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Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Controls

Article

CO 2 Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration

R E F R I G E R AT I O N A N D A I R C O N D I T I O N I N G

................... 4 CO2 as a refrigerant in industrial systems ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 2 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA)............. 10 Leaks in CO2-NH3 cascade systems ............................................................................................................Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Contents Page Introduction ..................................................................................................................Article CO2 ........................................................................................... 13 Conclusion ...................................................................... 13 Danfoss valves and controls for CO2 .............. 10 Water in CO2 systems ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 CO2 as a refrigerant ............. 6 Design pressure ......................... 8 Oil in CO2 systems ....... 7 Efficiency ........................ 8 Refrigerant charge in CO2-NH3 cascade systems .......... 12 Safety valves in CO2 systems .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12................. 12 Safety ............................................... 9 Material compatibility ...............2002 ........................................................................................ 8 Component size ...................................................

CO2 is non-toxic and nonflammable. CO2 belongs to the so-called "Natural" refrigerants. In comparison.Article CO2 . Ammonia has continued to be the dominant refrigerant for industrial refrigeration applications over the years. together with e. and water has limited application possibilities. Lowe experimented with CO2 military balloons. and water. CO2 was generally the preferred choice for use on board ships whilst ammonia (NH3 or R717) was more common in land applications [2].Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Introduction The application of carbon dioxide (CO2) refrigeration systems is not new. Carbon dioxide was first proposed as a refrigerant by Alexander Twining [1].C. who mentioned it in his British patent in 1850. which can change the environment if its concentration in the atmosphere changes. hydrocarbons are flammable.g. but he also designed an ice machine with CO2 in 1867. 12 . [1] Bondinus. CO2 is necessary for all life on earth. From reading the literature it can be seen that CO2 refrigerant systems were developed during the following years and they were at their peak in the 1920's and early 1930's. due to ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) and GWP (Global Warming Potential). Lowe also developed a machine onboard a ship for transportation of frozen meat. The main reason for its decline was certainly the rapid loss of capacity and pressure increase at high temperatures. ammonia. Gustav ASHRAE Journal April 1999 Reprint from IIR Conference 1994 Proceedings "New Applications of Natural Working Fluids in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning" ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). With the advent of the "Freon" refrigerants initially R12. In the 1990's there was renewed focus of the advantages offered by using CO2. hydrocarbons such as propane and butane. but is also a green house gas. William S [2] Lorentzen. All of these refrigerants have their respective disadvantages: Ammonia is toxic. which has restricted the use of CFC's and HFC's and restrictions on the refrigerant charge in large ammonia systems. the application of CO2 lessened.2002 RZ0ZR102 3 . but has a double role in the environment. Thaddeus S.

. 2 Pressure-temperature diagram for CO2 4 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). liquid and solid exists. In the supercritical phase.6 +31°C Supercritical Liquid Solid . CO2 has properties which are almost similar to a high-density vapour.Vapour Solid 5.CO2 solid can be used as a substitute for sand in "sandblasting". but there are some exceptions: The triple point for CO2 is much higher than for all other common refrigerants (see table 1). and the critical temperature is + 31°C.7°C (132°C) Table 1: Triple points for CO2 and NH3 CO2 Pressure (bar) 100 73. In the triple point.06 bar 113 bar –77. the triple point is actually a line at a pressure of 5.4°C Vapour 1 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Enthalpy(J) Fig.6 bar. . Thermodynamic properties of CO2 seem to be similar to many other common refrigerants.78. 12.18 bar. This is utilized in extraction of one substance from another. an equilibrium of CO2 vapour.6°C Solid .2002 .6 bar –56.Liquid 10 Liquid . The pressure-temperature diagram for CO2 is shown in fig 2.By increasing pressure.Vapour . 1 The pressure-enthalpy diagram for CO2 CO2 Phases 1000 Pressure (bar) Liquid Supercritical 100 Note: CO2 is a unique substance used for many different purposes in other industries.6°C (31°C) 0.6°C.56. E. The critical pressure of CO2 is 73. and a temperature of –56.Fire fighting systems Solid 10 Triple point Vapour 1 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature (°C) Fig. NH3 CO2 Pressure Temperature Pressure Temperature Triple point 5. . CO2 becomes a solvent. In the pressure-enthalpy diagram (see fig 1).2 .18 bar Critical pressure 73.g.Article CO2 . and for cleaning processes.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration CO2 as a refrigerant Characteristics of CO2 The pressure-enthalpy diagram for CO2 is shown in fig 1.

A single stage subcritical CO2 system is simple but it also has disadvantages due to the limitation in temperature and high pressure.g. controls and valves only differ slightly compared to traditionally industrial refrigeration plants. pump circulating systems or CO2 in secondary "brine" systems or combinations of these.Article CO2 . A number of research programs are running in the automotive industry for airconditioning. At a temperature of 20°C. Some common industrial systems are described on pages 6 and 7. 3: Subcritical 10/35 bar Fig.2 bar.g. 12 . direct expansion systems. The transcritical (supercritical) CO2 system is only interesting for small systems. where system pressure is not an important design feature.2002 RZ0ZR102 5 . The design of CO2 refrigeration systems depends very much on the application. Fig. because the pressure can be limited to a level where the requirements for components like compressors. Japan). but also for residential airconditioning (e. CO2 systems can be designed in different ways e. CO2 in hybrid systems is the most common system design in industrial refrigeration.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration CO2 as a refrigerant (cont. the saturated pressure is 57. 4: Supercritical 10/90 bar ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA).) The high-saturated pressure at ambient temperature is often the first barrier that needs to be considered when proposing CO2 as a refrigerant. There are a number of different ways that CO2 can be utilised.

CO2 cascade system with CO2 hot gas defrosting +30°C R717 CO2 .9 bar) CO2 compressor Enthalpy –40°C Pressure CO2-receiver CO2 –15°C (23 bar) –40°C (10 bar) CO2 Enthalpy –40°C CO2 evaporator Fig.Article CO2 . The heat exchanger acts as an evaporator in the NH3 system. R717 CO2 -R717 –20°C –15°C Pressure R717 Heat exchanger +30°C (12 bar) –20°C (1. R717 . 5: Diagram of R717/CO2 cascade system Figure. The CO2 system is a pump circulating system where the liquid CO2 is pumped from the receiver to the evaporator. 6: Diagram of R717/CO2 cascade system with hot gas defrosting 6 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA).CO2 cascade system +30°C The evaporated CO2 is then compressed in a CO2 compressor. where it is partly evaporated. and condensed in the CO2NH3 heat exchanger. 6 shows the same system as in fig 5.2002 .Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration CO2 as a refrigerant in industrial systems Figure. before it returns to the receiver.R717 Heat exchanger –20°C –15°C Pressure R717 +30°C (12 bar) CO2 compressor –20°C (1. R717 . 12.9 bar) Enthalpy -40°C Pressure CO2-receiver CO2 defrost compressor CO2 +8°C –15°C (23 bar) –40°C (10 bar) (43 bar) CO2 +8°C Enthalpy –40°C CO2 evaporator Fig. but includes a CO2 hot gas defrosting system. 5 shows a low temperature refrigerating system (–40°C) using CO2 as a phase change refrigerant in a cascade system with ammonia on the high-pressure side.

water. (See figure 8 and 9).2002 RZ0ZR102 7 . By adding 10% for the safety valves and approx.9 bar-g.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration CO2 as a refrigerant in industrial systems (cont. 80 bar) ● ● From Danfoss' experience. is to use a small separate refrigeration system to cool down the liquid CO2. but also on the availability of suitable compressors and other components. The CO2 hot gas defrosting is the most efficient. where the liquid CO2 is pumped R717 .Article CO2 . before it returns to the receiver. Here it is partly evaporated. the requirement is for pressure PS ~ 50 bar-g. Defrosting pressure by CO2 hot gas defrosting: Depending on the actual design. With a design pressure of PS=50 bar. different ways of defrosting can be applied (natural. The heat exchanger acts as an evaporator in the NH3 system. The saturated pressure at 9°C is 43. Designing the plant so that it can withstand the saturated pressure at the design temperature (approx. 7 shows a low temperature refrigerating system (–40°C) using CO2 as a "brine" system with ammonia on the highpressure side.R717 Heat exchanger –45°C –40°C Pressure R717 +30°C (12 bar) –45°C (0. R717 CO2 . are used. but it also has the highest pressure demand. The CO2 system is a pump circulating system. where the saturated pressure is lower than the design pressure Designing the system with an expansion vessel of a size that prevents the pressure from exceeding the design pressure. The evaporated CO2 is then condensed in the CO2-NH3 heat exchanger. 5% for pressure peaks. All methods. 9-10°C. The pressure during stand still. 1. electrical or CO2 hot gas defrosting). A small separate refrigeration system can be used to keep the liquid temperature at a level. 7: Diagram of R717/CO2 brine system Design pressure There are 2 important factors to take into consideration when determining the design pressure. especially at low temperatures.CO2 brine system +30°C from the receiver to the evaporator.) Figure. The pressure during stand still can be very high and this has to be taken into consideration: ● 2. as described above. There is not one common method to perform defrosting.5 bar) Enthalpy –40°C Pressure CO2-receiver CO2 –40°C (10 bar) CO2 Enthalpy –40°C CO2 evaporator Fig. ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). it is possible to reach a defrosting temperature of approx. 12 . it would appear that the most common solution for industrial refrigeration applications. depending on the system.

9 Efficiency In CO2-NH3 cascade systems it is necessary to use a heat exchanger. However.Article CO2 . in particular the relative high pressure level. there is no oil present in the circulated CO2. due to the necessity of having a temperature difference between the fluids. and in pump circulating systems with oil free compressors. controls and other components can operate "dry".) 60 55 50 Pressure (bar) CO2 Design pressure (bar-g): PS + 15 % 45 40 35 30 25 PS 50 PS 40 PS + 10% (bar-g) "Saturated"pressure (bar-a) PS 25 20 -30 -20 -10 0 Design temperature (°C) 10 20 Fig. view. (See figure 10 and 11).Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Design pressure (cont. it requires that all valves.2002 8 RZ0ZR102 . the compressor capacity is significantly higher for CO2 than it is for NH3. In CO2 "brine" systems. 12. but in liquid lines are larger. From an efficiency point of Due to the thermodynamic properties of CO2. this is an optimum solution due to good heat transfer coefficients in the evaporators. dimensions in the vapour lines are smaller. Oil in CO2 systems Component size [3] Stoecker. compressors running with CO2 have a better efficiency and heat transfer is greater. The overall efficiency of a CO2-NH3 cascade system is not reduced when compared to a traditional NH3 system [3]. Will IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Conference Nashville TN 2002 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). Introducing exchangers creates a loss in the system efficiency. The pipe However. 8 Practical limit: PS ≥ Psaturated +15% Design pressure Pressure peaks Safety valve 5% 10% Saturated pressure Fig.

in particular in some European countries.3 0. is designed to have a temperature drop from the evaporator to the receiver on 1K.2 0. non-flammable refrigerant and ammonia as a L2 toxic refrigerant. Fig. which can be contained in a special machinery room having the necessary safety arrangements.8 m/s. 11 ∆p (bar) 0 Liquid line R717 CO2 Refrigerant charge in CO2-NH3 cascade systems EN 378 classifies CO2 as a L1 non-toxic. Fig. A CO2-NH3 cascade system is a perfect solution with the NH3 being limited to a small charge.8 (m/s) Liquid line 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 DN R717 CO2 Liquid line 0.05 Example: Liquid line CO2 and a NH3 pump circulating system with a capacity of 100 kW. ncirc = 3 Velocity ~ 0. circulating rate of 3.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Component size (cont. ncirc = 3 DT . Therefore.4 ∆p (bar) 0. 12 . circulating rate of 3. ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA).The CO2 is then distributed to all coolers. Even though NH3 has been used for many years. 10 Wet suction line 0.1(K) Wet suction line 100 80 60 40 20 0 R717 CO2 Wet suction line Velocity (m/s) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Wet suction line R717 CO2 Example: Return line CO2 and a NH3 pump circulating system with a capacity of 100 kW. is designed to have a velocity on 0. there is a great interest in minimizing the NH3 charge.) DN Example: 100 kW. the requirements have become more restricted in recent years.2002 RZ0ZR102 9 .Article CO2 .1 0 R717 CO2 Example: 100 kW.

12. Because CO2 is a very inert and stable substance. ● When charging CO2. Danfoss has carried out a number of tests to ensure that components released for use with CO2 can withstand the impact of CO2 in all aspects. [4] Leisenheimer. ● CO2 is treated as a very safe refrigerant.4 15 3. swelling and the generation of cavities and internal fractures. Relative permeation coefficient Q N2 .g.Nitrogen CO2 – Carbon Dioxide CH4 . Compared to NH3. Eaton Corporation.oxygen 1 24 3. The main concern with CO2 is the physiochemical effects. has to be taken into consideration. Bert and Thomas Fritz . CO2 is less sensitive.Article CO2 . but if water is present. unlike NH3. and modifications have to be made on some products. problems may occur.Methane He . and is therefore handled without following the normal safety requirements. The diffusion "D" indicates the amount of gas passing through the material. sealing materials.7 60 1. diffusion and solubility of different gases in polymers [4]. such as permeation. the impact on polymers is much more extreme.8 Relative diffusion coefficient D 1 1 0. those conditions are not important for industrial refrigeration as pressure and temperatures are lower for these systems.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration CO2 is compatible with almost all common metallic materials. Purdue University 10 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). Aeroquip Groupe IIF . which can dissolve in polymers.7 Relative solubility coefficient S 1 24 4. The large amount of CO2. The compatibility of CO2 and polymers is much more complex. However. These effects are connected with the solubility and diffusivity of CO2 in the actual material. polymers are not compatable with CO2. air can penetrate into it. and use of air purges. Some commonly used Water in CO2 systems In NH3 systems it is well known that there are reaction problems with oil. There are no restrictions from a compatibility point of view. and the moisture can condense inside the tubes. When the pressure is close to the critical pressure and the temperature is high. The high value of S/D for CO2 indicates that CO2 is one of the strongest promoters.004 1. oxygen.9 0.B2 and E2. Approximation of relative permeation. therefore there are no risks that leaks may cause penetration of H2O into the system. If the system is not evacuated properly. some water may well be retained. Some of them allow relative high amounts of water. there are different specifications of CO2.2002 . The solubility "S" indicates the amount of gas dissolved (accumulated in) the material. The permeation depends on pressure and in particular the temperature.Helium O2 .2 1 24 7 0.25 2. The tests have shown that CO2 is different. How can water penetrate into a CO2 system? ● The pressure of CO2 systems is always above the atmospheric pressure. when using copper or brass. and others require different fixing methods e. water and solid contaminations. If a system is opened up. but these are all handled today by frequent oil changes. S/D indicates the sensitivity of creating blisters and fractures in polymers. the chemical Material compatibility reaction with polymers is not critical.IIR Commission B1.29 S/D Explanation The permeation "Q" indicates the amount of gas penetrating into the material.

and are normally mounted in the liquid line to avoid any unnecessary pressure drops being created. 13: Water solubility The acceptable amount of water in CO2 systems is much lower than in systems with other common refrigerants.) Water Solubility in Refrigerants.g.Article CO2 . Driers in CO2 are very efficient. creating a risk of problems with equipment in the system e. The water can very easily be removed by mounting a drier in the system. Gas Phase (Y-Axis Linear) 1600 Water Solubility in Refrigerants. 12 . the water will freeze. ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). 12: Water solubility mg of water/kg of refrigerant [ppm] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -50 CO2 + ICE CO2 + Water CO2 Gas Phase (Y-Axis Linear) Water solubility in Refrigerants CO2 + H2O gasPhase -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Temperature [°C] 1600 1400 mg of water/kg of refrigerant [ppm] NH3 R134a R22 1200 1000 800 R404A 600 400 200 0 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 Temperature [°C] CO2 30 40 50 60 Fig.2002 RZ0ZR102 11 .Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Water in CO2 systems (cont. blocking control valves. Liquid Phase (Y-Axis Linear) 2500 1400 mg of water/kg of refrigerant [ppm] 2000 R134a 1000 800 mg of water/kg refrigerant [ppm] 1200 R134a 1500 CO2 600 1000 400 500 200 0 -60 CO2 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Tem perature [ oC] 0 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Tem perature [ oC] Fig. If the water content exceeds the dew-point. and the temperature is below 0°C.

and in this case in the atmosphere [5] Broesby-Olsen.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Water in CO2 systems (cont. but just after the valve. the formation of solid CO2 can occur. block this line. 12. the pressure in the downstream (outlet) line from the safety valve will pass the triple point at 5. CO2 will change from a mixture of contaminated. E1 and E2 . If a safety valve is mounted in a CO2 system at e. in particular the triple point. Safety valves in CO2 systems liquid and vapour into a mixture of solid and vapour . Below the triple point. thus blowing directly into the atmosphere. in the worst case. Finn Laboratory of Physical Chemisty. 50 bar.2002 . so the leak will occur into the NH3 system. B2. The most efficient solution to this problem is to mount the safety valve without an outlet line. The pressure of the CO2 will be higher than the NH3.IIR Commissions B1. Danfoss A/S IIF . The phase change of the CO2 does not take place directly in the valve.Aarhus Denmark 1996 12 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). 14: SGN moisture indication for CO2 CO2 system with filter drier and indicator Evaporator Condenser Filter drier Moisture indicator Fig. 15: CO2 systems with filter drier and indicator Leaks in CO2-NH3 cascade systems The most critical leak in a CO2-NH3 cascade system is in the heat exchangers between CO2 and NH3.g.Article CO2 .The formation of solid CO2 in the downstream line can.2 bar.) mg of water/kg refrigerant [ppm] 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -50 Water in CO2 Danfoss Sight Glass SGN in CO2 "Wet" "Dry" -40 -30 -20 -10 Tem perature [ºC] 0 10 20 Fig. which is located at much higher pressure than for all other common refrigerants. Ammonium carbonate is corrosive [5]. The solid substance ammonium carbonate is formed immediately when CO2 is in contact with NH3. which will become Due to the Thermodynamic properties of CO2.

Kersti introducing CO2 systems. and it may induce coughing.6 +31°C Supercritical Liquid Safety valve 50 bar Safety valve 35 bar Solid . cramps similar to epileptic fits. particularly on the mucous membrane of the nose. AGA Gas Handbook 1985 ISBN 91-970061-1-4 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). With smaller amounts. CO2 is classified as a non-toxic refrigerant. loss of consciousness. throat and eyes.Vapour . 8% Conclusion The availability of components for CO2 industrial refrigeration systems having reduced pressure to approx. high pulse rate. 30 bar is good. CO2 will not replace ammonia.2002 RZ0ZR102 13 . but it is physically burdening Short term exposure limit 8-10% Headache after 10 or 15 minutes. CO2 has a stimulating effect on the respiratory The symptoms associated with the inhalation of air containing carbon dioxide are.) CO2 100 73. which also require ammonia on the high temperature side of the system. 10-18% After a few minutes. 0. Safety Aspects of CO2 [6] Carbon dioxide replaces air.78. In the presence of sufficient oxygen. Dizziness.6°C Safety valve 50 bar 5% solid CO 2 at the triple point Solid . 16: Flow in downstream lines from safety valves Safety As previously mentioned. blood pressure increase.Vapour Safety valve 35 bar 0% solid CO 2 at the triple point Solid 5. An important factor in the speed of [6] Ahlberg. Within the area of industrial refrigeration. and shock(i. with increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. is very much dependent on the availability of critical components for high pressure CO2. valued for adults with good health centre.56. but only with a small ammonia charge. Due to the acidic characteristics of CO2.04% 2% 3% 5% Concentration in the atmospheric air 50% increase in breathing rate 10 minutes short term exposure limit.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Pressure (bar) Safety valves in CO2 systems (cont. Note: The data.: This is tolerated by most persons. The industrial CO2 systems are all hybrid systems. but unlike NH3. a certain local irritation may appear. buzzing in the ears.e. CO2 has no distinctive smell. 100% increase in breathing rate 300% increase in breathing rate. 12 .Article CO2 . as well. 18-20% Symptoms similar to those of a stroke.Liquid 10 Liquid . excitation. a sharp drop in blood pressure) The victims recover very quickly in fresh air. and nausea. and causes lack of oxygen.4°C Vapour 1 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Enthalpy (J) Fig. Several manufacturers of equipment for the traditional refrigerants can also supply some components for CO2 systems. but the availability of higher-pressure components for CO2 industrial refrigeration systems is limited. headache and sweating may begin after about an hour Com.2 . CO2 has a narcotic effect at stronger concentrations.

300 all all 80. process and fire fighting systems where the pressure has been limited to 25 bar. Today.40 15-40 15-25 15-40 The product must be manufactured in a special version (higher test pressure. The table below includes the components available for the different pressure stages. but all of them are CE approved. The CO2 systems have been refrigeration.40 20-125 80-125 15 . During the last few years.5. 50. 150 1-3 & 4. marking and documentation).25 8 32 40-80 32-200 15 . 25. 80 all all 20. All products are CE approved **) 1 Filters Check Valves Solenoid Valves Liquid Injection Level Indicator **) 1 **) 1 **) 1 **) 1 The product must be manufactured in a special version (design modification. 20. 125 15. Danfoss has supplied an increasing number of valves for several CO2 systems at different pressure stages up to 50 bar. High Pressure Components .Article CO2 . These components are applicable for CO2 40 bar or 50 bar.65 20-32 20 . 100. however this is dependent on demands regarding the design pressure. higher test pressure.6 15-200 250. 32 all all all all all 25-65 25-65 100 . Danfoss is offering a broad programme of industrial products applicable for CO2. All products are CE approved 25-65 25-125 all all 100. marking and documentation).2002 .150 15-200 250-300 15 . Solenoid Valves Pilot Valves for PM Main Valves Motor Regulating Valves Motor Expansion Valves Float Valves Stop Valves Regulating Valves Stop Check Valves Gas Powered Stop Valve Safety Valves and Change Over Valves PMFL PMFH PM1 PM3 PML PMLX EVM Other pilots MRV MEV HFI SV SVA SVA REG SCA GPLX SFV BSV DSV POV FIA NRVA NRVS CHV EVRA EVRS AKVA AKS 45 all all DN PS PS PS 25 40 50 bar bar bar The product can be used in standard version. All products are CE approved All marked components are applicable for CO2 in the standard execution.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration Danfoss valves and controls for CO2 Danfoss industrial refrigeration valves have been used for CO2 systems for more than 15 years. The products are subject to specific testing and marking. 25 8 32 40. 14 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). Danfoss has implemented product modifications and approved them for the maximum pressure. 12.CO2 CO2 60 55 50 Design pressure (bar-g): PS + 15 % Pressure (bar) 45 40 35 30 25 PS 50 PS 40 PS + 10% (bar-g) "Saturated"pressure (bar-a) PS 25 20 -30 -20 -10 0 Design temperature (°C) 10 20 Danfoss industrial refrigeration High pressure components Modulating liquid level regulators Main Valves. In connection with the CE approval of these valves.

2002 RZ0ZR102 15 .Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA). 12 .Article CO2 .

2002 . 12.Refrigerant for Industrial Refrigeration 16 RZ0ZR102 ã Danfoss A/S (RC-CM / MWA).Article CO2 .