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E. V.

Gray and the Self-Sustaining Motor

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Table of Contents
E. V. Gray and the Self-Sustaining Motor..............................................................................................1 Table of Contents..................................................................................................................................2 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................4 Chapter 1...............................................................................................................................................5 The Life and Times of Edwin Gray.....................................................................................................5 Gray's Formative Years..................................................................................................................5 After the War................................................................................................................................6 The Beginning of Invention............................................................................................................7 The Underlying Principles of Gray's Invention...............................................................................7 The Birth of EVGRAY Enterprises, LTD...........................................................................................8 Problems and Upturns for Edwin Gray..........................................................................................9 Reorganization and More Problems............................................................................................12 Moves, Moves and More Moves.................................................................................................12 Letter Writing, a "Government Contact" and More Moves.........................................................13 The Beginning of the End............................................................................................................14 Gray's Legacy...............................................................................................................................15 Chapter 2.............................................................................................................................................17 Gray's Breakthrough Technology....................................................................................................17 What Was Gray's Motor?............................................................................................................18 How an Electric Motor Works.....................................................................................................19 How Electromagnets Work..........................................................................................................20 Gray's Motor and Circuit Schematics..........................................................................................20 Chapter 3.............................................................................................................................................49 The Real Deal...................................................................................................................................49 A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words........................................................................................49 The Internals of the Device..........................................................................................................55 Conclusion...........................................................................................................................................69

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produced effortlessly and with no need to rely on the power grid for your energy. then you are in luck. Your energy needs (and the world's) can be met with this innovative motor. Many brilliant scientists have ventured into alternative fuel options. Gray created a series of prototypes. However. with some very promising results. each more refined than the previous version. Eventually. there is promise for the future. Others include increased water and soil pollution. However. The process of creating energy. To create enough energy to get you to the grocery store. The increasing concern about global warming caused by burning fossil fuels is only one example of this. In addition. there will simply be no more crude oil to exploit. the usage of fossil fuels like petroleum is not without cost. you must use gasoline. The impact on humans. Actually. refined from oil deposits located deep within the earth. modern life without energy is unthinkable – untenable. One of the most promising (and most controversial) might just be the electric motor developed by Edwin V. requires the exploitation of natural resources in ever-shorter supply. as well as harm to natural environments around the world. This book will highlight the key areas of Gray's motor and show you how it can achieve over unity. plants and animals is immense. free energy! Consider the modern automobile. your car or some other item.Introduction The problem with energy production is that it is unsustainable through traditional methods. If only there was a way to produce clean. whether that energy is used to power your home. 4 . Gray. If you have longed to have free energy. These deposits are growing ever more scarce.

Gray received an honorable discharge. After the 5 . but did not remain enrolled very long. and returned to civilian life. one of 14 children born to his parents. although he did show a marked interest in automobiles and electronics. in 1925. area. In fact. Gray's Formative Years Edwin Gray was born in Washington D. with his childhood and early education. Gray attended school in the D. When it was discovered that he was underage.Chapter 1 The Life and Times of Edwin Gray To understand Edwin Gray and the potential offered by his invention. as well as what he did during his early life. At the time. which was not unheard of during this time in history. Where most children simply enjoyed learning about how electronics or engines worked. there was nothing to suggest that Gray was a budding genius. it is necessary to start at the beginning. he dropped out at just 14 years of age. his interest was very different from other children his age. He grew up poor and largely on the street.C. Gray enlisted in the Army and attended the Army's Advanced Engineering School for a full year.C. One of the major influences in Gray's formative years was watching the early radar tests conducted just across the Potomac River. though only for a short time. Gray was bound and determined to discover WHY they worked. In fact. There was much more to Gray than just genius with electronics and magnetism. What is more impressive is the fact that at just 15 years of age.

This failure forced Gray to make yet another move. The second thing was that Gray shut down his auto business. That marriage also ended in divorce. and moved to Colorado in 1961. It was not until 1956 that Gray decided a move to Southern California was called for and he promptly moved his family to Venice. He sold most of the building to one of his nephews and retained the rest of the property for use in his electronics inventing. His early efforts as an entrepreneur were successful and he actually managed to open a second location before an economic downturn forced him to close his doors. though. Gray was to remarry again in 1971. where he once more worked in the automotive repair industry. CA. an automobile collision shop. He was not to remain here long. where he founded a partnership with George Watson. where he was employed in an automotive repair shop. He and his new bride.Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. 6 . Geraldine. where he served three years in the Pacific Theater with combat duty. This time. Shortly thereafter. and Gray married three more times during his life. Gray stayed in this business until 1969. when his life was once again turned upside down. he moved again to Santa Monica and started his first company. Gray was once more living in Southern California. By 1965. his destination was Prescott. to Renate Lenz. an automotive painter with a considerable clientele of Hollywood A-list celebrities. and then to Las Vegas in 1962. Gray joined the Navy. and went on to have three more children with her. A divorce from his wife with whom he had seven children was the first thing to occur during this time. After the War After his stint in the Navy. Gray married. Arizona. soon started a family in Maryland.

There are even rumors that the experience that started the entire process was meeting one Dr. himself. Regardless of how it came to be. Others state that he had never shown any proclivity for invention before selling his auto shop in 1969. The underlying principle has been well documented by scientists for some time. a Russian immigrant. He went from plying a trade in which he had been involved for most of his adult life to one that he had never tried before – that of inventing.The Beginning of Invention Information is quite mixed about how and when Gray first began inventing. Popov. The Underlying Principles of Gray's Invention Regardless of whether Gray received information from a Russian named Popov or developed the entire idea on his own. electromagnets must be recharged by an outside source – this equates to power consumption. though no positive connection has ever been made between the two men. Some sources cite the man's lifelong interest in electricity. Gray's invention was not different because it used electromagnets. Popov purportedly gave Gray information that had been transferred from Nikola Tesla. There are certainly some similarities between Gray's work and Tesla's inventions in the late 1800s. However. In a regular electric motor. Ferromagnetic material is quite capable of storing energy and then discharging it. Gray's system recharged itself – it 7 . Electric motors of all types use electromagnets for that very purpose. 1969 marked something of a dramatic turning point for Gray. the fact is that the motors worked. it soon appeared that inventing was going to be Gray's true calling. but rather because he was able to recharge those magnets using capacitors and the static electricity that surrounds us at all times. However.

Gray was able to overcome this problem and keep his motor running cool enough to touch. LTD. This was a small 10 horsepower motor.460 watts with an input of just 26. Those batteries were then recharged by the motor. and it was sent to Crosby Research Institute for a full battery of tests. and one scientist actually noted on the report that the system would change the way the world used energy. According to the notes form this initial test. In 1971.was self-sustaining. this small motor was capable of producing 7. depending on your point of view). 8 . Gray's invention had the benefit of "running cold. The Birth of EVGRAY Enterprises. the report was sufficient to entice Bing Crosby (the Hollywood great and brother of Larry Crosby. Gray founded EVGRAY Enterprises." In most systems where electricity is generated or used. heat caused by friction in the materials is an inherent problem. The plate was cool enough to handle by hand. However. It was this company that would make him famous (or infamous. The report showed that the motor had a higher than 99% operating efficiency. In addition.8 watts – almost 300 times more output than input. One of the tests that displayed his invention's real potential involved a participant catching a heavy metal plate that had been subjected to the electromagnetic field of the motor and flung in the air by that force. These tests demonstrated the power and potential of Gray's invention. requiring no additional electricity in order to operate. It did not require an external power source beyond the batteries required to start the system. LTD. It took him just a single year to accumulate enough investors and other financial backers to create a working prototype of his motor. owner of the Crosby Research Institute) to sign on as a financial backer. In fact.

the company numbered a total of 15 investors. an automobile designer. Below. as did several other "big names. This partnership would have seen the design and production of the first fully electric car in the US. functional motor that might have been used in such a vehicle. / constant Horsepower: 100 HP Brake Horsepower: 32. By this point. you will find the test data for Gray's 100 horsepower. EMA-4 MOTOR PRELIMINARY TEST DATA • Input Power: 12 volts dc (of a 24 volt DC system. Ronald Reagan. In 1973. The test was conducted in 1973 and recorded by Jack Scagnetti. in fact. Problems and Upturns for Edwin Gray 1973 marked a good year for Gray. but it was not to be. In addition. He received a considerable amount of good press from his many demonstrations of his motor.The owner of Mallory Electric Company.05 • • 9 . making use of a 12 volt standard starter motor) • • RPM: 2550 RPM constant Torque: 66 lbs. and Gray had even received a Certificate of Merit from the Governor of California. also signed on with Crosby." It was Mallory's company that supplied the high voltage ignition coils that Gray used in his machine. and his technology seemed to be well received. Lewis. "Boot" Mallory. Gray had made sufficient progress to produce a 100 horsepower prototype that was also fully functional. he had formed a deal with Paul M.

e.057.without shielding. which can be repackaged into a 9" dia. (This is overall geometry including control unit. (includes 110 lbs for four 6-volt batteries) Volume: 42" long x 18" wide x 22" high.. etc • • • • • • • • Power Hazard: Fully secure . etc.7 volts Ambient Temperature: 84 degrees constant Humidity: 51% Fuel Consumption: None (other than air) Cooling: Conduction / 1/2 pound (flow through) air pressure Magnetic Field: 360 degrees-all directions during motor operation Lubrication: High temperature bearing grease (2 bearings) Vibration: Negligible Noise Level: No direct reading taken .5 minutes Battery Voltage Reading at Test completion: 25. fan.g.full design safety features Start Mode: Simple push button . The basic motor is a 16" dia. x 24" cylinder.standard 12V starter motor Operating Mode: Rheostat principle with switchable range(500-1300-1950-25503350-4100 RPM's) • • Physical Condition: Motor mounted on wheeled test stand – no external connections to stand 10 . x 12" cylinder) • • • • Test Run Time: 21.• • • Foot-pounds/minute: 1. no louder than small kitchen appliance.650 Foot-pounds/second: 755 lbs.

In addition. The case dragged on. but it did not work. 11 . but significant damage had been done. In addition. and his profile was much lower than previously. though. it was not all bleak during this period of his life. fuel-less vehicle the two were designing). However. leaving Gray without two of his bastions of support. it was in 1975 that Gray was issued his first patent.When an ex-employee made unfounded claims and accusations to local authorities. Gray's situation deteriorated rapidly. 1974 saw the Los Angeles District Attorney's Office raid EVGRAY Enterprises offices. Gray had to plead guilty to two minor SEC violations and pay a fine. Gray was definitely scarred from his previous run-ins with authority. Keeping his head down turned out to be the least of his worries. When this happened. Gray actually had a few things going for him. However. racking up financial charges and fees. Shortly after this. many SEC regulations did not apply to his situation. In the end. and the DA was disappointed to find that because of how few investors Gray had. The DA then undertook an eight-month campaign against Gray. He was released after that. The DA took all working prototypes of Gray's motors. in an attempt to get his investors to file charges against him for fraud. he was named "Inventor of the Year" by the Patent Attorney's Office in Los Angeles for his discovery of a new form of electric power. Lewis pulled out of the deal. For instance. the DA never returned a single prototype afterward. he failed to deliver the promised motor to Paul Lewis for his Fascination car (the all-electric. both Crosby and Mallory died. Later that same year. almost everything in the offices was confiscated. During the raid. Gray tried to raise more money through a press conference and fundraising. as well as all business records and other files. None of the investors would do so.

he was sorely mistaken. Here. that trend was certainly not going to abate any time soon. Here. Idaho. as well as other assorted equipment. Iowa. The immediate side effect of this move was that all of his remaining backers lost their funds. Inc. In 1985. was no more. his destination was Canyon Country. He loaded all of his designs and prototypes and moved to San Diego. where he was to remain until 1984. Moves. That marked a move to a second location in Canyon Country. in Council. he moved to be closer to his oldest son. and fired all of them in a single day. This time. he setup shop once more and hired several assistants to help him with the completion of his prototypes and other promotional equipment. Gray became suspicious of his workers. Inc and EVGRAY Enterprises. he reorganized himself into ZETEX. 12 . With the completion of this equipment. he moved again. where he founded a new development and operations center and went about securing more financial backing. It was immediately after this that Gray moved to Kalona. However. but he only remained here for a short while. it was not to last. In fact. Moves and More Moves If it seems that Gray's life had thus far been marked by moves. California. This new arrangement was quickly dissolved when his business partners attempted a hostile takeover of his new business. he actually managed to finish work on five different motor prototypes. and Gray once again found himself on the move. Gray felt comfortable contacting TV stations and making videos to promote his designs and technology. Gray next moved back to Las Vegas.Reorganization and More Problems If Gray thought that his worries would lessen any time soon. He was to remain in this new city for just over a year. After the deaths of his two main supporters.

The goal was to interest the government in his technology for use in the Star Wars program conceived of by then President Reagan. The company operated out of the Cayman Islands and sold a considerable amount of stock in their new venture. Some of those individuals who had been selling his shares to investors decided to take what they had sold and run with it. though the price was definitely not high. however. Gray refused. The two formed their own partnership. with the goal being to gain more international investors through better exposure. They actually oversold the company stock by three times what was available. and he left the Holy Land. Gray decided on a different tack. and made off with a considerable amount of profit. no arrangement was found. a "Government Contact" and More Moves After returning to the US to find that he had been double-crossed.It was at this time that Gray partnered with Joe Gordon. The investors liked the promise offered by the technology. Texas. Letter Writing. This time. He even wrote to the president and vice president. where he would enter negotiations to sell his technology. Orr claimed to be a contact from the government and made direct offers to buy all of Gray's inventions. The inventor hit another snag when he returned home. he headed for Grand Prairie. as well as a branch holding company. but it was not ready for full time use in their applications (battlefield tech). an oil exploration lawyer working in Montana. After several highly emotional meetings. Gray did not receive a single reply to any of his letters. and Gray gummed up the process by insisting on maintaining a controlling interest in any deal reached. 13 . Gray also moved once more. He wrote letters to every single congressman and senator. It was shortly afterward that Gray received a visitor who called himself Reznor Orr. Gray was contacted by several Israeli investors and invited to visit Israel.

Orr. Orr's offers became more forceful. However. where he would hide for the next half-year. The only equipment that he kept was what could be fit within his van. There were even veiled threats of violence contained here. No one learned who had visited the shop that night. fearful. when Gray's income from his Cayman Islands business stopped suddenly. and she claims that Gray continued to experiment during the day. the gun failed to fire and McKellips found him shortly afterward. Dorothy McKellips was his romantic partner at the time. In April of 1989. To get things moving. Gray. dead on the floor of the shop. at 2 AM. Gray moved to Sparks. 14 . where he setup a combined shop and living area. He was on oxygen for the remainder of his life. furniture and more. He then made the drive to Portland. Gray found himself without money and with a serious problem in Mr. After leaving the hospital.However. Nevada. Combined with the effects of being a heavy smoker. during which he contracted pneumonia and was even hospitalized for it. but no actual cause was ever determined. even though an autopsy was supposed to have been completed. the pneumonia left him in a weakened state from which he never recovered. he liquidated family belongings. there was a loud banging on the shop door. Oregon. The Beginning of the End Gray remained in Oregon for some time. The presumed cause of death was a heart attack due to the stress of the situation. Gray decided that it was best to leave town when Orr gave him time to consider his offers. took a gun to go scare away the visitor by firing a shot into the night.

The patent for his motor can be found in the next chapter. videos. However. but this schematic shows just how simple the setup can truly be. 15 . There is a better way to propel vehicles. to heat and cool homes and to power industry around the globe. hard-handed tactics and scandal. Gray's son procured a court order for the release of Gray's technology. equipment and notes and had them thrown in the landfill. or even sufficiently finished to reconstruct the entirety of the motor. However. This sufficiently ended any attempts by Gray's son to reconstruct what his father had been doing. McKellips would not release any of Gray's technology until she had received some sort of compensation.Gray's Legacy Gray's eldest son was the one who identified the body of his father for authorities. None of these were operational. He also represented a group from Kansas interested in recovering his father's work. the millions of dollars still sitting in the Cayman Islands banks were untouchable due to the overselling of stock. Meanwhile. Eventually. McKellips took all of Gray's materials. but unrealistic. the real legacy left to us by Gray might be something more than a series of moves and government suppression. these funds were simply consumed by the banks and through fines and fees by the government. It really only gave him the right to take the motors that Gray had made. Here is a very simple schematic of Gray's concept. Before the court battle could begin in earnest. and McKellips happily obliged by giving him all of the motors then constructed. having flown to Sparks for that purpose. but it was not correctly worded. His motor designs prove that reliance on fossil fuels is not only unnecessary.

feasible means of heating and cooling homes 16 . These benefits include the following: • • • • Electrical energy produced without creating pollution Electrical energy produced without consuming fossil fuels A drastic reduction in global warming causing agents A drastic reduction in environmental pollution of all types A simple. effective power system for all types of vehicles.This device can offer some significant benefits – the very benefits that so stunned people like Bing Crosby and "Boot" Mallory. from automobiles to aircraft • • A cost effective.

What. Even the Israeli investors were forced to concede that the technology had lots of potential. anyone who saw a demonstration of Gray's technology was immediately impressed. 17 . exactly. the theory behind it. and more.Chapter 2 Gray's Breakthrough Technology As we learned in the previous chapter. though it was not immediately of use for the battlefield. we'll take a closer look at what it was that Gray actually developed. was the secret behind this technology? What was the foundation of Gray's fuel-less motor and what made it so impressive? In this chapter.

torque is provided to the rotor's axle by magnetic flux generated by the magnetic field created. Each time the permanent magnets rotate past the electromagnets. there are two opposing discs. 18 . Here. In this arrangement. as the magnetic attraction is all that is required. This makes the motor extremely efficient. and is stationary (as the name implies). but only for a few milliseconds. One is the rotor and one is the stator. The permanent magnets and the electromagnets align with each other as the rotor spins. which provides torque for the entire system. generating electricity with minimal input needed and limiting (or even eliminating) the need to be connected to the power grid. It faces the rotor. The stator is not connected to the same shaft as the rotor. The stator holds another set of electromagnets. Such a device could certainly be used to power an automobile. Because the permanent magnet and the electromagnet both have the same polarity. but it could also have implications for the American home. a pulse of power is created. Power is consumed during this phase. the rotor is attached to an axle.What Was Gray's Motor? Gray's motor was the subject of much discussion and showed tremendous potential for use in many different applications. and the rotor's axle travels through a hole in the center of the stator to its mounting location on the frame behind the stator. the rotor has several permanent magnets equidistant from each other around the outside perimeter of the side facing the stator. all of which are located opposite their counterparts on the rotor. the permanent magnets are repelled. the permanent magnets are attracted to the iron cores of the electromagnets. Gray's motor was essentially a permanent magnet/pulsed DC electromagnet motorgenerator. Finally. During this phase. There is no power consumption here. Using a flange. Bearings attached to the frame are used to allow the axle and rotor to turn. spinning the rotor still more.

as outlined in the previous section. Usually. • Axle: The axle is what the rotor spins on – just like an axle in a car or truck.Wound around each of the electromagnets is a pickup coil. The rotor spins around on the axle propelled by magnetic force (like poles repel each other. These include: • The Stator: The stator is really nothing more than the part of the motor that doesn't turn – you'll find them in automotive alternators. creating rotary motion in the motor). the rotor has coils (layers of wrapped wire) in key positions that will interact with the magnetic field generated by the magnets and transfer the current generated through the commutator. It's really just magnetism at work here. How an Electric Motor Works Understanding how an electric motor works is essential to understanding Gray's motor design. the stator is usually made of magnets (for small motors) or has permanent magnets (or electromagnets) added to an existing frame. It's actually pretty simple. which powers a load. which generates an electric current created by the collapsing magnetic field. There are several key parts to any electric motor. In this type of design. In an electric motor. 19 . as illustrated in the example above. a small DC generator is attached to the axle of the rotor. • The Rotor: The rotor is the part of the motor that turns – it spins within the stator. In addition. This current is then used to charge secondary batteries. the rotor is an electromagnet. but not always. too.

According to the inventor. However. you would have a very basic electromagnet. by using higher voltage to attain a very high rate of spin. so that what was the north pole becomes the south pole. the fields can be flipped.How Electromagnets Work Electromagnets are really not hard to understand. from this brief example. As you know. In an electromagnet. you can see just how simple these devices really are. Now. you can use a very simple example to understand even something like Gray's motor design. low voltage energy was sent through this circuit to create a series of "high energy spikes. you combine a conductive material and a source of electricity. wrap it in copper wire and then attach the two ends of that wire to a small battery. In the original motors. such as a small battery. one suspended inside another on an axle so that the north poles and south poles of each magnet were facing each other." This creates a self-sustaining motor. This allows the magnet to continue spinning because there is a constant force pushing the poles away from each other. In fact. but rather utilizes them in a unique integration in a system in order to maximize upon the 20 . If you were to take a nail. In an electromagnet. the magnet on the axle would turn until the poles were no longer forcing away from each other. Gray's motor amps up this example. if you combine two magnets. "The idea of a self-sustaining electric motor at first appears to go against much of the theory of electricity and conservation of energy. The part where this becomes very interesting is when these magnets interact with each other. himself. Gray's Motor and Circuit Schematics One of the key components to the system is the high voltage circuit. The EMA motor does not. violate the basic laws of physics. certainly. however. one of the basic magnetic laws is that like poles repel and opposite poles attract.

as well as descriptions of the various diagrams and for the way in which the systems operate as a whole. though? To give you a bit of insight into the inventor's mind. The EMA prototype motor has had considerable operating test time and has been adapted to standard and automatic automobile transmissions. These patents contain a full set of diagrams for his designs. and physical components. 21 . magnetic. you will find his patent for a pulsed capacitor discharge electric engine as well as his patent for an inductive load power supply below." How did Gray intend to use this device.characteristics and interrelationships between electrical.

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2 is an elevational sectional view of the electrical conversion element. FIG. 1 is a schematic circuit diagram of the electrical driving system.FIG. 23 . 5 is a schematic circuit diagram of the alternating-current input circuit. FIG.

EFFICIENT POWER SUPPLY SUITABLE FOR INDUCTIVE LOADS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION 1. to a system for driving an inductive load in a greatly improved and efficient manner. (3) such as the combination of battery and alternating-current. Description of the Prior Act In the opinion of the inventor. there is no known device which provides the conversion of energy from a direct-current electric source or an alternating-current electric source to a mechanical force based on the principle of this invention. 3 is a plan sectional view taken along line 3—3 of FIG. with an attendant increase in the useful productive period between external applications of energy restoration for the energy source. may be used with highly improved efficiency to operate a mechanical device. 4 is a plan sectional view taken along line 4 4 of FIG. connected to a bridge-type rectifier. a transformer connected to the vibrator for receiving the pulsating signal. a capacitor for 24 .FIG. a highvoltage source. whose output is a linear or rotary force. FIG. 2. 2. where available. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a more efficient driving system comprising a source of electrical voltage. EXAMPLE: A portable energy source. or the bridge-type rectifier connected to the high voltage pulse output of the transformer. a vibrator connected to the low-voltage source for forming a pulsating signal. 2. (1) such as a battery. (2) such as alternating-current. Field of the Invention The present invention relates to an electrical driving system and a conversion element. and more particularly.

features and results thereof which will be evident to those skilled in the art in light of this disclosure may be achieved with the exemplary embodiment of the invention described in detail hereinafter and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.] DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT While the present invention is susceptible of various modifications and alternative constructions. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS [Inserted above after each drawing -. The invention also includes a method for providing power to an inductive load comprising the steps of providing a voltage source. conducting said signal to a high voltage anode. conducting the discharge to an inductive load. a conversion element having first and second anodes. and coupling the second capacitor to the source. a second high voltage anode mounted to the housing. and an inductive load connected to the output terminal whereby a high energy discharge between the first and second anodes is transferred to the charge receiving means and then to the inductive load.SDA. As a sub-combination.receiving the voltage pulse output. advantages. the second anode adapted to be connected to a voltage source. The foregoing objects of the present invention together with various other objects. and an output terminal communicating with the charge receiving means. providing a low voltage to a second anode to form a high energy discharge. pulsating a signal from said source. a commutator connected to the source of electrical voltage and to the first anode. the first anode adapted to be connected to a voltage source. Another object of the present invention is to provide a system for driving an inductive load which is reliable. the present invention also includes a conversion element comprising a housing. said terminal adapted to be connected to an inductive load. It is an aim of the present invention to provide a system for driving an inductive load which system is substantially more efficient than any now existing. the charge receiving means being mounted to the housing. is inexpensive and simply constructed. storing and increasing the signal. electrically conductive means for receiving a charge positioned about the second anode and an output terminal connected to the charge receiving means. electrostatically coupling the discharge to a charge receiving element. an embodiment is shown in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. rectifying said signal. coupling a second capacitor to the load. the second anode being connected to the capacitor. electrically conductive means positioned about the second anode and spaced therefrom for receiving a charge. increasing the voltage of said signal. a first low voltage anode mounted to the housing. It should be understood however that it is not the intention to limit the invention to 25 .

The low-voltage anode may incorporate a resistive device to aid in controlling the amount of current drawn from the energy source. will convert low voltage electric energy from a source such as an electric storage battery to a high potential. There is disclosed herein an electrical driving system which. directly related to the amount of energy to be anticipated when the device is operating. This CEMF increases 26 . and not used by the inductive load in the production of mechanical energy. stored momentarily. for the optimum period of time. to the same or second energy reservoir or source for use elsewhere. The increase in efficiency anticipated in converting the electrical energy to mechanical energy within the inductive load is attributed to the utilization of the most optimum timing in introducing the electrical energy to the load device. high current energy pulse that is capable of developing a working force at the inductive output of the device that is more efficient than that which is capable of being developed directly from the energy source. then transferred to the inductive output load. Further enhancement of energy conservation is accomplished by capturing a significant portion of the energy generated by the inductive load when the useful energy field is collapsing. on theory. as to be compatible with the size of the tube. This element utilizes a lowvoltage anode. An energy discharge occurs within the element when the external control circuits permit.the particular form disclosed. This short duration. and have heretofore been accepted because no suitable means had been developed to harness this energy and restore it to a suitable energy storage device. The improvement in efficiency is further enhanced by the capability of the device to return that portion of the initial energy developed.voltage potential developed by the associated circuits. a high-voltage anode. This system accomplishes the results stated above by harnessing the “electrostatic” or “impulse” energy created by a high-intensity spark generated within a specially constructed electrical conversion switching element tube. These grids are of a physical size. and one or more “electrostatic” or charge receiving grids. The present invention is concerned with two concepts or characteristics. but on the contrary. high-voltage. or for storage. and appropriately positioned. high-current energy pulse is captured by the “electrostatic” grids within the tube. The highvoltage anode is connected to a high. the invention is to cover all modifications. This energy is normally dissipated in load losses that are contrary to the desired energy utilization. equivalents and alternative constructions falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as expressed in the appended claims. and therefore. This low-voltage anode is connected to the energy source through a mechanical commutator or a solid-state pulser that controls the timing and duration of the energy spark within the element.rent through the inductor. The first of these characteristics is observed with the introduction of an energizing cur. The inductor creates a contrary force (counter-electromotive force or CEMP) that opposes the energy introduced into the inductor.

1. The switching may be at specified periods determined by experimentation with a particular device. In this invention. produces an energy source at the output of the inductor that simulates the original energy source. energy has previously been lost due to a failure to provide a storage capability for this energy. When the available source is already of the high voltage. the system 10 will be described in additional detail. but not essential. 12 of the conversion element 14 is developed across the capacitor 16. in other words. The voltage spike so created is imposed upon a capacitor that couples the attendant current to a secondary energy storage device. The turns ratio of the transformer is chosen to optimize the volt. the useful work of the inductor is accomplished prior to terminating the application of energy. Referring now to FIG. By repetitious application of these output pulses from the bridge-type rectifier to the 27 . high-current. A novel. without the resultant deterioration of circuit elements normally associated with high energy electrical arcs. Previous attempts to provide energy inputs to an inductor of time durations limited to that period when the optimum transfer of inductive energy to mechanical energy is occurring.age applied to a bridge-type rectifier 24.throughout the time the introduced energy is increasing. This switching may be so arranged as to actuate automatically at predetermined times. The excess energy applied is thereby wasted. AC type. it may be coupled directly to the bridge-type rectifier. In normal applications of an alternating-current to an inductive load for mechanical applications. the inductor generates an EMF that opposes the removal of current or. As the current is decreased. short duration energy pulse is applied to the inductive load by the conversion element. circuit arrangement pro-vides for switching the energy source and the energy storage device. The second characteristic is observed when the energizing current is removed from the inductor. a high-voltage. or may be actuated by some control device that measures the relative energy content of the two energy reservoirs. This abrupt withdrawal of current is attendant upon the termination of the stimulating arc. The output of the rectifier is then a series of high-voltage pulses of modest current. or excess. This invention also provides for capture of a certain portion of the energy induced by the high inductive kick produced by the abrupt withdrawal of the introduced current. reduced by the actual energy removed from the circuit by the mechanical load. The potential for the high.voltage anode. This “regenerated”. This element makes possible the use of certain of that energy impressed within an arc across a spark-gap. This voltage is produced by drawing a low current from a battery source 18 through the vibrator 20. have been limited by the ability of any such device to handle the high current required to optimize the energy transfer. The effect of the vibrator is to create a pulsating input to the transformer 22.

This switching may be accomplished manually or 28 . fixed by the mechanical size and spacing of the elements within the protective device. Should the potentials within the circuit exceed predetermined values.vals to be determined by the utilization of the conversion switching element tube. inducing a strong electromagnetic field about the inductive load. This counter EMF creates a high positive potential across a second capacitor which. A switching element tube type one-way energy path 28 is introduced between the commutator device and the conversion switching element tube to prevent high energy arcing at the commutator current path. A series of contacts mounted radially about a shafts or a solid-state switching device sensitive to time or other variable may be used for this control element. When the switching element tube is closed.capacitor 16. If the inductive load is coupled magnetically to a mechanical load. A spark-gap protection device 42 is included in the circuit to protect the inductive load and the rectifier elements from unduly large discharge currents. This electrostatic charge is applied through an output terminal 60 (FIG. 2) across the load inductance 36. Control of the conversion switching element tube is maintained by a commutator 26. a high-voltage. high-level charge is built up on the capacitor. in turn. The energy content of the high energy pulse is eletrostatically coupled to the conversion grids 34 of the conversion element. A switching element U allows either energy storage source to be used as the primary energy source. Upon cessation of the energy pulse (arc) within the conversion switching element tube the inductive load is decoupled. The collapse of this energy field induces within the inductive load a counter EMF. The amount of charging current available to the battery 40 is dependent upon the initial conditions within the circuit at the time of discharge within the conversion switching element tube and the amount of mechanical energy consumed by the work load. is induced into the second energy storage device or battery 40 as a charging current. while the other battery is used as the energy retrieval unit. The intensity of this electromagnetic field is determined by the high electromotive potential developed upon the electrostatic grids and the very short time duration required to develop the energy pulse. The switch facilitates interchanging the source and the retrieval unit at optimum inter. current from the voltage source 18 is routed through a resistive element 30 and a low voltage anode 32. a strong initial torque is developed that may be efficiently utilized to produce physical work. allowing the electromagnetic field about the inductive load to collapse. This causes a high energy discharge between the anodes within the conversion switching element tube 14. Diodes 44 and 46 bypass the excess overshoot generated when the “Energy Conversion Switching Element Tube” is triggered. the excess energy is dissipated (bypassed) by the protective device to the circuit common (electrical ground).

as determined by the choice of switching element from among a large variety readily available for the purpose. 3. This invention proposes to utilize the energy contained in an internally generated highvoltage electric spike (energy pulse) to electrically energize an inductive load. FIGS. Such energy conversion is readily achieved by any of a multitude of well established principles. and the proper selection of the components of the circuit elements of the system. or it may be built of one or more resistive elements to achieve the desired result. should not be construed to change the described utilization or application of primary energy in any way. short-duration electric spike is generated by discharging the capacitor 16 across the spark-gap in the conversion switching element tube. the input to the bridge rectifier is provided by the voltage step-up transformer 22. or solid-state chopper. as determined by appropriate research at the time of production for the intended use. An outer housing 50 may be of any insulative material such as glass. and energy requirements). or similar device 29 . It is the inventor’s contention that this mating and selection process is well within the capabilities of intensive research and development technique. the desired theoretical results may be achieved. and 56.automatically. The necessary high-voltage potential is stored on the capacitor in incremental. When the energy source is a direct-current electric energy storage device. The anodes 12 and 22 and grids Ma and 34b are firmly secured by nonconductive spacer material 54. In operation the high-voltage. It is the contention of the inventor that by judicious mating of the elements of the conversion switching element tube. Let it be stated here that substituting a source of electric alternating-current subject to the required cur. or may be of differing materials for each anode. The shape and spacing of the electrostatic grids is also susceptible to variation with application (voltage. and 4 show the mechanical structure of the conversion switching element tube 14. 2. The resistive element may be of a piece. that is in turn energized from the vibrator 20. The anode material may be identical for each anode. additive steps from the bridge-type rectifier 24. or there. The resistive element 30 may be introduced into the low-voltage anode path to control the peak currents through the conversion switching element tube. The preferred embodiment of this invention merely assumes optimum utilization and optimum benefit from this invention when used with portable energy devices similar in principle to the wet-cell or dry-cell battery. either prior to being considered a primary energy source. current.: this inductive load being then capable of converting the energy so supplied into a useful electrical or mechanical output.rent and/or voltage shaping and/or timing. such as the battery 12. as dictated by the most efficient utilization of the device.after.

it may be coupled direct to a bridge-type rectifier. When control of the repetitive rate of the system’s output is required. the instantaneous voltage. When the energy source is an alternating-current. or solid-state chopper. and instantaneous current may both be very high. that closes the circuit path from the low-voltage anode to the current source at that moment when the delivery of energy to the output load is most auspicious. The repetitions output of the bridge rectifier incrementally increases the capacitor charge toward its maximum. Within the conversion switching element tube. Where a high-voltage source is otherwise available. or similar device to properly drive the transformer and rectifier circuits. that is in turn energized from the vibrator 20. it is accomplished by controlling the time of connection at the low-voltage anode. a transformer and a bridge-type rectifier to provide a high voltage pulsating signal to a first capacitor. switches 64 disconnect transformer 22 and the input to the bridge-type rectifier 24 is provided by the voltage step-up transformer 66. The element also includes a low-voltage anode which in turn is connected to a voltage source by a commutator. Control of the energy spike within the conversion switching element tube is accomplished by a mechanical. The second capacitor in turn is coupled to the voltage source. Because the duration of the arc is very short. causing a pulsating signal to a first capacitor. Also coupled to the load is a second capacitor for storing the back EMF created by the collapsing electrical field of the load when the current to the load is blocked. an arc is created in the spark-gap designated 62 of the conversion switching element tube equivalent to the potential stored on the high-voltage anode. Thus there can be provided an electrical driving system having a low-voltage source coupled to a vibrator. The instantaneous peak apparent power is therefore. also very high. this energy is absorbed by the grids 34a and 34b mounted circumferentially about the interior of the tube. The capacitor in turn is coupled to a high-voltage anode of an electrical conversion switching element tube. and the current available from the lowvoltage anode. When the low-voltage anode 32 is connected to a source of current. and a variable resistor. a switching element tube. 30 . Any number of standard high-accuracy. This charge is electrically connected directly to the highvoltage anode 12 of the conversion switching element tube. variable setting devices are available for this purpose.to properly drive the transformer and rectifier circuits. or solid-state commutator. Mounted around the high-voltage anode is a charge receiving plate which in turn is coupled to an inductive load to transmit a high-voltage discharge from the element to the load.

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in the image below.Chapter 3 The Real Deal If you were following along in the first chapter. research and components to avoid a costly legal battle. you remember that Gray's last girlfriend destroyed all of his notes. does that mean that nothing from Gray's developments was salvaged? Actually. you can see the original motor built by Gray. as well as one of his production prototype motors. it is quite the contrary. A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words Proof that Gray's motors still exist (and can still be used) comes in the form of several pictures. For instance. However. 49 . Several of his motors have been accounted for. and some of his components were even found in an electronic store's junk pile.

The original motor uses seven high voltage spark plug cables and a single ground. Another one of Gray's production motors can be seen undergoing testing in the photograph below: 50 .

The motor being tested used sequential banks of three capacitors for power production. during and after the testing. 51 . each of which was charged using a high power generator. It was found that they maintained a full charge throughout the process. Before. and actually ended the testing with a higher charge than what they had at the beginning. the charge on the batteries was measured.

tests indicated that if the unit was 52 .Tests of this production prototype show that the device is capable of producing a staggering amount of energy. For instance.

The average home only requires about 15.operated at 10. it would be capable of producing 1. Therefore.000 watts) of electricity.000 RPM.000 watts of electricity per day to operate.000 horsepower. 53 . it is feasible for this device to provide more than sufficient electricity to operate a home (and then some!). That would equate to 760 kilowatts (760.

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The two images above are provided for scale. Therefore. you'll find a selection of interior pictures of these motors below. The two photos below show the motor used to charge the batteries in the example cited in the previous section. over which a belt can be placed to power a load. and roughly one and a half feet in diameter. pictures of the outside of Gray's devices do not show much of how they operate. Each unit also has a pulley on one end. 55 . Each unit shown is about three to four feet in length. The Internals of the Device Of course.

56 . as well as how the interior repulsor coils are aligned within the housing.The following series of photographs shows the dimensions of the exterior housing.

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The next series of images shows the details of how the repulsor coils on the rotor are constructed.

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you will find a series of photographs showing how the contactor plate works in a similar fashion to an automobile distributor cap. 64 .Below. sending the high voltage charge to the coils.

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declining natural resources and steep energy prices are so common. renewable energy to power everything from automobiles to homes. If you have been looking for a means to generate your own energy without relying on fossil fuels or paying enormous amounts of money to the power company. though in a unique way. This motor offers significant advantages. the world has an alternative to costly exploitation and use of fossil fuels. Gray might not have received the recognition he was due during his life. This device represents the harnessing of one of the oldest power sources in the world. when global warming. 69 .Conclusion Edwin V. You have in your hand the key to sustainable energy production on an incredible scale – a simple motor based on this concept can power an entire home. you can choose to use this powerful design for your own benefit. Through the ingenuity of Gray and his colleagues. or even several homes! There has never been a better time to make this smart decision – now. including benefits to the environment. then congratulations. but his inventions live on. while more complex motors can power your automobile. from agricultural equipment to aircraft and beyond. The Gray motor offers all users a source of clean. a reduction in energy generation costs and a sustainable form of energy that will serve for years to come.