots. The BTS .BSC path and typically better than 10E-6. Framing must comply with ITU-T Recommendation G. Line impedance must be 75 or 120 ohms.Satellite Abis installation and testing 6 6.704.1.1 6.1 Satellite Abis installation and testing Configuration requirements Hardware effects The satellite equipment must be compatible with Nokia GSM equipment and thus fulfil the following prerequisites in the Abis satellite link: Networks based on ETSI standards • Interfaces operate at the bit rate 2 Mbit/s.703. • DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 17 (24) .

all normal GSM Specifications are not met in that kind of a system (LAPD parameters and TRAU frame time alignment. it is possible to use MSC . but this situation has to be taken into special consideration with the product lines.BSC4040: Satellite Abis • • • • B8ZS line coding must be used. Because of the cumulative speech delay.HLR) satellite circuits simultaneously. 6. the delay typically causes no harm. for example). PSTN may use satellite circuits as well and this should be avoided if possible. but this will be at your own risk.2 Remarks When the satellite link is used in the Abis interface.8-5 or later must be used.2 Firmware effects Transcoder TCSM1 TCSM1 EPROM's version 1. and (preferably) use echo control. consider mixed operation. however. This exceeds the values given in the ETSI Recommendation ETS 300 903 or the ITU-T Recommendation G. A remote MS to remote MS call suffers a double delay (1400 ms) due to the double satellite hop. 18 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en . DE21/DF12 DE21/DF12 BTS OMU EPROM's version 2. Further. You may.MSC (or MSC .3 or later must be used. the BSC is connected only to the BTSs that are linked via a satellite.114. The use of CRC-6 error detection is recommended. Transcoder TCSM2 No firmware requirements.e. However. the BSC has to be defined only to the satellite use. If you (the telephone user) are aware of the delay. The GSM system delay added to satellite path delay results in a delay (of echo) of approximately 180 ms + 520 ms = 700 ms.1. 6. i. DE34/DF34 or DE45/DF45 No firmware requirements. Line impedance must be 100 ohms. it is recommended that only one satellite hop is used at the same time in a GSM/DCS network. The bit error ratio (BER) must always better than 3x10E-5 over the BTS BSC path and typically better than 10E-6.

but regular clock unit maintenance may be difficult. You can reduce the signalling load in the following ways: • • • • Periodic location updating: Disable the periodic location updating procedure or define it for a 24-hour interval Unnecessary paging: Define for satellite cells a location area of their own Disable intra-BTS handovers (EIC = NO. However. some signalling cannot be avoided because the network elements depend on a common MSC.31. Only the TCSM2 can support AEC with the Satellite Abis.1 BSC Set the parameter satell_abis_in_use = TRUE. Lower values than the default ones may be inadequate for handling the delay of the satellite connection.Satellite Abis installation and testing It is highly recommended to use acoustic echo cancelling equipment in satellite BSS to avoid problems with speech intelligibility due to long delay.BTS circuits. Basically the procedure is the same as for normal terrestrial BSC . As the BSC .FF.3. 6.3 Installation and activation It is recommended to use the default values in GSM (BSC and MSC) system timers. EIH = NO) Disable queuing (MQL = 0%) The call processing capacity of a busy hour call attempt (BHCA) is 70% of normal GSM capacity in a satellite Abis link. 6. any unnecessary signalling should be avoided. This can be balanced by using more TRXs (and SDCCH capacity) than are normally needed. Using a BTS with an internal clock (MCLU clock unit) will avoid this timing problem. It is not recommended to allow handover between satellite cells and terrestrial cells due to possible frequency differences between these systems. Timing depends on varying doppler shifts of the satellite system used. use the command ZWOC:10. A typical doppler uncertainty is less than 2x10E-7. These instructions only show actions which are needed for satellite circuits. Note also that this feature is optional and thus the Satellite Abis feature software is not included in the standard BSC software. To activate the feature.BTS/TRX signalling capacity is reduced. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 19 (24) .

Other parameters (which minimise the SDCCH reservations): Number of Slots Spread Trans (SLO) = 32 Max.BSC4040: Satellite Abis To check the feature.3 TCSM2 You can configure the TCSM2 either locally or remotely. ZERM:BTS=<nbr>. ZERM:BTS=<nbr>.TRX=<trx1>:CH0=MBCCHC.8-5 or a later version. To configure sufficient SDCCH capacity: 1. 6. Unlock all locked TRXs: ZERS:BTS=<nbr>. two time slots are defined for signalling: a combined BCCH and SDCCH/8 (six others are defined as TCHs).NY1=5. use the command ZWOI:10. 6. Use the following commands: ZERS:BTS=<nbr>. In other TRXs one time slot is defined for signalling (SDCCH/8. 20 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en .TRX=<trx1>:L. The following text gives the commands for remote access.3. and then modify time slots as follows: ZERM:BTS=<nbr>. First lock the TRX1 with the command ZERS:BTS=<nbr>.TRX=<trx1>:CH1=SDCCH. use the command ZEQM:BTS=<nbr>:SLO=32.TRX=<trx>:L. preferably timeslot zero) and seven others are defined as TCHs. Use the version 1. where <nbr> identifies the remote BTS.RET=2. In TRX1.TRX=<trx>:CH0=SDCCH.2 TCSM1 Change EPROMs in the TRC15 boards.TRX=<trx>:U. Number of Repetition (NY1) = 5 To set these parameters.3. 2. Number of Retransmission (RET) = 2 Max.

Remote BTSs must be configured for satellite use by editing the HW database. the Satellite Abis BTS software build must be loaded in the BTS.Satellite Abis installation and testing First create a remote session by the following commands. use this command (in which <PCM_index> is the actual PCM used): ZRC:<PCM_index>:10 Terminate the remote session: ZX 6. UsernameEXPERT PasswordSYSTEM Setting time alignment OFF: ZRS:ALL:OFF The TCSM2 will ask: Do you want configuration changes to be permanent by saving them in flash memory? Please answer (Y/N) Y Enable acoustic echo cancelling (AEC). You can check this by a listening test. confirm (Y/N) Y Do you want configuration changes to be permanent by saving them in flash memory? Please answer (Y/N) Y Normally either 520 ms. 540 ms or 560 ms are suitable values for <delay>.<nbr>. DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 21 (24) .3. ZRU:ALL: <codec_type>=ON Please. After that.4 DE21/DF12 Use the version 2. The command depends on the type of speech coding used. Here <codec> can be either FR.3 or a later version of the BTS OMU EPROM. EFR or HR. To check that all selections are correct. where <nbr> is the address of the transcoder: ZDDT:TCSM. confirm (Y/N) Y Do you want configuration changes to be permanent by saving them in flash memory? Please answer (Y/N) Y Set the AEC tail delay correctly: ZRU:ALL:DELAY=<delay> Please.

ZEVC:<HW_db_name>:NAME=<file_name>. ZEVV:<BCF_index>:PAS.EXT=<file _extension>. If there is an active BCF HW database in the BSC. the Satellite Abis BTS software build must be loaded in the BTS. 6.3. the satellite may be simulated by suitable test equipment (adding a one-way delay of 280 ms and possibly also bit errors). SW downloading and (implicit) BCF reset.4 6. 22 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en . created. 6. After that.EXT=<file _extension>. attached and activated. Phase 1 and Phase 2 mobile phones are needed.1 Testing Test environment Testing requires a whole BSS dedicated for the satellite cells. Select the Abis type as Satellite. a new satellite-specific HW database must be uploaded. As regards pretesting or troubleshooting. ZEVA:<BCF_index>:<HW_db_name>. created.4. In the HW database. The HW database activation procedure is similar for both DE34/DF34 and DE21/DF12 BTS types. Test cases The tests include test calls. if no real satellite circuits are available. Transmission circuits to and from the operational satellite terminals are also required. attached and activated.BSC4040: Satellite Abis Give the System defs / LAPD T200 timer the value 1000 ms using the HW database editor. Prerequisites for testing Testing requires a whole BSS which is correctly set up for the Satellite Abis feature. a new satellite-specific HW database must be uploaded. ZEVU:<BCF_index>:NAME=<file_name>. An operational MSC and mobile stations are required.5 DE34/DF34 Remote BTSs must be configured for satellite use by editing the HW database. select the BCF/Units window. If there is an active BCF HW database in the BSC.

changing the delay value may help).0. however. the long satellite delay cannot be tolerated and the BTS must be connected with low delay terrestrial circuits for feature deactivation. Use the following commands: ZEWC:<package_name>:MF=<master_file_name>. Some UL echo may occur depending on the acoustic performance of the mobile phone. To set the AEC delay value in the TCSM2. Test calls: Test the system by making mobile-originated (MO) and mobile-terminated (MT) test calls. Use the command ZWOC:10. attached and activated. 6. You can hear the increased speech delay. Phase 2 mobile stations perform better in this respect. Satellite delay will increase call set-up time by approximately 7 seconds. ZEWV:<BCF_index>:<package_status>.5 Deactivation of the feature In the normal (terrestrial) state of operation. If you use AEC.SDIR=<subdirectory>. no echoes should be audible (if you hear echoes. Test execution and expected results Sw downloading: The BTS software is downloaded to the remote BTS after the software build activation. use the command ZRU:ALL:DELAY=0 Please.Satellite Abis installation and testing The correct BTS SW version must be created. Satellite delay will increase the BTS software downloading time by approximately 20 minutes.EXT=<file_ extension>. confirm (Y/N) Y Do you want configuration changes to be DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential 23 (24) . Mobile stations typically reserve one or two extra SDCCH channels per call.31. You can temporarily deactivate the Satellite Abis feature by turning off the BSC switch satell_abis_in use. ZEWA:<BCF_index>:<package_status>:<package_name>. and these are automatically cleared by the BSC.

24 (24) © Nokia Networks Oy Nokia Proprietary and Confidential DN9812652 Issue 2-0 en . If special Abis test equipment is available. this mode of operation does not fully comply with GSM Recommendations).1 Testing of deactivation A decrease in call set-up delay and speech delay indicates that the feature has been deactivated. 6. (However. The Satellite Abis build in the BTS operates normally with the normal terrestrial Abis interface in the BSC. if the state of LAPD timers is normal.5.BSC4040: Satellite Abis permanent by saving them in flash memory? Please answer (Y/N) Y Typically no other parameters need to be changed. you can also perceive the deactivation by measurements. An Abis protocol analyzer gives you the result T200=250 ms.