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Cr CALIF.

^.C:;ArvY,

LjS AT^^^tb

^4X/Ww^

1

vf

NORWAY, SWEDEN,
AND

DENMARK

Money
•^

Table.

(Coiiip. p. xi.)

— -1 ^^w:^:
DET SIBLIUS NOE&E.

:^=?j^^?^^***rnm

..'pi

'~["

NORWAY, SWEDEN,
AND

DENMARK

HANDBOOK FOR TKAVELI.KKS
P.V

KARL BAEDEKER

WITH

3'2

MAPS,

21

PLANS, AND THPKE SMALL PANOT^AMAS

SEVENTH EDITION
RkVI.SI-.I*

AN1»

ArUJIKNTKO

LEIPSIC:

KARL BAEDEKER, PUBLISHER
CO.,
3:

LONDON: DUI.AU AND

SOHO

SiJUARE, W.

1899
All Rifjhla reserved

OS

.Y.HAHJ^JfJ

ilJ^

.A[}

'Go, little book,

God send

thee good passage.

And

specially let this be thy prayere:
all that

Unto them

thee will read or hear,
to call,

Where thou
Thee
to

wrong, after their help correct in any part or all.'
art

UNrV. OF CALIF. UBRARY, LOS

ANGeL£S

;

Cag«

8/S
PREFAOE.
'

?79

ihc object of the Handbook for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, wliich now appears for the seventh time, carefully revised and partly rewritten, is to supply information regardin*^ the most interesting scenery and characteristics of these countries, with a few notes on the liistory, languages, and customs of the inhabitants. Like the Editors other handbooks, it is based on personal acquaintance with the countries described, the chief places in which he has visited repeatedly. His efforts to secure the accuracy and completeness of tlie work have been supplemented by the kind assistance of several gentlemen, Norwegian, Swedish Danish, English, and German, to whom his best thanks are due. He will also gratefully receive any corrections or suggestions ^^•ith which travellers may favour him. Within the last few years Norway has grown rapidly in popularity with the travelling public, and a number of new roads, railways, and steamboat-routes, with corresponding new hotels, have recently been opened. Tlie most important of these are carefully noted in the present edition. The descriptions of the Swedish Norrland and of
,

the trip to Spitzbergen appear for the first time in this issue of the Handbook; and the section devoted to Copenhagen and

Denmark has been considerably extended. The present volume, like Baedeker's Switzerland, may
be used either as a whole, or in its separate sections, which for the convenience of travellers may be removed from the (I] volume without falling to pieces. These sections are Introductory Part, pp. i-lxxx (2) S. and E. Norway, as far

;

as Trondhjem, pp. 1 to 84 (3) W. Norway, as far as Trondhjem, pp. 85 to 220 (4) N. Norway, pp. 221 to 262 (5 Sweden, pp. 2«)3 to 390 (6) Denmark, pp. 3<)i to 432 (7) Index, pp. 433 to 463 ,8) Grammars, at the end of the volume. On the Maps and Plans the Editor has bestowed special care, and he believes they will be found to suffice for all
;

;

;

;

;

;

ordinary travellers.
In the letter-press Heiqhts arc given approximately in 3.28 Engl. ft. feet, in the maps in metres (1 metre 0.974 Engl. ft.). 1 Norw. ft. 1.029 Engl. ft. 1 Swed. ft. Distances are given in kilometres, as the tariffs for carioles and boats arc now calculated on the metrical system [cbrnp.

English

=

;

=

=

vi

^^^^

ABBREVIATIONS.
statistics are

below).

The Populations and other
official sources.

from the

most recent

In the Handbook arc enumerated both the first-class hotels and those of humbler pretensions. Those which the Editor, either from his own experience or from an examination of the numerous hotel-bills sent him by travellers of different nationalities, believes to be most worthy of commendation, are denoted by asterisks. It should, however, be borne in mind that hotels are liable to constant changes, and that the treatment experienced by the traveller often depends on circumstances which can neither be foreseen nor controlled. Although prices generally have an upward tendency, the
,

average charges stated in the Handbook will enable the traveller to form a fair estimate of his expenditure. To hotel-keepers tradesmen, and others the Editor begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards travellers forms the sole passport to his commendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks.
,

Abbreviations.
N.,
S.,

Distances.

K.,

W. =
;

north, northern;
east, eastern
;

English mile, unless the con- R., B., D., S., A. = room, breakfast, dinner, supper, attendance. trary is stated (see Table opposite E. also = Route. title-page). c, ca. = circa, about. S. M. Norwegian sea-mile. refreshments. Efmts. Kil. = Kilometre (see Table oppo- Kr., 0. crowns and 0re in Norway

south, southern western.

west,

Com., Kom. = "Ni>rgGS Cominunicatinner" and "Sveriges Kommunikatinner" respectively (see p. xviii).

M,

=

=

= =

and Denmark. Ft. = English feet. 0. = ore, the Swedish form of 0re. As the metrical system has been adopted in both XorAvay and Sweden, the Distances are usually given in kilometres, though the old reckoning by miles is still common in some parts of Xorway, one Norwegian mile (= 7 Engl. M.) being reckoned as 3 hrs.' walking or 2 hrs.' driving. In Sweden distances are occasionally calculated in 'new' Swedish miles (1 ny svensk Mil = 10 Kil. = 6V4 Engl. 31.) 5 the old Swedish mile is about i/j Eng). 31. longer. On railway -routes the distances are generally reckoned from the starting-point, while on highroads the distances from station to
station are given as more convenient. On the steamboat-routes the distances are given approximately in Norwegian sea-miles (S. M.) or nautical miles. A Norwegian nautical mile is equal to four English knots or nautical miles (about 4^5 Engl, statute M.), and the steamers are usually timed to travel from 2 to 2V2 Norwegian nautical miles per hour. The ordinary tariff is 40 0. per nautical mile, but no charge is made for deviations from the vessel's direct course. Asterisks (*) are used as marks of commendation.

site title-page).

CONTENTS.
Introduction.
Thsc

Expenses. Money. Language. Passports. PostOflioc II. Steamboat Lines between Great Britain and Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Yachting Cruises. Tourist Agents III. Season and Plan of Tour IV. Conveyances. Walking Tours. Cycling Tours V. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs VL Hotels and Inns
I.
. .

xi

xii

xiv
xviii

.

xxiv

xxv
xxvii xxviii

VIL Sport Vin. Maps. Books IX. Names and their Meanings X. On the Physical Geography

of Scandinavia Situation. Geological Formation. Coast Line Mountains, Lakes, and Rivers Climate and Vegetation

....

xxix xxxi
xxxi xxxvi
xxxviii
xli xlii

Animal Kingdom
Population

XI. History of

Sweden and Norway

xliii

Outlines of Norwegian (Danish) and Swedisli Grammars, at the end of the volume.

Norway.
Southern axd Eastern Norway, as far as Trondhjkm.
Knute 1. Christiansand and the Saetersdal From Christiansand to Christiania 2. Christiania and P^nvirons 3. From Christiania to the Randsfjord via
4.
'2
(5

I)

Drammen and
21

Haugsund From (Christiania) Haugsund

to the

Hardanger Fjord via
2li

5.

0.

Kongsberg and the Rjukanfos Christiania to the Hardanger Fjord via Skien, the Telemarken Canal, and the Haukelifjeld From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the

From

32
41

7.

Numedal From Christiania through

the Hallingdal to Lserdalsaren
-ici

8.

9.

on the Sognefjord (Bergen) From Christiania through the Valders to Lc-erdalseren on the Sognefjord From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to Stryn on the Nordfjord, Marok on the Geiranger Fjord, or Naes on the Komsdals Fjord

48

r>U

Malmo and Southern Skane From Malmo and Trelleborg to Nassjci (and Stockholm) via Lund From Alfvcsta to Karlskrouii and Kalmar via Emmaboda. Trondhjem and its Fjord 120 126 141 168 171 176 183 197 207 212 30. Western Norway. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord 25. 16. Bode . 14.. Molde and the Moldefjord 28. 11. From Oskarshamn to NassjO From (Copenhagen) Helsingborg to Gotenburg . . From Trondhjem to Northern Norway. 38. Page in tlic 10. From Molde to Trondhjem 29. The Sognetjord 22. 39. Syd-Yaranger 36. From Hammerfest to Spitzbergen Sweden 225 235 240 246 253 257 259 260 Sweden. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde 27. Gudbraiulsdal over the Dovrot'jcM to Stjeren (Trondlijem) From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway From Christiania by Railway to Charlotteiibcrg [and Stockholm") From Christiania to Gotenburg by Railway From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea From Doniaas 70 72 77 78 82 15. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda in 37. 17. as far as Trondhjem. 13.. 12. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea 24. From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea. The Stavanger Fjord 87 the Suldalsvand to From Sand (Stavanger) by the Hardanger Fjord Odde on 94 96 99 112 From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea The Hardanger Fjord Bergen 19. From Tromsa to the North Cape 34. or via Stalheim to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord 21. From Bode to Tromse 33. Jotunheim 23. Loendal. 264 267 271 Oland 11. 18. Oldendal. From the North Cape to Yadse 35. From Bergen via Vossevangen to Eide on the Hardanger Fjord.viii lldiitc CONTENTS. ol. The Nordfjord.. 40. The Lofoten Islands 32. 273 274 . Stryn^dal 26. 20.

Bornholm 71. . 61. Jutland From Aalborg on the Limfjctrd to Thisted and to \ia Viborg Langaa Index 433 . Western '28'2 . From (Christiania and) Charlottenberg to 49. Ilaparanda) ^ From Hernosand to SoUeftea via the Angerman-Elf From Sundsvall and Hernosand to Lulea by Sea (Haparanda) From Lulea to Kvickjock From Lulea to Gellivara and the Malmberg From Lulea to Haparanda by Sea to . 372 373 374 377 379 381 383 387 389 ( . 55. 51. 67. 53. 357 358 3G1 365 36(5 60. From Copenhagen to Hamburg by the Danish 1-lands and Sleswick 72. 02. Ostersund) From Stockholm via Upsala. From Fredericia to Frederikshavn. From From From From Ange . 56. Langeland. 66. From Gotenburg to Katrineholm (aiil Stuckholinj From Nassjii to JiJiikoping and Falkoping From Jonkoping to Stockholm by Lake Vettern and . 45.jan via Borlangc (Falun) From Upsala via Gefle to Ockelbo (Bracke. .. Laxa (and Stockholm) Stockholm Environs of Stockholm From Stockholm to Upsala The Inland of Gotland From Stockholm to Vesteras and Orebro From Kolbiick and Valskog to Flen. 59.CONTENTS.. Lake Voncni. IN. 70. 289 291 29o 297 301 303 333 342 349 354 the Eastern Gota Canal 47. Copenhagen and its Environs 69. 63.. From Copenhagen to Helsinger and Helsingborg . 391 417 422 423 426 428 431 73. 64. 4(3. Laaland. and Bracke to Ostersund and Trondhjem . 52. Gota Canal 44. Gotciibiirg 43. bS. Ockelbo. 54. 50. Sundsvall Bispgarden to Sundsvall by the Indals-Elf Bracke to Lulea Stockholm to Sundsvall and Hernosand by Sea Lulea. and Maen 68. Denmark. . and Oxclosund From Gotenburg to Falun From Stockholm to Lake Sil.L'. From Odense to Svendborg. From Gotciiburg '277 to Venersbor. From Nassjo to Stockholm 48. . 74. Nykoping. 57. 65.utc ix I'agc 42. . Falster.

140. the Stuguu^sc (p. 7. 25. : : p. 16. : : : : : : : : : 14.112.000): p. oo.000): p. 126. Environs of Stockholm (1:100.000) p. Upsala (1:20. Northern Seindviere and Molde (or Rom^dals) Fjord (L . Wishy (1:15. Central Part of the Sognefjord (1 o00.000). 135. 421.West and North Coast of Norway (1:1.500). 17. The Horunger (1 : 200. ••.800).) on the margins of the Special 3fajjs indicate the points where they Join the adjacent Special Maps. 366.750. w^ith inset-map of Saltsjobaden (1:50. Gotenhnrg (l:21. 176. E. Shores of the Sound (1:500. 3Iaps. 276.000): : p. Environs of Bergen (1 100. North Sweden (1 2. 21. 196. 417. Outer Hardanger Fjord (1:500. 15. 8. Copenhagen inner town (1 •20. Trondhjem (1:50.000): p. The Salisjo from Mdhia to Vaxhohn. Northern Environs of Copenhagen (1 1(X). Sordfjord and Southern Sandmere (1 5(X). 4.000. 8. Estuary of the 6'ote-£"// (1 100.000) p. Inner Hardanger Fjord (1:500. Stavanger Fjord (1 500. with inset-maps of Lyngby-Furese and Hillered-Fredensborg (1:150. The Kinnekulle (1 155. Aalesund (1:17. 13. South Telenmrken (1:500. 2. 26. 5. 24. o.000): 1st Sheet: Trondhjem-Torghatten-Bode-Lofoten: p. to the (1:100. 18.000): p. 32. 336.000).000): p. Kongsberg. Key Map of Norway. : : 15. North Telemarken (1:500. Denmark and Sleswick (1 2. Jolunheim (1 500. 1. 27. 2S7.000) p. The marks C*. Cvtnp.000): p. the Skincgg (p. Lund (1:20. 10.010. 171. Sarpsborg (1:23. 183. 11. 6. 283.000). 12. Plans: 1. Environs of Christianiu (1:80.000). 21.0(X)). 10.000). 120.000). : : Trollhdlta Falls (1:10.500).000).iursltolm 50. Fredrikshald (1:15. 18. 30.500. i/t'^ - — — — - — : — — — — — — — — : — singer (1 : 32. (1 : : : : : : : : Panoramas from 3Ioldehei (p.000): p. 21.500.000): after the Index. 19.000): p. fO. 3.000). 17.400. 11.000) p. Flans and Maps. 32.000) ?. 12. .030 and 1: 25.000).000) p.000). South Noricay (1:2. Ghristiansand (1:30.000). Djtirgard near Stockholm (1:25. 20.X PLANS AND MAPS. 20. 390.set-map 22 : : uf D. 2. Draminen (1:20.000): before the title-page. with in.000). Sendfjord (1:500. 220. 5.000).000) : p. Stockholm (1:15. Malmij — — — (1:30. showing the special Maps of the Handbook at the end of the book. etc. and Lake Kredercn (I: 5 00X00) between pp. 156). Copenhagen (1:34. North. 240. Skansen (open-air museum: 1:5370). and the 197). 150. Molde (1:17.000): p. Inner Sognefjord (1:500. Bisfrict from Bergen to Voss (1 500.000): p. Stryn-Geiranger-Grotlid-Polfos and Tufjord-Jostedal Region (1:500.000): p.000j p.000).^ Sweden. 28.c00).100).000) 19. South Sweden (1:2. 7. 16. 33S. the Key Jhij> (il lite End of the Book. 20. 2nd Sheet: Tromsei-North Cape-Vadse: p. 4. of Stockholm 26.000). 334. 14.000) p. Jdnkoping (1:50.00U) p. 3. District between Chi-istiania. 1009.000): p. 9. £cr^e7^ (1 20. 54).000).000) p. 99. Chriniaiiia (1:20.000). 31.000) p. 20. 29. — — 6. 23. and Denmark. Staranger (1:15. 13.

Expenses. 20-25s. but in the country districts the vernacular alone is understood. as most travellers devote more time to Norway than to Sweden. and as it is easily understood in Sweden. that of a letter within Norway. The traveller should avoid giving his correspondents any poste restante address other than steamboat or railway stations. IVad. but much less -will suffice for those who make a prolonged stay at one or more resting-places. Post Office. as the communication with places off the beaten track is very slow. see money the title-page). worth Is. per day ought to cover all outlays. The postage of a letter. I. Language. Passports. Large sums are best carried in the form of circular notes or letters of credit. as it is often difficult in the remoter districts to get change for gold or larger notes. and Denmark 10 0. but the rate of exchange is often a few ere below par. Money. Swed. Money. table before — . English is spoken on board almost all the Norwegian steamboats and at the principal resorts of travellers. Expenses. or for pedestrian tourists (p. worth 18 kr. These coins and the government banknotes (but not those of local or of private banks) are current throughout the three countries. ore. both in Norway and Sweden. krona). In 1873 and 1875 the currency of the three Scandinavian kingdoms was assimilated. British sovereigns. is on the whole the more useful of the two languages. each. is divided into 100 ere (Swed. as issued by the chief British and American banks. and of a post-card (Brefkort.. Brevkort) 10 e. Post Office. 301. except for the purpose of procuring delivery of registered letters. Travelling in Norway and Sweden is less expensive in some respects than in other parts of Europe. Language. The Custom House Ezaxuination is invariably lenient. The crown (krone.IiNTRODUCTION.. Danish. The traveller should be well supplied with small notes and coins (smaa Penge) before starting on his tour. . as pronounced in Norway (which is analogous to English spoken with a broad Scottish accent). is 20 ere to any country in the Postal Union. Comp.) Passports are unnecessary. After arrival in the country. weighing V2 oz. p. but the great distances which require to be traversed by road and rail or by steamboat necessarily involve a very considerable sum-total. Sweden. (See grammars and vocabnlaries in the removable cover at the end of the volume. xxii) in the less fre- quented districts. usually realise their full value at the principal centres of commerce.

per day). food extra). Tourist Agents. 'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos. return 6^).. (1st cl.. (1). and Hamburg Co. in advance. 10 0.. 55. cases to obtain precise information from the agents or advertisements of the various steamship-companies. . 4i. 21. to Great Britain 1 kr. From Newcastle. STEAMBOAT LINES.): to Sweden for each word more.. 'Wilson Line' every Tues.S. for each word.. 6Z. il. per day according to Hull. . From London — .) return 51. or 4s. returning the following To Christiansand. Thurs. 'Wilson Line' every Sat. returning on Saturday. 'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos. 30 0. 1 kr. 2s. class). Qd. mouth.'' every Thurs. The fares quoted include the charge for provisions on the voyage are recommended in all except where it is otherwise stated. (2l. 'Wilson Line'' every Frid.. about the same as from Norway. (fares. From Hull.xii II. all of the above-mentioned steamers. Newcastle. 3s. return tickets (51. Swedish Tariff. should refrain from telephoning unless they are quite sure of occupying the rooms ordered at the specified time. The usual charge for the use of a telephone is 30 0. U. the Tues. 35 0. Travellers. touch at Stavanger (same fares).. From Neiccastle-on-Tyne (4). every Wed. in 46 hrs.food 5s. otherwise the attention at present paid to telephone-orders will probably be discontinued. (6^...A. SS. fare from Bergen 32 kr.) in 40 hrs. — — every Thursday. each word more-. 'Wilson 65 hrs. (2). 10 0. From Grcm<je'Sterling' and 'Odin (3/. per day).. return bl. xiii) or by the (2).. — — : Telephones are very general throughout the country. per word. as they afford a means of securing rooms. : 'Leith. Gd. (1) From Hull. to the U. 6(Z. return ll.. Nearly Leith. To Christiania. . (1).. 6^. (1).' Tues.. 10s. for three words. 135. each word more. (4i. (Tilbury). 10s.). and are of importance to the tourist. KoRWEtiiAN Tariff. for ten words. to Denmark 50 0.105.. 11.. (3). Steamboat Lines between Great Britain and Norway. From lares 4/. to 2 kr. The following particulars as to the chief between British and Scandinavian ports refer to the summer-arrangements (May to August inclusive) but travellers lines of steamers . 4^. 3s. (returning 'Wilson Line' via Hull. From NetccaHle. 5s. Steamboat Lines. (2). From — — . M. returning on Friday. same as from London).. 'Wilson Line' every Frid. Steamers to Norway.. food Gs. food 5V2 kr. in addition to whicli each word is charged 10 0. and 5 o..S. every Frid. etc. live words. Also Hull. Foreign telegrams (minimum 80 0. from 3s. boat from except These steamers. II. for each word more. and Denmark... bs. etc. 30 6. return 9L 15s. return 48 kr. (3/. Yachting Cruises. plus 10 0. to Great Brilain 26 0. — return (2). in every Line' To Trondhjem. 10s. especially in Norway and the Swedish Norrland. — Steamers to Sweden. for ten words. to the U.) are available also via Granton (see p. via Bergen (see above . Within Sweden 50 ci.-. 'Thule Line' every Frid. Thurs. 3L 3s.. for Foreign telegrams: to Norway or Denmark 80 0. in 34 hrs. Telegraph Offices are numerous in proportion to tlie population. per word-. food extra). .. & Sat. From Hull. (returning every Thurs. in Stockholm. in 38 hrs. . ( London. To Gotenburg. 30 0. 10s.' every Tues. and 5 0.. To Bergen. 5 0. (31. Sweden. 6s ). in 40 hrs. 4d.. 4s.. however..A. in 52 hrs. 3?.. Within Norway: 50 0.

. To Stockholm. From London^ 'Bailey and Leetham Line' every Sun. 432) has direct railway-connection with Copenhagen and with Gotenburg via Fredericia and Frederikshavn (K. 'United S. and follow a fixed itinerary at an inclusive charge. are despatched at frequent intervals during the season from British ports to the Norwegian fjords.'. per day). (same fares)... food 5s. A prolonged residence on board one of these floating hotels is apt to prove monotonous and enervating. (2). 10s. Qd. To Malmb.. Large and comfortable excursion-steamers .).James Cnrrie 3 days (1st cl. Qd. food. (2). 'Bailey and Leetham Line" every Sun. STEAMBOAT LINES. xiii every Frid. via Christiansand every Thurs. 15s.54 hrs. 10s. & Sat. per day). and thu passengers have opportunities from time to time of making excursions on land. The vessels (1000-4000 tons) are luxuriously fitted up for the comfort and amusement of their passengers. The complaint sometimes heard.".' (P. Frid. 'ds. il. 5s.) in 40 hrs.. But this method of visiting Norway inevitably misses many of the peculiar beauties of the country. (1). Co. and Thurs. about every ten days. 3/.Co. Grimsby^ 'Wilson Line' every Wed.II. in aboiit From Leith.) and Bergen (58 hrs. 2l.'. 1st cl. Wed.. (8/. H.. and Frid.. (1st cl. From Grimsby^ 'Wilson Line' everv Tues. Qd. that evi-n the grandest scenery in Norway is somewhat monotonous. Berg-Hansen. Christania) the most convenient. 15«.. (returning the following (3). From Hull. 'United S. Bergen. 1st cl. 2«. return-ticket 2l. full details of which may bt^ obtained from the various agents. return-ticket 5^ 5s. 3s. . food 6<. (same fares). returning every Thursday.. per day). in about 60 hrs. & Sat. return bl.'bt.. (same fares. From Harmcfi. food extra). return-ticket 2l. Wilson Line' every 2nd cl. of Copenhagen" everv Mon.. from Rotterdam to Stavanger (48 hrs. is rarely maile by any but tourists . (returning every Tues. food extra).. of Copenhagen' every Mon. 6d. 'Thule Wed... 10s. (iMOs.. They penetrate into the chief fjords. . in 60 hrs. 10s. 6J. rather. for which return-tickets from Newcastle are also available. From Grimsby. {U.• The majority of travellers will probably find the excellent steamers of the 'Wilson Line' {Thos. per d:iy in the 1st cL.. Hull) or of the 'Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Cos.. Gd. return 60 fl.. 2l. Yachting Cruises. Trondhjem the North Cape. etc. 10s. .. food 6«.) may also be mentioned.. Matthiessen^. 2l. — — Steamers to Denmark. food 6s. To Copenhagen. (3). '. or Sat. combined companies) also maintains an excellent service between Norway and Hambursi:. 11. 5s. in about 3 days ('2i. OS. To Esbjerg. — — . 4«.. (3^. The last-named company (or. & Co. 11.). excl. incl.. From (4).) in 36-40 hrs. 4s. ''returning every Thurs. Esbjerg (p. Wilson. — . 73). if Co. From Granton (Edinburgh).. Sons. 25 Queen St...) in 30 hrs. (1). 1^ lis. in . Co. 10s. These so-called yachts undoubtedly offer the most comfortable means of visiting some of tlie finest districts of Norway. (returning Tues.. fare 40 fl.S. From London^ via Malmo. Newcastle Mr. 'Stockholm Steamship Co. and is certain to leave the passenger's mind almost a blank with regard to the true charms of Norwegian travel... per day in the 2nd cl. food). Thurs. and 2s. The Dutch mail steamers plying every Thurs.S.) in 30 hrs. Line' every Frid. Bd. 3s.

Plan of Tour. It need hardly be added that travellers who are addicted to luxurious hotels and the distractions of watering-places and other fashionable resorts will not find Norway to their taste. 30-34). while the wet season sets in later on the west coast. For a voyage to the North Cape (RR. Most travellers. SEASON AND PLAN OF TOUR. Bennett tf Sons and of F. issue railway. Tourist Agents. As a general rule it is advisable not to fix one's route absolutely before leaving London. and will gladly seek opportunities of renewing their impressions. coast. for the sake of seeing the midnight sun. of course. the season is from the middle of June to the end of July. August is often a rainy month in the eastern districts of Norway. but to wait until Christiania or Bergen is reached. and we therefore give a few specimens below. T. An energetic traveller may see the chief points of interest in Norway and Sweden in 2^2-3 months. Tourists who content themselves with a Yachting Cruise along the coast have. is published by Beyer at Bergen.- III.xi. for travelling. The finest scenery in Norway lies on the W. etc. which may easily be altered with the help of the Handbook or extended by the inclusion of excursions from the main track. at Christiania and Bergen. steamboat. is from the beginning of June to the middle of September but July and August are the best months for the higher mountains. III. but an ex- Season. the chief pointr^ being the Hardanyer Fjord. Those unused are received back under deduction of 10 per cent of their cost. 'The Norway Tourist's Weekly News'. their travelling-plan determined by the programme of the steamer. On the other hand. where snow is apt to fall both earlier and later. The less time and energy spent in covering long distances between point and point. true lovers of nature will carry away with them an enthusiastic admiration for its scenery. The tourist-oftices of Mej^srs. and hotel coupons for a number of different routes. Season and Plan of Tour. both in Norway and Sweden. may well spend one or more subsequent seasons in the exploration of particular districts. the greater will be the enjoyment of the districts visited. which often contains information of considerable importance to tourists. Send' . Beyer. will find it much more satisfactory to form plans for independent tours for themselves. on these pleasure-steamers who have not had time to become properly acquainted with the country. This system saves trouble at a corresponding sacrifice of independence. Sognefjord^ Nordfjord. Skyds (or posting). and is to be seen at many hotels. however. Cook ^^ Son a-nd of Henry Gaze <S' Sons^ in London. Those who have devoted a first visit to obtaining a general idea of the country. The best season haustive tour cannot be accomplished in one season. and those of T.

m. The Jotunheim to the E.l AitndalsiKis through the Bomsdal and the (ludhnnidaddl (\l. Molde. 199) and the Fikitdal fp. 178) I'^xcursion from Visnpes to the Oldendal or Loeiulal (p. steamer to Bergen Bergen (H. steamer to Aalesund (p. The voyage to the Norrland. . 195). rail to Voss . steamer across the Sognefjord to Fjoei'Uind and Balholin (p. and thence drive to Sandeiie 3 3 1 . drive and row to Bed and Visnccs on the Nordfjord (pp.. Gellivara. 1 1 Trondhjem [Or. 177. is also very fine. 30. steamer from Odde to Vik i Eidfjord Excursions from Vik to the Veriaysfos and the Simodal (R. and going on bv steamer from Lwrdalxeren . 174). is worthy of a visit. with its midnight sun and iron-mines.ll) .. 20) 1 1 Drive or walk to Gudvangen. Or take the steamer direct from J^ie to Aalesund Aulexiind and thence bv steamer to Molde (p. and thence proceed to Skjolden (p. drive to j0i'stenvik . and tlieiice over the Dovn field to Steinn (p.<!sitnil to -l . richly repay a visit.. 197) Excursions from Molde to the Romsdal (p. IS). 2'i3). 191) From 0ie by steamer or rowing-boat to the . the chief attraction of which is the Lofoten Islands. 22) from the ^ognefjord may take the steamer from Gudvangen to Locrdalsaren. 27) to J>oiiiaas. xv mere. ".33) S-14 vi. 19) iThis route may be joined at Bergen by steamer from Hull or New- 2 1 ij-G) 2'/-.Tavnndfjord (p. is also very interesting. 138) where they join the route described in the opposite direction on p. 143.i Steamer C/iristian. of the Sognerecommended to the attention of mountaineers.' 2-3 1 1 From Bergen by castle in 2 days. Drive viii fh-otlid to Mavok (p. and its waterfalls. l. and Romsdal. . p. Balholm '. among which arc the largest in Europe. the North Cape and bark (UH. Not the least charm of the Norrland journey is its freedom from the usual crowd of hurried tourists. 127) [Those who drive to visit Johinheim (K. of Sweden the chief attractions are Stockholm and the other towns and the great Canals.. Round Trip of Ten or Eleven Weeks. \ . proceed Ircim Mulde \ i. 188). steamer to Sundal on the Maurangevfjord Excursion from Sundal to the Bondhvsbroi or the Folgefoud (1{. The beautiful town of Christiania is well fjord. 189) Steamer or rowing-boat from JIarok to Bellesi/lt (p. 179). 95) Drive from the Breifond Hotel via >^eljestad to Odde on the Serfjord [This route may he joined at Odde by travellers from Chrisiinma via Dalen and Telemnrken (comp. after an excursion to the Eikisdal. returning through the Lserdal to the Sognefjord. but its beautiful coasts. I. xvi) Excursions from Odde to the Buarbrce and the Skjceggedalsfos {II. ^its lakes and rivers. to fp. 70) CJ From Trondhiem ti. 9-10] From Vadheim by steamer and 173). . . PLAN OF TOUR. 172) to fibei (p. 18). including the justly famed Jndals-Elf and Angerman-Elf. 18).. carriage via Fer'de (p. drive thence to the Stalheimsklev (R. Tlie Swedish Norrland is inferior to that of Norway in point of grandeur of scenery. 94) and thence drive to the Breifond Hotel (p. Davs From Hull or Newca^'tle to Stavanger 2 From Stavanger l)y steamer on the Suldalsvand (p. In the S.32. 128) and thence to Vadheim (p. drive thence via Fibelstad-Hangen to 0ie on the Norangsfjord (p.

58) to Stockholm Stockholm and its environs l-ri)m StockliDlra via the Gota Canal and Lake Vettern to Jonkiiping (R. the Breifond Hotel. 127) 2 From Vadheim drive via Feirde to Sandene on the Nordfjord (p. to Afolde (p. VikiEidfjord (p. 101). 21). 125) ' Walk Gudvangen (p. 1>^) . 1 . xv) The Hardanger Fjord: Odde (p. ^^ 3] 5 1 1 . Harwich. Trondhjem (p. xii). or proceed farther to the N.Fjord. and thence to Vadheim (p. to visit the Norrland (RR. or Newcastle to Christiania Christiania and railway to Skien (R. proceed 3 through the Strynsdal via Grotlid to Marok (R. . Steamer from London. 10-12 8-14 1 2 IV.' . Four or Five Weeks in Norway. Na'reifjord. 129). 26) and thence to Molde Molde. lOt). p.. 188). [Or from Stockholm by the Gofa Canal to Goienbvrg Steamer from Gotenbnrg to England (p. 191) on the Norangsfjard. Hull. Fjcvrlands. . Cupenha^en (RK. 19) Bergen (R.. 3-4 C-8 2-3. 5) Telemarken and via Haukeli to Odde on the Har- . by 1-2 the Jeirundfjord to Aalesund (R. . thence by steamer ?iCvoss. 125) The Sognefiord (R. xvii.t\iQ Sognefjord 3 Balholm and Fjcerland (p. and its Chrisiiania neighbourhood (R. 46) 2 to Railway from Jonkopin^ via Litnd and Molmd 4r3. p. 2ti) From Marok by steamer (o Hellesylt (p. 25). 2 3 1V2-3 2 I'/'i] 39) . 177) Excursions on the Kordfjord and its side-valleys (R. xii) II. the Molde-Fjord. pp. 2) .xvi III. 69) Return to London. III. 30-34). or Leith (comp. to the 2 5 . to Bergen bv steamer (R. 1 danger Fjord (R. 109) From Eide (p. 2 1 3-4 3-4 1 . (p. 26) . Grotlid. PLAN OF TOUR. drive through the Xoover steamer and rangsdal to ffie (p. xii. Copenhagen and Helsinger (RR. Stnjn. xv Steamer to the North Cape and back Railway from Trondhjem to Christiania Steamer to England . and Seljestad (comp. 109). 106)-. [This route may be joined here by travellers from Staranger via the tSuldalsvand. 212) 1V2-2 From Trondhjem we may either return by steamer to England (p. Hull. including the Voyage North Cape. 58) aiul Upsalo (R. .the Romsdal Steamer from Bergen to England 2 . or take a trip through Sweden as indicated <»n to to . 104) via Vossevangen to the Stalheimsklev (p. Four or Five Weeks in Norway. as indicated rni p. Steamer from Hull or Newcastle to Stavanger •Stavanger to Odde and the Hardanger Fjord From Bergen to Trondhjem via Molde. Sundal on the 3Iauranger Fjord (p. 68. as indicated above Excursions on the Hardanger Fjord from Odde and Vik (pp. From Christiania by From Skien through railway to Skien via Drammen (R. and the Romsdal (R. 27) 3 From Molde to Trondhjem. and Sjfholl (R. Marok. Three or Four Weeks (Five or Six Weeks including the Voyage to the North Cape or a Trip through Sweden). 19) From Bergen by railwav to Voss and thence drive to Stalheimsklev . and bv steamer ". or return l)y railway to Christiania. xiii) . 133). Days 3-4 4 Railway from Trondhjem via Ostersmid (R. 127) Via Sandene on the Xordf/ord. 5) Through Telemarken. . xii) Sfohie. to Vadheim {^. .

111.

PLAN UF TOUR.
Weeks
in

V. Four or Five

Norway

for

Walkers.

Davs
2
3
4
'2

.steamer frum London, etc., to Christiansand Through the Scctersdal to Daleri in Telemarken (comp. p. 5 ; the third day's walk is long) Drive via the Havkelifjeld to Reldal, the Breifond Hotels and Seljestad; walk and drive to Odde (pp. 95, 96). Excursions from Odde Steamer to Vik i Eidfjord (p. lU9j. Excursions to the Veringsfos and via Fosli to the liimodal Steamer to Ulvik (p. Ill); walk via Graven (p. 123) to Eide (p. 104) Steamer to Bergen (R. 19) and stay at Bergen Railway to Vossevangen ; drive to Stalheim (R. 20)

1

2
1

Walk

to

Gudvangen

(p.

133);

steamer

to

Balholm

(p.

128)

and

Fjocr1

(p. ITS); row to Skei (p. 173); (p. 174) 175) to the Oldenvand; steamer across the Olden (p. 178) Steamer to Visnivs (p. 178); drive to Mindre Sunde ; steam-launch or rowiug-boat to Hjelle (p. 183) Drive to Skaave (p. 183); walk via the Grasdalsskar to the Djupvashytle (p. 185); walk or drive to Marok (p. 189) Steamer to Hellesylt (p. 188); drive to Fihelstad-Hciugen ; walk to i^ie

land (p. 129) Walk via the Jostedalthrae drive on the following Walk via the Oldenskar (p. lake; walk or drive to

to Jelster

afternoon to Aamot

2
I

1

1

(p.

191)^

1
I1/2

Steamer via Aalesund to Molde ; Molde (p. 197) Excursion to the Romsdal (p 199); walk across the mountains to the
Eikisdal (p. 203); visit tlie Eikisdalsvand (p. 205) and walk to Netsie (P- 205) Steamer to Molde. In the afternoon visit Battenfjordseiren (p. 208); steamer via Christian ssund to Trondhjem [Or from X^ste proceed via Eidsvaag to Eidseren (p. 209), take the Sundal steamer to Christianssund and go on next day to
.

3 2

.'

,

Trondhjem
Trondhjem (R. 29) Return thence as indicated on
VI.
p. xvi.

"

"
. .

2| 1

A

Fortnight from Christiania.
3
4

to Christiania (p. 9). Christiania to Randsfjord; steamer to Odnces; drive through the Valders (p. 48) to Lccrdalseren (p. 186) Steamer to Gudvangen (R. 21); walk or drive to stalheim (p. 125); drive to Voss (p. 122); railway to Bergen (R. 19). Bergen Steamer to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord (R. 18) Drive via Seljestad to the Breifond Hotel (p. 95) and Nccs on the Suldalsvand; steamer to Osen ; drive to Sand; steamer to Sta-

Steamer Railway

...

3
1

vanger Steamer from Stavanger

to

Englaml

(p.

xii)

2 2

VII. Seven
S.

Weeks

in

Sweden.
2
2

Sweden.

Steamer frum England (p. xii) to Gotenhurg Gotenhurg^ and railway to Trollhaftan (R. 43) Steamer on Lake Venem to the Kinnekulle (R. 43); railway via Falkoping to Jonkoping (R. 45). Jonkdping Steamer on Lake Vettern to Motala and up the Gota Canal

..........
to

3 2 4 3

Stock-

holm
f<tockholm

(R. 46)

and
to to

Excursion Excursion

its environs (RR. 49, 50) Gotland (Wishy) and back (K. 52) Falun and Lake Siljan, returning via Upsnla (RR.

56, 57)

')

B.4kdekek"s

Norway and Sweden.

7th Edit.

IV.

CONVEyANCES.

N. Sweden. j^^y^ Steamer from Stockholm to Hapavanda (RK. 62, 64j 3 Steamer back to Lulea ; railway to Gellivara (RR. 64, 66j 3 Railway back to Mwjek (p. 387); drive via Storbacken to Jockmock
(R. 65)

Ruw and walk to Evickjock and back (R. 65) Drive and row from Jockmock to Ede/ors Early steamer to Eednoret (p. 377): railwav
Umea
(p. 352)
\

II 2

4-6
1 to

Vdnnds

(p.

376)

and
1

Steamer to H>:-rndsand (R. 62 and p. 379) Steamer up tlie Aiigerman-Elf to Solleftea (p. 381): railway to Bispgm-den (p. 375) Steamer down the Indals-Elf to SumUvall (R. 60) Railway to Ostersund J(R,Vi 59, 53) ^ Railway (R, 5S) to Are (excursion to the Areskutan) and Dufed (excursion to the Tdnnfors), and back to Stockholm
.

1
1 1 1

.

.

.

......

4

IV. Conveyances. Walking Tours. Cycling Tours. Time Tables for iSi^orway appear in -Norges Coinmunicationev' (pron. Commoonicashoner; 30 0., English and German edition, 50 0.), and for Sweden in '•Sveviges Kommunikationer (10 o.), both published weekly in summer. Neither of these, however, is very satisfactory; and travellers in Norway are recommended to obtain Beyer's Tourists' Time-Tables of the Norwegian Railways^ Steamers^ and Diligences (published fortnightly: 50
0.) or the similar publication issued by Bennett (p. 10). Beyer's time-tables will be sent by post from Bergen on receipt of 6rf. in British stamps, or may be purchased at Swan & Leach Ltd., 3 Charing Cross. London. The 'Sommerruter' of the various fjord steamboat lines may be obtained at Stavanger, Bergen, Aalesund. and 3Iolde. Among other time-tables may be mentioned the Reichs- Kurshuch (Berlinj and the Reiseliste for Kongeriget Danmark (Copenhagen), which travellers to or from Germany will find useful. Observe that many of the summer time-tables, especially those of the fjord steamers, hold good till the end of August only.

Steamboats (Norw. Dampsfcifee Sw. Anghatar). The regubir 'Norwegian coasting traffic is almost entirely in the hands of the Bergenske and the Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs-Selskah which have a common time-table. The headquarters of tlie former are at Bergen, those of the latter at Trondhjem. (Agents at Christiania and NewThe smaller steamers plying on the Norwegian (^astle, see p. xiv.) fjords are comfortable enough during the day, but their sleeping accommodation is poor, and on market-days they are apt to be overcrowded. The same remark applies to the smaller coasting steamers on the Baltic and on the Swedish canals. Most travellers will, of course, travel in the first cabin. Those who are about to spend one or more nights on board should at once secure their berths (kojen) in a stateroom (Norw. lugar, Swed. hytt) by personal application to the steward. Otherwise they may have to put up with sofas in the dining-saloon, with the additional disadvantage of having to quit their couches before early breakfast (6 or 7 a.m.). There are always a separate ladies' cabin and a smoking-room. A passenger travelling with his family by mail-steamer in Norway pays full fare for himself, but is usually entitled to a reduction ('Moderation'; pron, 'moderashon') of 50 per cent on the
, ,

IV.

CONVEYANCES.

xiv

tare (_biit nut on the cost ol' food) for eacli of tlic other members of the party. In Sweden members of the Tourists' Union (p. xxiv) often obtain considerable reductions (rahatl) on the ordinary fare. Pieturn-tickets are usually valid for a month or more, but do not

permit the journey to be broken. When tickets are taken on board the steamer (usual at small stations) a booking -fee of 30 e. is common. The captains and mates generally speak English. The traveller should be careful to look after his own luggage. The food is generally good and abundant, though a little monotonous. Vegetables are rare, and tinned meats, salt relishes, and cheese always preponderate at breakfast and supper. The tariff in the Bergen and Nordenfjeld steamers, which is a little higher than in the smaller vessels, is as follows food per day, including ser:

vice, 51/2 kr.

5

or,

separately, the charge for breakfast is II/2 kr., for
;

dinner [at 2) 2kr. 40 0., supper (at 7.30) l^/o kr. attendance 50 ». cup of tea or coffee with biscuit or rusk (Kavringer) in the morning 35 0. small cup of coffee after dinner 20 0. beer 40 0. per bottle, 25 0. per half-bottle; claret 11,4 kr. per half-bottle. No spirits are procurable. The account should be paid daily, to prevent mistakes. The steward expects a fee proportioned to the length of the voyage and the services rendered.
; ;

Railways (Norw. Jernbaner, Sw. Jernvdgar). Most of tlie railways are similar to those in other European countries but in Norway and Sweden there are several narrow-gauge lines (3i/3ft.), with two classes only, corresponding to the 2nd and 3rd on the other lines. The guard is called ^Konduktor. In both countries the railways observe Central Europe time (1 hr. ahead of Greenwich time). Luggage (50-70lbs. usually free), except what the passenger takesinto the carriage with him, must be booked. The average speed of the quick trains (Norw. Hurtigtog, Sw. kurlrtag^ sndlltag') is 22-2-i
;

Engl. M., that of the mixed trains (blandede Tog, blanddde tag) 15-20 Engl. M. per hour. All the trains have smoking-carriages (Regekupe, rokkupe) and ladies' compartments (Kvindekupe, damkupej. Return-tickets are usually valid for a month.

On the Swedish State Railways there is a .special zone-tarilV for distances over 300 Kil. to the N. of Stockholm. Thus the 2nd cl. fare by express train from Stockholm to Kilafora (300 Kil.) is 18 kr., while the fare tu Naldcn (618 Kil.) is only 6 kr. 85 o. more. These tickets permit the journey to be broken once (but if a night be spent, notice must be given to the station-master). Stoppages of the train at the official night-stations (conip. pp. 366, 374) are not reckoned as breaks on the journey.
stations in

The Railway Restaurants in Sweden and at the principal Norway are generally good and not expensive but those
;

on the branch-lines are often poor. Passengers help themselves, there being little or no attendance. For breakfast the usual charge is 1V4-1\2 ^or dinner or supper 1^/2-1^4 kr. for a cup of coffee or half-bottle of beer 25 0. sandwiches 25-500. spirits not
5
;

;

;

obtainable.

The express-trains

stop at certain stations, the

names

b*

XX

IV.

CILNVEYANCES.

of wliich are iiosicil up in the carriages, to allow time (generall only V4 ^I'O tor uioals. Posting (Norw. Skyds, Sw. Skjuts; pronounced shoss or sliiiss in each case). Sweden is so well provided with railways and steamboats that travelling by road is rare except in the Norrland (RR. 65, 66), but in Norway there are still immense tracts of country where driving is the only means of communication. The new highroads, maintained by government, are generally good, and the older roads are being improved; but some of the latter are very rough,

with sudden ups and downs, reminding one of

a

The Skydsstationer (pron.
also,

stasho'ner;

which

switchback railway. are usually inns

see p. xxvi), or farm-houses whose proprietors are bound to supply travellers with horses whenever required, are situated at intervals of 6-15 Engl. M. If the stage is a short one and the horse good, the traveller may often drive on to the next station on getting leave from the station-master. Those 'stations' where the -pvoTprietov (Statiotu- Holder or SkydsSkaffer) is bound to have several horses always in readiness, and is liable to a fine if he keeps the traveller waiting for more than
1/4- 1/2 hr.,
a 'fixed'

are called Faste Stationer

(i. e.

'fixed stations',

where

number

of horses are in readiness), or usually

travellers 'fast stations'.

by English Another class of stations, now rare, except

in little frequented districts, is the Tilngelse-Stationer (or Skifter), the owners of which are bound to procure horses on getting notice or 'Tilsigelse' (from tilsige, 'to tell to', 'send to'). At these stations, justly called 'slow' by English travellers by way of antithesis to the 'fast', the charges are very low, but the traveller may often be kept

waiting for hours. These delays are obviated by sending Forbud ('previous message') to stations of this class, and the same remark applies to 'slow' boat-stations. The 'Forbud' must arrive at least three hours before the time at which horses are required, or better on the previous day, and should therefore be dispatched two or three days beforehand. It is usually sent by letter or post-card, or by any one preceding the traveller on the same route t. Travellers pressed for time may also with advantage send 'Forbud' to 'fast' stations. Those who wish to make an early start should invariably order the skyds the previous day in country-inns the Opvartningspige (p. xxv) will take the order. Delay on the journey may be avoided by informing the 'Gut' before arriving at a station that the travEvery eller intends to proceed at once ("jeg vil strax reise videre). station-master is bound to keep a Dagbog (Skydsbog) or day-book,

;

t

The

Foi'budseddel.,
(.
. .

or message,

may be

expressed as follows:

name the station) bestilles en Best (to ffesie , etc.) eller Stolkjcerre (Stolkjoerver) Mandage7i den 20. Jvli, Formiddagen(Efteymiddagen) Klokken et(to. tre, etc.). Paa samme Tid varm Frokost (or Middagsmad) for en Person (to. tre Personer).
Paa Skydsskiftet

med Kariol (Karioler)
Date
Place.

&.

Signature.

Tariff for Posting ('Land-Skyds') in

Norway.

Tariff for Boats ('Baad-Skyds') in

Norway.

IV.
in

CONVEYANCES,

xxi

which the traveller enters his orflers and records his complaints if he has any to make. Travellers are entitled to proceed in the order in which their names are entered in this book. On the great thoroughfares through Telemarken (R. 5), the Valders U. 8), and the Gudbrandsdal (K. 9) It is often found more convenient to hire a carriage {Vogn, Kaleschvogn^ or Landau; or a Trllle, i. e. an open four-wheeler) and horses for the whole
(

In this case there is no restriction as to the amount of luggage accompanying the traveller (comp. p. xxiii). Carriages may be obtained on application at any of the Tourist Offices (p. xiv). On some of the long overland routes Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son (p. xiv) have provided landaus, carioles, and stolkjrerres of a more comfortable description and better found than the ordinary vehicles of the country. The ordinary vehicles supplied at the skyds-stations are the Stolkjcerre (a light cart with seats for two persons), and the lighter and swifter Kariol (a light gig for one person). The latter is now rarely used on the main routes. The luggage is strapped or roped behind the traveller, on the top of it the Skydsgut (or simply Gut the girl who sometimes takes his place is called Jente) takes his seat, and the traveller usually takes the reins (Temmer) himself. If he does so he will be responsible for any accident, but not if he allows the 'Gut' to drive from behind. For very bulky or heavy luggage additional vehicles must be engaged. As a rule about 8-9 Kil. (0-51/2 Engl. M.), or less in hilly districts, may be covered in an hour. It is difficult to calculate very closely the time likely to be occupied by skyds-journeys, but an attempt to do so has been made in the account of some of our routes, and the Editor hopes, with the courteous assistance of travellers, to be able to extend the system to all the main routes. Speaking generally, about 70-80 Kil. (40-50 Engl. M.) may be accomplished in a day, but journeys of tliat length are, of course, fatiguing. The long strings of vehicles that are frequently seen converging upon the more frequented spots and favourite hotels, especially towards evening, should be avoided on account of the dust. For a similar reason it is considered 'bad form' for one carriage to overtake another, unless the difference of pace is very considerable. The horses, or rather ponies, are often overdriven by foreigners. As the average charge of 2-3(/. per Engl, mile is a very inadequate remuneration to the Skydspligtige, or peasants who are bound to supply the horses, it is unfair on this account also to overdrive them. A frequent inscription in the skyds stations is ^Var god mod hesten (i.e. be good to the horse), and travellers who obey this injunction will receive a good character from the 'Gut^ at the successive stations and will in consequence be more cheerfully and quickly served. In every case the traveller in Norway will find his account more in politeness and civility than in anything approaohing a dictatorial manner.

route, in order to avoid delays at the over-tasked stations.

xxii

IV.

WALKING TOURS.

The posting-charge at 'fast' stations is fixed at 17 0. per pers. per mile (compare the annexed tariff, printed on yellow paper}; but in hilly roads and on the new government highroads the 'SkydsSkaffer' is frequently authorized to charge for more than the actual distance between stations. On the first page of the 'Daghog' is always entered the fare to the nearest station in each direction, whether by road or by rowing-boat. Distances nnder 5 Kilometres (3 M.) are charged at the full 5 Kil. rate. At the slow stations the station master is entitled to a fee of 20 e. per horse, in addition to the fare, for the trouble of getting it ready. Strictly speaking the fare may be exacted before the hirer starts, but it is usually paid at the end of the stage, when the 'Gut' receives a gratuity of about 1V2*'per kilometre. The 'GaardskarV, or man who helps to harness the horses, does not expect a fee. Nothing should be given to the peasant children who sometimes officiously open gates. At slow
dismiss the horses if the traveller 21/2 hours late and after the first hour of waiting he may exact 'Ventepenge' or waiting-money (amounting, for 1-2^/2 hrs., to the fare for o-lO Kil.). Tolls, ferries, and similar dues are paid by the traveller. Rowing Boats. For the conveyance of travellers by boat (Baadskyds or VandskydsJ the regulations are similar, but on all the principal routes steamers now ply. Those who have a guide with them may employ him as a rower, and thus dispense with one of the usual crew. Each rower (Rorskarl) generally rows or 'sculls' with two oars. boat manned with two rowers is therefore called a FcBring, or four-oared boat, one manned with three rowers a Sexring and with four rowers an Ottering. For short distances a Frering generally suffices. The tariff is determined by the size of the boat and not by the number of persons. The Tilsigelse fee is 7 0. per man and 6 0. per boat. As the fares are very unremunstations the station-master

may

who has ordered them

is

more than

,

A

,

erative, the traveller should

add

a liberal gratuity.

Tours. Neither Norway nor Sweden is suitable for long walking excursions, as the distances are too great and the points of interest too far apart. A few districts in the Swedish Norrland are, however, accessible to pedestrian tourists. In Norway there is no lack of short excursions which can be made on foot only. Besides the passes over the mountains to the W. coast from the Scctersdal (p. 5), Hallingdal (p. 30), and Telemarken (pp. 46-48), and the excursions and ascents in Jotunheim (R, 22) and Sendmere (p. 190), we may mention in this connection the passes, often very beautiful, connecting the heads of diiferent fjords (conip. pp. xvii, 101, 103, 137, 140, 189, etc.). Several fine walks may also be taken in the Norrland (RR. 30,33). The footpaths are, as might be expected, far inferior to those among the Alps. On very hilly roads walking is quicker than driving, in which case a cariole or cart may advantageously be hired for luggage only. In many oases the only
,

Walking

TV.

CYCLTNG TOURS.
is

xxiii

means

of forwarding luggage

offered by the steamers.
to

for farther particulars

may be made

Application tbe tourist-agents (p. xivj.

Cycling Tours. Both Sweden and Norway afford good opportuand tlie cyclist, perhaps, enjoys a greater measure of independence thau any other traveller. All steamship companies running direct to Xorway and Sweden carry passengers' cycles from England tree of charge. By the Esbjerg route
nities for cycling;

from Harwich cycles are booked through at ordinary luggage rates, plus a registration fee of 6s. od. per machine to Malmo or 55. lOd. to Helsingborg. It is not desirable to take a crate when the machine is accompanied l)y its owner, but the frame should be carefully swathed in some kind of cloth-covering to protect the enamel and bright parts from the sea-air. Cyclists entering Sweden must deposit at the custom-house by which they enter the duty of 25 kr. (about ll. 8s. Od.) per machine. A cyclist entering the country at Stockholm, Gotenbnrg, Malmo, Ilelsingborg, Ivaudskrona, 3Ion, Charlottenberg, or Storlien may, when leaving, claim his If, however, the cyclist enters at deposit at any other of those places. any other place not given in the above list, he must, in order to obtain the return of his deposit, leave the country by the same custom-house by which he entered. In any case the refund of the duty must be claimed within two mouths. Cycles entering Norway are subject to a duty of 3U kr. ill. 13s. 4(i.), a deposit of which amount must in the ordinary way be made by the tourist. Members of the Cyclists'' Touring Club (47 Victoria St., London, S.W.) are exempted from this obligation, the club being known to the Norwegian customs-authorities as the 'International Touring Club for Cyclists'. The Cyclists' Touring Club has also concluded agreeinents with the Touring Clubs of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, whereby members of the English club are entitled to the benefit of reductions in hotel-tariffs, etc., obtained by those bodies in their respective countries. As a rule, the newer roads in Scandinavia are excellent. They dry quickly after rain, but during rain they are apt to become greasy and care must be taken to guard against side slip. They are magnificently engineered, and the gradients are very easy. Some of the older roads are less to be recommended to the cyclist owing to their steepness and the looseness of their surface. Riding after dark on mountain-roads is dangerous, though it would be well to take a lamp in view of any unforseen emergency. The fjord-steamers carry accompanied bicycles free of cost, and the wheelman can further utilise them for sending on his extra luggage, retaining only enough for immediate requirements. A thoroughly trustworthy brake is essential, especially in Norway. The wisest plan is to have a good strong rim-brake on the front-wheel and an additional brake on the backwheel. It is important to keep one's machine at all times well imder control, as gates across roads are continually encountered, often at unexpected turnings, and drivers allow their animals to wander at will, so that one not unfrequently linds the road entirely blocked by a vehicle standing across it. Again, the mountain-roads are narrow and protected only by stones set at intervals varying from a few inches to several feet sometimes the gap is quite sufficient to allow a cycle to pass through at lull length. Perhaps the favourite ride in Norway is that through the Gudbrandsdal and the Romsdal from Christiania train or cycle to Miune, steamer tn Lillehammer, cycle to Veblungsnees. Here steamer may be taken to Slolde and along the coast to Bergen, train to Vossevangen, cycle to Gudvangen. .steamer to L8erdals0ren, cycle via Husum and the llaliingdal to H0nef<is. and return to Christiania. This route may be varied by branching olV at Uomaas and riding over the Dovre Fjeld to Trondhjem or Suudals0reu; »uby branching otY at Bredevangeu and riding via Skeaker to Marok, or to Hjelle, when(u^ by steamer and cycle to Nisua^s. Another ride frnni Cliristiania is via Haniar to Klveriim, thence ihr.nigh the Ustfidal and

Oulddal

to

Trondhjem.

xxiv

V.

EQUIPMENT.

In Sweden the roads iu the neighbourhood of Stockholm and those in the extreme south of the country are the most suitable for the cyclist. The roads vary greatly, but a good cycling map will often enable the rider to train undesirable portions. The number of possible rides is infinitely greater in this country than in Norw-ay; among them may be mentioned: a. Helsingborg to Stockholm via Jcinkoping, Liukiiping, Norrkoping, and Nykoping (642 Kil.). b. Lund to Karlskrona via Christianstad and Karlshamn (216 Kil.). c. Gotenburg to Stockholm via Falkoping, Laxa, and Vexi(i (559 Kil.). Several of the best routes In Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are described in the 'Continental Road Book' of the C. T. C. (vol. iii). Among the cycling maps published in the country mention may be made of that for S. Norway ('hljulturistkart over det Sydlige Norge') published by the Norwegian C.T.C. ('Norsk Hjulturist-Forening'), the headquarters of which are at Christiania. Maps are also supplied by theEnglish C. T. C.

V. Luggage. Equipment. Tourist Clubs. Luggage. Travellers who intend travelling by cariole should not take more than 30-40 lbs., packed in a small and strong box and a carpet-bag, to which may be added a wallet or game-pouch for walking excursions. A soft or compressible portmanteau is not recommended, as the 'Skydsgut' always sits on the luggage strapped

on behind. Suitable leathern trunks are sold at Christiania, Bergen, and elsewhere for about 20 kr. A supply of stout cord and straps will be useful, and a strong umbrella is indispensable.

Equipment.

The

traveller should avoid the

common

error of

overburdening himself with

anything not absolutely necessary. On the ordinary routes, and even in remoter places, tolerable food can almost always be obtained. Tea and essence of coffee will, however, sometimes be found useful. Spirits are not to be had at the inns, but good Cognac may be purchased in the larger towns for 4-5 kr. per bottle. A field-glass (KikkertJ, a pocket corkscrew, and a small clothes-brush will be found useful. As to clothing, two strong but light tweed suits, a change of warm underclothing, a pair of light shoes for steamboat
'articles de voyage', eatables, or

and cariole use, and a pair of extra-strong Alpine boots for mountaineering ought to suffice. Add a stout and long ulster, a light waterproof, and a couple of square yards of strong waterproof material, as a wrapper for coats and rugs or for covering the knees in wet weather, as the aprons (SkvcBtlceder) of the carioles are often dilapidated. Visitors to Lapland and the Swedish Norrland should further be provided with veils to keep off the gnats. Ladies travelling in Norway should also dress as simply, strongly, and comfortably as possible, eschewing ornament. For the rougher mountain tours they should take stout gaiters or leggings. Further Hints. An old hand reeomm^ends a few safety-pins to he naed in keeping scanty sheets from parting company with the blankets or shrinking into a wisp. For mountaineering it is even more important than in Switzerland to have very strong boots, waterproof if possible, and high in the ankle, as bogs and water-courses often have to be crossed. To the equipment already mentioned may be added sewing - materials, a few buttons, arnica, glycerine, and a candle or two. — «iood alpenstocks
,

VI.

ITOTKLS

AND

INNS.

xxv

are not to be obtained in Norway; it is a good plan to bring a proper iron sjiike from home and have it fitted with a shaft in Christiania or Plenty of small change is desirable, aa already mentioned. Bergen. In the Swedish Norrland a veil for protection ;tgainst the gnats, oil (AfyjgFor tours olja) to apply to their bites, and carbolic soap are essential. beyond the routes mentioned in the Handbook travellers require a tent, 'bandsko', sleeping-sacks, etc. ; apply for information to the Tourists' Union

at

Stockholm

(pp. 306, 386).

Guides charge 4-0 kr. per day and provide their gain should always be made beforehand.

own

food, but a bar-

Tourist Clubs.

The Norske

Turistforening] ('tourists' union'),

founded in 1866, extends its useful operations tlirougliout Norway, building refuge-liuts, improving paths, appointing guides, etc. There are now '2700 members, about one-fifth of the number being English and Scottish. The subscription is only 4 kr. per annum (life-membership 50 kr.), for which a copy of the ^Aarbog' will be sent to the subscriber through any Norwegian address he names. The club button (Kluhknap), worn as a distinctive badge, costs 80 0. more. The members are received with marked courtesy in the mountain-regions, and have a preferential right to accommodation
at the club-huts (see p. 142).

club,

The Svenska Turistforening (Stockholm p. 306) is a similar fotmded in 1884 and numbering 15,000 members. The an,

nual subscription is 3 kr., which entitles the member to a copy of the ^Arsskrift\ The club lias lionorary representatives (Ombud) at numerous points, who lend all assistance to members, while there are numerous other advantages attached to membership (com p. p. xix). A circular is sent on request from the clubs offices at Stockholm, containing much useful information, especially as to travelling in the Swedish Norrland, The Norwegian Clnb (11 Charing Cross, London, S.W.) is an institution,
ou the lines of the Alpine Club, tor those interested in Norway (annual subs. il. !«., for country members 10s. Gd.). It has a lil)rary, arrange lectures, and publishes a year-book.

VI. Hotels and Inns.

and a few of the favourite summer-resorts, hotels of the first class are rare in Norway and Sweden. But very fair hotels are rapidly springing up in other regions also, aflording cheap and tolerable quarters. Many of these new hotels in Norway are
in the capitals

Except

admirable examples of the national timber architecture, though they are apt to be noisy. In view of the inflammable nature of their material they are furnished with numerous exits. The so-called 'sanatoria', answering to the British hydropathics or the American 'summer boarding-houses', are well spoken of for a residence for some little time. The usual charges at the first-class hotels are: R. i^J-2-?>, B. 11/4-11/2, D.2-3, S. iVokr. at the second-class houses: R. 80 h.1 kr., B. 1-11/4, D. 172,"^- 1-1 V4 ^^'- 'l^l'G humbler inns in the less frequented districts are even cheaper; so that pedestrians in the regions indicated at p. xxii may often obtain board and lodging for
;

VI.
31/2-4 kr. per day.

HOTEL> AND

INNS.

The bedrooms, though plain, are scrupulously Attendance is not usually charged in the bill; a fee of 4050 0. from each person (Norw. Drikkepenge, Sw. drickespenninyar) to the servant or Opvartningspige (addressed as Freken) suffices. In Norway, as a rule, every Skydsstation is also an inn (affordclean.

ing *godt Kvarter' or 'slet Kvarter'. according to circumstances), corresponding to the Swedish gastgifcaregard. In Sweden, and still more in Norway, the manners of the innkeepers are reserved and homely, but there is no lack of real politeness and attention. On the other hand, as the people are rather slow in their movements, travellers intending to make an early start should make all their

arrangements overnight.

J ables- d'hote are almost unknown in Sweden. The Smorgasbord Brdnnvinsbord^ where various relishes, bread-and-butter, and liqueurs are served as stimulants to the appetite, is an institution peculiar to Sweden, and should be patronised very sparingly. A charge of 30-50 0. is usually made for it; sometimes, when the Smorgaser are served on small plates, the charge is 75 0. In the evening, from 7 to 10, small portions of meat, etc., known as Sexor (six o'clock meal) are served to those who wish a light supper (from 75 0.). In Norway, on the other hand, tables-d'hote prevail, and it is sometimes difficult to procure anything to eat between the fixed hours except tea and bread-and-butter or biscuits. The tinned meats ('Hermetiske Sager'), salted anchovies, cheese, etc., which form the staple of breakfast and supper, should be avoided as much as possible. The waiter (Norw. Opvarter; Swed. kypare^ vaktmdstare, garQon^ markor) usually receives a gratuity of 10 0. or more for each meal.
or

The following dishes
fare

are

among

the commonest in the bills of
:

(Norw. Spisesedd^ Swed. Matseddel)

Norwegian

VII.

SPORT.
tlie

xxvii

generally to be had at the larger inns and on board

steamers.

Spirits are never sold at the hotels or on board the steamers, but

be purchased at the shops in the towns. Drunkenness, whicli to be a national vice, has been greatly diminished by recent liquor laws, the principles of vvliich (much the same in both Norway and Sweden) are indicated at p. 278. Cafes are almost unknown in Norway, but are to be found in the larger Swedish towns. One of their specialties is Swedish punch, a mixture of rum or arrak with lemon-juice and sugar, drunk as a liqueur and undiluted (25-40 o. per glass). With ice in summer it is a palatable, but not very wholesome beverage, lieer on draught can be had in the large towns only. Cafe's and restaurants are frequently closed on Sun., from 8.30 a.m. to 1.30 p.m. Baths in Norway and Sweden are as a rule very primitive. The bath-houses in the fjords and lakes are for gentlemen only.

may

used

VII. Sport.

Sport

of all kinds has fallen off greatly in

Norway and Sweden

Excellent salmon-fishing is indeed still obtainable, but only at high rents, and the best rivers, such as the Namsen-ELo above Namsos, are let on long leases, chiefly to wealthy Englishmen. Good trout-fishing however, may still be had by those who are prepared for some hardships. Many rivers are now leased by hotel proprietors for the benefit of their guests. Amongst these may be mentioned the Loen-Elv^ belonging to the Hotel Alexandria at Loen (p. 178); the Rauma, near the Holganas Hotel in the Romsdal (p. 201); and the Fortun-Etv^ near Skjolden (p. 138). Trout-fishing may be enjoyed by visitors to Aaserals Sanatorium (p. 88), the Hotel Gioppen (p. 177), etc. It is difficult now to obtain good shooting in Norway or Sweden. The mountains enclosijig the Hallingdal still afford reindeer shooting which may also be had on the Hardanger Vidda, near the Romsdal, near R«rros, in Lapland, or, still better, in Spitzbergen and wild-fowl abound in many parts of Norway particularly in the trackless forests of ^sterdalen in the Ostra and Vestra Dal in Dalarne, around the Storsjo in Jemtland, and in Lapland but in every case the sportsman will find serious difficulties to contend with. In the first place most of the mouutaiii and forest districts, where the best sport is obtainable, belong to government, and by a Norwegian law of 1877 a license to shoot there costs from 200 to 1000 kroner. Again, though no license is required when permission is obtained to shoot over private property, tlie sport is generally very inferior. Another drawback to the sportsmans enjoyment is the difficulty of obtaining tolerable quarters. The Swedish game-laws, however, are less stringent, a license for shooting on unenclosed laud belonging to government being seldom required, The importation of dogs into Norway is forbidden.
of late years.
,
,

;

,

,

;

000. N. embracing the most frequented regions. For salmon (Lax) and sea-trout (Se-erret) in rivers. Of The most suitable the former 108 sheets had appeared in 1898. to 1st Sept. farm-houses and even 'saeters' or chalets being sometimes marked almost as boldly as Christiania itIn the maps in the Handbook the names of unimportant self. each). hare (Bare). In Norway the series of Ordnance Maps. Nissen (published by Cammermeyer of Christiania S.. Comp. . : — as follows For heath-hen and to 15th Aug. 1st April to 1st Aug. . eider-duck C^^cfgr/wp'^J. penin- sula there is plenty of room for names but as it is thinly peopled the names are apt to mislead. and a less satisfactory ^Generalkart over det sydllge Norge\ on a scale of 1 400. but those of churches retained. in two covers. : . London. : . When a place has several different names the commonest is given.200. at 2 kr.000 two plates). Norway. James's St. In 1898 there had appeared 84 Another sheets. fonr sheets. MAPS.000. called the ^Topografiska Corpsens Karta ofver Sverige' (water coloured blue). : — : bottns Lan (1 : 200. A new ordnance map in 200 sheets. 15th April to 15th Aug. The older of these maps are often indistinct. . each). to LakeVenern and Gefle. in fourteen sections at 40-80 0. with the 'skyds-stations' and the distances carefully marked. to 1st Aug. 'gaards' have been omitted. A. : ptarmigan (Rype)^ 15th May to 15th Aug. prepared from official sources by P. and deer (Hjort). 1st June to 15th Aug. on a scale of 1 100. 'Norwegian Anglings and Sportings'.000) was published in 1894.in brooks or on the sea-coast. now in conrse of publication. issued by Messrs. on a scale of 1:800.000. Lumley House.000 same publishers. : : — travelling maps are the Relsekart over det Sydlige og Nordlige Norge. 34 St. the plates having suffered from frequent use. usually ending on 9th August. is all that is available for a great part of the country. 14th Sept. extending on the N..xxviii VIII. For N. and lakes.000 . Lastly we may mention Haffner4'DahVs Kart over Finmarkens Ami (1:400.. on a scale of i 100. mountains indicated by contour lines and shaded in chalk).000. Maps. and hazel-hen (Hjerpe)^ 15th May to 15th Aug.000 (in three colours.. The Close Seasons in Norway are black-hen (iJeri and Urhene)^ i5th Jlarch — The close seasons for game in Sweden are nearly the same. to 15th April . tol4thFeb. reindeer (Rensdpr). 14th Sept.. blackcock (Urhane).000. estuaries. Elsdyr)^ beaver (Boever). on the scale of 1 -. in three plates.. and Oscar Nielsens Lomme-Reisekart over Norge (1 400. 1st Nov. Of Sweden there is an excellent new ordnance map. to be completed in 18 sheets) are now in progress. each. Sweden maybe mentioned the ^Karta ofver Norr.000). partridge (Rapheine)^ 1st Jan. Lumley ^' Co. called the ^Topografisk Kart over Kongeriget Norge'' (water coloured blue. In maps of a vast country like the Scandinavian . (but foreigners are at present prohibited from shooting these last at any time). begun in 1826. Books. good map is the ^Generalkarta ofver Sverige (1 1. Maps. Norway in two sheets at 11/2 kr. in 45 sheets). capercailzie (Tjur). J. Vin. A 'Reisekart over Sendmere' by Kristofer Banders (1 250. elk (Elg.

1885. 1881. J... Hyne. Lloyd.) Svenoniiis.. C. 1879. Lond.. Vicary. F. J. Metcalf. Lapp.. while a and also occur..... Taylor. 1892. 1892. 1854.J. W. Norsk. Norway.. 1 vols. C. Northern Travel. 2 vols. Wood. W. Loring. F. Schubeler.UOKS. 1899 (Se^ndLovett. L. at intervals). The Norse Folk. Lond. Lond. Norwegian Pictures. Sandeman. and Fosses. 1895. An American in Norway. Broch. Lond. Scandinavian Adventure. Lond. Brace. R. Lond. New York. IX. pub. Bradshaw. 1882. New Climbs in Norway. A. 1895. Norway in June.. Sweden and the Swedes. CutcUffe. P. In Sweden the modified a and o are written a and o.. Anderton. Stone. M. Of the numerous books treating of Norway and Sweden few useful and accessible works are mentioned here: — Abercromby^ John.... C. Lond..and Proto-Historic Finns. Chapman. 1857. The spelling and pronunciation of the names of Scandinavian places is very variable.. Angling Travels in Norway. and Finn. 1885. Lond. author of a guide to N. D. Land of the Midnight Sun.VII!. in Norway usually cp and 0.. by Isabella M. Lond. Annuaire Statistique de la Norvege (official. E. ^'Old Bushman''. etc. Lond. 1878.. 1899. Miss E. 1857. B. Edin.. Lond.. Pictures of Swedish Life.. 1889... Royaume de Norvege. flora). Lond. Thomas. Forbes. trans. Under Northern Skies. Keary. the latter being sometimes used to indicate the short sound of the Again in Norway na (or a). W. 1896.. Vincent. Sweden. Norway and its Glaciers. Sketches in Holland and Scandinavia. wis The portions oi' tliis map published together in a special cover (B kr. 'Three in Norway'.. Loud. C. a Books. A. Round about Norway. Comparetti. 1887. Lond.. Eraser. etc.. Mrs. Bayard. Through Arctic Lapland. Baker. O. Norway and the Norwegians. nierre district). Ten Years in Sweden. an. 1865. Oxonian in Thelemarken. and are frequently . F. Lond. Pritchett.. J. 1858. C. Hare.. 1881.. Lond. Domenico. 1885. Oppenheim. Lond. Lond.. specially useful to tourists haNe been by Br.. T.. 1899). AVild Norway. Viridarium Norvegianum (admirable account of the Otti. Frederirk .. on.. Wood. Names and their Meanings. Denmark and Iceland. its Fjords. Gamle Norge. Lond. Lond. Lond. by Two of Them. Du Chaillu. 1898. The Traditional Poetry of the Finns (Engl. 1881... Woods. C. Fjelds. 1897 (recommended to the sportsman and naturalist). 1853.. I'. 1886. The Pre. Lond. letter.. '2nd ed.

mountain mountain-lake. Lastly. Prcesfegaard. Fos. waterfall. ridge. F/ordl. promontory. Lang (Lag)^ Laug. plain. cliff. basin. estuary. hill. or Kjcern. iSier. town. and therefore often omitted (as Meheia for Medheia. Marok. contracted genitive Os^ mouth. 'toom'J. hollow. lake. Gold.. Mork. land. clearing. Dal. corner. another to the principal 'gaard'. 'yard'). Sund. Egg. promontory. ferry. of 'Vand'. site of house. or wooden hut. t/^»'. Kirke. tracted from Aakev or Agei\ field. . strait. sseter. Eidfjord or 0ifjord. clearing. are also frequently . In Danish or Norwegian the letter w does not occur. Qvam. 0yr . : — Ok\ probably con. Farm-houses again and the converse is are usually named after their proprietors often the case. (?««rc?. Laag. harbour. and Scotch provincial tStabbur. etc. Kvam. 'the river'. hill. thebeach exposed at ebb-tide. or Sennerum. pasture. NAMES AND THEIR MEANINGS. Aar. group of chalets. Brce. village.). thicket. Mog. mountain-top. storehouse. IX. Nces. their pronunciation remaining nearly identical so that the same word will sometimes assume such various forms as Synjereim. lake. Li'kke. bay. Fjeld^ mountain.). dale. rocky slope. Se. g and fc. the number of names being sometimes in an inverse ratio to the importance of the place. churcli. Bredheim or Breum. Vand. ITw/f. 'Gaard\ hamlet. Vaag. Vig or Vik. hamlet.. Log^ Laug. peak. Aas. aii'l Haug or Houg. i/?/Z. loose stones. rjdge. Log. 'thwaite"). alluvial soil. peninsula. 'the promontory'. Tjern. when hard. Be. The following is a list of several common Norwegian words (cp and e being placed last in the alphabet) . cultivated Elv. parsonage. cowherds' hut. 'the river-valley'. hamlet. H0I. ravine. Loug^ The vowels 0. Ilerk. tongue Many places have two or more names. Lund. 'the end of the lake'. or Merok. tongue of land. Vik. . one usually applying to the church. . />cere. 'tarn'. from Aa. grove. Aui\ see 0re. island.XXX iiitcrcliaiigcd. field. 'river". Klev^ clift". gravelly of land. a third to the postingstation. are as Agershus or Akershus often used indifferently Egersund or Ekersund. (S'^tte . glacier. 3fark. Tofni. 'the lake'. creek. Vang. edge. rock. peak. plot of ground (English ^e. Mdraak. and so on. house. hut in Swedish v and ty are constantly interchanged. Nut. Tind. see 'Seeter'. Plads. interchanged. Bygd Hei. 'the valley-river'. also Bij. . istlimus. garden. tongue of land. l^oBtev.Eid or Eide. district. armof thesea. ebb-tide. river. neck of land. Thveit (Eng. valley. parish. 'toft'.0^?/. many names signifying merely 'the creek'. Loiig^ river. 01. farm-house(Engl.. TYtte. water. 0. 'chalet'. meadow.bay. a 'mountain-tract'. Kroglev. u. 3/o. In both countries the traveller will often he struck by the primitiveness of the nomenclature. Vas. Bu. St0l. nose. Heia^ barren height. ZTeWe. 6V«?nd. £fre. ci. Vig. and or e as in 'hill'. forest. farm. Yel^ sandy slope. Siul. Haukeli for Haukelid. Tjcern. Bakkc. rubble. hamlet. river. The article en or et (see grammar in the appendix) is often added in common speech to names which appear in the map without it (Krogleven. Grotli for Grotlid^ etc. Sennerhdm. Aak. slab. Haug^ Houg. The letter d in combination with other consonants or at the end of a word is usually mute. Odde .

and the island-belt as the Skjargaard (skargard). part of a vast elevated plateau. nnencuTiibered by any later formations. part of Sweden forms another pen- insula to the S. the width increases to 435 M. the oldest of these rocks. Scandinavia. 500(^6000 ft.E. barren expanses). and fringed with a belt of countless rocky islands. hornblende. part of the peninsula Kjeler ('mountain ranges'). the gneiss. or Valley of the Rauma. inland. but mainly consists in its "W. and part of Russia to the N. . M. and Vidder ('widths'. The Mountains are composed almost entirely of primary rocks. margin of which is deeply indented with innumerable bays and creeks. Roughly speaking. kingdom Christiania and Upsala).E. disposed in strata. latitude. and in the N. coast its breadth is about '260 Engl.xxxi X. To different parts of the mountain-plateau are applied the names of Fjeld ('fell').N. M. between 57° 57' and in area. notably in the Rom.«fcaV). in height. gradually narrowinfr. The entire coast-line of the peninsula disregarding the its innumerable indentations. the W. the largest peninsula in Europe. towers in most imposing pinnacles. sides. descending abruptly to the western fjords and sloping gradually down to the plains of Sweden and the Gulf of Bothnia on the E. in lengtli.. quarzite. is about 296. Tliat . Sweden on the E.E. and 8. limestone. in length part between Cape Lindesnses and Vadse alone measuring 1250 M. thougli at the point where the Trondhjem Fjord forms a deep indentation Farther to the S.. beyond which Norway forms a rounded peninsula ending in Cape Lindesnses (58° 59'). about 50-60 Engl.. to N. being upwards of 1100 Engl. . Heidar ('heights'). The latter are known as Skjcer (Sw. M. measures 2060 M.500 Engl. and from it rise at intervals rounded and occasionally pointed peaks of considerable height. corresponding with which are occasional well-defined layers of later slate-formations and particularly of limestone. On the Physical Geography of Scandinavia. Tlie peninsula contains no distinctly connected mountain-ranges like those in most other countries. it gradually increases. while the S.W. in latitude 60" (that of it narrows to 160 M. so that for the geologist they possess the charm of the most hoar antiquity. presenting nearly the same form as when originally solidified. M. Geological Formation.<idal. Situation. 71" 11' N. Coast Line.. a line drawn parallel with the "W. of the Christiania Fjord. At places. .S. and towards the S. marks the boundary of the mountain-plateau. Between the Gulf of Bothnia and the N.W. and are rarely overlaid with more recent formations. sq. clay-slate. These primary rocks consist of granite. coast. and N.. mica. It extends from S. embracing the of Norway on the W. gneiss. side. and dolomite. slate. and terminating in the promontory of Falsterbo (55° 20'J near Copenhagen.

xixii X. but the lower plateaux are mainly covered with vast tracts of lake and marsh. to the S. extremity of the peninsula are of considerable extent.. the organic remains in which prove that the island must have undergone violent convulsions about the period when the coal was formed. and W. in latitude 69°. this magnificent valley is hardly inferior to the far-famed Yosemite Valley of the Sierra Nevada in California. rounded and worn by glacier-action. etc. a bed of coal was also recently discovered at the mouth of the Ramsaa. and other deposits of that period have since been found in Skane. consisting of quartzitc. in height and is afterwards prolonged by the Gudbrandsdal descending to Lake Mj0sen. sq. which rises on each side in almost perpendicular 2000-3000 ft. while the primary rocks. and thickly clothed with vegetation . These stretch westwards to the great mountain backbone of Sweden and Norway. part of the base of which on the E. above which lie strata of sandstone. 371).). On this route rises Areskutan. or clothed only with lichens {Cetraria are almost entirely bare cucullata nivalis. .i\([ Jemthmd in Sweden. One of the most instructive sections of the country is formed by the route from Sundsvall in Sweden to Ostersund on the Storsjo The primitive crystalline rocks of ind Trondhjem in Norway. PHYSICAL GEOGKAPHY. and in the purity of its formation. upheaved anew. sides belongs to the Silurian formation. From this vantage-ground we obtain an excellent idea of the character of the Scandinavian mountains. the island of Gotland. mica-slate. have once been larger than now. On the island of Ande. a. where the Silurian formations begin. one of the Vesteraalen group. Herjeadalen. Vester-Gbtland . in area. extending into the island. Under the sea extends a thick seam of coal. clay-slate. In grandeur of rock-scenery. and gneiss. Cronicularia ochroleuca. . but nowhere of great extent. bank of the lake.E. The slopes of the intervening basins are often well wooded. valley extends from the Moldefjord. and present an exceedingly sombre and dreary appearance. The configuration ed greatly from its of the mainland must at one time have differpresent form. That it was once higher above . a lake of 2570 Engl. The largest Silurian basin in the peninsula is that of the Storsjo in Jemtland. hornblende. after which it appears to have been submerged and then cliffs . About the year 1840 rocks of the Silurian Formation were discovered by geologists near the Christlania Fjord. and The island must therefore later coal. and also on the banks of Lake Mjesen and in Trondhjems Stift in Norway. The coal-measures of Helsingborg at the S. protrude through it all the way to the summit. the highest mountain in Sweden fp. Many of the hills. Coal occurs here and there in the peninsula. M. Jemtland are first replaced by limestone. extending to the E. intersecting the pure gneiss rock.

straits.. the whole country is ascertained to be gradually rising. of Karlskrona. within the Arctic Circle. each separated from its neighbour by a comparatively . M. the elevation of the coast has taken place fitfully. at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. On the other hand the sea appears within recent centuries to have receded at places. within 1000 years. 231). on the other hand. there are ancient coast-lines 620 ft. the most eminent of the Norwegian geologists. Thus it will generally be observed that in all the Norwegian valleys and fjords there are several distinct terraces. and unworn surface. and others gradually decreasing in height extend all the way to Trondhjem and still farther S. xxxiii now is proved by the nature of the coast with its water and ice-worn fjords. who caused marks to be made on the rocks at Kalmar and Gefle with a view to measure the retrocession of the sea by the German naturalist //eii at Yard^ in 1769. the ground in the Aland Islands. extending from Spitzbergen to about latitude 62". The upper parts of these glaciers form immense and nearly level expanses of dazzling ice and snow. 1744) and Linnceus [d. 7tb Edit. except where their intact ramifications descend into the valleys. and isthmuses (Eide). and the largest glacier in Europe. With regard to the Glaciers of Norway. with their heaps of debris descend abruptly at their lower ends at an angle of 25-30". of latitude 67". in a century farther to the S. and that the old coast-lines . in 1807. unbroken by moraines or crevasses. von Buch^ the geologist. from which a number of offshoots descend to within 150-200 ft. but careful measurements made at eleven different places between 1839 and 1865 proved that the average rise of the coast-line between Maase and Christiania during that period was 1 foot. C . or by peaks rising above them. 515 Engl. the traveller will observe that all the most important are situated to the 8. Again it will be noticed that the difi'erent waterlevels on the rocks are marked by a kind of disintegrated pathway or furrow. To the S. This was tirst observed by Celsius (d. Throughout a vast tract. of the sea-level. a little to the 8. These calculations are probably not very trustworthy. above the present sea-level. 60". According to Kjerulf. while at Trondhjem itself it is well authenticated that the coast has risen 20 ft. a gradual depression of the land or encroachment of the sea appears to be taking place.X. and by L. is even said to have risen 5 ft. In the Altenfjord^ near Hammcrfest. lying between lat. In form it resembles an enormous roof. within the same time has been observed while at Karlskrona no change of level has been detected. or the sea to be receding. a rise of 3 ft. The largest is the Jostedalshrce (p. A similar ice -mantle is that of the Folgefond (^. . . 126). in area. of lat. At Tornea. These plateaux of ice correspond with the mountain Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. between which there is a sudden and well-defined dip. 1778). as several facts tend to prove. sq. and another of vast extent is that of Svart^ isen (p. 61" and 62". the sea than PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 101).. .

and on a smaller scale there are numerous fjords on the W. They are generally narrow and deep. The E. by the erosive action of ice and water. America extending northwards from the Strait of Juan de Fuca. to which the numerous inland lakes once belonged. coasts of Iceland. most of which have minor ramifications. Scotland. On the banks of the fjords usually extends a strip of fertile and sheltered land which . has attracted a considerable population. coast of N. Sere. and on the S. sometimes clustered together with sand. configuration peculiar to Norway. accompanies nearly the whole of the Scandinavian coast from Vadse to Haparanda. The Sognefjord. sometimes lying a few feet only below the surface of the soil. and Ireland. That the fjords have been formed. and on the W. on which Hammerfest is situated. the Seiland. coasts of Greenland. . called Asar in Sweden and known in Ireland and Scotland as escars and kames. in Spitzbergen. coast of Scandinavia was probably also at one time indented with fjords. The immense and intricate archipelago of the Skjaergaard (skargdrd). . for example. and opposite the coasts of Halland and Skane in Sweden. Germany. seems to be disproved by the fact that they are often much deeper than the sea beyond their mouths.xxxiv X. the Kvals. deep at places. as would naturally be supposed. Within the Arctic Circle are a considerable number of large islands. and they abound in N. and on a small scale they afford an idea of the character of the glaciers which once covered the whole country. is no less than 4100 ft. the de'bris of moraines is distributed over every part of the country and the soil formed by glacier . Similar indentations occur in the precipitous W. off the mouth of the Foldenfjord{j6i^l>{'\ oS Jaderen &nA Lister (between 58° and 59*^). with the exception of those in E. of the Island of Chiloe. Nova Zembla. which affords admirable shelter to the coasting steamers. friction now forms good cultivable land and affords abundant material for brick-making. Finmarken. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. Sweden by the glaciers on their southward course._^and gravel. and. The only considerable intervals are in the Arctic Ocean near the North Cape. and E. The fact appears rather to be that these basins existed before the glacier era. mud. The coast is indented with innumerable Fjords. and rising into hills of 70185 ft. Of that glacier-period numerous traces still exist in Scandinavia. in height. Striated rocks are everywhere observable. All these fjord-formations cease within 40-50" from the equator. to the S. Erratic Blocks seem to have been first deposited in S. or island-belt. but which have gradually been filled up by the alluvial deposits of the rivers. and at the same time they generally correspond with the rainiest regions of the countries where they occur. they lie at right angles to the axis of the mountains. American coast. from the coast -line upwards.

Stjerne. Ringvadse. which was formerly supposed to prey on the latter. and N.000^. and Lobster Fisheries and Seal Hunting yield a considerable revenue. and Himle between mainland is the Tromse with the town of that name then Senjen and the Vesteraalen and Lofoten Islands. In 1808 the cod in their turn disappeared and the herring returned. Kaage. The commercial fleet of Norway now ranks next to those of Great Britain and the United States. fisheries support a population of . Threnen. Timber for ship-building purposes is abundant. the Namsen in the Namsdal. Varne. compared with which the Opland or inland districts offer little or no attraction to settlers. . . Among the most famous rivers are t\iQBrammens-Elv. and on the W. and who discovered Iceland. are mountainous. M. the Suledals-Elv in Ryfylke. coast near Kragere. These valuable resources of the coast-districts. the foundation of which was laid by the piratical Vikings (inhabitants of 'Viker' or creeks]. near Lindaas in Nordhorland. but disappeared from 1784 to 1808... 236. xxxv Ame. whose expeditions extended to Constantinople. coast near Finnaas in Sendhorland. have also given rise to the important Maritime Tkadb of Norway. and that of the seal-hunting (Phoca vitulina) at 55.). the largest island in Norway (870 Engl. and near Vigten in the Namsdal. The shoals of cod and herring are usually attended by a kind of whale (Balenoptera musculus). of which there are others of . Among the finest are the Hestmandse. sq. the OngneElv in Jsederen. The annual yield of the cod-fishery is estimated at 1. Greenland. Of the last-named group the first is the Hinde. but since 1869 the former have again been found in their old haunts. who sometimes caused themselves to be buried along with their vessels. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. particularly those near the Arctic Circle. considerable size. 225-252). while about a million and a half of lobsters are annually exported to England alone. Lovunden. and the singular Torghatten. during which period cod were abundant in that neighbourhood. Oyster. to the S. The oyster-fishery is chiefly carried on on the S.60()Z. but this is ascertained to be erroneous. the Numedalslaag. Herrings formerly abounded near Stavanger. by the Bjare. America ('Vinland' 500 years earlier than Columbus). and the Alten-Elv and Tana in Finmarken.X. The salmon-fishery is also of considerable importance.300. the Gula near Trondhjem. On some of the fjords still exist the tumuli of these early navigators. Alstene with the ^Seven Sisters'. the Rauma and Driva in the Romsdal.000 souls. and many of them present strikingly picturesque forms. near Vestncps in the Romsdalsfjord. besides which the Herring. The great fishingbanks of the Lofoten Islands are mentioned at p. These no less than 100. The great resource of the busy coast-population is the Cod Fishery. all of which are described in the Handbook (pp. All these islands. the last and the .

while the Namsen and Snaasen descend to the well-cultivated plains on the Trondhjem Fjord. which forms the imposing Sarpsfos at Sarpsborg and falls into the Skager-Rack at Fredrikstad. Farther to the S. In latitude 63° Owing to . to Trondhjem and through the valleys of these two rivers runs the important railway from Christiania to Lake Mjesen the copper -mines of Reros. and between the Glommen and the Gudbraudsdal tower the isolated Rdndane. while a branch diverges to the W.W. which descends to the N. connected by rivers and often by waterfalls. the mountains. The coasting-trade of Stockholm. dimensions on the Lyngenfjord (p. and Rivers. the largest river in Norway. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. of the great glacier-mountains of Svartisen (p. Mountains. The mountains in the northern part of the peninsula. the main range divides. A little to the N. which afterwards unite and descend to the S. 231) the mountains decrease in height. Tronfjeld and Elgepig. bordering on Russia. and accordingly few of the vikings had their headquarters there. nearly at a right angle. The E. and falling into LakeVenern. narrow lakes. of the Fsemund-Sjef lies the Aursund-Sje. out of which flows the Fcemunds-Elv.E. 71). to the Gulf of Bothnia. where the SuUtelma forms the boundary between the sister kingdoms. however. Adjoining the same range lies the FamundSj0.. . formerly supposed to be the highest mountain of this point. and a number of large lakes send their waters eastwards to the Baltic. Areskutan in Sweden. of the Gudin Norway.xxxvi X. Near the same lake rises the Gula. culminating in the Snehcetta (p. again attain a height of 4000-5000 ft. the sudden descent of the mountains on the W. Kjelhaugen. Between the FsBmund-Sje and the Glommen rise the lofty Hummelfjeld. To the S. side they take the form of acter of torrents long. W . the backbone of the peninsula continuing to run southwards. Lakes.W. coast the streams on that side of the peninsula all have the charwhile on the E. many of the harbours have altered their position or been rendered shallow by the gradual rise of the coast-line. and the inland lake and especially as canal-traftic are of considerable importance. of the latter stretches the Dovrefjeld. 247) and at the head of the Saltenfjord (p. whence it descends under the name of the Gbta-Elf to the Kattegat. and the Syltoppe.W. afterwards called the Klar-Elf. the source of the Glommen. 233). rarely exceed 1000 ft. In the central range are the sources of the Oster and Vester Dalelf. To the N. in height. . To the J . but they become rising to imposing loftier as we proceed towards the S. such as the Jomafjeld. while the islands off the coast contain mountains of similar height. and to the N. and Trondhjem.W. coast of the peninsula is less favourable for navigation.

are bounded by the Sognefjord on the N. The southern mountains of Norway. enclosed by imposing mountains belonging like the Horunger to the easily disintegrated 'gabbro' formation. The mountains then descend to the plain of Jarlsberg and Laurvik. 101). and Vestermanland. outpost of the whole of this mountain-region is the Skogsto . under the names of the Tydoskog and Kolmarden. The hills then gradually slope down to tlie plains of Skane and Halland. The Hardanger Fjeld is separated by the innermost branch of the Hardanger Fjord from the Folgefond (p. The E. by the Christiania Fjord on the S. It then intersects the province of Gotland and forms the plateau of Smaland to the S. The mountains extending towards the S.. of Lake Vettern. on which the snow cannot lie. ition period. where there are a few insignificant heights only. To the S. a hill containing about 30 per cent of iron ore. culminating in the Galdhepig (p. and by a line drawn on the E. in height. where they contain valuable iron ores. which also run from N. sides. An important spur a little to the S.W. . To the last-named group belongs the Ymesfjeld. rising between Lake Krederen and the Eggedal. horn. Hallingdal. Tytn^ and Bygdin.E. and S.W. and the isolated Norefjeld.W. S.E. already The mountains to the S. are the deep valleys of the picturesque region of Telemarken. of the Romsdal are usually known as the Langfjelde. which frequently intersect each other. containing the most fertile land in Norway (such as Hadeland on the Randsfjord and Ringerike on the Tyrifjord). descending towards the S. with peaks 3000-4600 ft. mentioned. side from the Fillefjeld to Christiania. rising above the snow line. an extensive snow-clad mountain with several peaks.. which include the Jostedalsbrcp with the Lodalskaupe and extend to the Horungerfjekl and the Jotunheim Mountains. a huge mass of granite nearly 10 Engl. The range next runs between Lakes Venern and Vettern. and surrounded by rocks of the transFarther to the S. where it is called Tiveden. xxxvii brandsdal. stretch the gneiss mountains of the Romsdal.E. beyond which we again meet with a number of transverse valleys. Among their last spurs are the Gausta and the Lidfjeld in Telemarken. in breadth. 152). which gradually slope on the E. Farther to the E. next enter the Herjeadal and Vermland in Swbdkn. and extends to the E.X. of that lake is the Taberg. All these mountains are covered with perpetual snow except the highest and most precipitous peaks. Farther to the E. and the HaUingskarv. are the Numedal. and Valders valleys. to the N. and remarkable for picturesqueness of form. of the Hallingdal. particularly in Vermland^ Dalarne. of the Hardanger Fjord stretches the extensive Hardanger Vidda.. lie the extensive Lakes Gjende. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. In the plains of . M. Between the Sognefjord and the Hardanger Fjord are the isolated plateaux of the Vosseskarl^ the Hardanger Jekul. .

and intersected by numerous rivers and long lakes. Siberia. but this is only the case on the E.Elf (-p.. the overflow of which descends from basin to basin till it reaches the sea. As we proceed from W. in height. The modern canal -route connecting these lakes is described in RR. being influenced by the Atlantic and the Gulf Stream which impinges upon it. 45-48. of which was prohably once an island.. Steamboats ply on the Angerman-Elf and the Lule-Elf. descending into the valleys where the sun has not power to evaporate it. One of most important lakes is the picturesque Siljan (p. Of the many other rivers the most important are the picturesque Angerman-Elf (ip. The heavy rainfall among the mountains. and their united waters form a fine cataract at Elfkarleby. and in which lies the almost uninhabitable region of E. 384). The Swedish islands of Gotland and Oland contain no hills above 210 ft. and that of July 55.. the isolated Kinnekulle on Lake Yenern. The climate is perhaps most equable at Skiidesnces. the and Lake Yenern does not exist in the Atlantic or in the Baltic.. to E. rise PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. coast and among the central mountains. which again was probably connected with the White Sea. and in some degree even from N. the land to the S. where the mean temperature of January is 34. The climate of the W. In the same latitude in which Franklin perished in the Arctic regions of America. the longest of all.xxxviii X. at the mouths of which lie a number of towns chiefly supported by the timber-trade. and the winters become more severe. Most of these eastern rivers are rather a series of lakes connected by rapids and waterfalls. These lakes are believed to have once formed a waterway to the Gulf of Finland. is connected by a branch with the parallel river Kalix. and the Tome-Elf (p. 390). Temperature. through which the Oster-Dalelf fiovfs. and this theory is borne out by the fact that a kind of crayfish found in the White Sea Gotland berg. The lower ends of these rivers are generally navigable for some distance. the HalleHunneberg. the Climate and Vegetation. 376). the temperate character of the climate changes. Of comparatively late geological formation is the Swedish Basin extending from the Skager-Rack through Lakes Venern and Vettern to Lake Miilaien. The coast to the N. coast is usually mild. be uniformly severe and inclement. and the Omberg. forms these lakes and extensive swamps. Judging from the degrees of latitude within which the peninsula lies one would expect the climate to .7''Fahr. to S. 362). Below Falun that river joins the Vester-Dalelf. the Lule. of Stockholm is flat. the water of these western fjords of Norway never freezes except in their upper extremities. near Stavanger. The last.4°: .

August . Reros. nor Hammerfest than Christiania. and the differThe tract lying between the Varanger Fjord and the ence 54. of Flora. that of July 57. for Sweden 20 per thousand. where the January temperature is 3. and on the W. districts of Norway. coast 16. At Stockholm. and that of July 63. it 552 Engl.E. The marking a mean January temperature of 23° passes through Hammerfest. and thence to the N. Rainfall. the interior of Finmarken and Lapland. and the southern mountains above the height of 2300ft. August and September are the rainiest months in the E. The difference is still greater in many places farther to the N. Again. coast. and southwards to Gotenburg and Copenhagen. and July and August for the W.92°. In Sweden the greatest rainfall is between Gefle and Gotenthat of The mean rainfall in Sweden is 20.28 inches burg.6°.. are sometimes very violent on the W. June and July are therefore the best months for travelling in Sweden and the E. severe winter and a short and line sometimes oppressively hot summer.7°. coast and the interior of the country is made up of a long. to Cape Lindesnaes. that of the E. being of course lower than that of the air in summer and higher in winter. Thus the line which marks a mean January temperature of 32° Fahr. and Upsala. In the depth of winter. towards the Christia. especially in the N. coast the rainy season is rather later. coast. Hail and thunderstorms are rare in Norway. coast is comparatively equable throughout the year.2°. where no fewer than forty churches have been destroyed by lightning within the last is . Lastly. but on the W.. lat. In the neighbourhood of the Romsdal the rainy season does not usually set in before December. districts of Norway. The healthiest part of the peninsula is probably the island of Karme. farther is no higher at Ostersund in Jemtland. runs from the Lofoten Islands southwards. therefore. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. xxxix difference 20.8°. however. nia Fjord. the mean temperature of January is '24. . The latter. of Bergen and through the inner part of the Stavanger Fjord. 70-75 inches. Christiania. It then turns to the S.7°. coast. on the other hand. Gotenburg 28. all have an annual mean temperature below the freezing point. while the climate on the W.90°. south. above the sea). . the rainiest month in Sweden In Norway the maximum rainfall is at Flora.X. In the interior of Norway less rain falls than on the coast. coast the average is reaches 90-91 inches per annum about 40 inches. Some of the other isothermal lines are curious. passing a little to the E. Saltdalen. 925 ft. to the S.5°: difference 38. where it sometimes on the S. The average rate for Norway is 19.E. M. Gulf of Bothnia. while the mean temperature of the whole year at the North Cape is 35. as at Jockmock (66° 36' N.18. where the death-rate is only 12 per thousand. and N. and that of the E. The average temperature of the sea is 31/2-7° warmer than the air. provinces. the Lofoten Islands are not colder than Copenhagen.88 inches.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.xl X. The following table shows the mean temperature an average rainfall in different parts of Norway : — . 150 years.

In the northern regions the Oxyria remiformis. The cultivated land in Norway occupies the insigniflcant area of 1074 Engl. districts up height of 1000-1250 ft. up to a height of 1950 ft. but in Sweden 10. Wheat to a . The Lapps mix their bread with reindeer-milk and sometimes with the bitter Mulgedium alpinum which is believed to be a preventive of scurvy.. as 69". above the sea. being frequently mixed with flour and made into Fladbred. gooseberries (Ribes grossularia) raspberries (Rubus idaeus). is cultivated as far as 64^2"} and in the S. to . however. and in the S. a kind of sorrel.. . to a height of 2050 ft. xli the plum ( Prunus domestica) up to 64°. sq. M. if brought from a warmer climate. . exactly the same time at Christiania and in believed that tlie great the lack of warmth. It would be interesting to know what effects the protracted light produces on the colours of flowers and the flavour of fruits but these points have not yet been investigated. and a number of others peculiar to the Arctic regions. It is kept in a frozen condition in winter and boiled down to a pulp for use. lat. of the domestic and other in Great Britain besides many which are now extinct there. succeeding years.X. the 'flat bread' is usually made of wheat or and sometimes with barley flour mixed with mashed potatoes pease-meal. and does not yield a good crop until after two or three seasons so that the effects of a bad harvest are felt for several curious fact that barley takes ripen at Alten (70° N. lat. while currants (Ribes nigrum and rubrum). and in the S. however. Thus the leaves of maples and plane-trees (Acer platanoides and pseudoplatanus) transplanted from Christiania to Tromse have been found to increase greatly in size. an exceedingly useful mammal. Botanists are referred to the instructive works of Schuebeler and Axel Blytt. is largely cultivated as a substitute for corn. This leaf development is also attributed the long continuance of the sunlight in summer. districts. above the sea Rye grows as far N. Among the animals most characteristic of the country are the xe\\\ieex (Cervus tarandus). The traveller will also observe that the leaves of most of the which occur in the northern districts of Norway are larger than those of trees of the same kind in the southern regions. M. Barley and Oats occur up to 70°. 65° 10' N. and the common bilberry (Vaccinium myrtilius) occur as far north as the North Cape. of France. — . and the cherry to 66°. while the trees themselves become trees dwarfed in their growth. In the S.) the S. . and the lemming (Georychus The Animal Kingdom comprises most animals common . requires to be acclimatised. 678sq. The seed. . but it is now generally length of the Arctic days compensates for It is a [90 days) to as . as far as PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. and the sole support of the nomadic Lapps. strawberries (Fragaria vescaj.

The finest of the wildfowl is the capercailzie ('Tjur' Tetraourogallus) after which come the ptarmigan 'Rype'.000 per annum. of Sweden. with high 22. The down of the female. which is most abundant within the Arctic Circle. full lips. now amounts in Norway to about 22. cheek-bones. . however. The most valuable of the wildfowl. see the grammars at the end of the volume. Their languages are both of the Turanian stock (akin to Hungarian).000. narrow eyes. . xliii). The dominant race. is gathered in the Dunvcer of Finmarken.000 only in Norway and Sweden and the Finns about They are both of the Mongolian type. For killing any one of these the government offers a reward of 25 crowns.000. The total population of Norway in 1897 was about 2. which she uses in making her nest. lemmusj. that of Sweden about 5.135. Among beasts of prey the bear and the wolf are still common in many parts of the country. to have been identical some 2000 years ago. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. but abound in the S. and in Sweden to 37.000. — . and yellowish complexions. somewhat resembling a water-rat. The Population is now almost exclusively of Gothic origin. next to which rank the reindeer and the red deer. where they were introduced about the year 1500. The Lapps now number about 24. Lagopus mutus) and hazel -grouse ('Hjerpe'. The names usually . . by which the Lapps have been wellnigh extinguished is of the Aryan or Indo-Germanic stock and is believed to have begun to settle in the peninsula before the birth of Christ (see p. Tetrao bonasia).000 souls. who were probably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country and who both belong to the Ugrian race. and the Finns ('fen-dwellers') Suomi. . is the eiderduck ('Eder Anas mollissima). and the lynx and glutton occasionally occur. The annual increase. .xlii X. ( . owing to the frequency of emigration. and are said by Castren the philologist. Partridges rarely occur in Norway. a rodent.000. Conspicuous among large game is the handsome elk ('Elsdyr' Cervus alces\ now becoming rare. but the Finns are now by far the superior race. but the oldest element consists oftheLapps and the Fmns. both physically and mentally. — . blunt noses. applied to them are not used by themselves. low foreheads. yielding a considerable revenue. With regard to their language. The Lapps ('nomads') call themselves Sami or Sahmelads. which is slow.

Prehistoric Period. and in Norway about the year 700 A. . as no antiquities have been found which show a gradual transition from the bronze to the early iron period. Scandinavians. Agriculture was now regularly^ practised. . To this period also belong the earlier Runic Inscriptions. Lastly. both during the earlier and later iron periods. The earliest antiquities in Scandinavia belong to the Flint Period. Their rude implements indicate that they possessed fixed dwelling-places and cattle. That the relics of the following periods were left by a different race is most probable. and were acquainted with the art of They buried their dead in fishing and probably of hunting also. when the use of that metal was introduced from Central Europe. D. The cinerary urns are usually of terracotta. about the time of the birth of Christ. was afterwards modified by the . when implements and ornaments in bronze and even in gold were first imported. This epoch was succeeded by the large stone tomb-chambers. con- . begins the Iron Period. though still barbarous. and it is well ascertained that the inhabitants of the S. rarely of bronze. during which the peninsula appears to have been inhabited by the same race as Denmark and N. which began in Sweden about the year 500 or 600.. common to Scandinavian Anglo-Saxon Burgundian. while the native workmanship exhibits evidence of a new and inflependent. During this and the preceding period the population seems to have been confined to Skane and Vester-Gotland. The Runic inscriptions of this period are in the smaller character. (lead During this period also the contents of tombs prove that the were sometimes burned and sometimes buried in coffins. The tombs of this period sometimes contain cinerary urns and sometimes bones unconsumed. Among other curiosities which have been found in the tombs are trinkets and weapons. and the language had by this time attained to nearly the same development as that used hy the later MSS. History of Sweden and Norway. stage of culture. At the same time silver and glass make their appearance and Roman coins and 'bracteates' (ornamental disks of metal) are occasionally found. and Gothic inscriptions. To what race the inhabitants of Scandinavia during the first and second of these periods belonged is uncertain. some of which appear to have been purposely broken. and the same domestic animals were used as at the present day. Germany. in a large character differing from that afterwards used. but it is supposed that they were of the aboriginal Finnish stock. Bronze Period. It has also been ascertained that the older Runic alphabet of 24 letters. parts of the peninsula were of Germanic origin. and afterwards manufactured by the natives themselves. . Quite distinct from the earlier part of this era is the Later Iron Period. who substituted for it the smaller character.xliii XI.

Farther N. Svear and Svithjod) by Jordanis. .e. by the 9th cent. were the Svear. rygir. i. who occupied Upland. As far back. as the . being dominant. The same poem refers to 'Norvegr' and 'Nordmenn'. to whom belonged the adjacent island of Oland.xliv sisting of 16 letters only. Transition to the Historical Period. Vestermanland. To this also points the fact that the names of Rugians Burgundians and Goths still occur frequently in Scandinavia. and the Suethans and Suethidi (i. had become united. the Scandinavians had developed into a nationality distinct from the ancient Goths or the Anglo-Saxons. the Rygir were a Norwegian tribe. The name of 'Swedes" is mentioned for the first time by Tacitus (Suiones). the population in the S. The earliest historical writers agree that Scandinavia was at an early period inhabited partly by a Germanic race.e. the famous AngloSaxon epic poem. It is therefore more than probable that the picturesque myth of the immigration of the ^sir or ancient Scandinavians from Asia under the leadership of Odin and lastly the Ethelrugi or Adalrygir.uiFinnaithae. mentions Denmark as an already existing kingdom. . the Svear. before whom the weaker race seems gradually to have retreated. of Sweden and Norway appears to have been of the Gothic stock. which. tliat XL HISTORY. however. . . while the latter were also separated from the Norwegian tribes by forests and by Lake Venern and the Gota-Elf Beowulf. while Gotland appears to have been occupied by an independent tribe. The territories of the Gotar and the Svear were separated by dense forest. . The Germanic inhabitants. Norway and the Northmen but throws no light on their history. It is. the 'Goths' are spoken of by Ptolemy. . or natives of Romerike and Ilaurike in Norway. and the L'lmerugi or Holmbeginning of our era. Sodermanland. the name Borgund and Bornholm (Borgundarholm) recur more than once and the district of Gotland and the island of Gotland or Gutland were doubtless so called by Goths or Jutes. and also speaks of the different states of the Gotar and Svear. were first settled in Skane (Skaney) in the S. andNerike. It is at least certain that the history of Scandinavia begins with the later iron period. or the inhabitants of Oster-Gotland and Finnveden in Sweden the Dani or Danes the Raumaricii and Ragnaricii. or Swedes. however. certain that the consolidation of Norway took place . lished fact It therefore seems to be a well-estabduring the later iron period. entirely lacks foundation in fact. Jordanis also mentions the Ostrogothae a. of Sweden whence the country was named Scandia and the people Scandinavians. dating from about the year 700. therefore. if not earlier. was settled the tribe of the Gotar. . and partly by Finns or Lapps. . At that time the southernmost part of Sweden seems to have belonged to the Danes. Still farther N.

King of Denmark (970). professed to trace his descent. which soon much many .. After having slain several of his brothers. D. The kingdom was repeatedly attacked by the petty while great numbers of the peaskings who had been banished antry. Norway From before the Union. however. The Kurland. over Trondhjem Helgeland Namdalen. HISTORY. To the mythical period must be relegaterl the picturesque stories of the early Yngllngar kings. xlv later than that of Denmark and Sweden.XI. and it is at any rate certain that the migrations and piratical expeditions of the Northmen. His son Harald Haarfager ('fair-haired'). Scotland. with the aid of Harald Gormsson. the Orkney and Shetland Islands. A. Hebrides. Eric was expelled about the year 935 by Haakon the Good. began about this time (7th-8thceut. the most distinguished was //(/ra^/ Graafeld. who ruled . affected the whole of the north of Europe. to Iceland. The final consolidation of the kingdom. are doubtless a type of the enterprises of the vikings (from Fife. On the outbreak of war between Denmark and Germany he succeeded in . which last derived its name and its political organisation from Sweden the Danes undertook expeditions against France and England. . at length defeated by the Jarl (earl) of Lade in the district of Trondhjem. until Haakon Jarl transferred his allegiance to the kings of Denmark. who was. after several severe conflicts. whose exploits as a viking had gained for him the sobriquet of 'bloody axe". to escape the burdens of taxation. beginning with Olaf Tra. acknowledged the supremacy of the kings of Norway. Halfdan Svarte. and even to the Hebrides.telje. succeeded after the deciill uniting the whole of Norway under his sceptre sive battle of the Hafrsfjord near Stavanger in 872. Among the sons of Eric. tSwedes directed their attacks mainly against Finland Esthonia. . trusting for support from the kings of Sweden and Denmark. The Jarls of Lade. At this period a number of petty kings still maintained themselves on the fjords and in the interior of the country. . the semi-mythical \nglingar and Olaf Trsetelje. which are mentioned both in the Beowulf and by Frankish chroniclers. and doubtless after severe struggles. however. which continued down to the 11th century. who is said to have flourished about the middle of the Tth cent. several of whom were put to death by their own subjects. and the . was not effected until a century later. and Nordmere. king of a part of Norway corresponding with the present Stift of Christiania. who in his turn was defeated and slain by Eric's sons at the battle of Fitjar in 961. emigrated to the Orkney and Shetland Islands. and Russia. The predatory campaigns of the Danish King Hugleikr.). In this weakened condition Harald transmitted the crown to his favourite son Eirfkr Blodox. or the 'tree-hewer" but they are probably not without some foundation in fact. 'creek'). and the Norwegians chiefly against the north of England.

and been baptised there but his attempts to convert his people were violently opposed and met with no success. who began to speculate as to the true and ultimate Creator and it was about this period that Christianity of the universe began to dawn on the benighted north. the god of thunder. of sin. All alike partook equally of the joys and sorrows of life. and even of death. which become the abode of heroes slain in war. partly by persuasion. Godheimr) and a realm of giants (Vtgardr. . who had been brought up by King Athelstane in England. As victory was their great object. obtained possession of the kingdom. mankind (Midgardr. But as the gods had been in many respects lowered to the rank of men. The vikings came into frequent contact with Christian nations. the god of victory. materially altered the tenets of the old religion. In the 10th century Paganism in the north was in a moribund condition. and the Faroes. little zeal for Christianity and under Haakon Jarl heathenism was again in the ascendant. had already been partly converted by Thorvaldr Yidforli. to the highest rank in their pantheon.xM throwing XI. (^'double beard') of King Svejn Tveskceg Denmark now attempt- . HISTORY. Iceland. and partly by intimidation or by bribery. Jdtunheimr)^ it regarded . showed . but did not assume the title of king. together with the fjords and inland territory which had belonged to Haakon. The period of the vikings. aided by . The first Christian monarch was Haakon the Good. ascended the throne. while Thor. but at most the intermediate artificers and administrators of earth. Mannheimr) as a kind of object of contention between the two. they elevated Odin. A few. a native missionary. . off tlie Danish yoke. Based on the dual system of a world of gods (Asgardr. With the accession of Olaf begins a new era in the history of Norway. . who had also been converted in England. who had also become a Christian. and Christian slaves were frequently brought to Norway and Sweden. Many of the Northmen professed to be converted but either retained many of their old superstitions or speedily relapsed into them. the German bishop Friedrich. At length when Olaf Tryggvason. however. embraced the new religion zealously and it is to them that the final conversion of the peninsula was due. They therefore failed to satisfy the religious wants of men. whereupon Olaf Tryggvason a descendant of Haarfager. The bards depict in glo-^ing colours the halls of Odin. however. he brought missionaries from England and Germany to Norway and succeeded in evangelising Norway Iceland the Orkney and Shetland Islands. however. to the close of which we owe the Eddas. The sons of Eric. and were themselves believed to have their destinies swayed by fate it necessarily followed that they were not themselves the Creators. . . . had hitherto reigned supreme. Haakon was at length slain by one of his own slaves during an insurrection of the peasantry (995).

but his right was disputed hy Srend Estridssen. Olaf. caused much discontent. while Olaf was compelled to seek an asylum in Russia (1028). was now called to the throne and Svejn was obliged to flee to Denmark (103o). After having been engaged in several warlike expeditions and having been baptised either in England or in Normandy he returned Aided by to Norway in 1014 to assert his claim to the crown. Harald was obliged to renounce his pretensions to the crown of Denmark. now devoted his attention to the internal organisation of his kingdom. who ceded most of their rights to the Jarls Eric and Svejn. who in 1068 entered into a new treaty with Svend of Denmark at Kongshelle. . . Olaf. and thereupon set himself energetically to consolidate and evangelise his kingdom. by whose allied fleets Olaf Tryggvason was defeated and slain in the great naval battle of Svold. way and was proclaimed king. and after the death of the jarl to his son Svejn and the mother of the latter. . stimulated chiefly by the rumour of Olaf's which found ready credence and was formally declared sanctity by a national assembly. 1030. and for purpose allied himself with his stepson King Olaf. but he afterwards succeeded in earning for himself the In accordance with a treaty with Hardicanute title of 'the good'. but a the English princess Aelgifu reaction speedily set in. and his adversaries were supKing of England and Denmark who still ported by Canute Canute at length invaded Norasserted his claim to Norway. the independence of Norway was finally established. . Norway was now partitioned between the kings of Denmark and Sweden. Olafs son Magnus. on the coast of Pomerania. His severity. . Olaf. In 1046 he assumed as co-regent the turbulent Harald Sigurdssen step-brother of St. . Harald was succeeded by Olaf Haraldssen. . The kingdom. however. about the year 1000.XI. . and by others of the minor inland Kings. he succeeded in establishing his authority throughout the whole country. . whereby this . He ceded the reins of government to Haakon Jarl Erikssen. sons of Haakon Ladejarl. however. his stepfather Sigurd Syr. . Canute's triumph however. ed to re-establish HISTORY. . was of brief duration. the son of Haakon. who had been left by his father in Russia. The sway of Magnus was at first harsh. . he ascended the throne of Denmark after the Danish in 1038 monarch's death in 1042. . King of Ringerike. Having returned with a few followers to he was defeated and slain at Stiklestad near regain his crown Levanger on 29th July. death in 1047. son of Harald Grenski and a descendant of Harald Haarfager. but on Harald's death at the Battle of Hastings (10C>G) the hostilities between Norway and Denmark broke out anew. who was surnamed Hinn Kyrri or 'the peaceful'. Skotkonung or tributary king of Sweden and with Eric. xlvii the Danish supremacy over Norway. . who succeeded him on his After a series of violent conflicts with Svend. was soon permanently re-united by St.

xlviii XI. and Olaf (d. The same devotion to the church also led about this period to the foundation of the bishopric of Stavanger. thereafter proceeded to carry out the plans of their grandfather. King 0ystein . 'tenths'. the practical result of which was to pave Conflicts the way for the pretensions of adventurers of all kinds. of tlie HISTORY. Norwegian towns began importance. Munkelif at Bergen. so surnamed from the dress of the Scottish Highlanders which he had adopted did not reign long enough seriously to interrupt the peaceful progress of his country and the three sons of Magnus. is attributed to Olaf Kyrri. 1122). hetvfeen Sigurd Slembedegn^ who claimed to be a brother of Harald and Ingi and Sigurd Munn^ sons of Harald. for the conversion of their subjects. has been handed down to us. Ingi was defeated and slain by Haakon in 1161 whereupon his partisans elected as their king . a natural son of Magnus Barefoot. he proceeded to establish three native bishoprics and to erect cathedrals at Nidaros. and of several monasteries (those of Saelj0 in the Nordfjord. whether legitimate or not. Sarpsborg by St. . thus arose between Harald Gilli. and Oslo. measure which secured indepenis said to have been versed and both he and several of his predecessors have been extolled as lawgivers. a son of Sigurd Munn. the church. and to the introduction of the compulsory payment of tithes [Tiende. Bergen. A\Tiile Olafs predecessors had employed missionaries. His warlike son Magnus Barfod (1093-1103^. Olaf. Sigurd (d. a known dence in law to . probably including Stavanger. The confusion was farther aggravated by the introduction (in 1129) of the custom of compelling claimants whose legitimacy was challenged to undergo the 'iron ordeaV. country. and Magnus Sigurdssen . All these pretenders to the throne perished in the course of this civil war. . 1130). Sigurd was surnamed Jorsalafarer ('Jerusalem farer ) from his participation in one of the Crusades (1107-11). to attain and several . After Sigurds death the succession to the throne was disputed by several claimants as in accordance with the custom of the in Scotland as 'teinds'). enjoyed equal rights. and Oslo by Harald Hardraade but the foundation of Bergen and several other towns. Skiringssalr (near Laurvik) and the neighbouring Tensberg already Nidaros (afterwards Trondhjem) is said to have been existed founded by Olaf Tryggvason. 1115). and Gimse near Skien). . . but no distinct trace of legislation in Norway of a period earlier than the beginning of the 12th cent. and afterwards between Ingi and Haakon Herdebred. . making the dioceses as far as possible co-extensive with the three provinces in which national diets (Thing) were held. . . all relations in equal propinquity to the deceased. His court was famed for its magnificence and the number of its dignitaries and at the same time he zealously promoted the interests of the church. chiefly English. 0ystein (d. Nidarholm near Trondhjem.

Magnus had at first no difficulty in maintaining his position. brother of King Inge. After several insurrections against Magnus had been quelled. but Erling.\s}\o farer. Pope Eugene II. sent Cardinal Nicholas Breakespeare to Norway for the and at the same purpose of erecting a new archbishopric there time a fifth bishopric was erected at Hamar. . xlix was the son of a dauglitcr of Sigurd Jorsalain his turn having fallen in battle. d . so called from the bark of the birch which they used to protect their feet). a grandson of Sverre. personally popular. Supported by the church. Eystein's successor. 1217). and his headquarters were established at Trondhjem. Denmark by including a right to a voice in the election of future kings. his adherents endeavoured to find a successor. on whom he conferred the title of duke. peace was re-established by Haakon Haakonssen (1217-63). and a meritorious administrator. and also that of the church. and who soon distinguished himself by his energy and prudence. and but though the king and his followers were excommunicated severely harassed by several hostile parties. however. a natural son of Sigurd Munn. but his title and the high privileges he had accorded to the church did not long remain unchallenged. who had been brought up as a priest. For a time. proved his most serious opponent. under whom Norway attained a high degree of prosperity. and by Inge Baardssen (d. however. succeeded in obtaining the support of Magnus Er(. the father of Magnus. the Faroes. Meanwhile the church had firmly established her power in the north. In 1164 Erling Jarl induced Archbishop Eystein to crown his son Magnus.XI. 1204). Sverre died unconquered in 1202. . . Sverre's right to the crown. . He was succeeded by his son Haakon (d. The new archbishop's jurisdiction also extended over the sees of Iceland. and he incurred the bitter hostility of the church by ignoring the concessions granted to it by Magnus. 7th Edit. by Guttorm Sigurdssen (d. His father-in-law Skule Jarl. was immediately challenged by new pretenders. under whom the hostilities with the church still continued. however. Haakon the cession of Vigen. fled the country. Greenland. and the Isle of Man. . whose title "svas defective. who in 1177 chose as their chief Sverre.in(j'^!<efn. the Hebrides. desiring an archbishop of their own. The Norwegians. there arose the formidable party of the Birkebeiner ('birch-legs'. and in 1184 his sou Magnus met the same fate in the naval battle of Fimreite in the Sogn district. In 1179 Erling was defeated and slain by Sverre at Nidaros. In 1190 Archbishop Eric. 'baculus'. the Orkneys. a pastoral staff). At first the sees of Sweden and Norway had been under but the jurisdiction of the archbishops of Hamburg and Bremen in 1103 an archiepiscopal see was erected at Lund in Skane. but on the death of the duke in 1240 the Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. and at a ceremony which had never yet taken place in Norway the same time he engaged to make large concessions to the church. UI STORY. 1204). particularly the Bagler (the episcopal party. from Bagall.

. Constitution. and to these were afterwards added Helg eland. in the Fylke of Gulen. and Rauma held a diet called the Heidso'visthing. The eight Fylker or provinces of Trondhjem sent representatives to the Frostuthing. while the Legthing itself exercised jurisdiction over the diets held at irregular intervals in the different Fylker. His claim to the Hebrides being disputed by Alexander III. the clergy being now excluded from a share in the election of kings. Bergen. The king also amended the Since the first colonisalaws and sought to extend his territory. The Gulathing. including the Orkney and Shetland Islands. chosen by the king's officers. which had been colonised by Icelanders in the 10th cent. Namdalen. was under the same law. and Oslo each possessed a distinct Legthing. Olaf. who by the treaty of Perth in 1266 renounced his claims to the Hebrides and Man in return for a small payment from Alexander. embraced the Fylker of Firda. Vingulmerk diet by Ranrfki Lastly the mountain-districts of Heina. onwards representatives were sent to this Vestvold and Grenafylke also. afterwards named the Eidsifathing from Eidsvold where it assembled. the law administered by which was called 'Bjarkeyjarrettr'. and Sondmere were afterwards added. but of a less important character than those bestowed by Magnus Erlingssefn. and set sail for the Orkney Islands. a diet with judicial and legislative functions. Sygna. the Swedish frontier. performed the judicial duties of the diet. and Romsdalen. and previously enjoyed independence. which had been declared common to both by St. where he died in 1263. his sw^ay now extended over all the dioceses subject to the see of Trondhjem.1 XI. the Faroes. . he assembled a fleet for the purpose of asserting it. Nordmere. long a subject of dispute. nominally at least. King Magnus proceeded to abolish these diets (in 1267 and . A committee of each diet. The four cities of Trondhjem. and Herda. From an early period Norway was divided into four large districts. HISTORY. was clearly defined. of Scotland. and the relations between church and state were placed on a more satisfactory footing. Olaf met at Sarpsborg and was called the Borgarthing but from the 12th cent. to which Rogaland. . and the Isle of Man. called the Legretta. In his reign. The district which after the of Vigen appears to have had a Thing of its own time of St. civil wars at lengtli tenniiiatcd. too. though separate from that of Yigeii. New riglits were suon al'tcrwardb conferred on the cliurcli. . so named from Frosten. the meeting-place of the diet. so that. Agder. the Hebrides. Hada. but tion of Iceland (874-930} the island had been independent shortly before his death Haakon persuaded the natives to acknowledge his supremacy. He was succeeded by his son Magnus Lagabeter ( 'batterer of laws'). Tensberg. . In 1261 he also annexed Greenland. Resolutions were passed by a majority of the peasantry at the diet. This diet. each presided over by a Thing or Lagihing (Legthing).

Though each of them bears a distinctive name. and is somewhat modified to suit the requirements of the district or town which adopted it they substantially formed a single code for the whole kingdom. HISTORY. .i. The ( . and in 1272-74 a new code was promulgated at the Frostuthing. 'Town Laws of Bergen'. but w. however. but it was presided over by theLegmann and attended by others of the king's officials. and legislative. In the second or higher instance the diet was still nominally the judge. Under these monarchs the concessions of Magnus to the church formed the subject of constant dispute. but the constitution gradually assumed a more monarchical form. Magnus Lagabeter died in 1280 and was followed by his son Eric Magnussen (d. probably 1274-77). and Herjedalen. who was succeeded by his brother Haakon Magnussen (d. judicial. and it was not till 1458 that they were finally secured to the hierarchy by Christian lY. Jemtland.XI. At first the functions of the Legthing or diets had been deliberative. In 1276 a new municipal law was introduced at Bergen and soon afterwards into the other towns also and lastly the Jdnsbok^ a collection of the laws of the mainland was compiled in 1280 and promulgated in Iceland. d* . which affords an insight into the early condition of Norway. onwards it was customary for the king to appoint them. Meanwhile King Magnus concluded a Concordat with the church at Bergen in 1273 and another at Tensberg in 1277.> prcvt'iitc<l Iroui finally aecoiiipli.^liiiig liis olijett by the protest of Archbishop Jon Raudi at the diet of Frosteii 1269}. . In 1271 a code called Jdrnsida ('iron side') was completed. li r2<)(Sj. . Another interesting code of this period was the Hirdskraa ('law of servants'. with the exception of Helgoland. and at the same time sanctioned an ecclesiastical code drawn up by Archbishop Jon wherein he renounced all control over ecclesiastical causes and over the election of prelates. which still formed independent districts. The four ancient diets were thus in thecourse of time transformed into ten or twelve minor diets. but from the 13th cent. and they became the sole cials appointed by the king himself. 1319). The king himself also asserted a right to decide cases in the last instance with the aid of a 'council of the wisest men'. presided over by Lcgmenn. such as 'Law of the Frostuthing'. In their secular administration. 1299). which seems to have been immediately adopted by the other districts. first step was to transfer the judicial powers of the diets . He then directed his attention to the amendment of the laws. . and those of the king executive only. From these codes ecclesiastical law was excluded. the sons of Magnus experienced less difficulty. to offi- The Legmenn ('lawyers') had originally been skilled assessors at the diets elected and paid by the peasantry. The whole country was now subject to the jurisdiction of the four diets.. etc. judges of all suits in the first instance.

1218). but it was merely employed for short inscriptions and rude registers of various kinds. Snorri Sturluson [A. . and had emancipated themselves alike from democratic and from aristocratic interference. Thus. collect the taxes. the Norwegian monarchs had attained a position of great independence. and possessed their lands in freehold. but before that period all traditions and communications were verbal. were abolished by Haakon Magnussen (1308). it had been customary for the kings to bestow temporary and revocable grants of land ('Yeitsla'. 'to bestow') on their retainers and courtiers ('Hird'"). In some cases. The Intellectual Culture of Norway during this period. Oddr Snorrason and Gunnlaugr Leifsson the prior (d. Of the exceedingly rich 'Old Northern' literature which now sprang up it is a singular fact that by far the greater part was written by Icelanders. as may be supposed. Olaf. About the year 1190 the Latin character began to be applied to the native tongue. and not for literary purposes. both for secular and religious purposes. the biographer of King Sverre and lastly Eirfkr Oddsson. and Sturla Thordarson d. the abbot Karl Jdnsson (d. 1241). . by the beginning of the 14th cent. as the trade of the country from a very early period was monopolised by Germans and other foreigners. All these minor jurisdictions. and render military and other services. their lack of influence being due to want of organisation and political coherence. however. who were both historians of the kings of Norway and zealous collectors of their own island lore. the father of northern history. . 1284). being themselves lords of a great part of their native soil but tliey never attained to much wealth or importance. HISTORY. . however. made no great progress. who directed that all his officials should in future bo under his own immediate control. The bards attached to . . Of scarcely greater importance was the nobility of the country. 1245). 1148). { . ("Skald") that ical we owe the preservation of the ancient mythand historical sagas or 'sayings'. At the same time great changes in the social and political system were effected.lii XI. Among the most famous of these were Ari Frodi (d. too. In accordance with the old feudal system. 1212). The peasantry. on the understanding that the tenants ('Huskarlar') would administer justice. a Jarl was appointed governor of a considerable district and invested with extensive powers and practical independence and it was usual for the king to confirm the heirs of these officials and dignitaries in their respective lands and offices. always enjoyed greater freedom than in most other European countries. On the foundation of the archbishopric of Lund the Latin character was at length introduced. The Kunic character had indeed been in use from the early Iron Period downwards. the biographer of St. and it is mainly to the bards or minstrels . probably from veitta. the biographers of King Olaf Tryggvason Styrmir Kdrason (d.

. the early history of Sweden chronicles similar to those of the is ascertained. which affords aji insight into the court-life and commercial transactions of the 13th cent. Olaf. and after the foundation of several bishoprics in Denmark about the middle of the 10th cent. there exist no Icelanders and Norwegians. To Norwegian authorship are traceable comparatively few literary works. from English and. HISTORY. Olaf and Onund are said to have been the first Christian kings of Sweden. a number of romances translated. lie was afterwards compelled by his own peasantry to promise to come to terms with St. who were still sunk in paganism.. 865) and by his successor Rimhert (d. in Norway the clergy held. however. 1056). who were now Inclined in favour of Christianity and the more northern and less civilised Svear. . . French. The secular history of the country is involved in much obscurity from which. the 'Anekdoton Sverreri'. . however. themselves aloof from the people and from secular pursuits and the nobles were busily engaged in fashioning their titles. On the death of Stenkil abnut 1066 open war broke out between the to With regard Sweden before the Union.. About the end of the 10th century OUif Skbtkoniniy ('tributary king') took part in the battle of Svold against Olaf of Norway and in the subsequent dismemberment of that country. it to some extent emerges when it comes into contact with that of Norway. . moreover. Sweden was visited by many other German and Danish missionaries. It country was partly evangelised and other German missionaries. while Iceland was in the enjoyment of peace. the most important being juridical compilations. This poverty of the literature of the mainland is doubtless to be accounted for by the fact that it was constantly harassed by wars and. and on his failure was threatened with deposition. Emund had been indifferent about religion but his successor Stenkil Ragnnddssnn was a zealous Christian and was keenly opposed by the Svear. the last of his royal house on whose death hostilities broke out between the Gotar. . a polemic in favour of the crown against the church. He was then obliged to assume his son Onund as co-regent and had to make peace with Norway about the year 1019. intestine troubles at this period. . . the Icelanders of all classes retained their national coherence in a far higher all contributing with equal zeal to the patriotic task of degree extolling their island and preserving its ancient traditions. and their costumes on the model of those of their more civilised neighbours. 888). their manners. where he died in 936. liii the Scandinavian courts were also generally Icelanders. Archbishop Vnni afterwards preached the Gospel in Sweden. that the in the 9th cent. While. the 'Kings Mirror'. several ballads of the earlier Edda and. by Aiiskarld. Onund was succeeded by his brother Emiind (d.XI.

whereupon Eric Laespe ('the lisping'). Sverker was next opposed by Eric Jedvardsson. Inge II. These dissensions weakened the resources of the kingdom. Under King Sverker a bishop of Oster-Gotland was appointed. Christiau and the pagan parties. The church was at first presided over by missionary bishops only but in the reign of Olaf Eriksson a bishopric was erected at Skara and under Stenkil another at Sigtuna. part of Finland. Eric. forbade heathen sacrifices. Norway. but his successors often allowed the Norwegians to invade their territory with impunity. Eric Laespe. . while several monasteries were also founded. and Dengreatly . . succeeded in maintaining their independence. about 1120) and Philip (d. a member of the family had obtained the title of Jarl or Duke of the Swedes and Gotlanders. The primacy of Sweden was granted to Archbishop Eskil of Lund by Hadrian IV. . a zealous churchman. Magnus. commonly called the 'Ninth' and surnamed the 'Saint'. When his successor Inge Stenkilsson (A. . a wealthy family of Oster-Gotland.W. in whose reign the archhishopric of Lund was erected (1103). who was proclaimed king by the Svear. intermarriages had taken place between the Folkungar and the royal families of Sweden. . his successor Sverker Karlsson in 1210. though respected by his subjects. but in 1163 was transferred to Stephanus. with his residence at Linkoping one for the diocese of Upper Sweden at Upsala. moreover. On the death of Philip. in 1222. Meanwhile the Svear. The latter in his turn was slain by Eric Knutsson in 1167. was a weak prince. Eric died in 1195. and Birgcr Brosa (d. a Danish prince. and others for Sodermanland and Yestermanland at Strongnas and Vesteras. (Nicholas Breakespeare) about the year 1154. In 1160 he was attacked and slain by Magnus Henriksson. and the contest between the rival houses of Sverker and Eric lasted down to 1222. obtained undivided possession of the throne.liv XI. and on Sverker's death in 1156 this Eric. a son of Eric Knutsson. ascended the throne unopposed. HISTORY. Long before his time the Folkungar. but was defeated and slain in 1134 by Sverker I. and Jon Sverkersson the son of the latter and the last of his family. had gradually attained to great power. (d. and who in the following year was defeated and slain by Karl Sverkersson. but Inge and his nephews and successors. converted the temple of Upsala into a Christian place of worship and conquered and christianised the S. assumed the title of king in Gotaland. . . the newly created Archbishop of Upsala. From an early period. the Svear set up his brother-in-law Blot-Sven as a rival king. 1112).. about 1130). 1202). a Danish prince and grandson of Stenkilsson. Stenkilsson fought successfully against Magnus Barfod of Norway and acquitted himself honourably at Kongshelle (1101). . who had been elected king two years previously. who laid claim to the throne. or Swedes in the narrower sense had been converted to Christianity.

e. Soon afterwards. the dukes Eric and ValdeIn 1304 the dukes were banished. The following year Magnus.XI. without issue in 1250. remained unaffected. After his election . the liing's sister. the dukes were arrested. i. Birger now became the real ruler of Sweden. Eric. was taken prisoner and executed. The position of tlie family. hostilities broke out between his sons. whose vigorous administration resembled that of his father. kings were first elected. On the death of Eric. and cruelly put to death by their brother's order. but on his death. Birger's son. . and each hundred had its Hdrathsthing whose president was called a Domar ('pronouncor of dooms') or Hdrathshbfthing. nominally hereditary. FaWemar. was elected king at the Mora Stones of Upsala (p. in 1266. Each 'Land' had its diet or Thing. and each had its own code of laws. After several vicissitudes. however. a distant cousin of Birger. was proclaimed the successor of his uncle. 343). whereupon Birger himself was dethroned and banished to Denmark (d. Falkland or Landskap each of which was subdivided into Hundari ('hundreds'). ^ . while Magnus. 1321). a nephew of Birger Hrosa while Eric himself married a member of the Folkungar family 1243). but Knut was defeated and slain in 1*234. called in Gotland Hdrath. Precedence among these diets was enjoyed by the Svea Thing or that of Upper Sweden although the monarchy w as at which . and who maintained friendly relations with the Hanseatic League. and in 1306 the faithful iiKir. HISTORY. He also distinguished himself as a lawgiver and an mark. vindicator of the rights of the Magnus was succeeded by his son Birger Magnusson^ during whose minority the government was ably conducted by Mdrshal Thorgils Knutsson but serious quarrels afterwards broke nut between Magnus and his brothers. the dukes returned and obtained possession of the kings person. married Ingeborg. and liis son was executed as a rebel in 124. called Land. the infant son of Duke Eric. ( upholder of order and justice. however. and earned for himself the surname Laclulas peasantry). peace was declared and the kingdom divided among the brothers in 1310 and again in 1313. the last scion of the house of St. Kriksson. In 1318. presided over by a Lagman. The first attempts to unite the Scandinavian kingdoms were made in the reign of Magnus . . Birger Jarl. In 1290 of ('barn -lock'.'^. imprisoned. Birger's son. however. The weak and incapable Valdemar was dethroned by his brother Magnus (1275). During Birger's regency the country prospered. Iv In 1*230 an attempt to dethrone Eric was made by Knut Jonsson. . The country was divided into districts. The Landsthing exercised deliberative and judicial functions. the territory of which he extended by new conquests in Finland. The Constitution of Sweden at first resembled that of Norway. marshal was executed by the king's order.

and parishes enjoyed the right of electing their pastor when no express right of patronage existed. in accordance with a law of 1285. swear to observe tlie laws. each new king had on the 'Eriksgata". and large landed proprietors. attempts to codify them were made in the 13th and at the beginning of the llth cent. downwards they were proposed by the people. the dignity of Jarl or earl was abolished. The history of early Swedish Literature is well-nigh an ab. could attend these diets without a summons from the king himself. and Kanceler ('chancellor') now became the chief officials of the crown. Marsker ('marshal'). but less extensive than in Norway. As early as 1200 the or a . As no one. but with the consolidation of the kingdom these differences were gradually obliterated. and to proceed journey to the other diets in order to procure confirmation of his title. Vcepnare). . w^ere added the Lagmenn. The privileges of the church were well defined. In the latter half of the 13th cent. Between all these and the peasantry there was a wide social gap. he retained the real power in his own hands and reserved a right to alter the laws with the advice of the diet. — . to HISTORY. This aristocratic diet was farther enlarged by Magnus Ladulas (1280) who admitted to it all knights willing to serve him in the field conferring on them the same exemption from taxation as that enjoyed by his courtiers and by the clergy. for the kings to employ mercenary troops. At the same period the celibacy of the clergy was declared compulsory. and it therefore became customary as early as the 13th cent. the barons. however. moreover. The payment of tithes was compulsory and in 1248 and 1250 the right to elect bishops was vested in the chapters. — . From an early period the Lagman and the Harathshofthing had been the sole judges in lawsuits. From an early period.Ivi XT. but appointed by the king. Resolutions of the Svea Thing were even binding on the king himself.. . The chief difference between Sweden and Norway was the preponderance of the aristocratic element in the former. No taxes could be exacted or troops levied without the consent of the popular diets. As the provincial laws differed. the esquires (Sven of vapen. At the same time the king possessed a right of reviewing all judgments in the last instance. and from the first half of the 14th cent. The rest of the aristocracy consisted of the courtiers and royal vassals. and to these after the close of the 13th cent. clergy was declared amenable to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction only and in some cases the church-courts could even summon laymen before them. prelates. while all the clergy were prohibited from taking oaths of secular allegiance. and even simple freemen who were willing to render military service whenever required. On the other hand the supreme legislative power in church matters still belonged to the state. it had been usual to hold diets composed of the higher officials. the barons and knights (Riddare). and the Drotsdte ('high steward').

The king. Haakon Magnussan of Norway in 1319 withont he was succeeded by Magnus Eriksson. Magnus now banished twentyfour of lli^•. soon followed. and in 1355 Haakon entered upon his functions. declared itself in favour of Magnus. the minor son of Magnus. were ruled by unworthy favourites and soon forfeited the respect of their people. Kii work handed down to us is a comWest Gotland. but here too he was overtaken by many troubles. At first Sweden was prudently governed by . which had been pledged to the Swedish Marshal von Eberstein by Eric Menved and Christopher II. regent of Norway. was not attended . the province of Vigen and Iceland alone being reserved to his father.XI. a union which gave great offence to the Swedish nobles. solute blank. was also elected King of Sweden so that the two crowns were now united. and his queen l)lanche ofNamur. daughter of King Valdemar of Denmark. and above all the plague which swept away about two-thirds of the population (1349-50) aggravated the discontent of the Norwegians. On called the death of male issue. Eric. who were farther exasperated by the reconciliation of Haakon with l\is father. the son of his daughter Duke Eric . A disastrous fire at Trond- hjem (1343). great inundations in the (iuldal and Orkedal (134. but it was arranged that each country should retain its own administration. The aristocracy resented his endeavours to restrain their excesses. wlio proceeded to Meckleii- . most obnoxious opponents. In 1360 the Danes regained Skane and in 1361 they took possession of the islands of Oland and Gotland. In Sweden Magnus consolidated the provincial laws and drew up a new municipal code in 1347. the people were exas- perated by the unsuccessful issue of his Russian campaigns (134S49. and lastly the king was excommunicated in 1358 on account of his failure to pay debts due to the pope. however. and several translations of foreign romances also belong to this period. a work concerning the SStyrilse kununga ok hufdinga' (the rule of The oldest pilation of the laws of kings and governors). 1350-51). the regent Mats Ketilmundsson and in 1332 the province of Skane. took advantage of these troubles and assumed the title of king in 1356. who in 1350 elected Haakon Magnusson. of the 12th century. and at that time a child of Magnus Smek Ingeborg and the Swedish On the banishment of King Birger in 1319 Magnus three years. however.')). dating from the beginning A few meagre historical writings in Latin. of Denmark (131S). but died in 1359. In 1363 Haakon married the princess Margaret. niSTORY. the plague intensified their dissatisfaction in 1350. however. with happy results. the king's son. New disasters. who soon afterwards assumed the reins of government. then eleven years old. Transition to the Union. afterwards ('the luxurious'). The union.

Iviii XT. but within a few weeks his mother Margaret was proclaimed regent of Denmark. The city was at that time occupied by the German adherents of Albert. German favourites. and in 1365 Magnus and Haakon were defeated at Gata. thus uniting the crowns of Denmark and Norway. Alberts quarrels with his magnates broke out afresh. the Norwegians appointed Eric of Pomerania Margaret's nephew heir to the crown. and these German 'victuallers' . the most powerful noble in Sweden. In 1375 Bo Jonsson. near Enkoping. . who had held two-thirds of Sweden in fief or in pledge. one-half of the burgomasters and civic authorities in every town was required to consist of Germans and it may be here added that Albert chiefly owed his unpopularity . a daughter of Duke Eric of Sweden. acceded to the throne of Norway also. OLaf Haakonssen. and Magnus set at liberty on payment of a heavy ransom and on condition that he would not again lay claim to the Swedish crown. while in the towns the dominant party consisted entirely of Germans whose proceedings were often most oppressive and tyrannical. The death of Magnus in 1374 finally extinguished the hopes of those in favour of union. second son of the duke and of Eupliemia. pending the election of a new king. Olaf's early death in 1387 dissolved this brief union. Meanwhile the Norwegian nobility under King Haakon had attained to considerable independence. still continued and it was at this period that the Vitalien Brotherhood (1392) came into existence. Albert accordingly came to Sweden in 1363. but peace was shortly afterwards concluded. King of Norway. Magnus took place in Upper Sweden. was appointed Drost or regent. while in Norway to his partiality for she was nominated regent in 1388 without any such limitation. (1389). originally deriving their name ('victuallers') from their duty of supplying Stockholm witli provisions during the war. Albert was now compelled to place himself under the guidance of the powerful aristocratic party. of Denmark died without male issue. . Even in Sweden in accordance with the municipal code of Magnus Smek. In 1375 Valdemar IV. agreeing to accept the king whom she should nominate. his only son. taking him and his son prisoners. but under the condition that he should not ascend the throne during Margaret's lifetime. niSTORY. where the In 1370-71 a rebellion in favour of former was taken prisoner. burg and offered the crown to Albert. Margaret thereupon invaded Sweden and defeated Albert at Falkoping The war. however. and in the following year he was succeeded by Olaf. as it was deemed necessary to elect a successor to the throne from among the different competitors. son of his daughter Margaret and Haakon. . . and in 1471 Haakon invaded the country with a Norwegian army. At the same time. On the death of Haakon in 1380. whereupon the malcontents proclaimed Margaret regent of Sweden also (1388). On the death of Bo Jonsson (1386).

Lastly. headed by Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson. He wasted large sums of money in an attempt to recover Sleswick from the Counts of Holstein. and King Albert set at liberty on condition of his leaving the country. whose queen was Philippa daughter ot Henry IV.XI. incompetent. by the debasement of the coinage. Margaret ruled over the three countries with wisdom and moderation. in Denmark also a rebellion broke out. HISTORY. The following year Eric was solemnly crowneil at Kalmar by a diet of the three nations. however. The union of the three kingdoms thus effected by Margaret. so that the three crowns were now united. and in Sweden the people were most oppressively treated by Eric's German and Danish officials. The Union. where new treaty of union. in 139(S. and in 139G of Sweden also. after a disastrous quarrel of twentythree years. In 1435. Exasperated by Eric's maladministration. of they drew up a Danish and Swedish magnates assembled at Kalmar. Meanwhile Pergen was twice plundered by the Germans (1428 and 1429). but without affirming that the three kingdoms were thenceforward to be ruled by one monarch. Though nominally united and bound to make common cause against all enemies. Eric in despair retired to the island of Gotland. During the same year Eric was elected King of Denmark. who held it as a Danish fief. rebelled in 1433 and compelled Eric and his council to appoint Karl Knutsson regent of the kingdom (1436). Margaret gained possession of Stockholm the last stronghold of the German partisans of Albert. against the nobility and the clergy. Eric was at length compelled to confirm the privileges of the Hanseatic League and to leave the Counts of Holstein in undisturbed possession of Sleswick. and the three kingdoms ruled by the same regent. and the Danes were tlierefore compelled In 1439 to seek for a new king. though harassed by many difficulties. and who were supported by the Hanseatic League. but Norway and Denmark remained united down to the year 1814. when it was dissolved by the secession of Sweden. and at the same time a cruel prince. shortly after which Engelbrekt was assassinated. a wealthy proprietor of mines. Peace was at length declared in 1395. lasted till the beginning of the IGth cent. of England. Lastly. who now became masters of that city. chiefly. lix were in trutli a band of lawless marauders and pirates.. was a weak. In Norway also the oppressive sway of foreign officials caused great discontent and gave rise to a rebellion in 1436. who is sometimes called the 'Northern Semiramis'. and in 1438 a number . and on her death in 1412 King Eric assumed the reins of government. Eric . . and other grievances the Swedish peasantry. Denmark and Sweden form:illv withdrew their alle- . the three kingdoms jealously maintained their respective forms of government. .

HISTORY. The Swedes now proclaimed Karl Knutsson king. The separate election and coronation of Christopher in the three countries shows that their union had ceased to exist in more than the name. The following year. although not without many sacrifices. but as he had rendered himself unpopular by an unsuccessful campaign against the Russians in Finland. a nephew of Knutsson. how^ever. where he died in 1459. and he was crowned King of Sweden in 1457. to whom he granted extensive privileges. His plans for the consolidation of his power were cut short by his death in 1448. and the union was again practically dissolved. a nephew of the Duke of Holstein and Sleswick. in asserting his authority in every part of his dominions. and ten years more in Pomerania. was appointed administrator. He was soon banished. Tlie king having been signally defeated at Hemmingstadt in 1500 in tlie course of his attempt to subdue the mark. The government of this vast empire was a task to which Christian proved unequal. In 1468 and 1469 he pledged the Orkney and Shetland Islands to Scotland. where he supported himself by piracy. and the same year Christian was defeated at Stockholm. Sweden. Eric spent ten years in Gotland. the Elder.Ix XI. Hans took the opportunity of invading Sweden with a large army and succeeded in establishing his autliority (14971. He died in 1481 and was succeeded in Denmark by his son Hans. . Christian succeeded in supplanting him here also. In 1449 Christian also succeeded by stratagem in procuring his election in Norway. while the Danes elected Christian of Oldenburg. however. In 1460 Christian next inherited the duchies of Holstein and Sleswick from his uncle. and burned the monastery of Munkeliv with impunity. and in 1464 recalled Karl Knutsson to the throne. giance from Eric. and in 1470 he died as King of Sweden. and Christopher of Bavaria was elected in liis being afterwards proclaimed King of Norway also (1442). Sten Sture sought to delay his election in Sweden. Norway was plundered by Russians and Karelians and grievously oppressed by the Hanseatic merand chants. after which he made no farther attempt to regain his authority in Sweden. In 1471 Sten Sture. but in 1467 recalled a third time. but he was compelled to sign a charter declaring that he would govern them by their own laws and not as part of Denstead. and caused great discontent by the introduction into Norway of Danish and German nobles. . . who in 1455 slew Olaf Nilsson governor of Bergen the bishop of the town. and the guardian of his son. In his reign Copenhagen was raised to the rank of the capital of Denmark. Karl having rendered himself obnoxious to the clergy and others of his subjects in Sweden. and Christian was thereupon crowned at Trondhjem. Karl renounced his second crown. too. The new king succeeded. who was not recognised in Norway till 1483. groaned under heavy taxation. but Karl Knutsson was proclaimed king and crowned by the peasantry.

and Eric Johansson. 1520. the father of Vasa. whose successor was Lis son ASten Sture the Younycr (d. Christian sent troops to the aid of the prelate. proved disastrous to Christian. which the fascine in his armorial bearings resembled).s still rctainotl Norway. In Sweden the family of Trolle had long been hostile to the Sture family. and on 8th Nov. where on former occasions Engelbrekt and the Stures had been supported by the peasantry. whom the Swedes declined to recognise. In Auijusr . The 82 victims included two bishops. In May. protected the commercial. 343). After his coronation by Trolle he permitted that prelate and two others to prosecute their enemies before an arbitrarily formed ecclesiastical tribunal. On the following day many similar executions of so-called rebels and heretics took place in other parts of Sweden. a Dutchwoman. 1512). and the hatred of the aristocracy for this woman. In Norway and Denmark he effected several social reforms. but the castle was taken and Trolle deprived of his dignities and confined in a monastery. 'a beam'. but self-willed. executed along with several other persons. Ixi Ditiiiarsclicrs. and cruel. 1520). who treated them with studied contempt. 13 royal counsellors and knights. and fishing interests.. he returned to Sweden. and sought to restrict the privileges of tlic Hanseatic merchants. the mother of his mistress Dihceke (d. 1517). and Sten Sture was defeated and mortally wounded at Bogesund in West Gotland.XI. Christian was ruled by Sigbritt. even after the death of the latter. and perfidiously imprisoned Gustaf Eriksson Vasa and other Swedish hostages who had been sent to him. and was succeeded in Denmark and Norway by his son Christian II. but ir. A third campaign in 1519 was more successful. 1520. Sturc died in 1503 and was succeeded by Soante Nichson Sturc (d. They were found guilty of heresy. The exasperation of the Swedes was aggravated by the imposition of a new tax and an attempt to disarm the peasantry. who was besieged in his castle of Stiiket (p. who had been unjustly imprisoned by Christian. The rising began in 1521 and soon extended over the whole of Sweden. but his atrocious cruelty and injustice proved his ruin. He was a man of considerable ability and learning. niiniuir.. though on a smaller scale than the 'Blood Bath of Stockholm'. niSTOKY. Sture was rcoalled.m. passionate. and on hearing of the death of his father at the Stockholm Blood Bath he betook himself to Dalecarlia. The same year Christian gained possession of Stockholm. Notwithstanding his strength of will. This was the famous Gustaf Vasa (probably so surnamed from vase. and when Gustaf Trolle was created archbishop of Upsala in 1515 he invited the Danes to aid him in deposing the administrator. and the discontented populace soon found an able leader. In ISliS Cliristian himself undertook a campaign against Sweden without success. King Hans died in 1513. but escaped to Liibeck in 1519.

and with its increasing solicitude for temporal power its hold over the people decreased. The nobles also enjoyed jurisdiction over their peasantry. as his successor and renounced their allegiance . after an unsuccessful attempt to regain his throne. of that year Gustavus. but Christian I. but invasions of its rights were not unfrequent. In matters of importance the king could only act with the consent of his counsellors. and his successors were obliged to relax this privilege. The position of the townspeople and the peasantry in Sweden gradually improved and in 1471 Sten Sture ordained that the municipal authorities should thence. levying fines and imposing punishments at discretion (1483). and Christian soon afterwards lost his two other kingdoms. The supreme authority. he was thrown into prison. was appointed administrator at Vadstona. . . and a sisted of the prelates but not fluctuating number of nobles nominated by the king removable at his pleasure. where he languished for 27 years. From the tenor of several provincial and municipal laws framed by the king in 152i-2'2 it is obvious that he proposed to counteract the influence of the clergy and aristocracy by improving the condition of the lower classes. The union existed in little more than the name. At length. next added to Christian's difficulties. in 1458. Duke of Sleswick-Holstein.Ixii XI. to Christian. In Sweden the estates of the nobility enjoyed immunity from taxation. The church was most powerful in Norway and least so in Sweden. Christian quitted Copenhagen in 1523 and sought an asylum in Holland. Nine years later. after fruitless negociations. and in Juno. Sweden thus finally withdrew from the union. Nominally the church continued to enjoy all its early privileges. which cona number of the superior clergy. 1523. and no one could be summoned before any tribunal out of his own country. was vested in his council. Among several excellent provisions were the abolition of compulsory celibacy in the church and a prohibition who even against the sale of serfs. HISTORY. while with the influence of the nobility the reverse was the case. soon after which the Danes elected his uncle Frederick. Kach nation continued to be governed by its own laws. . and the concessions made at Tensberg in 1277 were expressly confirmed by Christian I. next to that of the king. A war with the Liibeckers threatened Copenhagen (1522). he was proclaimed king at Strengnas. and they were even entitled to use violence in opposing unauthorised measures. . His favour to the Reformation aroused the enmity of the church and at the same time he attacked the privileges of the nohility. neither the troops nor the revenue of one could be employed for the purposes of either of the others. The Norwegian nobles were less favoured they had no power of levying fines from their tenantry. The condition of the Constitution during the union was far from satisfactory. and their manor-houses (Sitdegaarde) alone were exempt from taxation. .

By the diet of Yesteras (1527) and the synod of Orebro (1529) great changes in the tenure of church property and in eccle- power and . though not without difficulty. rhyming chronicles. notwithstanding the opposition of several of the kings. while in Norway the 'Old Norsk' was gradually displaced by the tongue of the dominant race. 1486). and compilations of laws. At home Gustavus also succeeded in consolidating his power. In Sweden the compulsory services exigible from the peasantry by the lord of the soil were limited in the loth cent. the native literature . Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar "Union. In Norway. During the union Literature made considerable progress in Sweden. as in Denmark. and after Frederick's death (1533) the Liibeckers made an ineffectual attempt to restore the deposed king (1534-36). and continued to be spoken in several impure and uncultured dialects by the peasantry alone. siastical dogmas and ritual were introduced. while in Norway it languished and became almost extinct. They were generally owners of the soil they cultivated. Among the religious works of this period may be mentioned the revelations of St. of Norway became extinct.t ul" natives of tlic country instead of Gernuins. Ixiii (inward consis. the national language. earlier period.ballad?. The necessity of making common cause against Christian II. In both countries the education of the clergy continued to be carried on in the monasteries and cathedral-schools. subjected to serfdom and compulsory services. In Sweden. and those exigible by the king to 8 days. led to an alliance between Gustavus Vasa and Frederick I. to (S-12 days. while the Reformation deprived the church both of its its temporal possessions most of which fell to the crown. Christian attempted an invaaion of Norway in 1531-32. Birgitta (d. that of Sweden began to increase. The nobility had been much weakened by the cruel proceedings of Christian. and in 1531 Lau- . . consisting chiefly of religious writings. tlic Hanse merchants still held oppressive sway in the chief towns hut the peasantry were never.XI. Whilst about the beginning of the 14th cent. the deposed monarch of the three kingdoms. 137P») and the 'Cronica Regni Gothorum' of Ericus Olai (d. of Denmark. and gave rise to the publication of various learned treatises in Latin. moreover. held its own against the Danish. it attained political importance and even admission to the supreme council at an the Stures. but towards the close of this period universities were founded at f/psaZ« (1477) and Copenhagen (1479). but was taken prisoner. while those who were merely tenants enjoyed entire liberty and were not ascrlpti glebae as in many other countries. HISTORY.. While this class enjoyed less independence than in Norway. both showing a tendency towards the principles of the Reformation. owing to the influence of Engelbrekt and other popular chiefs.

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Petri became the llrst Protestant arclibishop of Upsala. Lastly, at another diet held at Yesteras (1544), the Roman Catholic Church was declared abolished. At the same diet the succes-

Gustavus effected sion to the throne was declared hereditary. many other wise reforms, but had to contend against several insurrections of the peasantry, caused partly by his ecclesiastical innovations, and partly by the heaviness of the taxation imposed for the support of his army and fleet. Shortly before his death (in

1560), he unwisely bestowed dukedoms on his younger sons, a step which laid the foundation for future troubles. His eldest son Eric XIV. (the number being in accordance with the computation of Johannes Magnus, but without the slightest historical foundation) soon quarrelled with his younger brother John, Dulce of Finland, whom he liept imprisoned for four years. He was ruled by an unworthy favourite, named Goran Persson, and committed many acts of violence and cruelty. He persuaded his brother Dulie Magnus to sign John's death-warrant, whereupon Magnus became insane. After the failure of several matrimonial schemes, of one of which Queen Elizabeth of England was the object, and after several outbursts of insanity, Eric married his mistress Katharine Mansdatter (1567). The following year he was deposed by his brother, who ascended the throne as John III., and after a cruel captivity of nine years was poisoned by his order in 1577 (see p. 365). John ingratiated himself with the nobility by rich grants of hereditary fiefs, and he concluded the peace at Stettin which terminated a seven years' war in the north (1563-70)

and definitively severed Sweden from Denmark and Norway. Less successful was his war against Russia for the purpose of securing to Sweden the province of Esthland, but the province was afterwards secured to his successor by the Peace of Tensina (1595). Jolm was married to a Polish princess and betrayed a leaning towards the Romish church which much displeased his subjects. After his death (1592) the religious difficulty became more serious, as his son and successor Sigismund had been brought up as a Roman Catholic in Poland, where he had been proclaimed king in 1587. Duke Charles of Sodermanland, the youngest son of Gustavus Vasa thereupon assumed the regency on behalf of the abcaused the Augsburg Confession to be prosent Sigismund claimed anew by a synod at Upsala (1593), and abolished Romish practices introduced by John. After confirming these proceedings, Sigismund was crowned in 1594 but on his failure to keep his promises, his uncle was recalled to the regency (1595), and when Sigismund invaded Sweden in 1598 he was defeated by Charles and compelled to enter into a compromise at Linkoping. Again breaking faith he was formally deposed (1599), while Charles was appointed regent for life. After having prosecuted Sigismund's adherents with great harshness, and succeeded in prevent,
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ing tbe recognition of Ladislaus, Sigismund's son. Charles IX., His administration was benetlie title of king in 1604. ficial to the country, and he was a zealous promoter of commerce, mining, and agriculture, but his wars with Russia and Denmark, which were unfinished at his death (1611), caused much misery. His son and successor was Uustaous II. , better known as Gustavus Adolphus, the most able and famous of the Swedish kings. Though seventeen years of age only, he was at once declared major by the Estates. In 1613 he terminated the 'Kalmar and in 1617 that War' with Denmark by the Peace of Knarod with Russia by the Peace of Stolbova, which secured Kexholm, Karelen, and Ingermanland to Sweden. By the Treaty of Altmark in 1629 he obtained from Poland the cession of Livonia and four Prussian seaports for six years. At the same time he bestowed much attention on his home affairs. With the aid of his chancellor and friend Axel Oxenstjerna he passed codes of judicial procedure and founded a supreme court atStockholm(1614-15), and afterwards erected appeal-courts at Abo, Dorpat, and Jonkoping. In 1617 he re-organised the national assembly, dividing it into the four estates of Nobles, Clergy, Burghers, and Peasants, and giving it the sole power of passing laws and levying taxes. He founded several new towns, favoured the mining and commercial industries, extended the university of Upsala, and established another at Dorpat. At tlie same time he strengthened his army and navy, which he soon had occasion to use. In 1630 he went to Germany to support the Protestant cause in the Thirty Years' War, and after several brilliant victories and a glorious career, which raised Sweden to the proudest position she has ever occupied in history, he fell on 6th Nov., 1632, at the Battle of Liitzen. The war was continued under his daughter and successor Christina, under the able regency of Oxenstjerna. In 1635, by another treaty with Poland, Livonia was secured to Sweden for 26 years more. War broke out with Denmark in 1643, but was terminated by the Peace of Briimsebro in 1645. At length, in 1648, the Thirty Years' War was ended by the Peace of Westphalia. These treaties secured to Sweden Jemtland and Herjedalen, the island of Gotland, the principalities of Bremen and Verden part of Pomerania with Stettin and the islands of Riigen Usedom, and Wollin , and the town of Wismar, besides a considerable war indemnity and other advantages. During the regency it was arranged that the royal council or cabinet should consist of representatives of the supreme court of appeal, the council of war, the admiralty, the ministry of the interior, and the exchequer, presided over by the chief ministers of each department. The country was divided into 23 Liine and 14 Lagsagor, governed by Landshnfdinge and Lngman respectively, which officials were to be appointed from the nobility. For these and many other reforms and useful institutions the country was indebted

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the energy and enlightenment of Oxenstjerna. On the other in order to fill the empty coffers of the state it was found necessary to sell many of the crown-domains and to levy new and the evil was aggravated by the lavish extravagance taxes Refusing to marry and being of Christina and her favourites. unable to redress the grievances of her justly disaffected subjects, the queen in 1649 procured the election of Charles Gustavus or Charles X., son of the Count Palatine John Casimir of Zweibriicken and a sister of Gustavus Adolphus, as her successor. By her desire he was crowned in 1654, whereupon she abdicated, quitted Sweden, and embraced the Romish faith. She terminated her eccentric career at Rome in 1689. Her successor endeavoured to practise economy, and in 1655 obtained the sanction of the Estates to revoke her alienations of crown-property. War, however, interfered with his plans. John Casimir, King of Poland, son of Sigismund, now claimed the throne of Sweden and compelled Charles to declare war against him (1655). After a time Russia, Austria, and Denmark espoused the cause of Poland, but Charles succeeded in gaining possession of Jutland and the Danish islands, and the Peace of Roskilde (1658) secured to him Skane, Halland, and Blekinge but obliged him to cede the districts of Bohus and Trondhjem to Norway. On a renewal of the war with Denmark the Danes were aided by the Dutch, Brandenburgers, Poles, and Austrians, who forced Charles to raise the siege of Copenhagen, and on his sudden death in 1662 the Peace of Copenhagen was concluded, whereby the island of Bornholm was lost to Sweden. a boy of Charles X. was succeeded by his son Charles XI. four years , whose guardians endeavoured to make peace with Brandenforeign enemies. By the Peace of Oliva with Poland burg and Austria in 1660 the King of Poland finally ceded Livonia to Sweden and renounced his claim to the throne of Sweden, and by the Peace of Kardis with Russia in 1661 the Swedish conbut quests in Esthonia and Livonia were restored to Sweden little was done to remedy the internal disorders of the country. One of the few events worthy of record at this period was the foundation of the university of Lund in 1668. Meanwhile the the squandering of the excesses and arrogance of the nobility crown-revenues and the imposition of heavy taxes threatened to and the regency even accepted subsidies from ruin the country foreign countries and hired out troops to serve abroad. At the age of seventeen Charles assumed the reins of government (167*2). In 1674 he was called upon as the ally of France to take part in the war against Holland, Spain, and Germany, but the Swedish army was signally defeated at Fehrbellin by the Elector of Brandenburg. Hereupon the Danes declared war against Sweden, causing new disasters, but by the intervention of the French peace was again declared at Lund in 1679. The distress occasioned

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,

,

;

,

,

,

XI.

HISTORY.

Ixvil

by these defeats and popular indignation against the nobility, who were now in possession of five-sevenths of the land in Sweden, and who did their utmost to reduce the peasantry to the condition of mere serfs, eventually served greatly to strengthen the At the diet of Stockholm in 1680, after stormy king's position. debates, it was determined to call the regency to account for their
gross mismanagement of affairs , and the king was empowered to revoke the alienations made during his minority. The king was told that he was not bound to consult his cabinet, but to obey the laws, and that he was responsible to God alone. Another diet 1682) entrusted the king with the sole legislative power, merely expressing a hope that he would graciously consult the Estates. the sole right Charles was thus declared an absolute monarch reserved to the diet being that of levying taxes. The king thereupon exacted large payments from his former guardians and exercised his right of revocation so rigidly, that he obtained possession of about one-third of the landed estates in Sweden. The money thus acquired he employed in paying the debts of the crown, in re-organising his army and fleet and for other useful purposes, while he proceeded to amend the law and to remedy ecclesiastical abuses. On his death, in 1697, he left his kingdom in a strong and prosperous condition, and highly respected among nations. Under Charles XII., the son and successor of Charles XL, this absolutism was fraught with disastrous consequences. Able, carefully educated, energetic, and conscientious, but self-willed and eccentric Charles was called to the throne at the age of fifteen and at once declared major. In 1699 Denmark, Russia, and Poland concluded an alliance against Sweden which led to the great Aided by England, Holland, and the Duke of northern war. Gottorp and Hanover Charles speedily compelled the Danes to conclude the Peace of Travendal (1700), defeated the Russians at Narva, took Curland from the Poles (1701), and forced Elector Augustus of Saxony to make peace at Altranstadt whereby the elector was obliged to renounce the Polish crown. Meanwhile Peter the Great of Russia had gained possession of Kexholm, Ingermanland and Esthonia. Instead of attempting to regain these provinces, Charles tempted by a promise of help from Mazeppa, a Cossack chief, determined to attack the enemy in another quarter and marched into the Ukraine, but was signally defeated by the Russians at Pultava (1709), and lost nearly the whole of his army. He escaped into Turkey, where he was hospitably received by the Sultan Achmed III. and supplied with money. Here he resided at Bender, and induced the Sultan to make war against Russia but when the grand-vizier had defeated the Czar, he was bribed by Katherine, the courageous wife of Peter, to allow him to escape. This exasperated Charles and led to a quarrel with the Sultan who placed him in confinement. Mean(

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

;

,

Ixviii

XI.

HISTORY.

Denmark and Saxony again declared war against Sweden. Skane was successfully defended against the Danes, but Elector Augustus reconquered Poland and the Czar took possession of Finland. The resources of Sweden were now exhausted, and the higher nobility began to plot against the king. At length Charles effected his escape and returned to Sweden (1715), to find that England, Hanover, and Prussia had also declared war against him owing to differences regarding Stettin and the principalities of Bremen and Verden. Having succeeded with the utmost difficulty Charles now invaded Norway with an army of in raising money raw recruits and laid siege to Fredrikshald where he fell at the early age of thirty-six (1718), just at the time when his favourite minister Gortz was about to conclude a favourable peace with Russia. Brave, chivalrous, and at the same time simple in his manners and irreproachable in conduct, the memory of Charles The short reign of absois still fondly cherished by the Swedes. lutism (Env aid St id en) was now at an end, and we reach a period 1719-92). of greater independence (Frihetstiden Charles XII. was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who with the consent of the Estates resigned in favour of her husband Frederick I. crown-prince of Hessen-Cassel. At the same time (1720) a new constitution was framed by the Estates. The supreme power was vested in the Estates a privy council consisting of members of the three upper chambers, and a cabinet of nine members of the privy council, three from each estate, to be nominated by the king himself. The king's authority was limited to two votes at the diet and a casting vote in case of an equally divided assembly, and the cabinet was declared responsible to upon the the diet. In 1719 peace was concluded with England abandonment of Bremen and Verden, and in 1720 with Prussia, to which Stettin and part of Pomerania were ceded; then with Poland and Denmark; and in 1721 with Russia, to which Livonia, Esthonia, Ingermanland, and the districts of Kexholm and Viborg in Finland had to be made over. The kingdom now enjoyed an interval of repose a new code of laws was drawn up (1734), and efforts were made to revive commerce. The peace party was
while
,
, ,

;

,

,

,

,

derisively called 'Nightcaps' (nattmossor), or simply 'Caps', while a warlike party which now arose was known as 'Hats' (hattar). In accordance with the counsels of the latter, war was proclaimed with Russia, which soon led to the loss of Finland (1741). On the death of the queen without issue, Adolphus Frederick of HolsteinGottorp , a relation of the crown-prince of Russia, was elected as Frederick's successor, on condition (Peace of Abo; 1743) that the greater part of Finland should be restored. The remainder of Frederick's reign was tranquil, and he died in 1751. The prerogatives of his successor Adolphus Frederick, were farther limited by the Estates. An attempt on the part of the
,

XI.

HISTORY.

Ixix

emancipate himself led to a confirmation of the existing and to a resolution that a stamp bearing the king's name should be impressed without his consent on documents approved by the Estates (1756). The court vainly attempted to rebel, and the king was bluntly reminded that the Estates had power to depose him. In 1757 the 'Hats' recklessly plunged into the Seven Years' War, and after an ignoble campaign peace was concluded at Hamburg in 1702. In 1771 Adolphus was succeeded by his son Gustavus III., who by means of a preconcerted military revolution or coup-d'etat (_1772) succeeded in regaining several of the most valuable prerogatives of the crown, including the sole executive power, whereby the government was converted from a mere republic into a limited monarchy. The king used his victory with moderation, abolished torture, introduced liberty of the press, promoted commerce, and art, and strengthened the army. On the other hand science he was extravagant and injudicious, and in 1788 committed the error of declaring war against Russia without the consent of the Estates. His offlcers refused to obey him, and his difficulties were aggravated by a declaration of war and invasion of Sweden by the Danes. Gustavus now succeeded, with the aid of the middle and lower classes, in effecting a farther change in the constitution (1798), which gave him the sole prerogative of making war and concluding peace, while the right of acquiring privileged landed estates (frdlsegods) was bestowed on the peasantry. An armistice was concluded with Denmark, and the not unsuccessful hostilities with Russia led to the Peace of Variila (1790), which precluded Russia from future interference with Swedish affairs. Soon after, on the outbreak of the French Revolution, the king proposed to intervene, together with Russia and Austria, in favour of Louis XVI.- and proceeded to levy new taxes, whereupon the disaffected nobles entered into a new conspiracy against him, and in 1792 this chivalrous and enlightened, though sometimes ill-advised monarch was assassinated by Capt. Ankarstrom. His son Gustavus Adolphus succeeded him as Gustavus IV., under the regency of his uncle Duke Charles of SodermanUind, who avoided all participation in the wars of the Revolution. In 1800 Gustavus, in accordance with a scheme of his father, and in conjunction with Russia and Denmark, took up a position of armed neutrality, but Denmark having been coerced by England to abandon this position, and Russiahaving dissolved the alliance, Sweden was also obliged to yield to the demands of England. The king's futile dreams of the restoration of absolutism and his illjudged and disastrous participation in the Napoleonic wars led to the loss of Wismar, Pomerania, and Finland, and to his defeat in Norway (1803-8). The country being now on the brink of ruin, the Estates caused Gustavus to be arrested, and formally deposed
king
to

constitution,

,

Ixx

XI.

HISTORY.

and his heirs (1809). He died in poverty at St. Gallen in 1837. His uncle was then elected king as Charles XIII., and a new constitution framed, mainly on the basis of that of 1772. Peace was concluded at Frederikshamn with Russia (1809), to which the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands were ceded, with Denmark, and with France (1810), whereby Sweden recovered The king being old and childless, Prince part of Pomerania. Christian Augustus of Augustenburg. stadtholder of Norway, was elected crown-prince, but on his sudden death, in 1810, the Estates elected Marshal Bernadotte, one of Napoleon's generals, who was adopted by Charles, assumed the name of Charles John, and embraced the Protestant faith. The crown-prince's influence was directed to military organisation. The lukewarmness of Sweden in maintaining the continental blockade led to a rupture with France, and during the war with Napoleon the Swedes concluded a treaty with the Russians at Abo on the footing that the crown of Norway should be secured to Sweden (1812). England and Prussia having given the same assurance, Charles John marched with a Swedish contingent into Germany and assumed the command of the combined northern army which took part in the decisive struggle against Napoleon (1813). The crown-prince's participation in the war was a somewhat reluctant one but by the Peace of Kiel (1814) he succeeded in compelling Denmark to cede Norway to Sweden, while Denmark obtained possession of Swedish Pomerania and retained Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroes. The Intellectual Progress of the country was greatly furthered by the Reformation. Peeler Mansson (d. 1534), bishop of Vesteras, wrote works on the army, the navy, medicine, and other subjects in the mediaeval style, while Laurentius Petri (d. 1573), Laurentius Andrea (d. 1552), and others translated the Bible into Swedish and wrote Protestant theological works in their native tongue. L. Petri and his brbther Olaus (d. 1552) also wrote Swedish chronicles; Archbishop Johannes Magni was the author of a history of the kings in Latin, with a large admixture of the fabulous element; and his brother Olaus wrote the often-quoted 'Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus'. An equally indiscriminate writer of history, and an author of dramatic and other works, was Johan Messenius (d. 1637). Even Gustavus Vasa had been anxious to preserve the purity of his native language, but it was not till the 17th cent, that scholars interested themselves in it. Queen Christina, a talented and learned princess, was a great patroness of literature. She invited foreign savants to her court [Descartes, Grotius, and others), as well as native authors, including Johan Bureus (d. 1652) and the versatile and distinguished Goran Lilje (ennobled as Georg Stjernhjelm; d. 1672). At this period, too (1658), Jon Rugman first called attention to the treasures of Icelandic literature, and antiquarian and historical research now
,

Mm

XI.

HISTORY.

Ixxi

came into vogue. Hitherto German influence bad preponderated in Sweden, but about tbe middle of tbe 18tb cent, a preference began to be shown for the French style. To this school belong OlofvonDaLin{d. 17()3), the poet and historian, and Count Tessin (d. 1770), a meritorious art-collector; and among tbe scholars of the same period were Lagerbring, the historian (d. 1787), Johan Ihre, the philologist (d. 1780), and above all KarL von Linni [Linnceus d. 1778), the famous botanist. The 'Vitterhets Akademi', or 'academy of belles-lettres', founded in 1753 was extended by Gustaand he also vus III. so as to embrace history and antiquities founded the Swedish Academy. To the academic school belonged Kellgren (d. 1795) and Leopold (d. 1829); but a far more popular poet, and one who repudiated all the traditions of French taste, was Bellman (d. 1795), the singer of sweet and simple ballads, whose 'Fredmans Epistlar' were deemed worthy of a prize even by the Academy, and whose memory is still fondly cherished.
,

The Continued "Union

of

Norway with Denmark.

withdrew from the Kalmar Union (1523), Norway at first remained faithful to Christian 11.^ but Vincentius Lunge procured the election of Frederick 1. (1524). This king s Protestant tendencies induced the Norwegians to re-elect Christian II. in 1531 when the deposed king appeared in Norway with an army, but he was treacherously arrested the following year and ended his life in captivity (see p. Ixiii), Frederick thus regained Norway and continued to prosecute the objects of the Reformation till his death (1533). The nobility and the Pro,

When Sweden

testant party in as his successor,

Denmark

elected his eldest son Christian III.

and the southern half of Norway under Lunge acquiesced. A rebellion of the northern provinces which cost Lunge his life, was quelled, and the archbishop who had headed it was obliged to quit the country. In 1536 Christian III. had promised the Danes to convert Norway into a Danish province, and he now abolished the council of state and otherwise partially kept his word. The doctrines of the Reformation permeated the country very slowly, but the dissolution of the monasteries and confiscation of church-property were prosecuted with great zeal. The Norwegian towns now began to prosper, and the trade of the country to improve, while the tyranny of the Hansa merchants at Bergen was checked by Christopher WalkendorlT (1536), lu 1559 Christian was succeeded by his son Frederick II., in whose reign occurred the calamitous seven years' war with Sweden (1563-70), which sowed the seeds of national hatred between the countries, and caused the destruction of Oslo Sarpsborg, and Hamar, the devastation of many agricultural districts, and the military occupation of others. At the same time the country was terribly oppressed by Frederick's officials, and he himself visited it once only.
,
,

Ixxii

XI.

HISTORY.

His son Christian IV. (1588-1648), on the other hand, visited

Norway very frequently and was indefatigahle in

his reforms.

He

refused to grant liefs in future to nohles who were not natives of Norway (1596), and he promulgated a Norwegian code (1604), which was a revised edition of the laws of 1274 translated into Danish. He also published an ecclesiastical code (1607), and took energetic measures to exclude Jesuits from the country. At the same time the army was improved, trade was favoured, the silver mines at Kongsberg (1624) and the copper-mines of R^ros (1645) were established, the towns of Christiania (1624) and Christiansand (1641) founded anew, and the Hansa factory at Bergen strictly controlled. All these benefits were outweighed by the disasters of the Kalmar War with Sweden (1611-13), during which the peasantry gained their famous victory over the Scottish auxiliaries under Col. Ramsay at Kringlen (p. 63), and still more by those of the Thirty Years' War, in which Christian participated (16251629). A second war with Sweden (1643-45) terminated with the severance of Jemtland and Herjedalen from Norway. New disasters befell Norway in the reign of his son Frederick III. (1648-70). The result of the participation of Denmark and Norway in the Swedish-Polish war was that Norway finally lost Bahus-L'an, Idre, and Sarna. During this war Halden earned for itself the new name of Fredrikshald by the bravery of its defenders. These misfortunes, however, led to a rupture with the existing system of government. On ascending the throne Frederick had signed a pledge which placed him in the power of the nobility, but during the wars the incompetency of the council of state, and the energy of the king and citizens in defending Copenhagen, had greatly raised him in the public estimation. At a diet held at Copenhagen in 1660 the indignation of the clergy and burghers against the nobility burst forth , and they demanded the abolition of its oppressive privileges. It was next dicovered that the pledge given by the king was subversive of all liberty and progress the king and the lower Estates proceeded to declare the succession to the throne hereditary, and Frederick was empowered to revise the constitution. The result was that he declared the king alone to be invested with sovereign and absolute power, and to this document he succeeded privately in procuring the signatures of most of the members of the diet. This declaration became law in 1661, but was not actually promulgated till 1709. These The great changes were on the whole beneficial to Norway. country was at least now placed on an equality with Denmark, and the strict bureaucratic administration was preferable to the old evils of local tyranny and individual caprice. The supreme authority now consisted of the heads of the five government departments presided over by the king and the feudal lords with their local jurisdictions were replaced by crown-officials.
,

,

,

XI.

HISTORY.

Ixxiii

Frederick's son Christian V. (1670-99) was not unsuccessful Skane war against Sweden (1675-79), but his chief merit as regards Norway was the promulgation of a code (1687), based on the Danish code of 1683, and of a church ritual for both countries. The creation of the new counties or earldoms of Laurvig and T^nsberg, afterwards called Jarlsberg, and of the barony of Rosenin the

ment

The unjust treatdal were unproductive of benefit to Norway. who for a trivial offence w^as of his minister Griffenfeldt cruelly imprisoned for 22 years, forms a blot on this king's memory.
,

Christian Y. was succeeded by his son Frederick IV. (16991730), in whose reign was waged the great northern war in which the Norwegian naval hero Peter Vessel (ennobled under the name of Tordenskjold') took a prominent part. The sole gain to Denmark by the Peace of Fredriksborg (1720) was the renunciation by Sweden of its immunity from Sound dues. The king husbanded his finances, but often procured money by discreditable means. He hired out mercenary troops sold most of the crown-property in Norway , and granted a monopoly of the trade of Finmarken. These abuses, maladministration, and an attempt to alter the land laws so embittered the Norwegians, that a union with Russia was actually proposed. In this reign a mission to Lapland was organised (1714), Th. von Vesten being one of its chief promoters, and Hans
,

Egede went as a missionary to Greenland (1721). Under Frederick's son Christian VI. (1730-46) Norway was injuriously infected with German Puritanism, which enjoined the
utmost rigidity of church observances and abstention from all worldly amusements. Among the expedients used for reviving trade in Denmark was an oppressive enactment that S. Norway should draw its sole corn supplies from that country. The fleet, however, was strengthened an efficient militia organised, and education promoted. A long peace favoured the growth of commerce, navigation, and industry. In the reign of Frederick V. (1746-66) the grievous sway of Puritanism came to an end and art and science were zealously cultivated. A raining school was founded atKongsberg, and a mathematical school at Christiania and at Trondhjem a useful and Schening scientific society was established by Gunner us Suhm, a learned Dane (1760-67). The frontier between Norway and Sweden was measured and defined (1759), facilities were afforded to commerce and skilled miners introduced from Germany. Complications with Russia connected with the affairs of Sleswick caused severe financial losses to Denmark and Norway, and the increased taxation provoked a revolt at Bergen which, however, was soon quelled (1763). Notwithstanding these drawbacks, Norway prospered under the absolute monarchy, while Denmark languished. The king in Denmark, being separated from the lower classes by a wealthy and influential aristocracy, was
,
,

,

,

^

,

,

Ixxiv

XI.

HISTORY.

unable effectually to redress their grievances, and tliey still groaned under the evils of serfdom and compulsory service. With the exception of Copenhagen, the towns were almost equally oppressed, and in 1769 the whole population of Denmark did not exceed 800,000 souls. In Norway, on the other hand the peasantry enjoyed freedom, the towns had thrown off the oppressive Hanseatic yoke, and feudal jurisdictions were abolished while complaints against officials were addressed to the king in person. A class of native officials had also sprung up, affording an additional element of security. While the population had numbered 450,000 only in 1664, it rose to 723,000 in 1769. The number of Norwegian ships also increased from 50 to 1150. The peasantry had benefited greatly by the sale of the crown-estates, and the trade of Norway now far surpassed that of Denmark. At the same time frequent intercourse with England and other foreign countries served to expand the Norwegian mind and to prepare the way for a period of still greater enlightenment and prosperity. During the long reign of the imbecile Christian VII. (17661808) his authority was wielded by his ministers. Struensee, his German physician, was the first of these. His measures were those of an enlightened absolutism. He simplified judicial procedure, abolished torture, excluded the lackeys of noblemen from public offices, deprived the aristocracy of their privileges, bestowed libThe peremptory erty on the press, and husbanded the finances. manner in which these and other reforms were introduced gave great offence, particularly as Struensee took no pains to conceal his contempt for the Danes. Christian's stepmother accordingly organised a conspiracy against him, and he was executed in 1772. His successor was Ove Guldberg, a Dane, who passed a law that Danes, Norwegians, and Holsteiners alone should be eligible for the government service, and rescinded Struensee's reforms (1776). In 1780 an attitude of armed neutrality introduced by the able Count Bemstorff gcixe a great impulse to the shipping trade, but the finances of the country were ruined. In 1784 the Crown Prince Frederick assumed the conduct of affairs with Bernstorff as
, ,

his minister,

whereupon

a

more

liberal,

and

for

Norway

in partic-

ular a more favourable era began. The corn-trade of S. Norway was relieved from its fetters, the trade of Finmarken was set free, and the towns of Tromse, Hammerfest and Varde were founded. On a renewal of the armed neutrality (1800-1801), Great Britain attacked Copenhagen and forced the Danes to abandon it. Six years later Napoleon's scheme of using Denmark's fleet against Great Britain led to a second attack on Copenhagen and its bombardment by the British fleet, which resulted in the surrender of the whole Danish and Norwegianfleetto Great Britain (1807). Denmark, allied with France, then declared war both against Great Britain and Sweden (1808 and almost at the same period Christian died.
,

),

XL HISTORY.
On
kingdom were

Ixxv

the accession of Frederick VI. (1808-36) the affairs of the The British did not in a desperate condition. attack the country, but contented themselves with capturing as many Danish and Norwegian vessels as possible and ruining the
trade of the country by blockading all its seaports. Owing to an over-issue of paper-money the government was soon unable to meet Meanwhile its liabilities and declared itself bankrupt (1813). Norway was governed by a separate commission, presided over by Prince Christian Augustus of Augustenbicrg (1807), and was so well defended that it lost nothing by the peace of Jonkoping (1809). The independence of the peasantry, the wealth of the burghers, and the success of their country in the war against Sweden naturally created in the minds of the Norwegians a proud sense of superiority over the unhappy Danes, while the liberality of their views widened the breach with a country still groaning under absolutism. A 'Society for the Welfare of Norway' was founded in 1810, and a Union with Sweden was warmly advocated,

Count Herman Wedel-Jarlsberg. The Danish government made some vain attempts to conciliate tlie Norwegians, as for example by the foundation of a university at Christiania (1811), which had been proposed so far back as 1661, but the Norwegians themselves provided the necessary funds. In
particularly by the talented

concluding a treaty with the Russians in 1812, Sweden obtained their consent to its future annexation of Norway, and at the Peace of Kiel in 1814 the Danes were compelled to make the cession. Frederick thereupon released the Norwegians from their allegiance

him, and the union of Norway with Denmark which had submore than four centuries, was thus dissolved. The Literature of Norway from the Reformation to the end of As translators the union is inseparable from that of Denmark. of old northern laws and sagas may be mentioned L. Hanssen (d. 1596) and P. C. Friis (d. 1614), of whom the latter also wrote interesting works on Norwegian topography and natural history in his native dialect. A. Pedersen (d. 1574), of Bergen, was the author of a description of Norway and of the 'Capitulary of Bergen'. The historian and topographer J. Ramus (d. 1718) and the poet Peter Dass (d. 1708), the still popular author of 'Nordlands Trompet', were also natives of Norway, while T. TorfcEus By (d. 1719), a famous historian of Norway, was an Icelander. far the most important author of this period was Ludvig Holherg of Bergen (d. 1754), the poet and historian, whose 'Peder Paars', 'Subterranean Journey of Nils Klim', and comedies have gained him a European reputation. Among later poets and authors C. B. Tullin (d. 1765), J. H. Vessel (d. 1785), C. Fastiiig (d. 1791), E. Storm (d. 1794), T. de StockfJeth (d. 1808), J. X. Brun (d. 1816), J. Zetlitz{^A. 1821), and C. Frimnn (d. 1829) are noted for the national character and individuality of their writings, which are
to
,

sisted for

Ixxvi

XI.

HISTORY.

uninfluenced by tlie French and German taste then prevalent in Denmark. This national school was partly indebted for its origin to the foundation of the 'Norske Selskab' at Copenhagen in 1772, while the 'Laerde Selskab' of Trondhjem founded by Gunnerus, the naturalist (d. 1773), and Schening^ the historian (d. 1780), notwithstanding promoted scientific research. On the whole the want of good national schools, the Norwegian literature of this period ranks at least as high as the Danish.
,
,

Union

of

Sweden and Norway.

After the Peace of Jonkoping in 1809 Norway was governed by Prince Frederick of Hessen and afterwards by Christian Frederick, cousin of King Frederick and heir to his throne. Christian was a popular prince, and even after the terms of the Peace of Kiel had been adjusted he made an effort to secure the sovereignty of the country for himself. He summoned an assembly of notables to Eidsvold (Feb., 1814), stated the terms of the Peace of Kiel, which had not yet been published, and declared that he would assert his claim in spite of it. The assembly denied the right of the King of Denmark to hand over Norway to Sweden, but also declined to recognise the prince's hereditary claim. They, however, appointed him regent until a national diet should be summoned to consider
the state of affairs. The King of Sweden promised the Norwegians but a liberal constitution if they would submit to his authority his offer met with no response, the country eagerly prepared to assert its independence, and a temporary government was constituted. On 10th April, 1814, the representatives of the country
;

(d.

at Eidsvold, a constitution framed chiefly by K. M. Falsen 1830) was adopted on 17th May, and on the same day Christian Count Wedel-Jarlsberg, the most Frederick was proclaimed king. who had urged a union far-seeing of the Norwegian statesmen but his object was with Sweden, was overruled on this occasion soon afterwards attained. About the end of June ambassadors of the guaranteeing powers, Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia, arrived at Christiania to demand fulfilment of the Peace of Kiel and to recall the regent in the name of the King of Denmark. After fruitless negociations and the outbreak of a war with Sweden which was terminated by the Convention of Moss on 14th August, the Swedish regent temporarily recognised the new Nor-

met

,

,

,

wegian constitution, and Christian summoned a Storthing to meet at Christiania in October, to which he tendered his resignation, and immediately afterwards set sail for Denmark. He afterwards reigned over Denmark as Christian VIII. (1839-48). During the same month the Storthing, though not without reluctance, affirmed the principle of union with Sweden, and several modifications were made in the Eidsvold constitution, and on 4th November Charles On 10th (XIII. of Sweden) was unanimously proclaimed king.

and In at the same time a bank was founded at Trondhjem (1816). while the introduction of a new educational system and other reforms was attended with great expense. while the king's firmness of character and his self-denial in renouncing his civil list for a period often years in order to assist in paying the national debt justly gained for him the respect and admiration of his people. and other useful laws were passed. With pardonable national pride. (1818) as King of Norway (1818-44). 1821 a new burden was imposed by the unlooked for liability of for part of the national debt of Denmark. A conspiracy in favour of Prince Vasa (1832) and several riots in Stockholm (1838) were also unsuccessful. particularly . by attempts to enlarge the prerogatives of the crown and to obtain for it the absolute right to veto the resolutions of the Storthing (1824). Ixxvii the crown-prince Cliarles . moreover. and with whose languages he was imperfectly acquainted.John solemnly ratified the constitution at Christiania. Charles John or Charles XIV. and the legalised sale of church-property for educational purposes (1821). was that of calling in the unsecured Danish banknotes still circulating in Norway. 1814. and by yielding to what were considered the unjust demands of Great Britain in consequence of a fracas at Bod^r. HISTORY. At first as regent. By the sale of the island of Guadeloupe to England the king was enabled to pay part of the national debt of Sweden. About this period the king displeased his democratic Norwegian subjects by opposing their abolition of titles of nobility (1821). In 1815. had a November perform in governing two kingdoms to which a few years previously he had been an entire stranger. sound administration. placing the connection of the countries on a satisfactory basis. penal code (1842). the Norwegians still observe the 17th of May. while foreign states looked askance at the parvenu king and his almost republican kingdom of Norway. On the other hand. On the other hand the king earned the gratitude of his Swedish subjects by the zeal with which he promoted the construction of new roads and canals. and after the death of Charles XIII. and he adopted difficult task to Among other serious difficulties other wise financial measures. the legislative authorities of the two kingdoms drew up a formal Act of Union. as the true date of their political regeneration. — demand for the abolition of the existing constitution.XI. however. and a new communal code (1837). In Sweden the French revolution of 1830 caused a great sensation and led to a fruitless Norway . and their finances were well-nigh ruined. by appointing Swedish governors of Norway. From 183G onwards the highest offices in Norway were filled with Norwegians exclusively. in an abnormally unsettled condition. and owing to good harvests and successful fisheries the prosperity of the country rapidly improved. however. by rigid economy. The internal affairs of both countries were. a task which occasioned heavy sacrifices.

and other reforms introduced. An opposite tendency was exemplified by the romantic school. though pleasure-loving monarch. .. The administration of his son Oscar I. of Sweden 1859-72). and at the time of his death the internal affairs of both kingdoms rested on a sound and satisfactory constitutional basis. . the Gota Canal. while in Norway the triennial Storthing was made annual (1869). HISTORY. 1847). In both countries the principle of religious equality was extended. and abolished the monopolies of guilds. poetry. which consisted of two groups. and furthered the interests of commerce and agriculture. His temporary interposition in the German and Danish war regarding Sleswick. revealing itself largely in a revulsion of feeling against the union with Sweden. In both kingdoms the field of Literature has been most sedulously cultivated during the present century. (1844-59) was of a still more liberal and enlightened tendency. Oscar's eldest son Charles (XV. and music. In 1872 Charles was succeeded by his brother. . endowed like his father and elder brother with considerable taste for science. and he was afterwards a scrupulous observer of the constitution of that country. the present king Oscar II. This gifted and highly educated monarch thoroughly remodelled the law of succession (1845) and the criminal code (1854) of Sweden. which led to the Armistice of Malmo (1848) and afterwards to the occupation of Northern Sleswick by Swedish and Norwegian troops. The leader of one of these groups.Ixxviii tliat of XI. who was endowed with considerable artistic and poetical talent inaugurated the present representative constitution of Sweden in 1865. called 'Phosphorists' from their periodical 'Phos- . the graceful lyric poet. At the same time the population and wealth of Norway increased rapidly. a gifted prince. On his accession the king rendered himself popular in Norway by presenting it with an appropriate national flag. Materially and intellectually his kingdoms have recently made rapid strides. where patriotic Scandinavian views were then in vogue. and to his wisdom was due the neutrality observed during the German and Danish war of 1863 and the Franco-German war of 1870-71 although his subjects warmly sympathised with the Danes in the one case and with the French in the other. was regarded with favour in both of his kingdoms. a highly popular. but he was unsuccessful in his attempts to procure a reform of the constitution (1845 and 1850-51). where it has been accompanied by a strong ultra-nationalistic spirit. A threatened conflict between the representatives of the two countries was averted through the king's influence. Latterly the radical and republican movement has gained considerable ground in Norway. new railways and roads constructed. In Sweden there existed an academic and a neutral school. as a representative of which may be mentioned Franz Michael Franzen (d.

'Vildanden" ('The Wild Duck". 1828). The works of A. As popular authoresses. 1881). and by the radical boldness and depth of the ideas in his later sociological plays such as 'Redakteren' (1875). 1896) are distinguished by lofty thought and artistic form. and thoughtful historical dramas. In Norway the struggle for independence of Danish influence is illustrated by the passionate H. 'Fruen fra Havet' ('The Lady from the Sea. phoros'. is responsible for a revival of the bombastic style among his imitators. who also made his de'biit with poems. Among living poets Count Snoilsky (b. 1892). 1888). 'Et Dukkehjem' ('ADoirs House". terised by great technical perfection and are also permeated by a truly national spirit. 1867). Ixxix was Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom (d. 1879). 1873). 1866). is marked by a noble simplicity. An isolated and unique position is occupied by Karl Jonas Ludvig Almqvist (d.is the were the historian Erik Gustaf Geijer 'Gotisk' (Gothic) school (d. 1855). The poems and romances of Victor Rydberg (d. His brilliant rhetoric. 'Hedda Gabler' (1890). and 'Per Gynt'. •En Fallit" (1875). an unusual purity of feeling. Henrik Ibsen (b.XI. 'Gjengangere" ('Ghosts'. . though inferior to some of their above-mentioned contemporaries. Among these (nearly all excellently translated by William Archer) are 'Samfundets Stetter' ('Pillars of Society'. 1845) and the more temperate J. known . the inevitable reaction against which has been curiously symbolized by Strindberg's retirement to a monastery. popular tales. and still more by his series of realistic sociological plays. of which the 'Fridthjofs-Saga' is the best known. are characterized by an almost repellant 'realism' in both matter and manner.. but showing a fantastii5 sentimentality in his more ambitious poems. poems. however. 1849). and a keen sense of form. Through Bjernson and still more through Ibsen. Velhaven (d. Oli Hansson^ etc. The chief representatives of the other romantic group. 1841) deservedly claims a high place for splendour of diction and national feeling. distinguished popular songs and his monographs on Swedish poets. The former was the author of a series of vigorous and beautiful short poems inspired by Tegner's great lyrical. 1865) and Emilie Flygare-Carlen (d. 'Rosmersholm' (1886). His epics and lyrics. 1884). 1879). especially the glowingly patriotic 'Fanrik Stal's Sagner'. 1877). in whom a powerful imagination is combined with a total disregard of moral restraint.epical a genuine Scandinavian sentiment. 184G). we may mention Frederica Bremer (d. 1847) and Bishop Esaias Tegner (d. Wergeland (d. 1866. romances. are chara. claim a worthy place in the world's literature. Bjernstjerne Bjemson (b. The Finnish poet Johan Ludrig Runeberg (d. has taken the world by storm with his satirical and philosophical dramas (such as 'Brand'. 1832) is distinguished by the strength and freshness of his earlier poems. for his HISTORY. -Bygmester Solnes' . 'En Folkefjende' ('An Enemy of the People'. Sir indberg (b. Norwegian literature has now^ acquired a worldwide celebrity. and historical dramas. and 'Kongen' (1879). 1882). .

1792). Magnus Lagaheter (d. (1792-1809. Olaf (d. Intellectual Progress 6. 1202). 1859). 1897). St. and 'John Gabriel Borkmann'. P34). (d. 1486). 1839). Charles Oscar II. (d. Frederick II. (d. 1047). Olaf Tryggvason (d. (d. Sigismund (1592-99). natural science. 1699). d. 'Lille Eyolf ('Little Eyolf. Eric of Pomerania (d. Olaf Kyvri (d. (1481-1512). 1299). and geography. lix Hans Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson Literature 5. and Iron xliii xlv Harald Haarfager (d. Christian of Oldenburg (1448-81). (d. Charles IX. (1818-44). 1746).l559). John III. 1718). Adolphus Frederick Gustavus IV. 1459). 1832) and Frithjo f Nansen (b. (d. (d. especially in the domains of history. (ascended the throne in 1872). Bronze. 1730). Eric Magnussen Id. 1849). (d. d. These plays are characterized by masterly dramatic form and a ruthless realism in laying bare the The tales and romances of Jonas Lie shady side of modern life. (d. 12^0). (d. Literature Ixxi Ixxv 7.D. 1559). 1892). (1513-23. and Arne Garhorg (b. (^The Master Builder. (d. 1503). 1. 1588). 1837). Eric XIV. (d. Ivi 4. Ixiii Charles XI. Christian VI. 1093). Frederick III. Frederick I. (d. Chronological Table. Frederick VI. Gus'avus Adolphus Charles X. — Ixiii Sweden after the Dissolution of the Kalmar Union (1623-1814) Gustavus Vasa (1523-60). Christina (1632-54. 1818). 1689). d. 1697). (d 1632). etymology. Literature XV. Gustavus III. Ixxviii . 128U). 1577). 1S08). (b. Charles Ixx Continued Union of Norway and Denmark (1523-181 4) Christian III. Frederick IV. Christian V. 1851) — have also met a warm appreciation. Intellectual Culture 3. (d. Kjelland (b. XIII. The scientific literature of both Sweden and Norway is also rich. 1833). 700 A. 1861) have a worldwide reputation. The Arctic explorers Baron Nordenskjold (b. Prehistoric Period: Ages of (down to ca. 1895). The Union (1397-1523) Margaret of Denmark (1387-1412). HISTORY. Oscar I. Sverre (d.Hi liii Sweden before the Union Birger Jarl Literature (d. Magnus the Good (d. Magnvs Erlingssein (1161).Ixxx XI. p^^ 2.) Norway before the Union Flint. 1751). 1263). Haakon Haakonss>3n (d. Christian VII. 1660). Christopher of Bavaria (1440-48). 1000). (d. Haakon Mngnussen (d. 1319). 1872). (d. (d. (d. 1670). Christian IV. 1771). Christian II. (d. 1266). . 1611). (d. Alex. (d. 1030). Union of Sweden and Norway (since 1814) Ixxvi (d. Frederick V. (d. 1766). 1648). Sten Sture (d. Charles XIV. Magnus Ladulas (d. 1592). Charles XII.

31 F'rom Christiania to the Hardanger Fjord via Skien. the Telemarken Canal. Labrofos From L0vheim to Siljord.SOUTHERN AND EASTERN iNORWAY. 46 48 48 50 57 From Christiania through the Valders to Lserdalseren on the Sognefjord a.) Koute 1. to Tuddals Sanatorium 5. Via the Randsfjord to Odnses. '67 (i'. 32 34 37 6.1 Bakuekkk's Norway and Sweden. 59 62 b. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to Stryn on the Nordfjord. or NcTs on the Romsdalsfjord a. 3.. to Christiaiiia Christiania and Environs From Christiania Haugsund From Sandviken to the Randsfjord via Drammen and 21 'il to Krogkleven and H0nefos 4.. 1 . From Kongsberg to the Hardanger Fjord through the Numedal From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Laerdals0ren on the Sognefjord (Bergen) Ascent of the Norefjeld 41 43 43 44 44 45 From Nses to Lake Spirillen From Viko to the Valders From Ekre to the Valders The Upper Hallingdal 8. Via Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund b. and thence by carriage to Laerdalseren c. . G4 65 .. Via Lake Mj0sen to Gjervik. Road from Otta to Naes. 7th Edit. From (Christiania) Haugsund to the Hardanger Fjord via Kongsberg and the Rjukanfos From Kongsberg to the Jonsknut. 7. and thence by road Odnaes and Ljerdals^ren to 0. 26 27 . Railway from Christiania via 59 Hamar to Otta in the Gudbrandsdal From Vinstra via Kvikne to Gjendesheim (Jotunheira) Road from Otta via Grotlid to Stryn.. Marok on the Geiranger Fjord.. (As FAR AS TrONDHJEM. From Lindsheim to the Sognefjord c. and the Haukelifjeld From Eidanger to Brevik From Hvideseid to Arendal . on the Geiranger Fjord . on the Romsdalstjord From M^lmen to Skeaker . . on the Nordfjord. Page Christiansaiid and the Saetersdal 2 6 9 From Christiansand 2. and to Marok.

Route 10. Antwerp. The streets Intersect at right angles some parallel \dih. to Stavanger. etc. coast of . and once or twice daily to Aloshy^ on the Otteraa. Christiansand.. It contains an altar-piece (Christ at Emmaus) by Elllf Petersen. the last In 1890. twice weekly to Farsund. on a square peninsula.W. Mr. : 0>ath 20 0. the N.)..^ and to Bergen once or twice yve. From From From From Christiania Christiania Christiania Christiania to to to to Trondhjem by Hallway Gotenburg by Railway Gotenburg by Sea . well spoken Rotal. 72 77 78 82 1. rebuilt in the Gothic style after its destruction hy fire in 1880. or Torrisdals-Elv. Cheistiansakd. . and Denmark touch regularly. — 21/2 kr. part of the town. in the Vestre Strand-Gade (see 60 0. daily. to Leith weekly. 4). S. 13. Skandixavie. at which numerous steamers' touch in summer. was founded by Christian IV. at which all the coasting steamers and others from England.. all three in the Dronningens-Gade I>AGMAE. of.. 12.. Bkitish Vice-Coxscl and American Consular Agent Vestre Strand-Gade 10.. coast of Xorway.. Sea Baths Solyst. Raadhus-Gade 9. between the Raadhus-Gade and_the Gyldenleves-Gade. of Denmark In 1641 and lies at the mouth of the Otteraa. with 14. side of which Is washed by the river.2 Route 1. 3). Hardanger Fjord.. to Copenhagen to Ham- burg twice weekly. Hotels. *Ersst"s. is the Cathedral (PI. lies at the mouth of the Scetersdal^ which is seldom chosen as an avenue to the interior of Norway in spite of the new railway and the laudable exertions of the 'Christiansands og Oplands Turistforening' to improve the accommodation for travellers. the Vestre Strand-Gade. same street. by the market-place.000 Inhab. It has an excellent harbour. near the cathedral .). . 72 72 Charlottenberg (Stockholm) . CHRISTIANSAND. to Arendal-Brevik and to Mandal. Post and Telegraph Office (PI. the largest town on the S. Norway and the residence of one of the five Norwegian bishops. (40-60 0. D.. unpretending. Germany. Salvesex. 0stre Strand-Gade.. and Stavanger Fjord routes. to London weekly. The town has frequently suffered from destructive fires. R. 1 kr.. Page in the Gudbrandsdal over the Dovre- From Domaas fjeli to Stefven (Trondhj em) The Snehgetta From Austbjerg to T0nsfet From Bjerkaker to 0rkedals0reii 70 71 11. Grand.E. the largest town on the S. Vestre Strand-Gade 16. below). except Sundays. 1-4.e\i\\ '. Scotland. also to Amsterdam. Christiansand and the Ssetersdal. the others parallel with the Christiansand. to Frederikshavn in'D&nm&Tk^ daily. Several fine but fatiguing mountain-paths lead from the head of the valley to the great Telemarken.. to Hull weekly. . 1). Wavm Baths adjoining the public gardens. hours for men 12-2 and 5-9 21/2. Steamers to Christiania. Near the centre of the S. Reinhardt. Hotels. Small local steamers ply daily. skirting the main harbour.. on the Oddere (p.

im freV i\ a r. Posl-ifTeletpafkon ' 2 Borseii 3 ToJdboden 5 RaatVuiset GXarges bank 7 Theabet Oddgrotyry.l^ndasairt Haiieviseii % keiSTIANSSANP 1:30. ' LagmaildsholTir.000 O 1 200 *00 '• 800 «>PO-j^^pj.'-^4 'J . >3 tes T-e-ipiig 4 DomJdrkert fecograph 4nstalt-s-on .Egslu i: .

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) the club-hut on ihe Store BJernevand.E.) brings us on the 4th day to the Suldalsirmd. the 1^'. Farther on we cross a bridge and the Ssetersdal Railway. angle of the peninwhere the Vestre and 0stre Strand-Gade meet. and watered by the Otteraa or Torrisdals-Fh\ is interesting both for its scenery and the primitive character of the inhabitants a tall. begins the road to Mandal ('Vestreveien'). On this side of the next bridge. We now descend to the S.) plies to the Oddere. A trip liy boat maybe taken to the (6 M. 3rd Day.15). 2 kr. (143 Engl. As an alternative we may drive (skyds) on the 2nd day to Bykle. The path in a straight direction passes the Quarantine Hospital (1.W.). in the Tordenskjolds-Gade. Steamers ply twice daily from Chri^tiansand up the Topdalsfjord. to the W. of Christiansand. 11. The Ssetersdal. About 3M. on which. mouth. Itinerary. Thence we ascend abruptly along the rocky wall to the left to (25 min. lies (right) the Bellevue (garden-restaurant. The left branch leads sula. a ferry 5 ei.). "). affords a fine view. — — — — The ScEtersdal. a valley running to the N. of the Ravnedal rises the Graamandsheia (810 ft. evening-concerts twice a week). 3 The Envieons are picturesque. are the 'Omvendte BaacV — its land-mark) and Oddersjaa^ comiuanding a pleasing view of the river. and walk or ride thence on the 3rd day to (10-11 hrs.) bridge. or we may proceed from the Ravnedal to the N. where rfmts. In 10 min.30 to 1. on the Topdals-Elv (there and back 272-3 hrs. which afford the best accommodation. is the Hamreheia (right). By Road (skyds) to Flateland. of the railway. 2) lie to the right. To the N. to Eonene and Boen. about 230 Kil. At the W. a walk of fully 12 hrs. The trip may be eased by spending a night in Saiersdalens Somnierhjem and another at Viken. fare 1 kr 80 2nd Day. On the right bank of the Otteraa.Enrirons. to (1 4hr.) Bredvik^ whence a long days march (12-14 hrs. a rocky and fortified island. reached hy a wooden bridge. The Dueknipen. To the left. 1st Day. By Railway to (78 Kil. to the left. to (41/2 hrs. station of the Sstersdal Railway (p. wieii fcc. a short way out.) and leads round to the right to the Peisstue (restaurant. via the Egsasyl.-^ fares 3 kr. CHRISTIANSAND. Route. angle of the town. may be obtained. ) . we take the path to the right.) and thence by Steamer to (35 Kil") Ose (B^/-2-i hrs. the beginning of which is shaded with lime-trees. beyond the (V4 M. — — — etery^ fell which contains the graves and monument of the Danes who in the naval battle of Heligoland (1864). 50 0. on the left hank of the Otteraa. we reach a pond. in length. up. and the sea. The Selyst Baths (p. back to the town..) Byglandsfjord (d^/i-ilirs.) the Ssetersdal road.. music on Sun. lies the pretty Cemto a island. who still cling to their old dress and customs.„e.. from the town. ascended hence. with (a — — its meteorological station. about 1 M.) the *Ravnefjeld (view). near the a good point of view. angle of the town. the highest point of the Opposite the E.) lighthouse on the Oxe COx0i\r"). leading to the Ravnedal. 90. I. ( view-tower on the '^Kikud (355 ft. M. On loot to Dalen. begins the highroad to the Saetersdal (see below). From the S. and thence on foot. prolongation of the Christiansands-Fjord. strongly-built race.). 4). 2'/2 M. 1* .

the farm-houses here possesses two interesting old . About land. At (10 Kil. Hornnces. J. 52 Kil. of the river. The steamer rounds a promontory with the farms of Freirak and Bery and enters the Byglandsfjord proper. bank of the fjord is the church of Sandnas. 56 Kil. part of the lake.. part of the Byglandsfjord. S<etcr?dal. but The Stbameb. The sanatorium or health-resort called Ssetersdalens Sommerhjem (80 beds. enclosed by low and'steep hills. bank. on the highroad. Byglandsfjord'(^ofeZ. also called Vasenden. from Bygj.) Grovene the train recrosses to the right bank. The new narrow-gauge Railway ascends the riglit bank of tlie Otteraa passing numerous farms. which the steamer sometimes reaches if the height of the water serves (10 Kil. long. The steamer stays here 2 hrs. On the right are We the stee-p^Fonekleo. and passes the gaard of Langeid.) Vennesla a short branch-line runs to Vlgeland and the paper-mill of Hundsfos. Two days. lies Freisnces (quarters at Ole Torbj^rnsen's. amidst the steamer passes through a lock (beyond which it cannot go when the water is low) and under the bridge which. bank (3510 ft. traversed by the Otteraa. Moisund. 18 Kil. lies ^ at'the S.) . end of the Byglandsfjord^ a lake 22 Y2 M.) Evje are the nickel and copper mines of Evje NikkelvcBrk and many tombs of the 5th or 6th century. Ch. Beyond (20 Kil. is called the Aardalsfjord. with its cotton-mill. but also receives transient guests (Engl. Journey on the Byglandsfjord is pretty enough. The S.). From (15 Kil. 1 hr. oifers no points of special beauty. from Ose. 7 Kil. . 44 Kil. 39 Kil. . Quarters may be obtained at Tarald Halvorsen's in HcBgland^ near Langeid.1 Route L BYGLANDSFJORD. Service in July and August). new). bank. 35 Kil. Reiknes .). Hcegeland on the Kilefjord (460 ft. On the W. ? vand projected) leads to the and provisions necessary. — 74 Kil. The navigable channel narrows. One of which stands on the highroad. 91). fishing to — be had) is recommended for a visit of some duration.).Froin Langeid a fatiguing mountain-path (tourist-liut on the GauttheiLijsefjord (p. after starting the steamer reaches Ose (quarters at T. On the E. Kvernvolden. Systveit. line 'mountain-scenery. i. Stabbure and several curiosities A little|farther_^up the valley is the including old bridal ornaments. Heistad's). at the foot of the Lysheia (2770 ft. Near (67 Kil. 11/2 lir. then pass the church of Aardal. Gaaseflaa. Hornemnd. the N.63 KH. skirts the Rust fj eld The Road follows the W. On the right rises the Aardalsnut (2510 ft.) Mosly. Iveland. which the road crosses. we cross the river.). carries the highroad back to the "W. Beyond Urdviken. with beds for tourists). with the farms of Stray. 78 Kil. church of Osstad. 28 Kil. and the church of Bygland^ situated in a pleasant side-valley. Guide (12-14 kr.). and reaches the Aaraksfjord.

The gaard of Homme. each 14-16 hrs. Rysstad's). to Odde. of Veum (12-13 hrs. From Veum we proceed via Midtgaarden to Bandakslid or to DaUn (p. This mountain-pass. 92). Rysstad the church of Hyllestad. — . high ascending the mountain-slope. a waterfall with some of the largest 'giant's cauldrons' ill Norway. The bridle-path on the W. .«mnd (1750 ft. The path ascends by the gaard of Ttygnestad (with a 16th cent. near which there is a small colony of Lapps with about — a thousand reindeer. Viken i Valle (good quarters at Dreng Bjernaraas). contains an ancient 'Aarestue'. (guide). end of which is Brattelid i Bykle. From Fl. Near it is the Sarvfos. About 2 M. where the night is spent.. to the S. or beyond Flateland to Bjernaraa. also affords a good view. At Flaarenden about 7 Kil.) of the Otteraa. side of the river. above Viken) Bykle or Byklum (1800 ft. Barocci. From Viken the Bispevei ('Bishop's Way'). long). which we reach by a good path. 92) and to the N. 1. 11/2 day (guide 8 kr. . crossing at the W. 20 Kil. of Bykle lies the Bo. from Rysstad. Scenery grander. is one of the best ways for leaving the Srctersdal. to the HJesenfJord (p. there should always be a boat here for crossing the lake. lead thence to the W.beds and scanty fare at Knud Alfsen^s). with horse 22 kr. where we join the main Telemarken route from Skien (p. one of them 26 ft. The gaard of Aamlid. The church of Valle has an altar-piece by Fed. ascended from Aamlid. Route. the best of the bridletracks leading out of the upper Sa^tersdal. Aardal on the Stavanger Fjord Travelling by 'skyds' ends at Viken. near Valle.. from Flateland).). 5 (modest quarters at Bjergulf G. on the W. we cross the outflow of the lake and walk on from tlie N. baiik to the new Cluh Hut (ca. Ole Drengsen rustic but good). If not. The Svarvarnut (4525 ft. 38 about 6 Kil. 41/2 lirs. But we may drive on to Flateland (about 12 Kil.W. lately improved. To the left is the Hallnndsfos. where the mountain-route to Dalen diverges (see below).) and to the lower end of the Store Bjernevand. from Viken). to mestad on the Suldalsvand (p.). point of view. passing the Bylclestig. several torrents. 94). is a fine 30 Kil.\teland to Dalen. deep. 8V4 M. the highest waterfall (100 ft.). Next day wo ascend still farther and then . the road crosses to theE. bank of the river ascends past the gaards (where bread and milk only are to be had) of Hoslemo and 0rnefjeld to (IOV2 hrs. and to (28 Kil. to From Aamlid over the mountains two days. 38). horse and guide from Viken to Veum about 14 kr. joins the road mentioned at p.) the gaard of Bredvik or Breivik (tourist.Setter sdal RYKLE. According to the regulations of tlie 'Turistforening'.-. bank of the river. a flight of steps 140 ft. 'stabbur or storehouse) and leads past the kettle-shaped Vaingjuv to the Lille Bjernevand (1. to the W. near Scenery rather monotonous. Rough paths. guide 12-14 kr.

Lillesand (Hot. within the Skjaergaard. with 5000 inhab. are the first stations. R.e. Yast snowfields and smooth granite rocks are traversed. p. where the water is perfectly give the distances in Norwegian sea or nautical miles (S. From Christiansand to Ghristiania.) we have frequently to dismount and let the guide lead the horse. from the club-hut). whence a good path leads to (6 Kil. the first sseter in Telemarken. Provisions have to be brought from Christiansand or Sommerhjem. Norge).) Bjaa. over which the Tourist Club has recently constructed bridges.. & A. where reindeer are often seen. where plain but satisfactory quarters are obtained.. interesting. chiefly 'indenskjcers". the highest gaard in the valley (beds at Knud Bj0rgufsen's).6 Route 1. 39). M.) from station o station (. hills rise to 2300 ft. 60. vij. is. islands which flanks the coast. 1/2 ^^. 156 Engl. passing several lakes and sseters and crossing small streams. Between the two is the HomA picturesque channel. 9 hrs. however. Finally we make a steep descent to the gaard of Bleskestad. and to Flaathyl on the Eaukeli Road (p. or belt of smooth. M. Less interesting is the route from Bredvik to tlie Berte Hotel. kr. with 1600 inhab.) Balen (p. leads between the islands of Hise and Trome to the — Galtesund and 10 S. A good path. (Torungerne). 0. 95). M.)-. and Grimstad (Hot. incl. It is a busy trading and ship-building place. Eyde). and has an excellent harbour. descends hence to (3 hrs. and the gaard of Grimedalen (ca.. U. Steamboats of the 'Sommer-Postrute' daily in 20 hrs. Arendal (^Lundegard. i. to Kjenningsvik. 17 Kil. 3940 ft. 40). or the path up the Satersdal from Bredvik to (15 Kil. (fares 15 kr.. ARENDAL. The route leads at first over much marshy ground and crosses several strong and sometimes violent streams. (narrow-gauge railway to Flaksvand. picturesquely situated on the hill rising' over the mouth of the Nid-Elv. 75 distance. and are often well wooded though they appear bare from a distance. on the Beirtevatid (p.). 272-3 kr. Mailer). Kallevig. The vast extent of sea studded with rocky isSeveral of the coast lands has the effect of dwarfing the scenery. affording a view of the Bandaksvand and passing near the SkafseKirke. marked by two lighthouses horgsundfyr..^Y hoat. C. The passage of the huge Meienfjeld. on the quay. 13 stations. Mr. Brit. while around rise the ice and snow-bound peaks of lofty mountains. Mr. . Agent. Fenix^ near the church.) is very fatiguing and must he made on horsehack by all but robust mountaineers with guides. Each of these routes takes a day. as the crow flies. with 3200 inhab. In descending from the head of the pass (ca. M.. Com. The — . From Roaldkvam to Ncps (p. There is a club hut at the Sceters of Bleskestadmoen. 9 is The voyage We The voyage presents no special attraction till we enter the Christiania Fjord. From Christiansand follow the ridge. 38).) Roaldkvam. rest of 2-3 hrs. S. The Mountain Route from Bbedvik to the Sulualsvand (13-14 hrs.«ee Introd. vice-consul.

and a monument. A steam of V^ ^r. The steamer. Mr. and then enters the pretty approach. next passes the Nevlunghavn. 4 S. a kind of phosphate found plentifully in the environs yields artificial manure. (*View of town and islands). Central. . with 1400 inhab. Simonstad. 29 Kil. Victoria.. end of the lake Nelaayfjord^ amidst fine woods. well spoken of. M. A more extensive view is obtained from the Stlntehei. more) to Strand i Vraadal (p. .) on Jomfruland. with a large school and a bust of King Oscar II. Passing the latter. 6 S. a very narrow strait between precipitous rocks (particularly narrow at the Kreppa. Eiser (Thiis. we see the little town of Barbo. in 21/2 -3 hrs. 5 min. Apatite.) the small seaport of Tvedestrand. 37). past the ^t'ennar/'i/r and . (17 Kil.) Simonstad. end). opposite the island of that name. A. p. a posting-road leads by (10 Kil. 1. comp. Numerous settlements and wharves are seen on both sides.Fyr. end of the sound. 35). F. above the town. From Langesund to Porsgrund and Skien via Brevik. Farther on we pass the Mekkelasfyr.to Christiania. by the pier. Langesund (Wright's Hotel. then inland by (14 Kil.) Holte i Drangedal to (18 Kil.) the terrace above the town.. except Sunday. viceconsul.. S. lies on the Langesunds. a native of the place.Fjord. Brit. while the large steamers follow tiic wider channel passing the lighthouse (r. including the masts of innumerable ships and the small towns of Kolbjefrnsvik (on Hise) and Rjevesand (on Troma). at the N. on the Friersfjord brings us to Porsgrund (p. 12). Near the N. The banks of the Tromesund^ through which the steamer steers towards the N. are finely wooded. Tom Parker). Brit.) Uhevg to (18 Kil. From Krager0 The coasting steamers pass through the picturesque Langesund. Kragere (* Central Hotel. 34). a town of 3100 inhab. 7 of brick.. A posting -road leads from Arendal to (H Kil. 11/2 kr. Fine view from a small terrace planted with trees above the quay. R. stands the Flangstadkirke. beyond which the coast is unprotected for some distance. by the Eidanger Fjord and the Friersfjord. to the left. unprotected by islands. KRAGER0. which is prolonged to the N. to the left. and then the Lynger. marking the entrance of the Oxefjord (for Tvedestrand..) the ruined gaard Rustdalen. a busy trading port with 6000 inhab. from the pier.) Lenas on the Tokevand. Kil. by Middelthun to Prof. Busch. 2. — . Finne).) Be. Thence by road (about 30 Kil.) Steeii. vice-consul.j From Simonstad to the Nisservand. near the Central. adjoining Arendal on theN. small. Route. we reach (6-8 min. both small). in the town.. Mr. with its lofty spire. and (21 Kil. Bull. To the right rises the lighthouse Langesunds. D.) Bvcekke i Afeiland new Gothic church Fiirst. steamer several times daily. 2. 34). the latter extending to Skien. whence we ascend the Skient-Elv in 7* hr. or N. 37. more to Skien (p. Schweigaard (p. and (18 — Farther on.M. see above). Soon after starting we touch at Brevik (p. A shorter route is by road to (35 Kil. and thence by boat (to be ordered by telephone from Simonstad) over the Nelaagfjord to (6 Kil. where the beaver still occurs. was built by Christ. It contains a large church by G-.

. We now steer to the N. — Farther on.) Christiania. with a pasteboard-manufactory. 33). a pleasant watering-place. We land at the Bjervik. In the fjord are the islands of Steilene. M.W. on the E.. . left fjord now expands to a breadth of about 12 Engl. the first station in the Christiania Fjord. shore of the fjord. and Elgjcernes. 33. on the right the GrcBsholm and the Bleke. and the Tryvandsh^ide (witli Frognersseter. at which none of the larger steamers touch. and next reaches E. end of which lies the little town of that name (p.). M. We pass the fortified islet of Kaholmen ( Oscar sborg) and the bleak Haa-0. We next stop at . Railway to Holmestrand. the Fredriksvcern-Fyr. 78).M. opposite Horten. — 8 S. — 10 S. the Vardekolle (p. . with the conspicuous palace on the hillside. R. at which several of the larger steamers touch. We next enter a strait narrowing to 1/2 M. (from Moss) Dr«rbak. lies (8 S. . the near which is Karl-Johansvarn a town with 9000 inhab. and. the Skougumsaas (1140 ft. with 2400 inhab. : on the left the Linde and the Hovede (with interesting strata of greenstone). — 8 S. 34). and behind the island of Hjelland. Victoria Hotel). see p. with sea-baths. beyond which the inner fjord expands. a small fortress. IV2 kr. 23). On the E. Vall«r. side of the fjord. 33) with sulphur and sea baths (reached from Christiania by train or by steamboat). with large tanks of petroleum. farther to the W. On the left bank is the cement factory of Stemmestad. . It then crosses the mouth of the Sandefjord at the N. M. (from Kragere) Laurvik (p. with its quays and a brick church. To theN. which connects the outer with the inner Christiania Fjord.. through the Laurviks-Fjord to 7 S.. The vessel steers past several islands : . principal Norwegian government dockyard. 23). formerly The Merllerhjerg affords a fine sea-view. now appear the porphyry ranges of the Kolsaas (1210ft. On the opens the Drammens-Fjord (p. At the promontory of Noesodtangen.8 Route U HORTEN. On the right lies the next station The . beyond which we obtain a fine glimpse of the Bundefjord. and extending N. the fortress of Akershus in the foreground. for about 45 M. broad. . p. M. skirts the Tenshtrgs Tende near Tensberg (p. we come in sight of Christiania. M. the harbour of (4 S.) Moss (p. 20) rising in the distance a beautiful picture. at first 7-8 Engl. This picturesque fjord. the steamer passes the mouth of the Laagen to the and rounds the furrowed Hummerberg. to Fredriksvcern^ with ISOOinliab. about 9 M. with its numerous country-houses. and numerous villas. is enclosed by rocky banks of moderate height wooded with birches and pines and enlivened with numerous villages. long. M.). Horten (^Serbye's Hotel. M.

.

la^K'en .

adjoining Vor Frelsers Kirke. — . Carl-Johans-Gade 33. A. Plan). 39: Fru Bye. a. 2) and from Homansly (PI.. the Grand Hotel. L.or Hoved-Banegaavd (PI. At the Stor-Torv (PI. D. B. Norwegian beer on draught at all the cafds. 'Grani> Hotel (PI. at the 0st-BanePrivate Hotels (generally managed by women. — 20 kr.Gade 10.30 p. E. Luggage up to 56 lbs. Prindsens-Gade 26. Ikr. driver which nearly the whole of the area of our Plan belongs. . Brorsen. Arrival. during the rest of the year): one pers. Storthing~-Gade 10. S0Strene Waalen. 500. 4). Stortliingf^-Plads 7 S^strene Screen.. intersect the lines from the Vcst-Bancgaard (PI. the fare is payable before arrival. end of the Eidsvolds-Plads.. much frequented: ^Restaurant in the Cafes. see above. 8. L. Central Privat Hotel. bj E. Fru Nanna Florelius. 4) to Grunerlelken (PI. 3. 2V2-5 kr.fohans-Gade o5. 5). 3). D. {Sporvogn or Tramway. Carl-Johans-Gade 12: Fkd D. 0vre Slots. harbour. etc. servants. . restaurant on the first floor). to 8 a. or from Trondhjem arrive at the J0st.. Britannia (PI. b. but also well spoken of by foreigners). 4 pers. Halvards Plads at 0<lv Tramway . The Skyds-Station (p. L. A. the nearest hotel to the quay. IV2 kr. B. In the 'Grand park of St. 3). theatres. at the corner of the Carl-Johans-Gade and the DronningensGade. at the corner of the Toldbod-Gade and the Store Strand-Gade. Stockholm. The Per For Per For ^our within town and environs 1 each additional person At night (li p. 'Skandixavie (PI.) may Travbe sent to fetch one from the Jernbane-Torv. Steameks land their passengers in the BjerviJc. Omnibuses of the larger hotels. — . opp. 50 — 25 - - — Pilestrsede 12. 1/2. well situated at the E.) 2-4 kr. 'Victoria (PI. Carriages may also be ordered at NyquisVs^ Rosenkrants-Gade 9. much patronized by native. — — to is Cabs. Restaurants. & A.. large : The — Hotels. (1-4. Fru Hansen. 2) to the St.ioffer&en''s Efterffflgey^ corner of Bank-Plads and Kirke-Gade. R. 1 kr. R. 50. 8O0. F. 3pers. Angleterre (PI. i. G. for 65 lbs. well spoken of. or under (only porters with badges should be employed). . F. I'/a-S kr. D. 6) or market-place.m. In driving to railwa> 30. first floor.. Storthings-Gade 8. Ikr. ellers by Kailway from Sweden. free.m. floor (cafe on the groundfloor. with Norwegian gaard.. see above. B. L. & A. F. 17). . travellers from Telemarken arrive at the Vest-lianegaard(2\. see above). 12). F. Confectioners. called ^Vognmand\ drive for one person each additional person . as above. Tordenskjolds-Gade 6. 1/2. comp. C. "Logen. cold supper 2. table-d'hote 31/4. v. Cabs (see below) are generally scarce ^ but a boy (20 0. stations. 1. to the 8. 10 p. I>. 1 kr. E. 4). PI.. . same street. '-Bavmann. or E. corner of Akers-Gade. now largely electric. 'Tos(rupgaarden''s Cafd. 2-4. at the corner of the Carl-Johans-Gade and the Roscnkrants-Gade.m. similar "^Hotel do Boulevard (PI. from Fredrikshald. D. 4). Hdtel. R. 11. 2 pers. xx) is at — 40 0. from 1st May to 30th Sept. where luggage from Sweden is cursorily examined-.. 50 0. at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade and Dronningens-Gade a large old-established house. Carl-. Porterage from the steamer lo the hotels 50 0. "Logcn^ in the Freemasons' Lodge (p. second charges. ' Chri?. II.. quiet. "Grand HOtel^ see above. Carl-JohansGade 25 (also hot dishes). Hanshaugen (see p. Tivoli.m. D. at the corner of the Raadhus-Gade and the Kongens-Gade.. Carl-JohansGade.2. 4).. near the Custom House {Toldhod . Bellevue.m. of the Storthing Building.4). g. "or at the hotels. entrance Akers-Gade'^G. IV2. Gilnt/ier. warm 3 kr. R. 4). steamboat-piers. l-ji/z. 50-75 0. near the harbour. to 9 a.. see p. S. The custom-house examination takes place onboard the steamer. Porterage and cabs thence to the hotels. F. a la carte i-2 kr. du Boulevard (first floor. The fares subjoined are for one-horse cabs in the Inner Town. 'Hdi. Christiania and Environs.

. E. Abel. side: Norges Bank. Berle.). Lie. p. and Storthings-Gade. 5). Stationery and Drawing Materials: Parin Tostrup . Thune. — — The other follows the same route Drammensvei and continues along this street to Skarpsno (PI. Music Sellers: Bvedrene Hals. Carl-Johans-Gade 35. Telegraph Office daily from 7 a. Chas. — — : — — : — — — — : — Comp. Hon. Bank-Plads. [Purchases should not be made in the presence or by the advice of guides or couriers. Cigars ('hr. Carl-Johans-Gade. at the corner of the Carl-Johans-Gade. S.Johans-Gade (PI. to Gotenburg five times and to Copenhagen thrice weekly direct. Carl-Johans-Gade 33. near the University Canimermeyer''s Boghandel. in various parts of the town (fee 10 0. Torgersens Sportsforretning. eto. Introd. Kirke-Gade 20. W. A. Steamers to London every Thursday. A.m. Carl-Johans-Gade. Lexow dCo. Stoltenberg.m. Storthings-Gade 2 (also Travelling Rephotographs and engravings. etc. of Akers-Gade. Mr. S. Kirke-Gade 15. to Hull on Fridays. Dundas. Carl-Johans-Gade 33. Larsen.' Christopher sen d. Th. . F. 4).).. vice-consul. runs through the Lille Strand -Gade. Boats in the Baadhavn (PI.] Booksellers: Aschehoug d. Heftye d: Son. The one H. side. to 7. D. Embroidery. 3. E. F. iV. Tourist Offices.m. p. Post Office open from 8 a.. adm. and 5-6 p. (PI. — — . T. etc.. to Bergen seven times weekly.1 Route 2.Co. 19). C. Carl-Johans-Gade 35 Carl-Johans-Gade 13. near the 0vre opposite the Storthing. All these vessels . cor. Amsterdam. Preserved Meats. 1. and once touching at Frederikshavn to Christiansand daily. S. Toldbod-Gade 20. corner of Kirke-Gade and Carl. Post and Telegraph Offices (PI. Capptlen. at the cor. Eeriry Bordewich. Shops.Gaarden (p. S. next door to the Grand Hotel. F. CarlNorwegian Pottery: /S^c/meit/er.30 p. American consul. Circular notes may be changed at any of these. furs. St'ir-Torv 2: Grimsgaard d: Mailing. xiv.Co. Carl-Johans-Gade 25. Telephone Stations ('Talestationer'') also at night fur foreign telegrams. 6). Mr. Christiania Privat-Bank. Toldbod-Gade S: C. to Newcastle on Wednesdays to Neic York once a fortnight . Storthings-Gade 26. Gade . Dyhwad. etc. Carl-Johans-Gade. quisites: W. Tosfrup. io. . Carl-J'ohans-Gade 39. wood-carvings. Den J^'^orske Credit-Bank. Carl-Johans-Gade 43. it then turns to the right beyond the Palace Park and runs through the district of Ilomansby (p. 4). near the 0vre Slots-Gade. CarlJewellers (noted for filigree Johans-Gade 25.. •. L. J.).^Majorshien (PI. Mr.Kasse Stor-Torv. to Grangemouth (Glasgow) from T0nsberg on alternate Fridays.. Prindsens-Gade 15. Kirke-Gade 6. Torvet 2 vice-consul. 8). — Banks (open 10-2). and along the Drammensvei to a point to the S. ofM^llerJohans-Gade 45. successor of/. 50 0. Prylz.m. with man. Zapffe.Fahrik. about 172 kr.: E. Jehe. 17). p. 3) to St. 4). Andersen. corner of Kirke-Gade and Prindsens-Gade: Christiania Bank og Credit. Storthina. Joh. 18). Toldbod-Gade (PI. Another line runs fr. A.m. per hour (no fixed tariff). next door to the Grand Hotel (large stock of photographs. Carl-Johans-Gade 41. Bergwitz. cor. Andresen d' Co. Ben Norske Filigrans. TT'. /. Two lines start from the Jernbane-Torv (PI. Bronn. Bennett og Senner. for rowing or sailing. Karl Warmuth. 12). 1. of Grtendse-Gade. Schmidl. work and enamel): T.im the E. F. to Hamburg. 3). Furrier E. as their commission is apt to be added to the price. corner of Kirke-Gade and Prindsens-Gade. Antwerp. Sundays 8-9 a. . CHRISTIANIA.. . dark room for tourists). Consulates. CarlJohans-Gade 16. MacGregor.m. to Trondhjem four times weekly. Thos. Art Dealers: Blomkvist. 0vre Slots-Gade. past the National Theatre (PI. of the Palace. opposite. under the Hotel Skandinavie. Often difficult to find a boatman (Baadinand^ Fcergemand). Carl-Johans-Gade 20. British consul-general. Den Norske Husflidsforening. E . to the p. Beyer. to 9 p. Jernbane-Torv 2. Carl-Johans-Gade 33. 16) (PI. Carl-JohansGade33. Carl-Johans-Gade 41. Wood Carvings.side. Magnus. Cook d: Son. Torvet 9. Thune Slots-Gade. (pictures by Norwegian artists. C. Carl-Johans-Gade 17. mann d: Co. Handels-Banken Prindsens-Gade 9. Shops. Hanshaugen (PI. Fredrik Petersen.

to which steamers ply hourly from the Piperviks-Brygge (PI. (1-2 kr. 7j. The water is purer on the side of the Bygde. etc. Christiania rye. and 1858 Christiania suffered severely from conflagrations. tlie Feestnings-Brygge.. opened in 1899.000. in 1855 it was 32. in 1875 it was 96. E. Mooney. in 1885 it was 131.). Hanshaugen (p. 13. matches. — English Church (St. EidsvoldsPlads. in the Tivoli. Pl. E. obtained in the restaurant at the wharf. Service at 11 a. The rise and fall of the tide averages 1-2 ft. A.m. 13. . operettas and comedies. 20) and the steamer-trip round the Fjord (p. at the corner of Munkedamsveien and liingsg. 'Norges C(immunicationer\ Baths. start CHRISTIANIA. In 1G86 1708. & Tuurs. these two closed in summer. the former being valued at over 25. Rev. & Fiid. and . Route. cotton. nearly opposite the University. Turkish baths. Christiania-Bad. M.^ Tues. 8-10.. of England married Anne of Denmark here in 1589. lat. long.000. at other times for a fee). Small steamers ply from the Jernbane-Brygge tu Moss^ Horten^ Fredriksstad. 17) and Oscarshall (p. 12-2. the seat of the Norwegian government.. Carl Johans Theatre. Sun. near the Stor-Torv. with modern appliances.. in the M0ller-Gade. 3). In 1547 Oslo was burned down by its inhabitants to prevent its falling into the hand< of Swedish besiegers. The population (almost entirely Protestant) in 1815 was 11. of the supreme law-courts of the Storthing or parliament. end of the Kirke-Gade. opposite the National Theatre. 21) may be strongly recommended. 10°50'E. Halyard several Norwegian kings were interred. Chief Attractions. Torv-Gade 9. and of a bishop. only. and the imports . 18). The same year Christian IV. etc. and from the Pipervik to Fredrikshorg (see — Comp. It was founded by Harald Haardraada about 1050. 4) in 1/2 ^^. bank of the river. 4) at the S. Central Theatre^ Akers-Gade 88. at other times for a fee). end of the Christiania Fjord and on the W.. colonial products. . 19). 16). 50 0.). E. Walk through the Carl -Johans -Gade and on the ramparts in the early morning (p.m. Bathinii in the Fjord: Hygcea (20 0. also in Kongshavn (p. The chief exports are timber..30 p. and it was again destroyed by fire in 1624.. 15-25 0. ChHstiania the capital of Norway is beautifully situated at the foot of pine-clad hills at the N. it is now estimated is at 207. and various extra payments).. oats.) and Selyst (15-25 0. or the Jernbane(PI. The excursion to Frognersa>ier and the Holmenkollen (p. to the N. 18 . In the cathedral of St.E. Warm — W. 12-2. comedies. herrings. Wed.000. 16)... Museum 0/ Art (p. Sun.000.ingen.000. from the Toldbnd-Brygire. meat.. machinery. of Denmark laid the foundation of the modern town. Mon.History.(bathing-ticket.. The Vikings'" Ships (p. of the old fortress of Akershus. 18). and named it after himself. Edinund''s). Its trade is considerable. ami . woollen goods. in 1894 it was 183. Views from St'. for swimmers (comp. 1 1 Brygge p. of a University. beer. and was afterwards a station of the Hanseatic League. salt-water baths at the Victoria Terrace (p. Chaplain. At the Tivoli (PI. National Theatre (PI. bank of the small Akers-ELv (in 59'^ 54' N. Theatres. and the latter at 75 million kroner. D. E. and James I. G. concerts and variety entertainments daily (adm. Eldorado. 2. The water of the fjord is only slightly salt. D. 3).}.000. ChHstiania Theatre (PI. etc. 5). The medisBval town of Oslo lay on the E. The town also owns about 400 sailing-vessels and 100 steam- .). coal. E. and ice. E.

consisting of a large was erected in 1841-53 by Grosch. 4). by Henrik Bull. central building with two wings. are University. adorned On the S. in front of which a statne of the Norwegian jurist and politician Ant. which forms several falls higher up and drives a number of large factories.-Tor\ (PL F. E 3). 1845). The Storthings-Sal. designed by Langlet. with statues of Ibsen and BjOTUson. by Jacobsen (1874). of the Stor- — . cotton-mills. 1785). flanked with two lions in granite by Borch. in 1811.Gade. 'great market'). and paper-factories. extending from the Hoved-Banegaard (principal railway-station. seated for 114 deputies. 1870). representing the first discussion of the Norwegian constitution (p. whose design was partly suggested by Schinkel of Berlin. On the W. F. Among the handsome shops may be noticed TostrupGaarden (No. a striking edifice by Fiirst & Haresteen. to 3). F 4. In the Eidsvolds-Plads is a statue of the poet Henrik Wergeland (d. PI. H. breweries. ers. by H. On the E. The and the marble font by altar-piece is by E. and restored by Chdteauneuf of Hamburg in 1849-50. who lecture gratis about 1200 students. The Torv-Gade leads past Ankerlekkens Gravlund and the Jakobs-Kirke (PI. Beyond the Stor-Torv begins the busiest section of the CarlJohans-Gade. Ixxvi) the smaller Lagthings-Sal has seats for 40 members. The present edifice. 3. where about 2000 persons are daily provided with dinners for 25-50 0. Martin Sch^reigaard (d. has five faculties with over founded by Frederick YI. Steinle of Diisseldorf Fladager. founded in 1858. we soon reach (right) the Stoe. facade. side of the street stands the with wrought iron-work. contains a large painting by Oscar Wergeland.12 Routed. of the Torv. by Bergslien. Nissen (cafe and restaurant. 9). to the N. looks towards the Eidsvolds-Plads. to the Slot or palace at the W. side of the Torv rises Vor Frelsers Kirke. each. 25). fee Y2-I kr.. end. 3).). In the Torv. — The University (PL E. side. or Church of Our Saviour. by Middel- . on the S. Opposite is the Masonic Lodge (1893). 4. — — Storthings-Bygning (PL F. Following this street from the station. Vessel (d. The principal street is the Cabl-Johaxs-Gaue (PI. to the S. The central bnilding. or hall of the Norwegian ParThe chief liament. 3). is a monument to the poet J. — — . consecrated in 1697. adorned with a Statue of Christian /F. G. at the E. CHRISTIANIA. side of this Plads rises the new National Theatre (PL E. thing Building. - Near it several considerable engine works . In the Akers-Gade. of Denmark 50 professors. end. and completed in 1866. either carrying them home or dining at large marble tables in the building. is the Dampkjerkke ('steam kitchen'). see p. a handsome square planted with trees. usually known as Torvet ('the market'). 2) to the Akers-Elv. a distance of 3/4 M. The interior is shown by the 'Yagtmester' or custodian (to be found at the entrance from the Storthings-Gade.

The other ship is in fragments. the chief having their names and dates attached. aud the other at Gogstad. and a Cabinet of Coins (Mon.... Among them are three fine doors from Norwegian Stavekirker. of the University. . Entrance in the Frederiks-Gade. right): relics of the flint and bronze ages. 12-2) is arranged in seven rooms. By the mast was placed the wooden tomb-cliamber. 1 pillaged at an early period. the Physical Cabinet. and presented to the town by the Christiania Savings Bank..). Wed. The Ethnographical Museum (reached by a staircase in the X.. The Ground Floor contains and critical the ScuLrTURi: Gat.000 specimens. with reindeer and pulk. length of keel 66 ft. breadth IG ft. lioulc. Wed. In the Vestibule are several finely carved doors Boom I (farthest to the from destroyed 'Stavekirker' (pp. V^ in 1883. — In the W.. at other times on appli- *Museum cation to the 'Vagtmester' (fee ^/o-i kr. the Mlneraloyical Cabinet (YxiA. including tankards in wood and metal. Tues.. in 1880 and both owe their preservation from decay to the blue clay in which they were imbedded. known as the Domus Academica.. PL E. and implements. Rooms II-IV: relics of the iron period. 12-2). 1-2.. wing is the Library^ consisting of 250. The rudder was placed on the right side (whence 'starboard'. 1-2). corner. — To the N.W. ascend staircase and turn to the left). bridal crowns. 12-2 reading-room 11-3. and Frid. To the mast in the centre a large square-sail was attached by means of a pulley. and tools. 12-1). bOe.D.. the Zootomical Museum (Mon... and the Medical Collections. contains Scandinavian costumes.MusminofArt. (open to puhlic on Mon. wing. The *Collection of Northern Antiquities (Sun. Its total length from stem to stern is 103 ft.. Handsome staircase. in the Universitets-Gade.. 3). 12-2j 45. Mon. 28. originally the steering side).lery (historical catalogue by Prof..000 vols.. & Frid. The E. furniture.. Room VI: interesting door-posts and portals of the same period. In the third plank from the top are sixteen rowlocks. CliKl.. Wings uncompleted. Thurs. 3Ion. Frid. Room V contains mediaeval curiosities (A. of the 12-13th centuries. Frid. Room VII: curiosities of later date than 1500. A staircase ascends to some small rooms containing curiosities from was erected Museum other parts of the world. and in a second room a Laplander's tent. Admission on Sun.STJANlA. near Sandefjord (p. . 1000-1500). tliun. & Frid. Mon. built in the Italian Renaissance style by Adolf Schirmer.). a Collection of Northern Antiquities.. in the newer shed. 12-2). 12-2. As the ancient Germanic kings were buried with their war-steeds. One of the two shown here was found at Thune in the Amt of Smaalene in 1867. The ship from Gogstad"..). 'J. Dietrichson. 18). Tues. is the of Art {^Kunstmusiet . 12-2 at other times shown by the 'Vagtmester'. The older shed in which these lie also contains several old church-paintings froai the Hallingdal. Frid. Thurs. and Frid. the Ethnographical Museum. closed in July and Aug. fire-arms. the Botanical Museum (}ilou. who lives on the groundfloor of the central building. the Zoological (Sun.). 33). having probably been tlie .. which was found empty. S'> the Viking chiefs were laid to rest with their arms and their treasures in their ?hips. contaias lecture-rooms. and Frid. .. is the better preserved. trinkets.. fee 10-25 0.^ 10-12). contains the Festsal or Aula. Men. In the court at the back of the central building of the University are wooden sheds containing two ^ Vikings^ Ships (Sun. ..

The Danish and Swedish masters. The representative names among these include J. 0. Kolst0. catalogue by Prof. K. F. Jac. — Morten Muller (b. tivity. C. 'Chez moi'. father. (178S-1857). — Fred. 1845). Ed. Hardanger Fjord. Nils Gude. Asgaardsreien ('The 281. 1826). Wentzel. who studied in Paris. Cappelen (1827-52). National Gallery. 285. Gude (b. Scene on the Christiania Fjord. 276. 300f. 253. 1827). Joachim Frich (1810-5S. 236. F. Munthe (b. 1842). Dahl. pupil of Dahl). — Among the Norwegian mav be mentioned the pictures exhibited in the following : — South and West Rooms 'F. 1846). On Hardanger Nielsen 299. Askevold (b. 274. 259. 289.. and the Staircase and Hall the Casts of Renaissance and Modern The Staircase and Upper Floor contain Original Works Sculptures. Binding (b. 235. Harriet 241. Krogh. Skeibrok. no number. Am. CHKISTIANIA. Old lady. Eckersberg (1822. 300d. 242-244. the artist H. *261. Grimelund (b. F. Portrait J. The Shulamite Woman. Mountain-view. Prof. Krogh (b. On the Norway coast. The Vestibule and ILree adjoining Rooms contain the Casts of Aneienl Sculptures. We mention the most important works in the alphabetical order of their painters' names. The Walkyries. whose works are mainly in the East Room. Bratland. Krist. N. Forest Breakfast.70). Autumn evening. 1838). Mountain Grindelwald Th. which are attached to the frames. 230. no number. (b. Man and Wife. F. '287. The mother watching. 1860). first lesson. — double staircase ascends to the Upper Floor. Portrait of himself. Gude at Diisseldorf between 1850 and 1870. Bodom (1829-79). Coast-scene in winter. 333. A summer's Ludwig day. The struggle for existence. Mexico Dock at Antwerp. Captive Mother. Portrait of a lady . G. Laurvik. Waterfall in Telemarken. 331b. F. 289 b.'l828). Skredsvig. 1841). 1852). Scarcely half of the pictures are by Norwegian painters. Portrait of the Norwegian composer. 329. 231. Eilif Petersen. 333. Norwegian landscape. 1842). F. *267. lake. 273. Eckersherg^ Munthe and Cappelen^ Morten Muller Arbo^ Stoltenberg . "^Scandinavian Painters.Dalil scene in Telemarken. 263. Karl Hansen (b. 272. A ^ and. are poorly represented both in quantity and quality.Lerche other artists who clustered round Ad. Grieg. TheLabrofos.Tephthah's Daughter. 258. 331. Kolste (b. 1834). Christiania Fjord. The . Fearnley (1802-42). Dahl. Scene in Nordmarken. 1841). (b. lastly. no number. E. Waterfall j no number. Sunday. no number. scenery.. Baade (1808-79). Gude. Tidemand and H. Munthe (b. Skeibrok (b. . Petersen — Eilif the Fjord. (1832-71). Old woman.Chr. J. //. — 308. The Vala (bronze). Angel with font (model and sketch). Lexow Hansen (b. Ba/cker. 279. — Gerh. Valle in the Seetersdal. Mother bearing her fallen son from the battle. Summer's day on a mountain Wild Hunt'). Siesta. no number. In capof his father. who became the professor in the Academy of Arts at Dresden in 1824. Stephan Binding (b. 250. a collection of about 400 ancient and modern paintings founded in 1837 and belonging to government. N. Scene in North Wales. Fritz Thauloxv. Arho (1831-92). H. 331a. Before the rain. C. 1852). no number. — — — — — . 306. Scene on the Sandviks-Elv near Christiania. Fladagev iJY Norwegian Masters. Landscapes. A. A. of his Copenhagen. 1857). C. 330. The collection is annually extended and is frequently re-arranged. 331. Bee (1820-91). Sigw. and other 'Impressionist masters Historical and critical of the present day. 289 a. no number. Amaldus Nielsen^ Otto Striding. Bad news. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Hans Heyerdahl (b. Holmestrand. C. Glacier. G. DaJil. Family partv. A. Bevgslien (b. which contains National Gallery. The Dyrehave at C. and others who studied somewhat later at Carlsruhe and Munich ^ . 1 kr. 254. Borch (1817-96). the finest of which are: 32S. Moonlight on the Norwegian coast. *278. Salmon fisher looking after his nets. nn number. /.1 1 Route 2. WerensMold. 1849). Dietrichson. Portrait of his father. 1851). Portrait 262. Math. David. Ragnar Lodbrok among the serpents.

0. 25 0. 248. etc. *145. Peasant meal.304. 32. Hougfos. 135. Stoltenberg-Lerche (lb37-93). Man with a glass of wine. Al. at other times for a fee). E. . The second North Pi-oom contains the works of the Flemish and Dutch Schools: '22. Lunders. Wagner^ Ponte Rotto 175.< resembling the fold' timber' churches Chinese porcelain. Sunny street. Raffaelli. Scene on the Rhine. Road in Kragcr0. Sohn. 179.^Universitets-Gade 14 Norwegian domestic and kitchen ntensils. no number. Adriaenssen Still-life: 34. Seel.. 73. 301a. Jan Davidsz de Heem. 134. Girl from Tele'markcn. 302.. Seibold^ Portrait of a man 155. J. except Sat. . Achenbach.. Pourbus the Younger.)adorned with medallion portraits of celebrated artists by Jacobsen.. van Kei/len (Jiavestcynf). Jac. Corn. Genre-scene from 283. Sea-piece . Foreign Masters. Showery weather at Etretat. and German Schools. stands the Palace (iS^iof . is the building of the Kunstforening. van Goyen. Flemish team. 12-2. containing interesting specimens of Norwegian embroidery. Emigrants paying a farewell visit to the graves of their relatives 180. B. by which we ascend to the Collection of Drawings and Engravings (5000^ in number.. K. M. d''Hondecoeter. C. 3}. Portrait of the novelist Bj^rnson. 802b. The Norsk Folke-Museum (1st floor). . School of G. .. contains a collection of . A solitary couj>l<(family worship in a cottage). Italian. etc. : : founded in 1877). A. Jordan^ Family worship. Portrait. van Bloemen. Ucherman (b. 1855). 12-2. Skvedsvig (b. Italian Masters: 'i. .30. 2. *302a. van der Ast. Rkiold (b. A. Fight between dogs and wolves. /. Portraits of 'Hans Lissalcz' and 'Magdalena Pittrichin' . 310. founded in 1877. Descent from the Cross. Gir] — — — — — — . Horemans. near Modum. 13. G). 51. or Art Union (PI. '246. E 2 3. Man and wife. Route. The works of charity. *71. /. Farther to the N. Thurs. . *177.Strozzi. E. Portrait of himself. W. Wei en 332. at the convent. Jordaens. Adolf Tidemand (1814-76). Couture. Dannat. Francken the Elder. 23. 1855). Italian landscape: French blasters 317.303. 141. cat. 28. Beach at Scheveningen 182.. On a height at the W. B. 178.. Old copy of Rembrandt. Fine old co-^j oi Leonardo da Fma's Mona Lisa . Wentzel (b. North Rooms (lighted from the roof). Th.. adm.. 86. Broch on his death-bed. J. Schoolmaster.. A. Salvator Rosa. "247. P. Tasso and the two Leonoras 176. at the corner of the Universitets-Gade and Pilestraede. 183. E. PI. A glass-door in the West Room leads to the staircase. 50. with sheep by /. N. Lessing. work. 56.. 1-3 and 5-7. Dow. German Masters: The tribute-money. Hartraann. Anion Graff. Study. 157. Fritz Thaulow (b. G. 1 T) Scene in the Lofoden Islands. Oysters and Rhenish wine 84. Barth. 8r Frid. a plain edifice with a class- . /. 1859). lacquer (PI. the first of which is devoted to the French. *104. Cavalry skirmish. Hiibner. Fruit . : . B. Dog. no number. Portrait of a woman . and Sun. 1847). Meeting of the Haugianer (a religious sect).. Beham. Achenbach. Mon. Monet. 19. Portrait of the mathematician 0... van der Heist (V).. 200. trinkets. A. <Hd couple. no number. Verboeckhoven . mediaeval reliquaric. Payment of the tithes ^^^^the^n France. daily. except Sat. Leu. ""SS. Cloisters. and game 80. Tues. *59. On the groundfloor is the Art Industrial Museum (daily. E. 94. Jan Fyt. Dancins. K.National Gallery. CnRISTIANIA. Mierevelt^ Portrait: 67. Cattle driven oft" by armed horsemen. — : rolling a cigarette. Claude 184. F. . Portraits 173. Hellemans^ Forest scene. 24. peasants in the Ssetersdal. The dying man. *81. adm. Waterfall in Norway. 63. arranged according to districts (open on Sun. 1854). end of the'town. Allegorical representations of the blessings of the Peace of Westphalia . Geselschap^ Christmas morning . B.John the Baptist in the wilderness. in the beautiful Slotspark. Landscape. 0. Pieter Claeissens.. Funeral of a peasant. G. 12. free). Worship in a Norwegian country church.

etc. there and back. by M. The Festsal is borne by Corinthian columns. according to tariff.. The extensive modern quarter (PI. unveiling the statue of Charles John. 1 ..E. the ramparts of which alford a charming view of the fjord by morning-light. 5 open to the public). or Trinity Church. to the S. 2-4. Skeibrok. who lives on the sunk floor of the S. Below are two rows of shops. 5). Sinding's Battle of Svolder). 3 pers. 2). E. 1 pers. 3). fee 1/2 ^^' for each memher of a party). It is now used as an arsenal and a prison. The staircase is emhellished with two reliefs in marble on the right. of Denmark in 1531-32. and above them are three large turreted . John laying the foundation-stone of the x^alace. of the palace park named Hornansby after its founder consists of villas and gardens.e>.. The private apartments contain paintings and sculptures by Norwegian artists (among them Tidemand's Village Catechising. in the Fsstnings-Plads (PL E. dwelling-houses. marble font. the walls of the Throne Room. 1 kr. Permission to visit it is obtained at the office of the 'Feldt0imester' (see above). above the Ruselekvei.). Akers-Gade 1. with the remains of a Cistercian abbey. Dining Room in the Pompeian style. the Akers-Gade divides into the Afcersuei. erected in 1853. by Brynjulf Bergslien (d. conspicuous from the sea. inscribed with the king's motto 'The people's love is my reward'. 2 pers. 70 0. 2 kr. Akershus. Olafs-Kirke (PL F. D. 90 0. 4 pers. Akershus was unsuccessfully besieged by Duke Erik of Sweden in 1310. completed in 1878.. and by the Swedes again in 1567 and in 1716 (under Charles XII. a handsome octagon. Oscar II. in the Akers-Gade. 35. The interior. 1898).) The Raadhus-Gade and Kongens-Gade lead hence to the Faestnings-Plads and to the Fortress of Akershus (PI. with stay of V2 l"". within at its precincts. Charles XIV. by Christian II. E. \>y Stephan Striding . mostly presented to the king and queen on their silver-wedding in 1882. to the right. founded by English monks in 1147 and destroyed in 1532. contains an altar-piece by Tidemand and a font with an angel by Middelthun. and . was erected in 1853-58. Rowing-boat from thePipervik or fromGrev WedelsPlads. about 1/2 M. 2) to the N. D. The interior is shown by the portico "Vagtmester'. the Coursal. erected in 1825-48. The garrison-church is to . a brick edifice by Bull. Leave to visit the Artillery Museum is obtained the office of the 'Feldtmmester'. eight columns of granite. on the left. Petersen. one over the other. Altar-piece by E. a Gothic edifice with a dome. John (Bernadotte). and 0. and . . is the Victoria Terrace (PI. 80. partly designed by Chdteauneuf. is the Hoved. Fine *View from the roof. To the S.16 ical Route -J. From the Storthings-Building the Akers-Gade leads to the S. 4). CUKISTIANIA. wing (daily. ('Kirketjener' or sacristan. In front of the palace rises an Equestrian Statue of Charles XIV. By the Roman Catholic St. In the fjord. 2). The Trefoldigheds-Kirke (PL F. the Johannes-Kirke (PI. 1 kr. : the Audience Chamber are hung with landscapes by Flinto.

to the left.W. and offers for whom the visitor rings. the chief of which (as far as tourists are concerned) are Fredvikshorg and Oscarshall on the E. About 300 yds. 10) to the ferry of Skarpsno and cross to the chateau by electric launch (through-fare lO0.). F. a well-kept cemetery. see p. to various points on the Bygd0. Band in the evening. Visitors to the Botanic Garden may use the Vestbanegaard. 21) is 1 M. It may he entered hy the lower gate and left hy the upper. side. whirh we may now visit. with aisles. In the Akersvoi. one of the oldest churches in Norway. of Oscarshall. Bergslien.r.St. G. a second reservoir of the waterworks. and Bygde Sebad on the W. 3) and from Kampen (beyond PI. mentioned before 1150. John's Hill' (PI. former past the Gamle Akerskirke in 15 niin. C. Hanshaugen.Griinerlekken tramway (p. Munthe (1893). Hanshaugen. Environs of Christiania. hourly from 7 to 10 a. 3). 2. In each case there is a walk of 10-15 minutes. and from 1. laid out as a public The attendant. We either follow the road electric railway in V< ^^r. while those to the Kampen may take the Homansby-Oslo line (p. — *St. Oscarshall to the right. side. E. (there and back 6kr..SHALL : 21/2-3 brs. including stay. Higher up is an open pavilion. and the Frognersseter on the hill to the N. and choir by means of walls with portal-like openings. *0SCAB. commanding an unimpeded view. in a tasteful wooden building in the Norwegian style. 2. The church is a basilica in the Anglo-Norman Romanesque style. (Drammensvei . A curious arrangement in the interior is the separation of the space in the centre of the church from the nave. 1).40. 4). 2 . Other fine views are obtained from the Botanic Garden (PI. 3).E. on this Baedkkep/3 Norwav and Sweden. 9) as far as the Nybro on the Trondhjemsvei (PI." 3. 9) to the GrenlandsKirke (PI. with two horses 8-10 kr. Ashjernsen the writer of fairytales.20. E.. 4). the Vlevoldsvel.60. Below the water basin is a seated figure of P. and restored by Schirmer and Hanno in 1861.). — — is We leave Christiania by the Drammensvei (PL D. Route. or 'St.3). . C.m. whifh bordered by villas and pleasant gardens and traversed by the electric railway as far as Skarpsno (PI. on the N. 2). a little to the N.B. H. the Ekeberg to the left. perhaps founded by King Olaf Kyrre. by. A. by H. Hayishauyen. photographs for sale (fee forbidden).30 to 10 p. is promenade. The 'Kirketjener' lives in the small house opposite the church. 3. 1.. H. to St. CHPJSTIANIA.). the latter leading direct in lOniin.2). Near the lower entrance (single cab-fare to this point) is a good Restaurant. marked by a flagstaff. 2. 280 ft. transepts.m. names the chief points . the tower of which commands an excellent survey of the town. to the N. or we may take the'small steamboat plying from the Pipervik (PI. 17 tli<. of the cemetery. Between these two roads lies Vor Frelsers Gravlund (Pl.. On the top is a reservoir of the city waterworks. the fjord with its islands. The railway-station of Bygd0 (p. D. or 4 kr.W. rises the Gamle Akers Kirke (PI. 7tb Edit. Cab with one horse. side. H.

In the centre is the ^Church of Gol in the Hallingdal (p. and A room on the 1st floor contains nine Sverre. . (comp. who lives at the back of the chateau. with carved work. with its oak panelling. a restaurant on the Dronningbjerg. . wood-carvings. a 'Stavekirke' or timber-built church of the 12th or 13th cent. (beyond the road from Fredriksborg.. About 3/4 M. ). from Oscarshall. the Eomsdalshorn which are ten famous works by A. its fjord. 28). and freely restored. where a steam-launch crosses the Frognerkil to the wooded peninsula of Bygde. on the S. on which the white chateau is conspicuous. side fee 1/2"! ^^0 The DiNixG Room. or Norwegian peasant life. as on our map) and the old Norwegian buildings. Gude (b. 14). or storehouse. fitted up with the original furniture a 'Stabbur'. . bas-reliefs from Frithjofs Saga. : . from Telemarken. in 1849-52. 56 in Telemarken. the terminus of the Oscarshall steamer. OSCARSHALL. (Ask to be shown the beginning of the way from Fredriksborg then follow the broad road. 5). for the sake of its pictures and the view. the Langvik (PI. on the Bondeliv''. is the Sceterhytte. is adorned with ^Norwegian landscapes by J. and four fine landscapes by Several rooms on the 2nd floor from the Saga.18 RrAite-2. Frich (p. PL A. in zinc. St. from which 43 steps more lead us to the top of the tower. by C. and environs (Ijest by evening-light). ings. where several interesting old Norwegian buildings have been reerected. to walk to the chateau. 1825) contain paintings. Near it is a monument to Count H. p. have fully 1 M. 4) was erected in the English Gothic style by Nehelong for King Oscar I. the zealous promoter of the union with Sweden in 1814. representing 'Norsk The Drawing Room. to the W. to the N. 14). About 1/2 M. for each person). where we enjoy a charming '-View of Christiania. It deserves a visit (Apply to the gardener. A. a summer -resort on . 44). from which one road leads to the right to Oscarshall. and is adorned with paintings by Norwegian artists. Tidemand (p. a 'Regstue' (or hut of the most primitive style. — The chateau of *Oscarshall (80 ft. see below. first known to us in 1309. is embellished with statues of Harald Haarfager. brought to this spot iu 1884. sa'me H. mentioned above) a portal erected in the ancient Norse style forms the entrance to a clearing.W. Olaf Tryggvason. . Wedel-Jurlsherg. partly after the model of the church Around it are placed a farm-house from Hove of Borgund (p. and another to the left to the church of Gol and the other ancient buildBygde Sehad is about I1/3 M. — groundfloor of the principal building. portraits. with an open fire-place and an opening in the roof for the smoke) from the Saetersdal and a mediaeval farmhouse from the Gudbrandsdal (attendant 25 0. and relics. by Michelsen. . the finest and the Norangsfjord above being the *Ravnejuv. Borch. From the steamboat-pier we ascend in 5 min. Olaf. to the chateau.) The road passes Reed's Restaurant (also called Paraplyen. on the groundfloor of the smaller separate building. — Those who go by steamer to Fredrikshorg. — — We The chateau stands of it in a wooded park. now ascend by a winding staircase of 28 steps to the flat roof of the chateau. Environs side of the terminus is a finger-post pointing to tlie ferry.

The railway then turns to the W. A pleasant Circular Drive of about 3hrs. Farther on the line leads through pine-forest. After 12 min. commands beautiful views. from Major- . To the right stands the Vestre Akers Kirke^ a Gothic building of brick.. 10).). to the terminus at (4 M. passing a few modest inns (to the left. of Ljan.) a group of villas named Bcekkelaget (above the rail. a fine view is disclosed of the town. Beyond the station of Graakammin it sweeps round the GuUeraas. fare 26 0.) a good view-point. a wooded hill to the S.W. Driving from Christiania and back requires about the same time (good carriage and — pair 10-15 k?. The Karlsborgvei descends to (5 min. to (25min. till it reaches a point near the large lunatic asylum of Gauslad.) the restaurant and seabaths of Kongshavn (steamb. carr.) may be taken by proceeding from Oslo along the Kongsvei and over the Ekebergsheide to the Ljansceier (near the rail. We cross the old Frognersseter road by a lofty bridge and run towards the S. to the Ekehergs Gaard. on the hill. 78). a spur of the Vettakolle. F. passing the cemetery and the church and then turning to the right. and then back along the fjord. A path to the left ascends to (5 min. takes 3V2-4 hrs. After 5 min.). IIOLMENKOLLBN and FROG^'ERS^TER. station mentioned at p. while our road enters the wood. we diverge to the left from the Ekebergsvei. where the road to Ljabro turns to the right towards the fjord. there and back. of Oslo. running to Slemdal every V< ^^and to Holmenkollen every '. 5).2 hr. Beyond Ris it intersects a new T^illa colony. Route. runs from Majorstuen towards the N. 8 times an hour all the way). 4j to Kong shavn or Ormsund (about 12 times daily). stat. which runs in a straight direction and crosses the Loelv by a small viaduct. 78) and on to Ljan. As soon as we are clear of the houses. At (2 M. 7.). Halvards-Plads. 19 The Ekeberg: By Tramioaij from the Stor-Torv to Oslo (comp. the ter- minus of the city tramway (p. The Kongsvei runs through the wood.FG4.). A little farther on. By the Hick Koai> HolmenkolhMi Is abont 4'/. opened in 1898. its encircling heights. (one-horse carr. stat. ^. H. we follow the new road ('Kongsvei') in a straight direction. above). From the tramway-terminus in the St.of ChrUiiania. Numerous benches invite to repose. P1. From Holmenkollen it takes 30-40 min. an electric railway plies to Slemdal and nolmenkollen (25 min. and pair 12 kr.). p. H5)5 or hy Steamer from the Jernbane-Brygge (. nearly the whole of it^ course being over embankments or hewn out of the living rock. The maximum gradient is 1 :25. Hence the whole excursion.) Holmenkollen (797 ft.) Slemdal the double track ends. From Majorstuen. the Karlsborgvei diverges to the right. which ascends.) the St. (on Sun. EKEBERG. see above). and begins to ascend. and the fjord.2 M. whence we may return by the Ljabro road to (1/2 lir. which lies 1/4 ^'i"- — below the hotel.PI.. The Holmenkollen Electric Railway (4 M. to walk to Frognersoeter. The Ekeberg (400 ft. which ascends along the slope of the Ekeberg. HalvardsPlads we follow the Oslo-Gade (PI.

Passing the initials 0. for the sale of coffee. I3/4. William Arctic traveller. Emp. commanding a magnificent view of Christiania and the fjord. not only in summer but also in winter. 25 0. The road forks here. The view is still more extensive from a wooden scaffolding on the Tryvandsh. etc. cut in the rocks. purchased by the city of Christiania in 1889. descends to the Voxenkollen. is the Sportstue (1897). diverging from this one to the right. W. the seats in the upper balcony are particularly effective. 21/2 kr. at the corner of the road to the Voxenkollen (1480 ft. A 'bautasten' here commemorates Eivind Astrup.30 p. . J. the view-tower on the top of the Holmenkollen (1040 ft.). Farther on we pass the Peisestue (rfmts. to which we ascend past the 0vre Frognersceter in 25 min.) the Holmenkolltaarn. 2. After Y2 M. Heftye (d. It runs almost all the way through wood. is the most popular pleasure-resort in the neighbourhood of the Norwegian capital. those of the Hallingdal to the N. The former Villa Heftye contains a (collection of Norse antiquities (adm. farther on we electric railway. on July 2nd. — . At the top is a flue ^Tourist Hotel (D. II.) the *Frogners8eter (1410 ft.as the 'Kong Oskars Vef. 1 1/2 kr.). the rooms of which are adorned with scenes by Norwegian painters. about halfway up.).) Frognersaeter. the branch to the right (see below) being known as the 'Keiser Wilhelms Vei' and that to the left. (Norefjeld. beer.Tj em (1015 ft. when snowshoeing ('skileb') is practised here with great energy (important races in Feb. and the hills on the Swedish frontier to the E.W. p. Kure's Hotel view-tower).20 Route 2.) . more. erected in 1896-97. and in 10 min.m. —A and King Oscar II. wine.). M. commanding a splendid view of Christiania. 1890.a path diverges to the right to the *Besserud Tower. Munthe. 1886). take the 'Holmensvei' to the riglit. D. II. chiefly from the Hallingdal. B. 43). There are also a few old Norwegian timber buildings. In clear weather we see the mountains of Telemarken to the N. The 'Keiser Wilhelms Vei' connects Holmenkollen with the (11/4 M. situated on the Besserud. which ascends the hill (21/9-3 M. 19).). mineral waters.). (Gausta. more we reach the Wilhelmshei Hotel. leads above the Besserud Tower (see below) to (15-20 min.). in the Norwegian style. From the 'Kong Oskars Vei' a path. p. leading to the Sanatorium (R. we reach (1/4 hr. At (1/2 to the riglit. at 2. The ^Restaurant (to the left) was built in 1891 by H.0ide (1740 ft. S.) Volvat a side-road diverges About IM. It commands a beautiful view of Christiania and the fjord. the of II. an artificial lake. the country-seat of the Ute Consul T. or a la carte). diverging on the right.). ultimately passing the station of the siuen (p. 31). HOLMENKOLLEN. On the slope in front (short-cut from the station) is a so-called Sport'bautasten' commemorates the visit stue (cafe and beer-house). *Holmenkollen (1040 ft. Another path. To the E.). from 2.

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20. 95 0. Bygde. 4 M.ids past a small 'bautasten''. to Sundvolden. a station of the electric railway. To the left we soon obtain — a view of the beautiful Christiania Fjord and of the peninsula of Bygdef.^ANDVIKKN. 21 In reiuniiiig to Christianiii from the Frognersretcr walkers may foil ii\aold road. and pair 30 kr. to the left. to the E. sec p. Skyds-Statlon. lies the Bogstadvand Christiania with water. particularly between E0ken and Drammen and between Haugsund and H0nefos. (fares Second and third class only. thence to (89 Kil. The Silurian strata are here intersected by massive dykes of greenstone. erected to Heftye 'by the youth of Christiania. on the right. E.-.)..' A branch diverging to the left.. 1^2 kr. At the top of the hill. tlio on A round trip made by the steamer 'Tiiristen' in the Christiania Fjord may be heartily recommended in fine weather. where a dyke 2 ft. Sandviken [Harreschou. express in liy'-jhr. The road Drammen We The road becomes steeper and reaches 'its highest point (1070 ft. supplies About 2 31. 17). Other steamers also afford pleasant trips. descend- ing from the Bogstadvand (see above). charges lower in the opposite direction. The train skirts the Enger-Vand. ordered by telephone the day before.D. The steamer leaves the Pipervik (Pl. extensive view) the Skougurnsaas.4. (fares 2 kr. through the trees. the station for Bygda and Oscarshall (1 M. Railway (Vestbanen') to (53 Kil. 9).W. crosses t\ieSandviks-Elv. to the right is the Kolsaas (see above). Lysaker^ at the mouth of the Serkedals-Eiv. 25). which descends between the villa and the 'Sportstue". stolkjaerre 22V2. 44 Kil. beyond this. Kil.) fl^uifc. good carriages kept by Larsen. The railway tra- — verses beautiful scenery. leads to Slemdal (y.) Randsfjord three trains daily in 3-4 hrs. (fares 2 kr. prettily situated on the fjord.) beyond the farm oi Isi. next ascend the Isidal. 19) and le. To the left. etc.30 a. cart. thick intersects the disintegrated slate.). to the S. From Sandviken to Krogkleven and Honefos. of the Tryvandsh0ide. is^thc old church of Tanum. R.) Drammen. 3 Kil. ascend the Krogklev . see p. The finest views are on the left. . The train starts from the Vest-Banegaard at Christiania (PI. fare 2Y-2 kr. 40. 4) twice daily (10. 50 0. To the right rises the porphyry range of the Kolsaas (1255 ft. 2 kr. p.. thence by skyds.). :}. From Christiania to the Randsfjord via Drammen and Haugsund. 13 Kil. early train — By from Christiania to Sandviken. and 5 p.m.)-. The Maridalsvand .. Farther it pnsses under the bridge of the electric tramway (p. 2 kr. —6 . (475 ft. especially near (10 Kil.). diverges to the right from the road. we have .m. 60 0. on which lies a farm of Baron Wedel-Jarlsberg. 142 Kil. lioute. ordinary train in 21/4 hrs. with the white chateau of Oscarshall and numerous villas. 4 kr. fair. 19). go on to H0nefo3 in the afternoon (cariole from Sandviken to H0nefos 15. Tlie 3. 1 kr. and gradually ascends on the bank of the stream. D. road descends from Bogstad to Lysaker (see below). near the railway-station).

Asker Sanatorium) . 1455 ft. 3 Kil. Descent through a narrow ravine to Sundvolden. She was the wife of the pastor of the place.. and the Gausta (p. via Bogstad (p. Its ascent is generally made direct from Christiania.) *Kongens Udsigt (King's View. From Chnsti'inia glimpses of the Hobfjord. 5 min. The train to to . Beyond a rocky gateway called Skaret our road joins the 'Svangstrands-Vei' (p. of Sundvolden) said to be even finer. we next reach the (25-30 min.860). arm of the Tyrifjord (^'210 ft. of is — The view from the Gyrihaug (2215 ft. 25.W. — . not a skyds-station. above the sea. Beautiful view. The road to Henefos crosses the Krogsund. which lies far below us.). the bank accommodation. in which Anna Kolbjarnsdatter is interred. on the old road to Christiania. From Sundvolden we asceud by a rough patli (best in the morning. Continuing to ascend to the W. which missiles. following the white crosses on the trees.. ScUihegda. at the foot of the massive Skougumsaas (1140 ft.). are the ruined church of Steen and (a little farther on) the tumulus of King Halfdan the Black (d. a poor inn. ing to the legend the numerous islands in the Steensfjord are said to be stones once hurled by the giantess ('Gygr'' or 'Gyvr") of the Gyrihaug at the church of Steen (see below). high. About ^/i^r. the Norefjeld (p. all came short of their aim and fell into the lake. the S. 40 0. which connects the Tyrifjord with the Steensfjord. Sundvolden {*Blyberg's Hotel. 1240 ft. we first come to (3/4 hr. embracing the Tyrifjord with its islands. Henefos.) to (11/2 hi"-) *^^0S^l®v®^' * ^°<^^y height (^/6u. The gaard of Humledal. tunnels Drammen ascends through cuttings and two short (15 Kil. The road is hewn in the rock 13 Kil. 27). if the weather is clear. 23) coming from Drammen. After another 1/4 ^r. see p. and in 1716. Ascending through a romantic gorge. but carriages for hire). above the fjord). horse 2 kr.) Slcebende and (20 Kil. from Sundvolden.. — — which we follow to 17 Kil. The next station. 43) to the N.E.) Hvalstad (219 ft. 21) and the Serkedal^ where tolerable quarters may be Accordfound at Lyse. 31) to the W. 'cliff). in the wood. while her husband was ill.. to the N. is Vik (travellers in the reverse direction drive on to Sundvolden without change of horses). below which. including even one of her own legs. in the distance. 11 Kil.E. the district of Ringerike. finely situated high above the Holsfjord. at places. the road passes Norderhovs Kirke (375 ft.W.). succeeded by stratagem in betraying 600 Swedish invaders into the hands of her countrymen. however. father of Harald Haarfager.). the Jonsknut near KoDgsberg (p.) Klevstuen (1245 ft. 90 ft. VIK.. farther on.22 Route 3. It then crosses a wooden viaduct. is the Dronningens Udsigt (Queen's View). on the right. to the N. Like the battle of the giants against Odin and Thor in the Edda this legend is symbolical of the impotent wrath of the powers of nature against the advance of human culture. offers simple Then a beautiful descent to the fjord. 4 M.

. in the Frem-Gade.000 logs were floated down the Drammens-Elv. 11/2-2. with two horses for 2 persons 60 0. with vapour baths. opposite the church at 8tr0ms0. Plan. at the stone Sea-going vessels are berthed quays of Brageniees. bank (rebuilt after its almost total destruction by fire in 1866). and the (46 Kil. rant^ cold dishes only) is close by the bridge. 1 kr. long. by a drive from Drammen (there and back 2 hrs.to the Randsfjord. entrance in a side-street.). and wood-pulp from the factories on the Drammens-Elv and the B?egna. The road from K^ken to Drammen descends at once to the fjord. per drive. The Station {"Restau53 Kil. .). beauty. From Lier the train runs towards the S.) Heggedal. and Tangen to the S. Hotels. — . p. — Omnibus from Bragernses-Torvet to Tangen. V2. . with 'fast' skyds of the valley. side (which suffered severely from fires in 1870 and 1880).) Reken [435 ft. L. 24) and for Laurvik and Skieti (p. DRAMMEN. to the HoUfjovd (p. leads to the N. etc. Beyond a tunnel. Bkitannia.'S. a most picturesque and imposthe town of Drammen. and pass the small lakes Bondivand (3'25 ft. Drammen. Steamboats to Christiaiiia 4 times a week. 240 yds. on the K. 1. opposite the station. 34). and the island of Mellerholm or Holmen. At the S.E.. a granite peak rising to the S.).. Drammen (comp.) and Gjellumvand (315 ft.. B. through a fertile tract. next ascends the Burdevaas and leads high above the Holsfjord to The prettiest part of this route may be seen (13 Kil.) station of that name.W. to the Tangen and Stremse quarters. is very picturesque. Asker (340 ft. 2'. Enger (well The road. Beyond (34 Kil. now called 'Svangslrands-Veien famed for its spoken of). . the E. past the Paradisbakker and the Engerfjeld. on the S. which amounts tc nearly one-third of that of the entire country.000 Drammens-Elv. to Tangen. descending gradually to the valley of Lier . Drammen is the junction for Ilaugsund (change carriages "p. situated on both banks of the consists of Bragermcs on the N. 22).). 2. From Lier (skyds-station Ekeingen) a pleasant stations. with a new churcli. 20 0. Mr. The prosperity of the place depends mainly on its export of timber.. and ing *ViEW of the Drammens-Fjord the fertile valley of Lier is suddenly disclosed to the left. British Vice-Consul. In 1897 no fewer than 4. 14 Kil. • inhab. 3. end of the latter is (29 Kil. The situation of Drammen on the estuary of the river. Cab with one horse. In Stvemse: *Central Hotel.] 23 Kil. with 20.) Bragere. Numerous cuttings.) the train turns abruptly to the W. We skirt the foot of the VardekoUe (1150 ft. R. between lofty hills. end of Drammen (Bragernces) crosses the Drammens-ELv. Stremse on the S. with its timber-yards. for 1 person 40 0.. beyond which we pass the base of the precipitous Breimaas. side route. near the station. D. while the railway passes through another tunnel and describes a long curve towards the N. Eiver Baths (Strembad) at Bragemses. The commercial fleet of Drammen is one of the largest in Norway (over 200 sailing-vessels and steamers). Anders Sveaas.750. 21). bank of the river. to . 22). leading to the E. Baths: Drammens Badeanstalt.) Humledal (p. and (51 Kil. It also exports zinc and nickel from Skouger and Ringerike. Route.

) Klopkjcern (76b ft. Toppen marked on the plan. IIAUGSIIND. 70 Kil. most striking at sunset. A suspension-bridge leads to the opposite bank. which supplies the town with good water. Anotlier fine point of view is the Storstenfjeld (1750 ft. From Chri. (carriages usually changed at Drambest views to the right) ascends the broad valley of the Kil. Haugsund (^Rail. affording an extensive survey of Tangen. also ascended from Lier (p. to the N. on the left bank of the river. (The 'Kirketjener' lives in the one-storied white wooden house opposite the sacristy. A path ascends to the right in 5 min. on which stand the Nykirke and a large saw-mill. . . connecting StrCfmse and Bragernaes. 23). Aamot. built in 1866-71. ofDrammen. the Kirke-G-ade. with benches. The last affords the best view up the valley. of Bragernses Church we reach (12-15 min. with a wood-pulp mill. promenade ('Oscarsstien') connects the Klopkjaern with several fine points of view on the slopes of the *Bragerx^saas. 86 Kil. 27). The finest points. and facing us the Raadhus and Byret with the inscription Ret og Sandhed ('justice and (court-house) Ascending straight on between the two small towers of truth'). Near Haugsund is the Hellefos. in which.<ti'niia Close to the railway-station a Thnher Bridge crosses the Dranimeiis-Elv. . a fall of the Drammens-Elv. and ^Breidahlik. 75 Kil. Burud. the valley of the Drammens-Elv. which here forms the Deoiksfos. change carriages). Restaurant). driven by the waterfall of the Simoa^ — . of the island of Holmen. and Bragernss. with its two flagstaffs. The views embrace the town and fjord. The veranda of the watchman's house is open to the public. .) 8 M. to the right are the Exchange (with the Post and Telegraph Offices. To the W. the valley up to Haugsund. and an Angel over the font by Borch. The Randsfjord train turns to the N. which may also be reached direct from Bragernaes in 35-40 min. is conspicuoas on the hill to the right. rises the Jonsknut (p. 26. .) the *Brandposten one of the finest points of view near Drammen. a sequestered lake in the midst of wood. Gulskog . entrance in the Stor-Gade).) Skotselven.24 Route 3. Views on both sides. The bridge leads to the Bragernces-Torv. Refreshments at the small house. and the fjord. Beautiful scenery.). a handsome Gothic brick edifice by Nordgren. to the left. Stremsa^. Beyond (80 Kil. The road ascends hence to the (Sb-iO min. The Brandposton (see below). A . 64Kil. Mjendalen. junction for Kongsberg (p. Furulund. we reach the conspicuous Bragbrx^s Church. and continues to ascend the Drammens-Elv. 56 salmon-fishery. are etc. the train crosses the Drammens-Elv. The Randsfjoru Railway men . with Drammens-Elv. Several fine waterfalls. to Prinds Oscars Udsigt overlooking the Lierdal and the fjord.) To the E. . It contains a Resurrection by Tidemand. by an easy but shadeless zigzag road ('Albumstien').

25 line. Near it is Ringerikes Nikkelvcerk. Sigdal. bank of the Tyrifjord^ of which we have beauviews to the right. 21. Nakkerud. mud-baths. medical advice.3. including baths. 92 Kil. and afterwards emerges from it under the name of Drammens-Elv. . The wooded hills opposite are the Krogskog (with the Krogklev. junction for Lake Krederen (p. with a garden. who have left Drammen by the first train. IV4. They should. Ch. The Bregna-Elv. R.lo (he Unwl< fjord. the and a cataract. . carr. or at the neighbouring posting -station Krona) lies (4 Kil. and by the two bridges within the town close to tlie falls. forms a waterfall . 22V225 kr. or 4Jpers. part of the town. . Olafsyryder. p. :i. large giants' cauldrons. with a chalybeate spring. 2. Vikersund. These rivers form the Stor-Eln^ which falls into the Tyrifjord. H«rnef0S. near the Gravfos. fall. skirt the W.) St. Thence to the Holsfjord. coming from the Randsfjord. close to the . -Glatved's Hotel. 105 Kil. 23.Station: to Sandviken via Sundvolden. from 6 kr. Olaf. consult the time-table and take a guide. A channel on the left bank of the N. lies at the confluence of the Bipgmt ox Aadals-Elv. lies Drammens-Elv from the Tyrifjord. About 5 Kil. to Heen (p. Pretty walk hence to the Hirsdal with the St. A bridge crosses the river to the church oi Heggen.^ comp. Jeknbaxe Hotel. inhaling-apparatus. (li!S(^eiHliiig froiu tlic Scenery at tliis point remarkably . . etc. 1 kr. and there catch the Spirillen steamboat. 43). respectively 18. p. .. with several saw-mills. have time to alight at Henefos. Hotels. Henefos [%io ft. at the efflux of the see p. A number of flour-mills and saw-mills are driven by the falls. D. walk in about IV2 hr. larger of the two rivers. with a large paper-mill. which conveys the timber to the mills is worth seeing. and the Rands-ELv. the Influx of the Snarums-Elv descending from Lake Kraderen and the Hallingdal. town which are together known as the *Henefos. 40 0. The train recrosses to the right bank. however. worked by a German company. are the Cobalt Mines of Modum. of Vikersund (carriages at the station. with views. IIONEFOS. 1 18 Kil. another cascade. tiful We 124 Kil. Ask. Travellers on their way to the Valders. Ill Kil. see the falls. cariole 10. Beautiful walks through wood. and pair for 2. 22) and the Gyrihaug (p. 26). pleasantlv situated on the river in the K. 22). close to the railway to Heen. upwards). Olafs-Bad. . Engl. This district is the scene of many traditions of St. which descends from Lake Spirillen. Service at Glatved's Hotel. B. A road on the left bank of the Aadals-Elv leads in 1 hr. The train now quits the Tyiifjord. Hnate. 11/2-2. stolkjserre 15. S. Though of no great height these falls present an imposing appearance especially in May and June during the melting of the snow. to the W. Gjethus. — — — a small town with 1500 inhab. near the station. and other appliances (pension. A fine view of the falls and the environs is afforded by the bridge crossing the fall above the town near the station. to the Hofsfos. Sky ds. Skjaerdalen. a favourite watering-place. with an English-speaking host.. To the W. little fartlier A on is 96 Kil. and the Haugsfes. to the Kaggefos and other falls of the Snarums-Elv.).

8. by the Bolkesj0 route.).\ there ill 11/3 From Haugsund to the Ejdkanfos. 50 0. train (finest views to the left) first stops at 5 Kil. on the right bank. The train approaches the Laageii.l 2nd Day: To the RJuka7ifos. to the S. 21-24. 14V2. 51. with an English speaking host. 2. Krekling where the slate formation predominates. for 2. Heen. farther on is ^Anderson's Hotel (D..). the train skirts the Hejaas (1490 ft. lV2kr.). would be somewhat as follows. Victoria. KONGSBERG. 35V4. Fr:m Hawmmd point of view. 142 Kil.) sandstone appears and the country becomes sterile. To Bolkesje or Eitterdal. — From Kongsberg to — — and back a half more). is a beautiful there and back takes 5 hrs. (cariole 5 kr. see p.) and the Askelihoug (1410 ft. for 4 pers. take 11-12 hrg. 31). see pp. and pair for 2 pers. with several factories. on the Rjukanfos^ 26 Kil. Thence to the top on^foot in Vi br. hr. 80 0. 3rd Day: Via Tinoset to Eitterdal-Jfotodden. S. both on 28 Kil. drive of 4-4 V2 hrs. 3. 11 Kil. near the station. Railway Tinoset. 15 Kil. part of the town. 5 M.. reckoned from Kongsberg. 1st Day: Via Bolkesj0 to Tinoset. 10 kr. Steamboat (good restaurant on board) in summer twice daily in 23/4 hrs. Farther on we obtain a fine view of the mountains towards the S. The 'excursion orH pers.W. Carriage in 9-10 hrs. The best route is tliat indicated at p.) Skollenborg (540 ft. a (fare 2 kr. Close to the wharf of the Lake Spirillen Steamer (p. Carriages. 1 kr. 38). side. The train ascends the course of the Baegna and crosses it. Hotels. The route via Lavheim-Heggestel — From Christiania to Haugsund..-. 34 kr. — To Kongshevg. To Tinoset via Bolkesj0: cariole for 1 pers. To the left rises the Skrimsfjeld (p. . 36). carr. 50 0. far from the station (omnibus gratuitous) in the W. 13 kr.). The Labrofos (p. (cariole 4 kr.. lo the E. 4. Randsfjord Station (^Berger's Hotel). tion OF Time. either via ^o^^es/ef (66 Kil. — . 27) is 3/4 M. Britannia. on the great Telemarken route (p. Those who choose the route via L0vheim find the best accommodation for the third night at Skovheim (p. From Fagerstrand to Fosso. At (22 Kil. traversing a sequestered wooded district.)- From the station the Henefos is seen from above. near the beautiful — The Kongsberg Ekersje or Fiskumvand (60 ft. 2. 20 0. Turning to the E. carr. 29. with several wood-pulp mills. 27). . Darbo. [Those who reach Kongsberg by railway about midday may drive or walk to Bolkesje in the evening and spend 1he second night at the Ejukanfos. . for 2 pers. & L. 4th Day. From (CJmstiania) Haugsund to the Har danger Fjord via Kongsberg and the Rjukanfog. 1 kr. larger carr.. . *Grand Hotel. 45. All three often crowded in summer. and back to Payer i-t}'and. E. . I91/2. Vestfossen.. B... which forms a waterfall. 14 kr. of H^nefos. 48} is Bagnas Restaurant. The RingkoUe (2265ft. 31 via Ulefos.). 31) is less advisable. the left bank.).. D. 131 Kil.2B Route 4. stolkjeerre 6 kr.) bounded by lofty mountains on the E. To Ulefos and on to Dalen (p. and ends at the'^Gjermundsceter (tourists'' hut belonging to Glatved's Hotel). 62 kr. (fares 1 kr. and 200 yds. 40.. there and back 251/2 kr. 60 0. but not to advantage. or 12 kr. for 3 pers. The Distribu(p. The road leads via GJermundbro. Walkers From Tinoset io Fagerstrand. 28 Kil. Kongsberg.) ovvil Hitter dal (69 Kil. 51 kr. 10. carriage and pair for 2 pers. 30 Kil. for 3 pers. From the Rjukanfos to the Hardanger Fjord.

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/ ^^T f.r '^-^v^^ -->^ n L I „.^&t -:? .-/^ ""^ -^ '!/t:^ I b NORDL TELEMARKEN .

S1'>KKU. on the Laagen or Laugen^ in the S.\G. the Fredi-iks-Stollen and the Christians-Siollen.). an uninviting but not unpicturesque town. Hut. the shorter and more picturesque. 140 ft. yielding 51/2-7 tons were discovered in 130 mines opened worked. to the S. KU. turn to the left into the Jondal. It is ascended from Kongsberg in 4 hrs. a fine waterfall. a. and the highroad via Hitterdal. the Kongens -Griibe. entering them from the hillside. annually. visitors are conducted from the workmen's settlement of Saugrenden through the C'hristians-Stullen (guide 2 kr. The Jonsknut (29. we reach the culminating point of the route (1825 ft. Besides the shafts descending to these mines there are two level adits. 9G 0."). (there and back 6 hrs. the Mynt (mint) and a government Vaahenfahrik (weapon -factory). We — — From Kongsbbrg to Tinosbt there are two roads.RLv Farther on we cross to the left bank. The Udsigt (1/4 hr. (p. with rfmts. Most of the houses •who are almost all dependent on the mines. to the W. 1. another point of view. in height. or a walk of 5-6 hrs. the property of government. The rapid Laagen is crossed by two bridges. via Bolkesjer (now under repair). of the town. Of since the discovery of the ore seven only are now only are of any importance. About 10 M.). contains 5450 inhab. now. may follow the mining road via Saugrenden to 'Kongens Dam\ s/i hr. but rougher. 28). 12. viz. below the other. on the Laurvik road. but the large Church of the 18th cent. — . Those who keep the carriage in Tinoset for more than 24 hrs.50 ft. 42). which rises about 2'/2 M. and Ilans-Sac^tsen (greatest depth about 1400 ft. by the LiSoeter.). Adjacent is a woodAnother fall of the same river is the JIviting/os. occurring generally in layers of calcareous spar. A montiment to Christian IV. In the town are situated the Smeltehytte. and ascend through the pines on the right bank of the Jonduls. (only half its former population). lioidc. of the mines.) Bolkesj0 (p. was erected near the church in 1883..) commands a good view of the town and to the S. Gottes-Bil/e. distant. below the town the Laagen forms the Labrofos. the latter being 300 ft. A path indicated by red and white marks leads from the Jonsknut. and four . J2 kr. which deserves a visit. pay 4 kr.). are timber-built. and the Selsli-J^ceter. They 1623 and have been worked with varying success.to the Ilirdu7i(jtr I'joril. 27 cariole 6 kr. Via Bolkesj0. and was founded in 1624 in the reign of Christian IV. About 3 M. of Kongsberg rises the Skriinxfjeld (2946 ft. to the W. carrias^e aucl pair fur 2 pers. the last near the Hammerfos. tained at the offices in the market-place but the visit hardly repays the fatigue.). Lelow the summit. 12 BI. or smelting-works. to (7 hrs. are about 4 M. We follow the road ascending the Numedal on the right bank of the Laagen for 5 Kil. farther pulp mill. where specimens of the ore may be purchased. The SiLvKE Mines of Koxgsbekg. over the valley of the Laagen. . V4 hr. and the Raadhus are of stone. Armen-Grube. the 'ifor-Sa'ter. The veins of native silver are mingled with sulphuret of silver and copper-pyrites. extra for each horse per day. Kongsberg (490 ft. The German names of the mines and various German technical expressions still in use recall a time when they were Permission to see the mines is obmainly worked by German miners. part of the Numedal (p. 42).). commands an extensive view of Telemarken. The town owes its origin to the Silver Mines in the vicinity. . After a drive of about 4 hrs.

the most conspicuous being the Lifjeld (p. best surveyed from the adjoining mill. on which a drive of 35 min. in all 11/2 tr. at Kirkevolden. IV2-2. being formed by the Bolkesje and the larger FolsjiBf (see below). and walk thence to (37-2 hrs. 28 Kil. now almost level. Victoria.) and commands a view of the Folsje. well spoken of. 31). : . the foreground. About 5 min. The horses are rested here 2 hrs. p. 1 kr. fromNotodden. The road descends to the Tin-Elv.. bank of the Hitterdals-Vand (p. 1 kr. in the reverse direction at least b^/2 hrs. 3/4 M. 2. Fine retrospect. D. To the right rises the Jonskniit (p. after . which are still preserved. Hotel and Sanatorium. tolerable inn). bridge the river forms the beautiful *Tinfos. and crosses it by a new bridge About 5 min. lirrTKKDAL. end of the Hitterdals-Yand.] Beyond Bolkesj^ the road leads through wood. D. The road at first runs towards the S. appearing from this point like a blunted rone. About 6 Kil. the largest of the twenty-four mediaeval Norwegian 'Stavekirker'. The road.W.. to the N. 32) and the Gausta (p. near the pier of the Hitterdal steamers. 25 Kil. rises — *Hitterdals Kirke..) Tinoset. 29) and the Hcrksfjeld. 27). above the . brings us to Tinoset. the houses of Vik. fare from 80 0. 11/4 hr. passing Ly5i/m5. From Uaivjnind where Ave obtain a niagiiiflccnt view of the mountains of Telemarken. 60er. (pay for 36) Notodden (*H6tel Furuheim.-2. S. emerging from the forest it descends into the Hitterdal. .). Near Bolkesje the landscape becomes more smiling. turns to the W. for 1-4 pers.) in numerous undulations. where the horses are usually rested for The road continues to ascend for some distance and then 1/2 lir.'s drive from Bolkesj0. ascends the valley.2. or timber-built churches. B. R. high up on the N. Via HiTTERDAL. Our road unites with that coming from Skien and skirting the E. [Walkers may descend to the P'olsje. into the valley of the Kobberbergs-Elv. reaches Jerngruben (1350 ft. 1.looking church. near the church of Gransherred. 80 0. The road now crosses the Tin-Elv.) commanding views of the At the W.2s Routt i. bank of the Folsje (7-40 ft.) to the right. commanding a beautiful view in front the mountains of Telemarken. S. tlie Himinyen (3450 ft. p. B. a grotesque . end of the lake lie Bleifjeld (4490 ft.'s drive from Vik) we reach the highroad described below. 1 kr. The drive from Kongsberg to Notodden takes 4^ '9 hrs. The road gradually ascends the wooded Medheia and after 2-21/2 ^ir*. (from Kongsberg) Bolkesj^ (1285 ft. 37). to the left the Hitterdals-Vand. near the N. 1. The architecture and ornamentation of these singular churches date as far back as the 12th cent. On traverses the plateau (1470 ft. distant. on the right. . but 4 Kil. 31). R. b. row across it to Vik (boat ordered the night before. to 1 kr... A tablet calls attention to the view of the Gausta.. Hotel) lies above the small lake of the same name (1030 ft. later (l^^hr. Gran.

We ascend the course of the 0rv(Blla. 28) joins ours on the right. large and well fitted up). fromNotodden. Tinoset [*Hot. while the road to Levheim (p.. Round the whole of the outside of the building runs a low arcade (Lop). is the Haekstjeld fp. The interior was adapted to modern requirements in 1850 and has lost part of its primitive character by the insertion of windows. a group of liouses at the S. The road from Grandsherred and F. mingen (3450 ft. and cross it several times. The roof of the choir is lower and is surmounted by a round turret. The gaards of Bamle and Kaasa are passed. 23/^ hrs. The calls at Sanden (on the left) and Honin (on the right). representing entwined dragons. 31) diverges to the left. now overgrown with pines and firs. we reach Fagerstrand iFitgerstriind\-^ Hnfel. but its banks are lower. The broad and lofty nave is separated from the low aisles by means of wooden columns. The Tinsje resembles the Spirillen. The nave contains twelve columns and the choir four. The key ('Nerglen') is obtained at the parsonage. the horses are rested. To the left we long have a view of the Hito that of . the lower part is closed. the doors and door-frames and other suitable parts of the edifice are embellished with elaborate and fantastic carvings. 28). The road continues tolerably level. The capitals of the columns.). The dragon-head ornamentation of these gables resembles that of the prow of a ship. at the pier. 7-8 hrs. Two small screw-steamboats ply on — the lake. firmvs's Hotel.in the Hardanger Fjord. To the right rises the Kjeiv'mgfjdd (2265 ft. so far as the difference of material allo\vs. end of the Tinsj«r (615 ft. probably added as a shelter for the congregation in bad weather before or after the service. Tinoset. while the upper part is open and borne by small columns. in width. sometimcd ascended for the sake of the view (from Hitterdal over the Himiugen to L^vheim. intermixed with foliage and figures. To the rectangular body of the church is added a square choir terminating in a semicircle. from Tinoset. TLNOSET. p. with guide). about 21 Kil. but there is no doubt that it was built at least as early as the middle of the 13th century.. 4. 5 Kil. M. The finest point in the landscape is the Haakencrsfjeld. an isolated pyramidal mountain. The first documentary evidence of the existence of the church of Hitterdal dates from 1315. 13). Anglo-Norman churches of the same period (comp. opposite the entrance to the church. which the steamer skirts. and at several other stations. farther on. Over the gable end of the nave rises a square tower. a stream which has forced its way through huge masses of debris. also to the left. Beyond it. 29 the plan corresponding. long and l-l^'o M. Beyond*the Himiugen. After 5 Kil.).olkesje (p.). a lake about 22 Engl. which our road skirts towards the N. steamer — . more we reach 32 Kil. which also has a gabled roof and terminates in a slender spire. At the 'Plads' Bakken. Route.

walk in '/^ hr.) and walk (guide necessary) to (4-5 hrs. affording a view of the fall from below.) Jamsgaard i Vinje. though also more trying: from Berge -Midgaard to Brunelid (no habitations) in '2 lirs.) — .) Berge. (interesting view cf the Grungedal from the top) . and thence to (4 Kil. to (4 hrs) Holvik (poor inn). but guide desirable) lead to (3-4 hrs. rises the huge Raulandsfjeld (5175 ft. bank: ride or drive thence in 2i. From the 3Iaan-Elv bridge to the Tuddal Sanatorium (p. From Fosso by the above-mentioned To Odde. when the river is swollen with melted snow. 8 hrs. at the mouth of the Maan-Elv. The road continues to ascend circuitously and in 1-1 V4 ^r. 26) ascends the beautiful Fesf/jordDal. In 1 hr. a little farther on. 31). and. to Mogen (poor quarters).. ca. end of the lake. one to Odde. The path ascends to the N. To THE V0RINGSFOS AND EiDFJORD. tip of the Mj0svand (1/3-^2 hr. Ilaakedal. abounding in fish. to Vaae (1730 ft. on the Haukeli road (ee p. To the W. p. . From Hnugsum^ both clean.'-j hrs. [Walkers will find the following route more interesting. From each landing-place rough and sometimes marshy paths (marked.). From Holvik we row either direct across the E. farther to the W. I1/2 kr. lastlv. iootpath. 50 0.) Eeggesterl.) from Berge in 1 hr. to Kosthveil on the S.). 50 0. to (14 Kil. where the soil is boggy and the . to (1/2 hr. the former is preferable. and crosses (9 Kil.). 3-4 davs From Fosso to Holvik (see above) in 4 hrs. : — — It next passes three mountain-lakes. 31) may be ascended in 3 hrs.) and the main fall (350 ft.). arm of the Mj0svand. Hence we row across the lake {yj^-^li hr.) Erlandsgaard. There is a bridge above the fall. a large wooden builderected in 1897). along this road towards the W. 22 Kil. — ' Ist Day.] Thence to Odde. Grand view of the Gausta. on the left bank of the Maan-Elv. — . a lake 22 M. by boat (each pers. with guide. another to Eidfjord. to the (1-1^/4 hr. Row (each pers. then (without crossing the bridge) up the left bank of the MaanElv. at first gently and then more abruptly. . part of the way marshy. into the ravine. ing. to Mjesstrand^ and in 3V2-4 hrs. long and 1-21/2 M. formed by the copious Maan-Elv makes an almost perpendicular descent of 415 ft.) (p.W. to the (6 Kil. broad. njUFvANFOS.. accommodation at the Midgaard. to the road mentioned at p. from Fagerstrand. the Kvernhusfos (65 ft.) Nyland (small inn). two days. thence a steep ascent on foot through llie Grungedalsbygd. 2nd Day (with guide to Eidfjord. on the Mjesvand (2945 ft. near the (hurch of Mcf I. 1 kr. 2-2V2 hrs. but both are fatiguing and should not be attempted before July.. 1 kr. A path descends into the valley. Guides are necessary on parts of both routes (bargain advisable). on the Totakvand (2230 ft. B. passes several small tarns on the left.-. the straggling village of Dale (no inn) the road ascends. 39). as we look back. Turist-Hotel og Sanatorium.. often through snOTr in the early summer.). whence the Gausta Beyond (3 Kil. 2nd Day.'^1.) the Ojuvaa ov Skvaetta. which commands a fine view of the magnificent *Rjukanfos ('reeking' or 'foaming fall'). . after leaving Vaae we reach (4 Kil.) Gjuvsje. Provisions should be brought. next an abrupt descent of Vz-V* br. To the right opens the The imposing Gausta soon becomes visible on the left. The scene is stupendous in the early summer. From the Rjukaxfos to the Habdanger Fjord : two routes. 4-5 days: 1st Day.) ihe gaard of Giheien on the S E. li/.30 Route 4. 3/4 M.). row thence in 3V2 hrs.) or towards lUe E. R. we reach (9 Kil. more to the N. which we reach near the bridge over the Grungedals-Elv. The waterfall.) the Rui Hotel (p. 32).) . The good road (carriages. 39. in two stages. T osso(Rjukan (guide).). 16 kr.

there and back of the Vindegg (4890 ft. to Landsvcerk (inn) and the skyds-station of Levheim C^Inn)^ situated amid pretty scenery. to Flatdal. and then descends the Saiier-Elv. A little farther on i.. 31 scenery desolate. We pass the Hjcvrsje i Hjcerdal ox Skogheim i Ejertdal (^Flatland's Hotels R. Beyond Aslakshorg or Aarnces the steamer enters the Nordsje (p. The following route is less advisable. — Vefvingsfos (p. Ikr. affording a view like that from the Galdh0pig (p. The 12 beds in the tourist-hut at the top are often all occupied. from Skovheim the Ueggestel road diverges to the . This vessel crosses the to . of Saulands fos to — Kirke. At the point where the Tinsjer road reaches the Hitterdal road (p. 30 0. refuge-hut Sandhoiig. (490 ft.. situated amid pirn(30 Kil. wjiich expands at first into the Braafjord. 110). crosses the watershed of theHjserdal. bank of the llatd.) Bcerrastelen in 5-6 hrs.. S. 70 0. and the Kovstulvand to the Tuddal Sanatorium the church of Tuddal board 8V4-3V2 kr. On the last-named is the a good guide. L0VHEIM.. to Skien in 41/2 hrs.) to the right.. Skovheim at the Landhandler's).. with the . Norway. Over the all) the stone hut of Jiessabu (very poor quarters). fare 2 kr. is iYie Hotel Lif J eld. 8O0. from Tinoset.) is the startiug-point for the ascent 5-6 hrs. It then skirts the E. from the road leading to the N.). 30). the highest mountain walks affording fine views. 8. 29). Ikr. The descent may be made to the Rjukanfos (p..W.).). R. ascending the Grundingsdal. From Ule. 22 Kil. large The Fjeldsje remains U> the left. wlio wisli avoid the above-mentioned mountain-route. 35) and soon reaches JJLefos (in all about 21/2 ^rs.) on the left. whence it leads via the BJaarrand. . and a little to the E. and descends in zigzags. commanding beautiful views. 36-38. Hitterdals-Vand(10M. belonging to Sylvfest H. to (23 Kil. a mountain-path leads S.) Aamotsdal. B. with guide. 19 Kil.) the Hotel Bjaar. Route. not to the left to Hitterdal. calls at Farodden or Farvolden at its S. Dalen^ see pp. long).. end. Travellers bound for the Hardanger Fjord (or Skien). . to (23 Kil. along the HjardalsElv.). to the From L^vheim to Siljord (p. halfwav.to the Hardanger Fjord. the Lakensje and the Nordmandslaagen (4155 ft. to the (9 Kil. 1-3 kr. watered by the Mjcclla. The Gausta (6180 ft. wild and bleak Hardanger Vidda to (25 Kil. whence a good path leads in 2 hrs. from Lavheim.) Fosli Hotels above the . p.W. should drive back to Hilterdal-Notodden (4-5 hrs. lo2). a considerable stream which falls into the Kormandslaagen and soon reach (after a laborious Avalk of 12-13 hrs. but up the valley. in S. In the neighbourhood are several woods on the Kovstulheia (ca. 3280 ft. Kvammen Lastly we cro?s the Bessa-Elv. the starting-point for the ascent of the Lifjeld (p. about 24 Kil.s Mosehe (quarters The scenery becomes wilder and grander. i. parsing Moen and the Senlandsvand. About 7 Kil. On the Slaakuvand.. — I. fare 3 kr.). 18 Kil. 32). once on Sun. FnoM L0VHEIM a road ascends the Grunningsdal. is ascended from the Sanatorium in 4-5 hrs. 8-10 hrs.Usvitnd. 28) and take the steamer there (twice daily on week-days. in 3rd Day. we follow the latter. with its little church and sprinkling of farms. 32). . which towxrs to the N. from Notodden.

where our road crosses the feeder of the lake and is joined by a road from Ulefos. of hills of considerable height. having arrived in their balloon from Paris in 15 hours. where quarters may also be obtained. passing two small lakes (1390 ft. 4 pers. From Skien to Dalen. 20 Kil. to 16 Kil. bank of the lake.W. Carr. at the N.). 90. passing several farms. end of the Vinjevand. 22Kil. The road leads to the right (N. 11/4. We then descend abruptly to the church of Vinje. Near (15 Kil. From Christiania to Skieti by railway. which may be used to complete the journey. — — and llaukeli Since the completion of the Telemarken Canal the route via Skien is. xiv).. Kobbervolden f/nnj. during the toui-ist season (comp. the most con- . 7 kr. among which is Jamsgaard. Heggest^rl (clean station). end of the lake lies the church oiSiljord. Adjoining the lake the Spandomsnut. by steamer.). B.. a station of the Bandaksvand steamer (p. Here a beautiful view is obtained of the Midtfjeid (4580 ft. splendidly situated on the watershed.) through the Morgedal. a drive of three days. From Ualen to Odde^ 174 Kil. 39. 60 0. 50 0. The road then runs up and down along the N. 37).) arm leads to (17 Kil. . 6 kr. 204 Kil. (fares 8 kr. To Odde 483 Kil. ordinary train in 7-11 hra. fares 11 kr. and pair for 2 pers. Skorvefjeld (4380 ft. It^then passes the church of HeidaUmo and skirts the Oftevand to 19 Kil..W...) Aamodt the road crosses the Toke-Elv. We pass. 8V2 M. Utbeen. prettily situated above the E. from Kobbervolden) Hvideseid-Kirkebe.) and of the Orm-Eggen to the S. will be the prelude to the end of the world. The road crosses the VinjeElv by a lofty bridge and joins the new road mentioned at p.) a picturesque lake.). Ofte. as on the other most frequented routes. to We cross a range (11 Kil.32 Route 4. ICO kr. twice daily in 8V2-II hrs. the falling of which into the water. and the Haukelifjeld. W. fares 9 kr. 10 0. 10. and the Lifjeld (5085 ft. 80. KOBBERVOLDEN. p.) rising in the 'background. to the N. are apt to be over-worked 5 the traveller should stipulate for fresh horses.). Hemmestveit i Brunkeberg [good station). near Oppebeen and. 12 Kil. 105 Kil. Mule. where a road diverges to Kosthveit on the Totakvand (p. (express from about the middle of June onwards. In the height of the season the horses. according to tradition. re. (tariff fixed by the Drivers' Union).). is . 30).-. near Mogen^ where a road diverges to the S. 4 kr. from Siljord. in 6V2 hrs. where the road forks. Farther on we obtain a view of the Siljordsvand (385 ft. At the W. We pass Tveiten. — — — — 5. Brunkehergs-Kirke (1290 ft. end of the Vinjevand. 1 kr. 3 pers. D. on which two French aeronauts descended in 1870. 2 kr. the Telemarken Canal.5 to Ulefos 1 kr. which descends from the Totakvand and forms a fine fall called the Hyllandsfos^ 3/4 M. in length. 20.staurant on board. The left (S. From Christiania to the Har danger Fjord via Skien. of Aamodt. 37). 14 kil.) Laurdal on the Bandaksvand (p..

.

il pi w 0 SYDL.TELEMARKEN D .

4th Day. Restaurant . 8).' 36).. and slowly ascends (1 80) the Kobberviksdal. and runs back for 2 Kil. The folbiwing distribution of time is. under which the railway tunnel passes. Sandefjord (Grand Hotel. both near the station). D. of Tensberg. afternoon.T0NSBERG. 33 venient and comfortable approach from Chriatiania to the Hardanger Fjord. we see the chateau of Jarlsberg. To the right lies Gogstad — — — (see p. Steamer io Dalen possibly on by steamer to Aaheim. 7th Edit.) Horten^ on the Christiania 103 Kil.) Seljestad. passing through a short tunnel. 1^ ol^^. of which we get a tine view to the left. The Slolstaarn at the top affords a wide view and contains a collection of antiquities and whaling implements. dating from the time of Harald Haarfager. Railway via Laurvik to Skien tand 2nd Day. and chalybeate springs. D. Travellers in the reverse Skyds in the forenoon to Odde. 128 Kil. At (121 Kil. — : 73 Kil. 5. R. S.). Through-carThe railway (^'Jarlsbergbane') from Drammen to Laurvik riages. (by the express-steamer 'Inland' it is possible to reach Dalen late in the 3rd Day. 6th Day.) Drammen. good cuisine. past the suburb of Tanyen. S. 139 Kil.. 2. IV4 kr. I'/okr.) is reached at (63 Kil. 38) . Sandebugt. 135 Kil.. iOO Kil. Societeten. and sulphurous. The train now skirts the picturesque fjord. 10 hrs The Dyveskavd is sometimes not passable liefore July (see p. — — — — — — ) From Christiania to (o3 Kil. Grand Hotel. 2. 40) (p. Most of the sailors live on the Xetere and the Tjeme. Route. 2. D. the highest 69 Kil. 13).W. branch-line hence to Borre and (7 Kil. 109 Kil.Tenshergi Victoria Hotel. Stokke. p. witli 5050 inhab. 96 Kil. p. near the Borrevand . the oldest town in Norway. 1st Day. Heidemark's Hotel). we reach the Castle Hill above the town. the nights being spent at Dalen and Haukeli Sate)'. Ravnejuv (p. (fine retrospect). 1V2-2.. saline. Skoppum. Augedal. Raastad. prettily The sea swarms with situated on the fjord of the same name.) Skouger. 32). with the church of that name. direction. a favourite watering-place with 4350 inhab. 2. — Baedkker's Norway and Sweden. Skyds to Seljestad (p. Sande. 96). a sea-bathing place with 2450 inhab. 38. '— 5th Day. Hot. 2. by skyds to Berte (p. To the right Fjord (p. R. 86 Kil. The train passes T^nsberg on the left. which are said to bo bonetlcial to bathers. near the Galleberg.) ascending to the left. About fifty whalers and seal-hunting vessels (one-tliird steamers) annually start from this port. lies at the foot of a steep porphyry cliflf. see R. however. leaving Odde in the afternoon for (4 hrs. By following the Anders-Madsens-Gade between the Grand Hotel and the church ('Vagtmester ved Slotstaarnet' in a house on the left) and then [}^ 4 hr.. The distance can snmetimes be covered in three days. 3. point of which (250 ft. Skyds to Haukeli. and Skien turns to the S. to 115 KU. S. 39) or Haggestel (p.. may reach on and Dalen on the third the second. 41). Voxli (12 hrs. Excursion in the forenonn to the evening of the first day).. B.. R. Barkaker. 3 . Nykirke. to the S. luedusse (^'maneter'). famous as seafarers. Hotel Kong Karl.. Holmestrand (Rail. 1.) Sem or Semb the train crosses the OuUe-FAv. preferable. day. ascended by a zigzag patli (view of tlie fjord). at the station.

with electric Uglit. etc.. with cafe. on the small lake of that name (135 ft. per week for the second fortnight. Kong Bath House (Dr. V^ M. with 12.). a fine beech-plantation above the highest houses on the N. 1/2 hr. these three near the Karl. Aaklungen. From Eidanger to Brevik. The station lies on the quay. 300. — — Laurvik. which the railway skirts. and the pier. Lille Torvet. Joberg. to the suburb of Thorstrand. deep. J.) Vindalsbugt may be visited hy hoat.). C. Birkedalen (235 ft. (fares 40. stat. is beautifully situated on the Laurviksfjord. on the Eidanger Fjord. R. per week. per month. Eidanger. to From Brevik steamers ply to the S. is the old manor-house of Fritsehus. Hetn's Hotel. R. 20 kr. monthly. 26). Laurvik. . is the little town of Stathelle. or Larvik. bank. end of a rocky peninsula which separates the Eidanger Fjord from the Fi-iersfjord. 20-50 kr. of the harbour. an old manor . 188 Kil. 22 kr. formerly the capital of the county name. The train (best views to the right) crosses the Faris-Elv (which drives the Fritse Jernvark and several other factories). Fred. ascends to the Farisvand. and skirts its W. 158 Kil. Another walk may be taken from the station to the E. Tjose. 64 kr. and Thorstrand to the E. 182 Kil. Viking. railway. is charmingly situated at the S. by a bridge 183 yds. in a wooded and monotonous district. Near the entrance are a cafe and a music pavilion. Stiansen). and Sea Baths. 149 Kil. to Laurviks Kirke (fine view of the fjord). Thora Hansen's Hotel. or visitors' tax. Laurvig. of that — — — first part of the line traverses fine woods. 6 Kil. Pleasant walk on the long quays.34 The is Route 5.E. The train crosses the Laagen or Laugen (p. approaching Laurvik by sea. From Christiania Jcettegryder near the Guard Aasen are interesting the largest 23 ft. The streets running inland ascend to the *B0geskov. Christiania and Christiansand. 192 Kil. Tjelling. 169 Kil. Heistad. 4 Kil. The — — — 195 Kil.. Dahm. weekly. 2-21/2 kr. on the fjord. where a band often plays in the afternoon. side of the town.. British Vice-Consul^ Mr. from the station. Brevik (Hot. with 2000 inhab. pension 18 kr. conspicuous in (in all 11/2-^ hrs.). passing through a series of short tunnels. The whole region between Tensberg and Laurvik is historic ground. from the rail. to the W. the W. Skjelsvik. per week for the first fortnight. At Hjertnces are several 'bautastenar'. 2 Kil Xystvand (Eidanger Hotel). with mineral and sulphur springs and uiud-haths. Similar 'giant's cauldrons' at the (^3^/2 M. bank of which is skirted by the 9 Kil. * Victoria. and . physician. Opposite. 9 Kil.. and the suburbs of Langestrand to the W. Holm's). near the mouth of the Laagen. for baths. railway-station and the pier:.. reaches — Grand Hotel.") to a point commanding a fine view of the Farisvand to the left.). afterwards 15 kr.E. with a view of the Laurviksfjord as far as Fredriksvsern.. pleasantly situated amid woods on the Eidanger Fjord.000 inhab. 144 Kil. TorsgrunA (Stiansen's Hotel. long. LAURVIK. and to Herregaardsbakken The large building to the S. Kurpenge''. passes through two tunnels. The scenery is a pleasant mingling of field and wood. Among the finest of the walks in the wood is that leading from the pavilion to the right (N. Then past several lakes. — Hotels. railway in 21 min.

with view of the wharf of the Telemarkeu of the 5 — We — . through a smiling district with numerous farms. house. the wharf of the Telemarkeu steamers to the Dam fas and the Klosterfos. A tunnel is traversed near 204 Kil. {j^r on. with two lofty spires. at the W. with a public library. Skien. a town of 40U0 inhah. end of the Telemarks-Gade. vice-consul. also steamers.vrken Steamer. simply fitted up. the chief lake of Telemarken. rail. but has been repeatedly burned down (last in 1886) and rebuilt in a more substantial style. The steamer next passes several small islands and soon enters theNord8J«r(50ft. stat. 1828). 'Patteeson's Hotel. bank of the Skiens-Elv. — — Langestind. in the Torv-Gade. broad Skiens-Elv. by the Ny Skotlandsvei and a flight of wooden steps. both to Ulefos and Dalen and to Ulefos and Hitterdal (p. Steamers. the ancient 5A. 2 kr. which here breaks through a rocky barrier in two falls and forms a roomy harbour. constructed in 1861 to meet the different levels of the Nordsje and tlie Skiens-Elv. are the Railway Station and the handsome Raadhus.. at the corner of the Telemarks-Gade and the Torv-Gade. founded in 1110. •. stat. Cafi-Restaurant in the Festivitets-Lokal . passes several factories. To Telemarken twice daily (once on Sun. 2 kr. 28Kil. In the Jernbane-Torv. 5. like those of Trollhattan.) 'Grand Hotel (landlord speaks English). Jernbane-Turv. of the town. which has given its name to the entire district (fine view by morning-light). The fourth lock is used when the water is exceptionally high. with its arcaded vestibule. near the rail. at the confectioner's). with 16 rooms D. baths. (2 kr. SKIEN.. (cabs in waiting). On a small island between On them formerly stood the nunnery of Gimse. R. the chief promoter of the canal. Bergh. ascends the AS^fc/cn^-E^y.. Mr. Skien is the birthplace of the dramatist Henrik Ibsen (b. and a cafe-reThe street named 'Broerne' (bridges) ascends from near staurant. station and the pier of the sea-going steamers Eoyal Hotkl. good warm Laths (3/4-I kr. It is reached from the rail. which descends from tlie Nordsje and enters a bay of the Friersfjord II/.i(Za. station in 20 min. dates from the 1-ith cent.. from the rail. 31). 5 tickets opposite. 2.) 8* . Route.. 2 kr. — Hotels. Sheen). Post Office.) the three *Locks of Leveid. The passage of the locks takes 20 minutes.). The broad Prindsens-Gade ascends hence to the new Churchy a Gothic brick building by J.2 M. to the S. 35 1/4 M. Skien trial — — the steep Bratsberyklev. A bust commemorates Amtmann Aall. at the harbour. out of the rock.). The town lies on the N. a commercial and industown with 9500inhab.E.to the Bardanger Fjord. The square in front of the church is adorned with a fountain and is adjoined by Skien s Festinitets-Lokal. lies on both banks of the Skiens-ELv.from the Sea-going steamers ply daily to Porsgrund.(17V2M. D.. bringing now ascend the left bank yearly P/o million logs to the sea. K. The Telbm. below the town. are the ruins of the Bratsberg Chapel.. the two waterfalls mentioned above. H. James Franklin). and reaches ('/-ilir. Brit. and Christiania. They are hewn. pier nearly 3/^ ^J. which starts above the Damfos. and weekly to Fredvikshald.

with its garden (right). opposite which is Lundefaret. 106 ft. It takes six locks to counteract the fall of the * Vrangfos (HO ft. Sondresens Hotel. The hills. R.') between the two lakes. as some of tlie 17 locks could not be hewn out of the rock but had to be formed with the aid of enormous dams of masonry. beyond which we reach the '^Eid^fos (32ft.) the uppermost Vrangfos lock. seen to the left). to overcome the It follows the difference of level (190 ft. long. The first station is Aaheim. The steamboat takes 23/4-3 hrs. to ascend from Ulefos to Hogga. 1-2. . situated on both banks of the Eidselv.. wide often forms a fine fall (right). is 36 ft. The Ulefos. To the left is the church of Holden. high. At the top is an arched wooden bridge. Its water affords the motive power of several mills and factories. through wood. On the left (N. P. to (25 min. atlbrding a fine view of the whole giganPassengers in the other direction should also take tic staircase of locks. 32) rises to the N. The steamer ascends this height by three locks.). The banks are thickly wooded. 31). D. One of the finest of the pretty private residences is the castellated villa of Hr. The steamer now ascends the wide river. constructed in 1889-92 at a cost of 3. at its lowest part. At an expansion of the river we see the Nukefjeld (1285 ft. with a stone table.). Mikaelshul. which has been much deepened through the construction of the dams. overcome by two locks. — Ulefos is the starting-point of the '•Bandak-Nordsje Canal. with here and there a farm-house surrounded by crops and pastures. Near the end of this walk. 1-2 kr. at the pier]. the overflow at which also is a gigantic dam The banks are here connected by a small bridge. is the St. downwards) to ascend from the lower Eidsfos lock to the uppermost Vrangfos lock. The traveller should therefore leave the steamer.l bank lies the church of Lunde. whirh descends from the great Telemarken lakes and here enters the Nordsj^. p. From Christiania in length and receiving the overflow of several other lakes. Nils Aall. ascended from Ulefos in 3-4 hrs. part of the lake (traversed by theHitterdal steamer. while the Lifjeld (p. Steamer to Hitterdal. Michael's cave. of red granite. see p. the lowest fall of the Eidselv. is a view-point. (^Aaheim's Hotel.l. a little farther on. The steamer takes nearly an hour (40 min. ULEFOS. high. 31.000. The work offered special difficulties.000 kr. after leaving Skien we reach banks are surrounded by low wooded — Ulefos i Holden (O.). channel of the Eidselv and is 17 Kil. and follow the good path on the right bank. near the entrance. this walk. Farther on we have a view to the right of the church-tower of Romnaes and of the N. In about 2 hrs. cross the bridge just above the Eidsfos. High up to the right. by the lock of Lunde or Groot. We gain 10 ft. the last lock (in the reverse direction 21/2 hrs. or St.36 Route 5. sometimes touched at by the steamer. to the S. to the right. At the top of this series of locks high and 70 ft. where Eoman Catholic services were formerly held.

of which lies the Vraavand (p. alTording trout-tishing. promontory of Spjosodden.'^Bakke's Hotel. lies Bandakslid also a steamboat station. Simonslad (p. It. At the upper end of the lake lies the wooded island of Bake. to the left. from Hvideseid the steamer touches at Triset^ by the church of Laurdal [. end of the Flaavand ('235 ft. bank of the lake. formed by the Nisser-Elv: 19. Homme i Treumjen. a picturesque lake. 34 Kil.). — . is the rock called St. the bare RohoUfjeld (3345 ft. surrounded by picturesque mountains and entered by a narrow strait crossed by a drawbridge. then past the Heigfos. situated on the N. At the W. About I'/. bank. at the pier). passing Brunkebergs Kirke. from Vrangfos. but the W. more by the lock of Kjeldal. Between the Flaa-Kirke.) Kobbervolden (p. 7 Kil. 32). 32). on the S. long. The The dam. is very striking. but not always called at. Farther on. to (17 Kil. On the S. The afternoon steamer (express) does not enter the Sundkile. at the W. ft. The first view of the lake. long (steamer).i hr.Kil. a little to the — . To the right opens the small lake of '-SundkUe (4 Kil.to the Hardanger Fjord. bank. KIRKEB0. Olafs Ship.). . Thence to Arendal. end of the lake. Nevgaarden i W. near the church of Hvideseid. to the left. from Strsengen) the steamer enters the narrow Fjaagesund and soon reaches the Hvidesj«r (185 ft. 13 see p. 38). 37 erje..). The scenery afterwards becomes a little monotonous. bank of the Nissevvand (705 ft. the pointed Rauhergnuten.). in the distance. 7). pleasantly situated at the upper end of the bay. 2G Kil. (145 Kil. and the station of Strangen^ on the S. end of the lake fl5 Kil. Aamli (good quarters). The mountains become higher and steeper to the right rises the Brokefjeld (3540 ft. long). Hogga is foundations of which it below the bottom of the river. on the N. The road ascends rapidly and then descends to (7 Kil. beyond the station of Apalste (right) and the high rocky island of Bandakse (left). long). A skyds-road runs hence to the N. and to the W. Our route turns to the S. amidst rich vegetation. The elk is still found in the forests on the banks. a fine sheet of water. bank. . and 10 3 Kil. 7. connecting the Hvidcsje with the *Bandaksvand (205 ft. the steamer enters the E. 27 Kil. distant. Vik i Nisserdal. at the pier). and stops at Smedodden. bank of the lake. about The steamer returns to the Sundkile.). end of the lake is enclosed by a fine group of mountains belonging to the S^etersdal. and skirts the E. Beyond Hvideseid the steamer passes through the artificial channel of Sknrpstremmen (6 Kil. Route. enclosed by imposing mountains.\ good road leads hence to Ofte i Heidahmo (11 Kil.) Hogga and raise the steamer 23 level of the lakes ahove for the ft. From Hvideseid to Arexdai. rounds the 3 Kil. Kil. opposite Laurdal.) Strand i Vvaadal (tolerable).). p. The next stages are: 17 Kil.). The others pass the bridge and call maintained by an immense was found necessary to dig down 25 : at Kirkeb^ (^Hotel Hvideseid. farther on. last locks are at (2 Kil. 5. 16 Kil. J0i i Aamli.

we reach the hamlet of Nasland. with garden. omn. Bandak. — station (to Mule in IV2-2 hrs. DALEN. (noisy at night on account of the arrival of the late Hotel Fulksvaxg. farther on dicates the way to *Ravnejuvet. It is advisable..) Reffelhrak (post-office) proceed to the left to the lake and (lOmin ) old timber church of Eidsborg The door of the latter is adcrned with carving (defaced). p. Tokedalen's. the road zigzags. on a rocky slope 1300-1600 ft. and afterwards descends rapidly and crosses the Toke-Elv. a little follow the E. to Viken in the Ssetersdal (p. from the quay. Dalen. steamer). side. crosses Toke-Elv by an iron bridge. horse 5 kr. as the first skyds-station is often Dalen. xxv). by English Church Service in July and August. end of the Vraavand (850 ft. The narrow r( ad. A tablet about 10 min. is overcrowded. 4 kr. and ascend by a poor bridlepath up the steep Eidshorgaas. and ascends the course of the river which falls into it. Further on we descend. interior has been entirely modernized. after leaving Triset the especially on the N. 5. 32). . To the left. The" path then becomes level for some time and again ascends abruptly. in 1879. at the W. The Road to the Haedanger Fjord. so that there is no need to bind oneself beforehand with any of the agents on board the steamer. steamer reaches its terminus *H6tel Dalen. inthe brook. bank of this lake to (S Kil. high. electric light.) Moland. (slow station). and walkers mav continue their journey to the N. Between Veum and Moland the Bispevei diverges to the W.. From Christiania From Bandakslid ('slow' station) the hill is crossed by a zigzag road Midtgaarden (fast station). — — a large house. ^^. Pass from Dalen to the Satersdal. hut we go straight on across on a tree to the left. There is a constant current of air here ascending from below. so that pieces of paper thrown from the rock do not fall but are carried back over our heads. . Riders A pavilion comniemorates the visit of King Oscar II. skirt the lake (which liesconsiderably belnw). p. completed the broad in 1892. however . free. There is an abundant supply of horses and carriages. at the mouth of the Bot- . from Dalen. E.) 5. The highest point (i hr. the (2300 ft. l'/2.). into which the Tokethe starting-point of the new road over the Haukelifjeld. a perpendicular rock.rf (25 kil. from 2. not to be too late in starting from Dalen. obtainable en route). from Eidsborg) affords a fine view of the dark-green mountains to the N. IV2 kr. we see the great sweep of the road described below. and soon enters the forest. About 200 yds.Safer. 1/2 M. V* — — of theBandaksvand. no accommodation or rfmts. R. ascends to the X. About 1 hr.. *H6tel steamer. The road then leads to the S. baths. IV2: S.)leave the church to the left. 5). It is also a skyds where the gaard of Sandok affords good quarters. 1080 ft. This stream forms the picturesque ''Lille Rjukanfos near the road and emerges from the Skredvand (1085 ft. attractive (there and back on foot 6-7 hrs. beyond the farm avoid road to the right and we the of (20 min. beginning about 1/4 M. Excursion TO Eavnejdvet. the pier. in long After about 1 hr. from the quay. see p.from the quay. B.38 Route to (5 Kil.) Rindebakken higher up. in length). end Elv falls here. 1/3 M. We The lake contracts ami the mountains become more imposing. or Ravnedjupet. from the pier. 1 kr. We . amid rocks and wood..) a small saw-mill. about 1 Kil. beyond which we pass Veum and reach (15 Kil. and commanding a splendid view of the Libygfjeld and the district of Xsesland. from Ravnejuvet. and a good view of the lake. In I-I1/4 hr. past the W. The path at first" leads through forest. S. on the i^i/7v'si"o?. turns inland and becomes more level. comp.. to (1/2 hr. . Farther on. D. 2. in the valley. A path diverges here to the left to the Molands. above the turbulent TokeElv .

Beyond the yellowish -brown Church of Grungedal we reach the farms of Edland or Eilandt and the new Hotel Haukelid (11 Kil. and is here joined on the right by a footpath from Brunelid on the Totakvand (p. from Heggestal). is pretty poor. more. and rises in jagged rocky walls. B0RTE. is very rough and uneven. joining the old road on nedal. slope of the valley of the Toke-Elv. Utbeen. and affording a good view of the Gurifjeld. We ascend gradually over the Berteheia^ through beau- — tiful fir-woods. Just this point the new road crosses the stream and sweeps upward. The next part of the route. though with numerous dips. It then turns sharply to the W. The E. along the W. still ascending. however. (Ravnejuvet. 32). The latter tnrns inland and crosses the ridge of Bertegrenden. while a road to The road is partly hewn Nsesland fp. Route.) a 'Landhandleri' above the Vinjevand and Heggestel (p. beyond .. The bridle-path from Rredvik in the Ssetersdal (see p. 5. The Flaatebunut on the Totakvand comes into sight to the N. which we now. xxi).). Farther on we cross the Kokke-Elv. sprinkled with trees. The old road. near the 24 Kil. slope of the Smerklepfjeld. on a small lake. The road crosses the river. It then describes a sharp curve. It crosses the jKu. — . which. slope of the valley of the Rokke-Elv. 39 the old road to Mo (see below) diverges to the left. with the well-managed *Hotel B«frte. The view becomes more open a short way beyond The road descends in windings and joins the Hitterdal the top.follow to the left. the right bank. Where it crosses the Rokke-Elv walkers may avoid a loTig bend by ascending steeply on the left bank.to the Hardanger Fjord. Skirting the lake for about 1 Kil. The road passes Berteosen and undulates along the W. bank is entirely nncultivated. see p. we reach the Grungedals Hotel. At an opening in the wood we have a peep of the church of Mo to the left. . bank of the lake. road at (8 Kil.).s-7?^u and as<'ends through the valley of the Smerklep-Elo and along the E. A party would do well to take one skyds for their baggage (p. Several farms are passed. and soon reaches the pretty Grungedalsvand (1590 ft. beyond which we enjoy a fine view of the upper end of the Bartevand. Rui Hotel (12 Kil. high above the brawling Toke-Elv. 6) joins the road here. skirting the green but shallow lake. 30). and remains in view during the rest of the journey through the somewhat monotonous valley. 38). The road crosses the Berte-Elv and reaches 25 Kil. After passing the parsonage of Mo we reach the lower end of the Bertevand. are not visible from this point. high up on in the living rock and traverses fine coniferous woods the N. ai\d walk to Botten. The road continues to ascend for at least 2 Kil. is very picturesque. however. The road. affording a grand view of the valley and the precipitous heights to the E. 38) diverges to the right. above which rises the abrupt Rnutefjeld (4725 ft.

The road passes several farms and the last sparse crops of barley and potatoes. situated amidst imposing scenery. Near kilometre-stone 190 we reach the Kroekledyr Skar^ commanding a fine *View of the mountains to theW. long). 1 kr. at the E. where the road crosses the foaming Geislaus-ELv. is the *Voxli or Vaagsli Hotel (R. j. 1 V2-'2. consisting of several houses. more we reach the Vlevaauand (3095 ft. of which rises the KjcBlatind.: to the left Vasdalseggen (5765 ft. to the left.). Haukeli-Sseter (*Knud HaukeliscEter's Inn. To the left S. and to tlie left Sveien. R. 1-11/4. commanding a line view of the lake. .. bank of which our road skirts. and the Lille Nup. The peaks and even parts of the plateau remain covered with snow as late as August. and Sveien. farther on is a ruined bridge on the left. the Kallevasheia. and then the Arrebuvand and ilie Evenbuv and. B. Farther on we follow the left bank of the Flaathyl-ELv. 18 Kil. 1-2. the best point for surveying which is the projecting rock near its foot. To the right we have a fine view of the precipitous Store Nup and the Storefond.W. We are now in the heart of a fjeld solitude. of the Haukelisaeter (6 hrs. farther on. and forms the boundary between the districts of Bratsberg and Sendre Bergenhus to the right it forms several low but very broad cascades. to the S. passing a few farms. 1-1 V2» B. from Haukeli we cross the Vlevaa-Elv.).40 Route 5. which descends from the N. About V2 M. end of the Staavand (3085 ft. over which the old bridle-path led. a few old and dying pines alone relieving its monotony. the main one in the Norwegian style by H. to tlie left. to the right of whicli are the Rekkingsnut and the Midtdyr Ruite. Munthe. About 21/2 M. Botten or Botn (2590 ft. lies the Kjcelavand (2940 ft. we at last reach 27 Kil.). and 1/4 hr. Trees disappear. from Rui. afford wide views. S. 16 ( — . The good road leads to the N. the Flaathyl-Elv forms several Hel. then Kistenuten. in front rises the Stafsnut. Continuing to ascend. the N. to the N.). at kilometre-stone 170 (from Skien). of which the two of Flaathyl are the most important. or deep pools.). 2 M. we get a glimpse of the Storefond to the right. "We cross the stream twice. descending from the Nedre Langeidvand in a series of bold leaps. . The route now ascends a monotonous valley. skirting tlie Staavand. From Christiania Kil. After about 10 min. The largest Herl is the Ekelidhel (2290 ft.). Farther on are the small Hotel Nystel. to the S. we see the fine Vafos. The largest of the waterfalls (to the left. close to the road) is the Lille Rjukanfos ('little smoking fall'). on the pretty Voxlivund (2500 ft.). Below us. The Kistenut. from Botteii). D. HAUKELI. good station shooting and Ashing). This region is almost uninhabited. After 1 M. of the Staavand (there and back 3-4 hrs. 11/2 kr. .). After having forced its way through a rocky barrier in a series of falls and rapids. which the road skirts. to the left. .). or S. and commanding an unimpeded view of the fjeld.

Sveien and the narrow green 0istem\mnd. in front of us. later the three houses of Svandalsflaaene and several small lakes appear below us to the left. 70 0. 2. S. however. the 0stmanlid Sater we have a tine glimpse of the R^ldalsvand. 5. are interesting. — Hotel (p. (pay for 35 Kil. Route. to the W. 11 Kil.). From Kongsberg to the Hardanger F j or d through the Numedal. tolerable). To the right. 6 . about 91/2 ^^. from which driving is also practicable to Floten. sometimes descending slightly. On the lake. Such masses of snow often lie here. In 10 min. After 20 min.. high above the stream. end of the Reldalsvand.to the Hardanger Fjord. ii/4. is the church. is the Horrehei. In 10 min. and in many years carriages cannot pass before July. 4-5 Days. the top of which we reach in V2 hr. Farther on we cross the Tufte-Elv and skirt the lake. D. 95) and to Hardanger diverge from each other. A Carriage Road with fast stations leads through the Xumedal to Brester-iid in the Opdal (123 Kil. more we reach the hill of Stavev. lies tlie Tarjebudal. farther on. in which have been incorporated the remains of an old 'Stavekirke'. R0LDAL. more begin to descend. with the sajters of Tarjebudal and Nya Stel. begin to ascend the pass of Dyreskard (3715 ft. later. B. a wilderness of snow and To the right is Stafsnuten. ^vatershed).). turn to the 8. Of the great routes (cnmp.) from Ilaukelis^ter we cross the Midtdyr-Eiv. The Reldalsvand again (5 min. we follow the latter and ascend to (3 Kil. in 1879.. below. as they have retained many of their primitive characteristics and traditions. 1 kr. and on the road is the Nye Midtlfeger-Sceter. Near (^10 min. D. IV2-2. near the N. in summer). The river with its numerous rapids is constantly in sight. Noracross the Fjeld to the W. To the left is a 'Varde'. backed by the Holmenut and Reldalmaten (4125 ft. 32. About 10 min. part of the Stafsnut. we cross the no'i's. we cross by the Risbubro to the right bank of the Risbu-Aa. At the fork where the roads to the Bratlandsdal (p. 43 48) leading from E. plain. R. more brings us to 30 Kil. and in 5 min. through below the road. Bevond this the traveller must ride or walk. (51/2 M.) comes into sight. Grytings Hotel iS^ Skyds Station.. The scenery improves. Serv. coast this is the least attractive and is seldom used except by Norwegians.. Ch. and then descend rapidly in huge zigzags. near which the road passes 10 min. A drive of 12 min.) the Breifond ) — . Fredheims Hotel. erected by King Oscar II. 95). Engl. 41 After a drive of I-I1/4 hr. in the reverse direction) Bridal {*H6tel Reldal. and at the foot of the Dyrnut. On the road is a small inn (D. In front of ns is the broad Novle-Fos. a short distance from the road. way . the E. To the left. The road now to the left stones. 2 kr..y Vasdals-Elv and follow its right bank. leads to the W. more. even in midsummer. that a tunnel has to be made for the road.from Haukelisater. pp. The inhabitants. li/^kr. lies the MidtIceger-Sater .

Sendre Flesberg^ near the church of Flesberg. Skj«rnne (920 ft. and reaches — 27 Kil. to 21 Kil. in the tourists' hut on the Laagelidbjerg. The road. along the bank of which it runs. Alfstad [Inn. with several old buildings. Quarters may also be had at Nerstebe.. The scenery becomes very picturesque. At the Vaglikirke we cross the stream. 26.). Next We . a little higher up. To the left rises the Eidsfjeld (4940 ft). and the Store Nordmandsslcebet. The Opdals-Elv forms several waterfalls. to the W. 10 M. fair accommodation). J[as?)C'rg'' From Br0sterud — For the route across the mountain to the Hardanger (100 Kil. into the Opdal. 27) to the left. which here forms a small fall.). 11 Kil. BR0STERUD. long). . Beyond Skjenne the road crosses the Laagen and turns to the W. three days) a guide should be engaged lower down the valley. On the second day we skirt the river. Svenesund. well spoken of). 2740 ft. (p.) (quarters and horses at Gunnar Aasberg's and Halvor Kj0naas's) Farther on we cross the fjeld to the Skuvdal in Bagalid (2750 ft. from Alfstad. and then another height by a road to the (17 Kil. passes the farm of Sevli. The gaard Fikkan or Fekjan. The road then skirts the 0vre Norefjord (12 Kil. near Xeraal (p. 16 Kil. to the Ytre Nore-Fjord or the Kravik-Fjord (868 ft. We cross the Laagen and pass the church of Svene. 47). spend the night in the tourists' hut at the meeting of the Bjereia and the Svinta. . — — — On the opposite (right) bank of the river are the old and the new Nore-Kirke. Helle (inn). The valley is pretty wide here. 1-11/2 day. follows the right hank of the Laagen.). Liverud. where the Laagen is pass the night. On the left bank is the Brobakken Hotel. first follows the saeter-path. The road ascends rapidly the Fennebufjord (1525 ft. at the W.. and then traverses the lofty Hardanger Vidda (4000 ft. 14 Kil.. and The route from the Nerstebe at a supply of provisions obtained. the Gjetsje. near the Stavekirke of Opdal. to Nevaal in the Hallingdal a mountain-path leads in It ascends past the Vass and Hefde seeters in 4hrs. on its left hank. and its owner has constructed a hut for sportsmen and anglers on the Sorkevand or Serkjevand.). end of the Fennebufjord. also affords good accommodation. quarters at the Guttormsgaard). commanding an extensive view in every direction.42 Route 6. or Laagriberg (3805 ft.)(10 Kil. passing several farms and the new church of Opdal. to (17 Kil. Br0sterud or Brostrud (2625 ft. AVe cross to the right bank by an iron bridge. Farther on the valley contracts. It leads past the Skarsvand to the Skars-ScBter. near the skyds-station of The road ascends and then descends again 17 Kil. 17 Kil. after a walk of 11-12 hrs. One of the old buildings oi Gaard Kravik is said to date from the 12th century. crossed by boat. and after a walk of 10 hrs. see p. leaving that to the Bolkesje Kongsberg. 6-7 Kil. We continue to ascend. good quarters).) Ustadal (quarters at Jeilo and Tvfto)\ lastly past several farms to Hammersbeen and Hoi.

It then ascends to the Augunshaug (4012 ft. to the N. through fir-woods to the good tourists' hut at the Sandum-Scctcr. but nothing is gained by ascending it. 43 to the Nybu-Scetre ( (^QOO h. on the Beyond this we lower down forms the Veringsfos (p. We pass Storiien. the first 7.). extensive -View). especially beyond Nces where the broad-backed Norefjeld (4980 ft. on the Noresund.. and the third at Lcevdalseiven. which affords a fine view of Lake Kr0deren.E. to which a fee of 5-6 kr. and the scenery becomes wilder. the steamer reaches Gulsvik (510 ft. the usual fare is lOO kr.) from Kr0deren to Oulsvik. Road from Gulsvik to Lcei'dalseren 184 Kil. 110). to reach Lrerdals0ren in 2 days. through the vallev of the Gulsvik-EIv to (7 hrs. the traveller may divide his journey as best suits his Steamer (Restaurant on board.E. Snarum and — A branch- prettily situated at the S. Our route next runs to the N. The road crosses here and continues its course on the W.. 122 Kil. 1 kr. is added (comp. (2nd) From Gulsvik to Rolfshus. 351 Kil. from Olberg and 17 Kil. From 26 Christiania to Vikersund. A skyds-road skirts the N.). daily in 2V2-3 hrs. xxii).).. 46 Kil. end of Lake Krederen (445 ft. For a carriage and pair ('kaleschvogn')..). across a lofty plateau (leaving the Ramsaas on the right). a day. and Garen.) Skadset. generally follow the course of the Bjereia. 110) in time to go on to Vik the same day.. rises 5-G Kil. a drive of 3 days. 3 kr. Farther on the lake again expands. bank. Fast skyds-tariff. . from the sta. (4th) Thence to Loerdalseren. 40 0.W.. From the Augunshaug we may descend direct to the E. It is even possible. Vestenfjeldske Norge). a 'fast' station.) rises boldly above the lake on the left. 75 0. spending the night at Rolfshus. by travelling 14-18 hrs. morning our route leads us Nybusje. 11 Kil. — kr. Maursat.. (fare 2 kr. 2 . to Tungen and Ringncvs. with a view of the mountains of Telemarken and of the Eggedal. Fru Eriksen's Hotel). As almost all the stations on this route are either good or tolerable. 7. also p. 55. The summit of the Norefjeld. bank. the second at BJebevg. to (4 Kil.) near of the Snarums-Elv. small tourist-hut). *Gulsvik's Hotel. Route. 96 Kil. side of the fjeld From Christiania through the Hallingdal to Lgerdalsfiren on the Sognefjord (Betyen).. (3rd) From'Rolfshus to Breistelen or Hag. 44). Or spend the first night at iVor*. The pier is 1/2 M.W. Beyond the church of Kredsherred or Olberg^ which lies on this road. (fares 6 kr. (pay for 25) from Gulsvik. which on the W. at the Nore. express in 43/4 brs. and ascend to the left by a steep bridle-track leading.). to Krederen. — . and marshes. In 21/2-31/2 lirs. the efflux tion. line [carriages changed) runs thence to Kil. 4 kr.. the lake contracts to the riverlike Noresund. (sometimes less when the demand is slack). and reach the Fosti Hotel (p. The journey is best divided as follows: (1st Day) From Christiania to Gulsvik. — convenience. From the Hfl-revarde we may descend to the N. brooks. Krederen (Restaurant. for two persons. opposite the station). 3. Gulsvik (p. (fares 6 kr. D. called the Hegevarde (4980 ft. Railway 15 0. ordinary train in 51/2 hrs. */?m. and cross snow.KR0DEREN. We follow the road to the N. see R. The interesting Ascent of the Norefjeld (10 hrs ) is best made from . 50. The lower part of the lake is surrounded by smiling hills.

and then leads for 3 hrs. p. 52. especially in the wild Eallingdans or Springd'cns. accompanied by a wierd kind of music CFanituUen ). is the * Hotel Vik. . on the S. to the left (comp. which forms the boundary between the Hallingdal and Valders districts.. upwards of IS Kil. on the largest of which.). 331). from Gulsvik. row across the Tisleivand (2800ft. and a number of shops. with numerous farms and fine pine-Avoods. a farm-house on the Stvandefjovd and cross the lake by a long bridge We . NiES.. 10-11 hrs. Their hounded on the passionate disp isition. descending from the N. and on the "W. lies same day (in about 5hrs. The path ascends very — land").\r station). and by Djupedal in 3-4 hrs. above Rolfshus the Hallingdals-Elv. a large lake well stocked with trout. to Stende. steeply for 3 4 Jxr. then descend in about 6 hrs. Farther on is Rolfshus (*Berg's Hotel).' 18). see p. We cross the Hemsil by the Heslabro.Ytss (see below). 49). but there is no danger when the river is moderately full. across the FJeldvidde ('table passing several sseters. and E. FitoM X^s TO Lake Spieillex. Naes or Nes (*N€E$ Hotel ^. quarters at one of the sseters). (Route to Frydenlund in the Valders.W. the valley turns to the W. Scenery pleasing. 8-10 kr. a name applied to tlie whole district N. A well defined sseter-path ascends to the E. p. p. to Ulnces-Kii'ke (p..).'to Lake Streen (good fishing .oM Viko to the Valders (10-12 hrs. Viko (700 ft. 52).44 Route 7. a favourite resort and pleasant stopping-place.. and is nearly level all the way. The skyds-station (good quarters) The lower part arriving at M. 46). ^ At the head of the lake lies — 11 Kil. with a church. About halfway between Nses and Viko we cross the river. . The road passes several lakelike expansions of the Hallingdals-Elv. From Christiania entrance to the Hallingdal. .) Lestegaard (1440 ft. li Kil. Fr. and passing halfway up within sight of the new church of Gol. Beyond (10 Kil. by the Hardanger region.Sktjds-Station . the Brummauand (575 ft. The many rapids make the trip rather sensational. is joined by the Hemsil.). mounting the Golsbakker in long windings. (guide unnecessary). bank of the — 17 Kil. [In the reverse direction we may descend the river from Nses to Gulsvik by boat (3 hrs. beyond which the road through the main valley leads to the left. The latter forms a fine waterfall. distant (comp.). ^'Svenkerud^s Hotel) a large village.] . comp. ^vhich formerly found vent in the terrible girdle duel {"BceUespxnder^. the district-jail. is 22 Kil. beautifully situated on the Hallingdals-Elv. and ascend its right bank in the Hemsedal. inhabitants of the side-valleys and of the upper portion of the The main valley (p. Aavestrud {{a. The road follows the Hallingdah-Ela. 45) retain many of their ancient characteristics. from the lake. by the Nuniedal.jNear 20 Kil.) to W. which descends from the Upper Hallingdal (W. long. more to Ildjavnstad (p. p. 49). is still manifested in various veays. and travellers Gulsvik in the afternoon lose nothing by driving the is about 3/4 of the valley is rather monotonous. Bgrrtnces (indifferent). Near the church of Flaa. by Valders. whence Noes in the Aadal at the head of Lake Spirillen. in 3-4 hrs.) we About 2 Kil. 14Kil. several local officials. mediocre quarters).

from Ekre. The road passes Kirkebe.). about 13-14 hrs. The scenery becomes uninteresting for a considerable distance. Then a continuous and latterly steep descent (new road in progress). the highest in Norway (3800 ft. on the Lykkja. from Fauske). The road.). (pay in the opposite direction for 30) Bjeberg (3320 ft. Near Fauske the Hemsil forms the Rjukande Fos ('smoking fall'). to the bridge of Berlaug on the Valders route (p. The road skirts the precipitous Kjelherg on the left and the Eldrevand on the right.W. 54). a poor village. 20 Kil. (pay for 15. Perhaps nowhere else do we receive so overwhelming an impression of the peculiar nature of the X'orwogian fjelds as here. To the N.). new"). About 5 Kil.) Fosheim-Sceter.). with its scattered houses Svenskenvand (2860 ft. to the Hardanger Fjord. 7. that of — *Station frequented by reindeer-stalkers). the opposite bank of the Hemsil rises the Veslehorn from which descend four small waterfalls. to Grindaheim (p. — — — • The Upper Hallingdal. farther on — isElcre (2600 ft. The road ascends rapidly and traverses the bleak Merkedal. across which toilsome paths (guides necessary) lead N. 56). at the union of the Grendela and the Hemsil. 45 again cross the Hemsil and follow the E. (pay for 22 in either direction! Breisteflen{. This stage takes fully 3 hrs. ascends past the base of the Skogshorn (see above) to the//eZsingvand. .). feret)^ the narrower sense.. the last station in the Hallingdal lies in a bleak solitude at the foot of the Hemsedalsfjeld. uniting into a single cascade during the melting of the snow. see pp.to Lctrdalseren. It then leads along the Smaad0la to the X. From Hicg to LardaUeren (39 Kil. in the opposite direction for lit)Haeg i Borgund (p. to the Sognefjord and S.).). Another route to Valders diverges from our road at Ulsaker. and leads to the GrunkenGaard. while the W. 7-8 hrs. farther on we reach J6 Kil. to which a path leads.) we pass a column marking the boundary between the 'Stift' of Christiania and that of Bergen. Fauske (good quarters). (10-12 hrs.Kirke . 56. 56. then descends rapidly to 15 Kil. bank of the Httndsendvand. side and the bottom of the valley are uncultivated. A little below the bridge is 12 Kil. where it crosses the Sinaadela. 57. passing several waterfalls.). A rough sseter-path ascends the ^Eeiei'\ passes the Vannenvand and the Storsje at the and leads through the district of Skocjshovn ft. Farther on (7 Kil. or main valley (Hoveddalascends to the W. with the On Hemsedals. the last in the district before Borgund (83 Kil. About 4 Kil. a scene of stupendous mountain-solitude. . between Ekre and Fauske. 53). . 44) to the wild and desolate regions of the Hardanger Vidda ('hunting-ground"). Kleven i Gol (cheap quarters). FAUSKE. falling into the Svenskenvand. and a few scattered sseters only are passed. from Viko (p.E. where in The Hallingdal .W. farther on reaches 20 Kil. and 7 Kil. rises the Jekulegge (6280 ft.). skirts the E. side of the valley. passing several farms. and on to the station of Fosheim (p.-' Hotel. huge (5660 base of the to the (5 hrs. Cultivation now ceases. and descends From Ekke to the Valders to from Ekre . end of the Helevand and the Vasends-Scetei'i passes the base of the Gvindefjeld (5600 ft. Eoute.

SUNDRE.e Presteholtsel. and two curious houses of the middle of last century. see p. the (6435 ft. peak bv following the course of the Eimeheia to th. from Jeilo}. 45. road follows the left bank of the Hallingdals-ELv to EUefsmoen and 15 Kil. bank of the latter. of which rises the Sang erfj eld (3865 ft. Route to thb Hardanger (45-50 Kil. from Sundre}. a favourite resort of anglers. crosses the tongue of land between the Legreidsvand and the 0rterenvand skirts the S. and crosses a steep hill to the (15 Kil. a hardy little rodent. (6440 this point: the E. though fogs and storms are of frequent occurrence. the Thingsiue (with The road then skirts paintings in the interior) and the Gretastue. With the exception of the higher mountains. from the bifurcation (18 Kil. The tower of the adjoining new church also contains several old carvings. that to the right to Neraal and the Sognefjord. The following route (6-7 hrs. 451 the Hallingdal Fifco.}.}. The lakes swarm with excellent fish. 1. to Hardanger 12-14 kr. better. About 2 Kil. peak The route from Tufte hak ScBter^ crosses the to Maursaet (two days} passes the Smet(^the Udadals-Elv by the 'Nybro' key of which must be brought by the guide}. OleLarsen Aker). View of the Hardanger Vidda (p. Skjerping. flrst mentioned in 1310 and partly demolished in 1880. whence a rough road ascends the Ustadal. and the eagle pursues his quarry unmolested. where the night is spent (guide. rustic quarters. and ascends the Scaanut to the Store Krcekjavand. cross it by boat to 0rterdalen^ walk . About 3 Kil. to Kraekjahytten?. Sundre i Aal (*Station). the highest gaard in the valley — — . a blow of its hoof and eat the stomach for the sake of the vegetable contents.}.}.). Near it are the handsome 11 Kil. passing the new Ustadal church. Near Nyhgaarden is the old timber-built Church of Torpe. where it divides. Beyond the Heslabro (p. the eye resting only here and there on an isolated 'Nute' rising above the general level of the monotonous plateau. to the S. At places the ground is thickly strewn for a long distance with the droppings of the lemming (^leman\ ''lemmus Noroegicus'). and the inhabitants retain more of their ancient characteristics than those of almost any other part of Norway.46 Route 7. ft.} HoLsfjord (1945 ft. about 9 hrs. — . the scenery is neither picturesque nor imposing. bank of this lake lies the tourist-hut of Kraekjahytten (4085 ft. The road to the left leads to the Ustedal and the Hardanger. from the W. Upper the mountains seem to lose the ordinary characteristics of mountains. however. From Tufte we follow the UstadalsElv to the Vstavand (3315 ft. guide to the Hallingskarv 3.} Jeilo (2675 ft. the Strandefjord (1480 ft. to (11 Kil. the wonderful migratory instinct of which is still The reindeer is said to kill the lemming with a puzzle to naturalists. snowy owls nest among the rocks.}. On the N. 45) not picturesque. With this district are associated some of the most famous of ^Norwegian sagas.} is shorter. church of Aal^ containing some relics of the older church. from Sundre} lies Hammersbeen. but very extensive. end of the Ustavand. farther on is Tufte (3028 ft. The porch and doors are finely carved.}. ascends the Ustaberg helletjern. (quarters}. ^ to the Berpasses the deserted Monsbuheia. such as that of the Villand family. The air is remarkably clear and fresh.) The huge Hallingskarv may be ascended from W.

whence the route to Maurscet (2445 ft. about 19 Kil. on which are several saeters. probably crossed the mountains here from the coast.: 3 days. Our starting-point is Neraal or Nedreaal^ 4 Kil. The path. Above Villand (5 Kil. at the W.. from Sundre. where the night is spent.) we skirt the Kriekjavand. . from the bifurcation above mentioned.) Grenestelscrter and the (^^/4 hr. 7. a guide should be engaged at Neraal or at the Gudbrandsgaard). and reach the (l'/4hr. 14 Kil. to which driving is practicable. Beyond a small lake we next descend the formidable pass of the iWvsbegatdtr. whence we may go on to Ose and Ulvik (p. from the Gudbrandsgaard.).Hallingdal. end of the Holsfjord and near the Hevelfjord. who lived here about the year 1700 (comp. Both routes have the Halllngskarv constantly in view.) to the hut.] Our path then ascends rapidly to the "Sfcarrf ('gap') between the L'levasnut on the E. mountain expedition. We then descend the Halnebottner to the Olafbuvand cross the Kjelda to the Fisketjern-Sceter. marked by heaps of stones ('varder'). [From this point a saeter-path ascends the valley of the Vesterdela to the W. to the Indste-Saier. end of the Hevelfjord lies Gaard Villand. 110} is unmistakable. ^ . and walk [^/o hr. who belonged to the ancient Gulathing (p. Vierbotten^ and a third sfeter with a herd of reindeer tended by Lapps from Reros.Sitter (2935 ft.. 111). A sseter-track leads hence to the Garlid-Scater (2935 ft. and leads to the tourists' hut at the uppermost SKters in the Steinbergdal.).) NERAAL. once the seat of the turbulent family of that name. Route.) Gaard 0sterbe (good quarters). long. 5-5' 2 hrs. passing Gjeteryggen.S. and leads past the Sunddalsfjord (2550 ft. which descends from first in Hardanger.) the road turns to the N. The actual mountain-pass to the Sogn district begins here. crosses the Bolhevde. . . partly by a long ladder. 127). The old timber-built Church of Hoi near Neraal. from Neraal good quarters).). where the direction is indicated by 'varder'. near an old pitfall for catching reindeer.) and a waterfall. passes ULevasbotten. and reach the Srmjtte-Sater the We next cross the Leira. and cross the river of Krcpkjastubben. 47 0rterenvand^ cross this lake also. At the AV. The imposing Hardanger Jekul is conspicuous the whole way.) and the Fodi Hotel (p. To AuRLAND ON THE 80GNKFJ0RD (ahout 85Kil. p. just as Valders was originally peopled from L:erdal. at the N. To the W. Next morning we pass (IY2 hr. to the (1 hr. but fatiguing.W. end of the Strandefjord. to the farm of Svingaardsbotten (rfmts. 2. and the Sundhellerfjeld on the W.. a splendid. towers the Hallingskarv (p.) the 0je. the N. On the second day (10 hrs. is attended on Sundays by the peasantry in their picturesque oldfashioned costumes. from Sviiigaardsbotten.) to the Gudbrandsgaard (2625 ft. 46). and descends the Moldaadal to the cattle-sheds of HaUingskeiet (a long day's walk). and along the 0vre Strundefjord (3120 ft. The original inhabitants of the Upper Hallingdal. 46). . and 19 Kil. b^/o hrs.

or 115 kr. Thence the path leads down the Sennerheimsgalder (protected by an iron railing) and along a rapid stream to the (2 hrs. 8. but it is better to allow four or five. 6. 60 0. the boat starts from Bergsund. beer. From Christiania and partly by a path of wicker-work borne by iron rods driven into the Gaard Nashe. the stream becomes .). but the steamer is small and the other arrangements are inadequate for a large number of travellers. 4 kr. Fast stations. 3. more. but recommends previous ordering by telephone to S0rum''8 Hotel. see R. 238 Kil. and either secure rooms. In the height of summer the traveller should always start betimes in order that he may reach his nightquarters as early as possible. see p. The banks are hilly and covered with pines. From Vasenden. 49) be begun at Granum. 8. to which passengers are conveyed by carRoad Through-tickets to 80rum are to be had at Christiania.. where we cross a torrent and ascend again to Gaard S^nnerheim or S-enjareim. To the farm of Semmen and (farther on) Skollerud. From Christiania through the Valders to Laerdals0ren on the Sognefjord.) is to be found at 0Je or Stene. with its lakearrival of the train From like expansions. or 4 pers ms. rock. Fares are usually reduced in the slack season. The steamer ascends the Bcegna or Aadals-Etc. (fares 6 kr. Via Lake Spirillen to Frydenlund. before the lake is reached. to Aurland on the Soguefjord. SEMMEN. p.). or. 40. end of the lake. The navigable channel left are the large is indicated by buoys and stakes. from S0rum to Fvydeiilund. a little farther on (comp. is charged for the detour to Lake Tyin (p. and so on Hotel.48 Route 8.) the Nasbedal. a. ordinary train in Ste. If the drive (on account of low water. or 10 kr. from Osterbef) finally reach (ii/4hr. The time between the and the departure of the steamer is usually ample for early dinner at Bcegnas Restaurant or at '^Andersons Coffee. if necessary.) Vasbygdvand. The Drivers" Union (Kjereselskahet) lets carriages from S0rum to Lffirdal for 85. (fares 3 kr.2lirs. Hence the more frequented routes are those by the Randsfjord and the Mjersen-Sje. 6 Kil. 20 0. 406 Kil. the boat for crossing which (40 min. This journey may be made either via Lake Spirillen^ or via the Randsfjord^ or via the Mjesen-Sje. at the W. in a magnificent situation resembling that of Stalheim(p. for 2. 1 Kil. Eailwat from Christiania to Heen^ 131 Kil. twice daily in 5. Higher up. 100.): when the river is low. 155). 1'25). go on to the next station. 5. 56 Kil. 4 kr. express in 4'. We then pass the Ilolmenscpter and (21/2 hrs. to the right the church of Ytre Aadalen. (fares 7 kr. to 8. may be obtained on board. — — Christiania to Heen.). 26). 6 hrs. 134. 85. is added to the above fares: and 6. 51 Kil. riage. See p.5^/2 hrs.. The Spirillen route is the most picturesque. By any of the three routes it is possible to reach Lserdalseren in three days. (to LEerdals0ren.\mboat from Heen to Serum. or 7 kr.

2. 18 Kil.. p.). descends the Muggedals-Elv. The course of the vessel is often obstructed by floating timber ('T«rmmer'). with their green pastures and scanty tilled fields. is the station of Granum (Granum's Hotel. The chief place on the W. 48).). the navigable channel left are is marked by stakes and buoys. bank is Viker or Aadalen. from Heen). in the £fvre Iledal. 51/4 hrs. To the left rises the huge rocky Morkolle. 1 kr.to Livrdalseren. — *Lake Spirillen (490 — Heen. which has recently been S^rum {Serums improved. According to tradition the whole population of this valley died of the plagiie in 1349-50. in proof of which a bear's skin is still shown. to the W. The Ro-Yi) up the valley from Serum. Hotel. farther on. We now reach Dokken i Sendre Aurdal. surpassing theRandsfjord. one of the largest in Valders (praised by Norwegians as summer-quarters). R. I3/4. S. Garthus (fair quarters). LAKE SPJRILLEN. 15 Kil. dating from about 1200. where the steamer has to stop if the water is low (skyds to S^rum. To the left rises the Tron- Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. with an interesting timber-built church (comp. of which rises the Gyranfisen (3540 ft. where the steamer starts when the water is low (see p. The Baegna is at first pretty broad. from ft. To the left farther on. he found a bear installed by the altar. the mountains showing great diversity of form. on the right the precipitous Val~ dershorn. lies the gaard of Hougsrud.). about 4 hrs. from Heen. Similar traditions exist elsewhere in Norway and Denmark. and soon enters probably from spira. to the left. which intersects an old moraine. left). 28). 1. a beautiful sheet of water. 4 . from Granum. Tth Edit. is somewhat monotonous. R. About 2hrs. To the right. 8 Kil.W. where the road to the 0vre Hedal diverges to the left (see above). of which we obtain an imposing retrospect farther on.. On the E. fair. Farther on. From the left. lies (22 Kil. at the head of the lake. Passing the Romberg (1680 ft. To the left is the Hegfjeld (3240 ft. 1 kr. The Bsegna enters the lake here. long. with its wild mountain-background. beneath which the steamer passes. is the terminus of the steamboat. after leaving Heen the steamer reaches the rapid KoTii/drem. 11 Kil. water permitting. of Nses. is the ancient but modernized church of the \edre Hedal at Tolleifsrud. To the right.). 'to flow rapidly' ). lies the pretty farm of Bergsund. with a church. When the church was afterwards discovered by a hunter. Scenery picturesque. just beyond the bridge. 24 Kil. bank lies the gaard of Engerodden. The banks are enlivened by numerous farms. and its mouth is crossed by a long wooden bridge. from Heen. 49 very rapid. or Ncpsmoen.) Ildjanistad. To the right and wooded hills. The steamer passes the rapids of Vulders^tremmen and again reaches smooth water (lV4hr. beyond the river. while over these rise pine-clad mountains. the base of which is skirted by the road. On the left is the Bjembratbjerg. The mountains become higher and more varied in furm. S. Route. D.). 8. 56 Kil. To the N. the steamer comes in sight of the church of N(TS.

Just before reaching Fjeldheim the Baegna forms the beautiful Storeirufos. Near the farm of Jukam. 17 Kil. Our road is hewn out of the rock almost the whole way. Frydenlund b. be addressed to the 'Breidablik Fjeld-og-Skovsanatorium. 8. with fast stations. at the base of which is the old timber-built church of Reinlid (13th cent. — . The usual halting-places for the night are Fager- — \.) ordinary train in 6-67-2 hrs. 10th are more comfortable. especially of the Kalvaahegda and the Thorflnstinder. The road to Frydenlund ascends on the E. side of the ravine of the Baegna. 3 pers. 142 Kil. (fares 7 kr. To the right opens the basin of Bang i Sendre Aurdal. Travellers coming from Frydenlund are shown the direction 'til Bang' by a sign-post at the crossing. (fares Steamboat ('Restaurant on board) from Randsfjord 6 kr. For the whole distance a cariole costs about 46. the Randsfjord to Odnses and thence by carriage to Laerdals0ren. etc. are the remains of a huge 'giant's cauldron' (p. 4 pers. and unites with the Valders route about 2 M.. As almost all the stations are good. with its numerous farms. the road to which (1 hr. once or twice daily in 41/2-51/2 hrs.) Breidablik to (14 Kil. about 671/2 kr. extra. detour to Lake Tyin 6..). aliout 2000 ft. Enquiries should Carr. per month. 11/2? D. above the sea. High up in the wood is the sanatorium of Breidablik.}. the traveller may divide his journey in any way he pleases. and commands splendid views. Good view to the left of the deep gorge of the Bsegna. 2 kr. Road from OdnPes to Lcerdalseven^ 216 Kil. its church. On the W. 115 kr. 115-168 kr. baths extra). 4 kr. often crowded. The journey takes 3 days.) Sveen.). the left husfjeld^ on the right the Fonhusfjeld. and pair from (40 Kil. Fjeldheim (*Inn. both as to the fares and as to the hours of starting. A little farther on is the farm of Olmhus. halts for dining. (p. . (fares 5 kr.. R. From Christiania Beyond the gaard of Storsveen we cross the Heleraa^ which descends to the Baegna in a series then of pretty falls.. 283).. The road now forks. A distinct bargain should be made. 20 0. The Sanatorium Breidablik lies amid pine-woods. 2 kr. Vi&. 100 kr. (also diligences).) S0rum or from (42 Kil. partly through wood. or 10 kr. from Fjeldheim we reach the highest point. which the road crosses.: express 430 Kil.) diverges to the left before the Baegna is crossed.50 Route 8 FJELDHEIM. 4 kr. side of the valley rises the pointed Hullekolle. The covered carriages (with two horses) offered by the Drivers'' Union (EJereseUkabet) between July 10th and Sept. We — Frydenlund. Valders'. Its six buildings contain more than to 100 rooms (pens. 16 Kil. all on the left bank of the river. the right branch leading via (5 Kil. 60 0. to OdnoES^ 72 Kil. After a drive of about 1 V4 hr.) Odnses (p. fee 4-6 kr. heavy baggage according to bargain. is 85 kr. 85. 51) to Breida- — blik 18-24 kr. Railway from Christiania to Randsfjord ^ in 43/4 hrs. 40. from Frydenlund. a stolkjeerre for 2 pers.) lies on the left bank of the Bsegna. 52). 80 0. The road rounds a promontory and discloses a magnificent view of the snow-mountains of Jotunheim. audits parsonage. skirt the Svartvikfjeld. The road then runs up and down. The fare from Odnfes to Lserdal for 2 pers. to the right.

are somewhat monotonous. which will even reward the pedestrian. or 89V2 M. Travellers sleeping here should leave very early next morning in order to get the start of the stream of tourists. 3. The detour fone day) to Lake Tyin^ with the excursion to the Skinegg (p. Vaarnces Hotel. — Railway from Christiania to Randsfjord. 17 Kil. *H6tel Odnces. with 4* . 155). a hydropathic and hotel (1980 ft. which separates the valleys of the Etna and the B. to the left. rising gradually to a height of 2000 ft.to LfvrdaUeren. long and 1-4 broad. side of the Tonsaas. stops in all at ten stations. particularly between Frydenlund and Blaaflaten (143 Kil. Randsfjord Hotel) lies oti the left bank of tlie Rands-Elv. Plads Trondhjern. and begins to ascend the wooded Tonsaas. Route. — — . pension 4V2-6'/. from Randsfjord). by the fertile and populous Hadeland and on the W. with large old wooden buildings. 48). About 7 Kil. 115-170 kr. (pay for 18) Sveen (fair station) is beautifully situated on the N. which affords a fine view of the Etna valley. 73 Kil. well cultivated at places. Farther on.. is the church of Serum. 17 Kil. Being narrow. bank of the Randsfjord for about 2^2 Mand then ascends the valley of the Etna-Elv. after leaving Randsfjord we reach Odnaes (550 ft. 51 nccs and Nysluen or FrydenUmd and f>kogstad. and wooded at the top. The road ascends through fine forest-scenery. Farther on it crosses the Dokka^ an affluent on the right. The banks. per month.) *Tonsaasen's Sanatorium. from Tomlevolden the road crosses the Etna-Elv by the Heljerastbro. to (3 Kil. carriages in waiting). near which is the church of Nets. affording picturesque views of wooded ravines. In 4^/2 -5V2 ^^s. About halfway between Tomlevolden and Sveen is a modest inn. The pier is close to the station. RANDSFJORD.E. The steamer. post and telegraph station.). each about 1/2 M. A bridge crosses the broad river to Hadelands Glasvcerk-. and Sendre Land. and N. is highly recommended. The Road follows the N.2 kr. A little beyond the bridge we cross the boundary between — Hadeland and Valders. Hov. is bounded on the E. After arriving at Odnfrs in the evening it ia possible to drive on to Tomlevolden in the long twilight. near the station of Bjerneroa. H. from the pier. Eandsfjord Station ('^ Hotel Berger. The last (V2l'r. the terminus of the steamer journey. landlord speaks English). The Randsfjord (440 ft. To the right arc the churches of Enger (near Sand). Beautiful scenery almost all the way. Tomlevolden (*/^of€^. the lake resembles a broad river. with a level plateau on the summit. The most important ofi\ieseisR0kenviken(i^/^hv. with telephone).. in the district of Nordre Land. see R. per day. by Valders and Land. on which dinner is served in ^ ascending and breakfast in returning. a favourite summer-resort. Thriving farms and beautiful birches. but scenery rather tame. from Odnses) lies below the point where the road from Gje'vik reaches the Randsfjord.Tgna (p. at its efflux from the Randsfjord.).

a fall of the Baegna. bank of the Aurdalswhich the Aabjoraa descends in a considerable fall. FRYDENLUND. commanding a * View of the beautiful and partially wooded valley of Valders. The road gradually ascends to — . is a fine waterfall. joins the Spirillen road (p. 49).. with telissues. at the influx of the This is a charming spot for some stay. from the Sanatorium. farther on. from which the BsBgna . lies l'/2i P'- or S. 44). through which the Baegna also flows. The road through the 0stre Slidre to Lake Bygdin (p. lies the Pension Hove (10 kr. B. Another tine view is at Onstad.Strandefjord running through it.). It is much frequented in summer by Norwegians and by English anglers. to the W. runs high above the Baegna. From Christiayiia The road to Breidablik and Fjeldlieim (p. The road now gradually descends and soon reaches the Bcpgnadal.52 Routes. andThorflnstinder in the background (p. long. a path leads to Viko in the Hallingdal (p. a narrow lake 12 M. above the sea). on the S. per month). We now reach the beautiful Strandefjord (1170 ft. Seeter a The road. and to the left is heard the roar of the Faslefos. and soon reaches the A ur dais fjord with its numerous islands. on the slope below the new road. Thence a path leads via Sanderstelen. from Fagernses) Vlncps. A few hundred paces to the left of the road is a small belvedere (2300 ft. partly through wood. by the farm of Stende. about 2 — fjord. with the . & S. R. (pay for 23) Frydenlund {* Hotel Frydenlund. On the road are the Apothecary's Store and (a little farther on) the church of Nordre Aurdal. On the other side of the broad valley is the Aabergsbygd. of Frydenlund. now nearly level. bank of the lake. 11/4 kr. to (10-11 hrs) Rolfshvs.). 159). and follows the bank of the Strandefjord.. on this NcES-Elv. The road passes the PensioJi Nordaaker and the District Prison. soon reach the wooded summit of the Tonsaas. To the right. rise the snow-mountains on the Vangsmjesen and several of the Jotunheim peaks. from which. diverges here to the left. 5-6 Kil. much frequented by Norwegians. i ephone. 50) beautiful walks. Galdebergstlnd. Near TJlnaes a long bridge crosses to the opposite bank of the Strandefjord.. 13 Kil. where We it M. and partly through cultivated land. watered by the Aabergs-Elv. into About 6 Kil. above 18 Kil. R. The Laerdal road crosses the Nas-Elv^ with its pretty cascades. a large village beautifully situated to the left. called Fosbraaien. About 5 min. which forms the Kvannefos. and the snow-capped Jotunheim Mts. '^Hotel Fagerlund. and the names ('fair promontory' and 'fair grove' respectively) are appropriate. 41). side of the cross-roads is a steep path ascending to the right to a pavilion commanding a fine view of the lake. passing the churches of Stra7id or Svennct^s and (about 10 Kil. inn. in the Hallingdal (p. To the W.. each li/o kr. English spoken. 159) diverges to the right at the Hotel Fagerlund. Fagernses Nordre Aurdal {*H6tel Fagernces. similar charges) amid woods on the N. The upper part of the Strandefjord is called the Graneimfjord.

Beyond the house of the 'Distriktslsege'. and follows bank. The road now runs mostly through wood. at the 8. the Raegna. 11/4. from Fosheim we reach the beautifully situated stone church of which commands a tine view of the lake. bank the road skirts. of it. of Lake Bygdin and the Vinstervand. where an admirable survey of the whole of Ihe Bygdin range. end of the Svenskenvand.). of Rogn and Dahl (there and back 2^ 2 hrs. then cross the Veslea and approach the brawling Baegna more closely. The road here reaches the *VangsmJ0seii (1535 its S. At the top is HeifjehVs Hotel. may be ascended from Yestre Slidre or L0ken iu 2-'ii/2 hig. from Fosheim. Route. 31/2-4 kr. whose N. It is largely hewn in the rock. 2 kr. to the left. is Kinany's Hotel.en. About 9 Kil. Farther on. 19 Kil.) is finely situated on the Slidrefjord and commands a good view of the lake. with its numerous islands. Fartlicr on is the church of Lon. Later we cross the Ala-Elv. situated at the foot of the Hugakolle^ 150 paces to the left of the road. a de'pendance of the Fosheim Hotel. landlord speaks English. at Volden. by the road leading to the left from tlie hotel. 158). The 'Hvidh0fd (^vhite Lead'. A road to the right leads to the church of HuTum mentioned in a document of 1327. to the height crowned by the * Hotel 0lken (1400 ft. li/2» B. 14 Kil. Our road crosses the Bsegna and passes the Vangsnas Hotel (right). long. L^rken {f-'Leken Hotel. per day).). *H6t€l Vang'). D. beyond L^fken forms a fine fall called the Lofos. generally full of English and other anglers. horse 4 kr. conip. A few hundred paces farther on rises the ''Kvalehegda. or physician of the district. known to have existed in 1325 but almost wholly modernized. is crossed by the routes to the Aalfjtld (ascended in 4-5 lirs. We . and the snow-mountains to the N. via the gaards .to LcBrdalseren. Those who make a stop here may visit the Sputrefos. R. generally crowded in summer. 3360 ft. reached in 6 min. ft. L)0KEN. ll/2-'2 lirs. ). descending from the mountains to the left. 8. a gate and private road to the right lead in 5 min. . Beyond the church of Keen. which lies above the road to the right and is not visible from it. The lake narrows to a The bridge. the river expands into the Siidrefjord (1200 ft. just beyond kilometre-stone 90. a splendid mountain-lake. is enjoyed. which stands on the road (^right). which about 6 Kil. 0ilo (1475 ft. 53 15 Kil. 15 Kil. is a resort of artists. is also apt to be over-tilled. the Bitihorn. . 1. river. p. Fosheim {Hotels with baths). 45). A narrow road diverging here to the right crosses the Slidreuas to Rogne in 0stre Slidre (p.). and the Hallingdal mountains to the S.E. a favourite summer and health resort. the Vangsmj0scn.) and to the Fosheim-Soeter (2865 ft. The Vinsnces Hotel. Vestre Slidre (1255 ft. especially beyond tlie promontory and along the steep face of the Kvamsklec In spring and autumn the road is . and of the snow- dad mountains to the W. The view embraces the valleys of Vestre and 0stre Slidre. a peak of the Slideraas. on the left bank of the Bsegna.

45. English spoken at both) is beautifully situated on the Yangsmjesen. c .".y At the end of this lake is a high but in- Z considerable waterfall. ^Vrrng Hotel. tlie huge ascent in about 4 hrs. . rises Grindefjeld (5620 ft. A few farms are now seen . bank of the lake. . 91) is recorded. Grindaheim i^-Hotel Fagerlid.^^p|. About 12 Kil. their brother's son'). g ^ I I-. just beyond the church. The ascent •^ becomes steeper and the scenery wilder. and removed to the Giant Mts. To the S.). to skirt the Opposite rises the imposing N. near the W. purchased by Frederick William IV. is the Church of Vang. _— Q ^""li " 5"x. to the right of the road.. ' -g •a " '' g^ ^ I I I I " 10 Kil. At the worst point it is protected by a roof.. . into which the Baegna plunges in a picturesque fall. A little farther on. and the Skyrifjeld (5115 ft.11 sometimes endangered by falling rocks.f_ B' 5 ^ ^ ^r"'r. To the N. see p. of which a phenomenon similar to that seen on the Lysefjord (p. in Silesia. On tbe right rises the Vednisfjeld. on which tower the conspicuous Skodshoryi f. 1 ^ ^ W I - ''^ t I " J '- ^ i jl I ^s"'. 1 |g c . The road continues lake.). end of the lake.. from Grindaheim. sunir ristu stin thissi afiir Kunar bruthur sun' ('the sons of Gosa erected this stone to the memory of Gunar. GRINDAHEIM. I |i " I" => \..Si.. . From Christiania ^^PflU ^|t(^<. on the left the Grindefjeld (see below). of Prussia in 1844 for 320 kr.. which replaces the old Stavekirke ( 'timber church'). The road lies the church of 0ye. and opposite us the Skjoldfjeld..V' .54 Route wa |~ ^ 8. is the Dreisjafos. crosses the stream and ascends to the small Strandefjord^iQlbU. A stone in front of the church bears the Runic inscription 'Kosa : t I ° #" I *"' . If c (5310 ft. Grand survey of tlie lake. From Grindabeim to the Hallingdal. l'^ I ^ f ' g- 2 S " ||_.).

fjeld . to the ravine on the N. . and farther on (no path) ascend along the E. and rejoins the new road near Maristuen (2-21.) side of the valley only. from Nystuen (4 hrs. built by government.. and W. Farther to the left.) and above the N. The new road crosses the Baegna and reaches — 17 Kil. (pay for 17)Nystuen (3250 ft. side of the brook. are seen the snow-mountains to the N.to Lcerdalseren. bank of the Utrovand.). or S. at the entrance to the Horndal. will convey an idea. An interesting but fatiguing excursion of 6-8 hrs. or hospice. ). as we To the left lies the small Uirofollow the latter. about 5 min. recrosses to the right bank of the Bsegna. of the hotel. of Lakes Gjende and Bygdin. [At times the herd is much On nearer the road. 245.) takes about 2 bra. 55 on the sunny (N. base of the steep Stugunese (4825 ft. The new road passes the farms of Opdal. which ascends hence to tlie Horntind (4775 ft. several peaks of the Hurunger are also visible. 1 kr. which are brought here by the Lapps in summer for pasture t(^ the niimber of about 2(X)0. but the construction of a proper path is much to be desired.) the •Gamme' or Lapp hut. To the right. The general direction can hardly be mistaken. forks. of Nystuen to see the reindeer. from Nystuen. side of the valley. The Ascent of tue "Stugdn0se (4825 ft..). To the right is the Stugun^se. side of the Suletind and throiigh this till we come in sight of the other side of the valley. and then. from the Sletmarkpig to the Thorfinstinder and the Kalvaah0gda. foot-hills of which rises the summit of the Borrenesi (4140 ft. above the S. above the lower hills.E. . at a cottage. Skogstad (1885 ft. slope. but hardly advisable on account of the marshy ground). We row across the Utrovand and follow a rough path to (1^/4 hr. at the S. English spoken).). About 2 Kil. particularly the Austabottind with its glacier. beyond the Skinegg. Comp. Muhn's Panorama published by Beyer of Bergen (2V2 kr. the old road diverges to the left. 155) and the left to Lserdal. to the W. R. to the right.2 hxa. the right branch leading to Lake Tyin (p. on this side of the Kirkestel-ScEter. fjeld. Norway. A high but not voluminous fall also descends from the Raubergskamp (4130ft. NYSTUEN. *Knut Nystuen's Hotel. . situated on the barren FiUe. of which the annexed sketch. which forms several falls. The summit commands a splendid survey of the Jotnnheim range. The rough old road follows the S. after E. similar to that from the Stugun0se. *Inn. with guide. It then gradually ascends along the N. and after 3 Kil.] the way back we enjoy a fine view of the Jotunheim. the latter finely grouped. on the watershed between E. English spoken). We bend to the right from the road.). 8. vand. there and back) and should be made by those who renounce the Skinegg. enquiry may be made at Nystuen or Maristuen. B. Hundreds of reindeer may be seen on the snowfields here about midday they are half-wild and take flight on any attempt to approach them. originally a Fjeldstue. is the Stelsnesi. J. •. 50 0. Beyond kilometre-stone 150 the . At the top wc turn to the right. skirting the imposing Suletind (5805 ft. 11 Kil. — Beyond Nystuen the road reaches its highest point (3294 ft. Beyond kilometre-stone 140 tlie road once more crosses the Biegna. may be made to the to the S. li/4kr. We then make our way. Farther to the right. p. Route.

slope.1^^2) S.). and the service probably consisted solely of the mass. ascends rapidly to the BruseScEter (^2i0 ft.). perhaps. 40. pens. the interior almost total darkness. high above the foaming Lcera. No 'Stavekirker' were built after the Reformation. and descends thence. and 'Thittal kirkla a kirkiuvelli (This church in the church-ground). above H?eg. light being admitted only by tiny openings in the walls. more 20 0. (pay for 17) Hseg (1480 ft. The road then skirts the Fillefjeldsvand Smeddalsvand and the Lower Smeddalsvand (3085 ft. and is nearly level. 57).). and shows the original character of this kind of church with great accuracy. The road crosses the stream issuing from the Oddedal and passes kilometre-stone 50 (counted from Lgerdalseren).56 Route 8. B. 13 Kil. especially on the lofty portals. 4 kr. traversing the former bed of a lake. enclosure of which was the Yindhelle (p. 17 KiV (pay for 22 in the reverse direction) Maristuen(2635 ft. chanted in the candle-lighted choir. from Husum the road reaches ^KirkevoUVs Hotel Borgund (R. portal are the ''Thorir ralst runar thissar than Olau misso' Runic inscriptions (Thorer wrote these lines on St.. From Christiania new road passes a column whicli marks the boundary between tbe Stifts of Hamar and Bergen. age-blackened ^Church of Borgund (key at the inn 1-2 pers. whose property it is. the second 'Fjeldstue' on the Fillefjeld. while the congregation knelt devoutly in the dark nave. with the Sddel-Fjeld rising opposite. 1 kr. BORGUND. D. The use of window-glass was unknown in Norway at the time of its construction. At Berlaug^ about 4 Kil. Beyond the farm of Kvamme the road again bends to the S. It has been carefully restored by the Norwegian Society of Antiquaries.. On the W. the S. with twelve columns. l^/V^? ^. crossing the river by a bridge. 11/2 kr.. The form of these The runes affords a clue to the probable date of the building. the Hallingdal route. eacli. though first mentioned in a document of 1360. is old but was restored about 1660. belongs to the best of its kind. is in : — — A few hundred yards beyond the two churches the road enters the picturesque ravine of the Scartegjel^ which the Lsra has formed .W. & S. from Hieg and 4 Kil. 80 0. adjoined by an aisleless choir with a semicircular apse (this last. perhaps dating from 1150 or earlier. Olafs fair). standing between the old church and the large new one erected on the same model. Numerous gaards. *Knut Maristuen s Hotel^ sometimes crowded. originally founded as an ecclesiastical hospice in 1300. a part of the original church). Hotel. joins our route on the left (p. Belfry ('Stepel'). 45).. well spoken of). not testifies to — 5 When the doors are shut. 1 kr. It then descends very rapidly and crosses to the right bank of the L^era by the Haanungbro. The interior consists of a nave and aisles. The ornamentation. Below Maristuen the more luxuriant vegetation (birches. About 9 Kil. K. the best-preserved 'Stavekirke'' in Norway.). each pers. aspens) or Upper the milder climate of the W.) and the small.

From Christiania to Eidsvold. see p. of the railway is — 4 kr. to tlie Old Koad. (faros 4 kr. The water-worn rocks show distinctly how much higher the bed of the river must once have been. situated on a huge mass of debris (^skred'). 11 Kil. *Hotel. Beyond tlie ridge the road descends in rapid zigzags. 10. Farther on.ehind is the small Befos. lish). Laerdalseren. at the mouth of the Dylma. 57 in forcing its passage through the huge rocky barrier of the Vindhelle. is the gaard of Galderne. Looking back. 2 kr. afVording views of the La.). 80. At one point the old bed of the stream has been utilised for the passage of the road. to the right. crosses the river and follows its right bank.. is the line Stenjinnsfo.lsvoM to Gjenk^ Stkameu . 10 0. crossing the boisterous river by the Nedre Kvammebro and skirting the overhanging rocks close to its left bank. on which the ancient coast-terraces are noticeable (comp. From F. landlord speaks EngLsera here forms the sniall cascade of Holgruten. D. we obtain a good view of the churches from above. between the houses and the barns. we come in sight of Gaard The road Sidtun..E.oij. and thence by road and Laerdalseren. Husum The (1070 ft. of the gorge. iipg. 5 kr. From the Hotel Korgund to Husum by this route is a walk of 1/2 br. 40. HUSU. To the N. Ronte 8. 2 kr. (fo Odna-s 167 Kil. On the right. a good point for anglers. walkers may return to the Hotel Borgund and ascend behind it. By ascending this to the left. Lastly the valley turns towards the W. XX xiii). 13 Kil. close to the entrance. lUaaflaten (hotel) lies a little to the left of the road. lies Nesdalen. As soon as the ravine expands. 2 kr. — gained by going 05 Kil. 130. recognisable by the telegraph-poles. 40. The road soon enters another grand raviue. we obtain another view of the Aaken.to Lcerdalseren. from which the Opdal. towards the N. The gorge then again contracts to the Grimseigjel. The grandest point is the Svartegjelfos.. p. 15 Kil.. express. c. to the left. Several old moraines are passed. diverges to the S.. unlittle is we mean to stay at Eidsvold. Via Lake Mj«rsen to Gj^vik. 6S Kil. which descends in two falls from the Veta-Aas and Hegan-Aas. guide in Husum).rdal. and equally on by railway to Hainar.. closed by the snow-clad Aaken or OAi/cen (5685 ft. with its peculiar crest.i. to Oduaes 383 Kil. 283) has been hewn away. at the base of the precipice along which the old road ran. It then intersects tlie deposits of the Jutul-Elv (fall to the right) and traverses a broader part of the valley. for which part of a 'giant's cauldron' (p. rising in steps and forming straight horizontal lines The road crosses the river by the Voldshro and passes the church of Tenjum. The valley is still enclosed by lofty mountains. is the picturesque Store Soknefos. where the valley suddenly trends we have a particularly good view of the above mentioned terraces. . 3 kr.. The use of little importance. Railway less in i^/^.^. After seeing the waterfall in the Svarteizjel. near 0ie. grand view.). 7ti 0. r. Farther on. By the farms of /Eri.

Lake Mj>sen (397 ft. 3 pers. the deposits of vanished At Minne (p. (62 M. (fare 3 kr.) ascends the clear Vormen. bank. and 1-480 ft. at the foot of the Skreidfjeld (2300 ft. 5kr. bank. 60). by express 9 kr. to the N. 34 Kil. the largest lake in Norway. church of Helgee. and E. . The Steamer (*Restaurant on board. 59.58 Route 8. 12. The banks present an almost unbroken succession of fields. have been discovered. 60 0.). flowing tov^ards the Glommen. As a rule the hills enclosing the lake are of moderate height. 6kr. follows the HunnsElv and soon ascends pretty rapidly. Farther to the N. The OuN^s Road. On hoth banks are huge terraces of detritus. 50. 7 kr. past the fertile Helgee ('holy island'). to the W. with garden. A direct railway from Christiania to Gjevik via ReTcenviken (see p. the first section will probably be opened in 1900. and S. 51) and Thoten is in progress. .. into a broad bay on the E.) in width at its broadest part. . 60). with 1400 inhab. which has been called 'Norway's inland sea'. 18 kr. On the peninsula of Sterisholm. studded with farm-houses and hamlets but the constant re-appearance of the same picture will perhaps seem monotonous. and fee^ heavy luggage by arrangement. p. Carriage and 'fast' skyds-stations. Fine view of the lake and the Helgee from Himn (686 ft. the outlet of Lake Mjesen. 15.. and view.). in 43/4 trs. The first stations are Bjernstad and Stigersand on the W. ). About 3 hrs. and Frengsfnen^ and about 21/4 hrs. bank also lies TrogstadPanengen. On the AV. . is 100 Kil.. on the W. The Hunner~0rret is an esteemed kind of trout peculiar to Lake Mj^sen. 40 0. see p. 60). from Gj0vik reaches Lillehammer (p. and pastures. The steamer calls at — . deep near the S. the remains of a large square castle of the i3th cent. which here attains its greatest breadth. pair of the Drivers' Union (Kjereselkabet. It then deserts the main valley and follows that of the By-Elv. 20 0. (91/2 M. passing some factories.. 90. 2 kr.). and (13 4 hr.) long. ^Gjevik's Hotel^ near the pier). The drive to Mustad takes fully 2 hrs. rdngsaker (with an old church containing an early-Flemish altar-piece). see p. Opposite Stigersand is the deep bay of Tangen (p. 6j0vik to Odnces. woods. 60 The steamer next touches at the church of Nces opposite the then. 51. Road with - — From Christiania to Eidsvold (and continuation of the railway thence to Hamar). glaciers. LAKE MJ0SEN. 50) for 2 pars. — Heggenhangen.. The pier is close to the rail. after leaving Eidsvold we reach Hamar (p. From 30. station. near Ringsaker. 6 kr. 15 Kil. 60) the steamer reaches the lake. It extends between the districts of Gudbrandsdalen and Hedemarken to the N. p. which intersects the Odnaes road in the middle of the village. 4 pers.). on the skyds-road to Yinguses (and Lillehammer. The vessel now steers to the N. ordering in adFrom Odntes to Lcerdalsereji. through-fare from Christiania 7 kr. the lake gradually contracts. baths. from Hamar) at Gj«rvik (* Victoria. the capital of Thoten Fogderi. bank. 60. situated at the mouth of the Hunns-Elv. vance advisable. 3/^ M. at Smervik. D. of Gjevik. and those of Thoten and 0vre Romerike to the W. end. 2 kr. 90. Bivid (with a glass-foundry). across the lake.

About halfway between Granuiu and Odna's a direct road to (140 Kil. about 5 Kil. . (fares 25 kr. Route. At Dal. comp. Eailway from Christiania via Hamar Gudbrandsdal. Ixxvi) was adopted in 1814. 21 Kil. the poet. is the oldest in Norway. or Nses on the Romsdals Fjord. 80. (tares 19 kr. enjoying a fine view of its upper end.W. . Tlie train crosses the Nit-Elv. Bryn the Egeberg and the suburb of Oslo to the right. junction for The railway from this Kongsvinger and Stockholm (see p. the scenery improves. Eidsvold (410 ft. see p. Lillestremmen (355 ft. 30. the discharge of Lake Mjasen. 20. As the train leaves the station. good station).. IT kr. ordinary train in i'd\'-> hrs. GVanwm (1342 ft. constructed in 1851.W. Beyond Tregstad (G66 ft. The distance from Christiania is to Visnas (Stryn). thence ordinary train) in S^/i hrs. p.. Afwsfad (1510 ft. 9. 90 a. 77) unites with the Glommen.).dal route is the most popular. 11 kr. on the right bank of the broad and clear Vormen.EIDSVOLD. Stremmen (485 ft). 51.. on the Romsdals Fjord.).. which at Nses (p. and the discoverer of the spring. to NcBS. 459 Kil.).) get a glimpse of blue mountains to the AV. Restaurant. Rail. 18 Kil. 11 Kil. the N. (left). Two tunnels.) a gravelly region. on the Nord487 Kil. 9. with its pretty villas. point to Eidsvold. Odncps.) and Kleften (545 ft. From Christiania through the Gudbrandsdal to Stryn on the Nordfjord.. Near the station is the Eidsvoldhad. Restaurant). with portraits of members of the first diet. Marok on the Geiranger Fjord. fjord. The Romt. 51. Express (to Lillehamiuer. 1845). '''Jernhane Hotel. on the Geiranger Fjord. situated a little to then descend to the hasin of the Randsthe right of the road. Scenery unattractive but at Frogner (405 ft. we Christiania. 80. The road traverses a nearly level and well-wooded plateau. the Norwegian constitution ('Norges Riges Grundlov'. 59 12 Kil. to Otta in the 297 Kil. 10 Kil. 68 Kil. and of 4 Kil. passing Stangstuen and Lien. Grorud (420 ft. 14 kr. 77). at the station). feeder of the 0ieren. Rail. Each of the three routes takes 4 days. 465 Kil.) . and in each the last day's journey is the finest. a.) Christiania diverges to the S. obtain a fine view of Christiania and the fjord to the left. 9. In the former farm-house of Eidsvoldsuo'rk. see p. 51). By the church is a ^Bautaslen in memory of Henrik Weryeland (d. (260ft. We fjord (p. 12 Kil. we . 70 0. From OducX's to LcBnlalseren. to Marok. to the S. good quarters). see p. scantily wooded. 8 kr. The building has been purchased by government and embellished .

is charmingly situated between two bays. to the left. mand or governor of the district. *Grand Hotel. Offes^ad (620 ft. From that period probably date the ruins of the Cathedral (1 M. Best views Kil. The train ascends through a solitary wooded region.) Moelven. The modern town.). Espen (425 ft. 'headland') dates from 1152. above Ringsaker (p. 58). Victoriri). From Christiania Steamer from Eidsvold fares 5 kr. once a handsome edifice. The train enters Hedemarkens Amt. 58. when a bishopric was founded here by the papal nuncio Nicholas Breakspeare an Englishman. afterwards Pope Adrian IV. (415 ft.). the Furn(Tsfjord to the N. omnibuses to meet the trains and steamers. 72).). a town with 5000 inhab. halt some duration. end of the fjord. of Hamar .) Stange (730 ft. past the small station of Stensrud. 3 kr. Brumunddalen. on the opposite bank of which rises the Skreidfjeld (p. 21/9 ki"-. 20. . with view. *naiL Ref<taurant. station. with \ievv. to sleep at to Hamar^ Gjevik. 75 Kil.). which dates as a municipality from 1848 only. on the pretty Akersvik.60 Route 9. Hamar . B. crosses by a wooden bridge.). 133 village. near the 184 Kil. and then skirts the E. 60. VLvin (420 ft. Ring. I1/4 kr. Bergseng. . of it. Veldre. seat of the AmtS. skirtinp.W. 175 Kil. town. R. The train now threads a tunnel and descends to (156 Kil. and then descends through a fertile district. Lillehammer. 140 Kil. to the N. "^Victoria Hotel. Those who prefer this route have Lillehammer before continuing their journey by the Gudbrands- dal Railway. and Lillehammer (71/4 hrs. some distance from the rail. ('hiir.*. 1 kr. !>• I'/sj The Ormsrud"s Hotel. ^Ingberos Hotel. 97 Kil.. The old town was destroyed by the Swedes in 1567. part of the — S. 80 0. with the church of that name.). 84 Kil. has thriven greatly since the opening of the railway to Trondhjem (p. Fine view of the Bay of Feiring opposite. 153 Kil. Tande.-1 kr. a large N. Jesnes. toilet-room.). near the N. to the W. R. Near its efflux from the Minnesund it crosses the river by an iron bridge. Brettum. on the picturesque bay of Korsedegaard. — station nnd 1 kr. and of a bishop. bank of Lake Mjesen. the pier of the Lake Mj0sen steamer (p. The latter is crossed by a long bridge. 119 Kil. with a pretty view. HAMAR. 168 Kil. IV2. 58). 70 0. long. the Furnces fjord. bay of Lake Mjesen.). somewhat farther off. Johansen. Beyond Eidsvold the railway follows the right (W. 65 ft. 40 0. see p. We now change carriages and proceed by the narrow-gauge GuDBUANDSDAL Railavay. of which four round arches of the nave alone are left. 1 kr. to (114 Kil.) hank of the Vormen. hotels send . while the road. which cuts its way through the rocks. Minne (465 ft.. 58).-. B. R. Tangen (540 ft. 40 0. extension of Lake Mjersen. a flourishing industrial 144 Kil. 102 Kil. again approaching the long and narrow N. prettily situated in the N. 126 Kil. which the train crosses by an embankment. 160 Kil. and the Akersvik to the E. high and 1180 ft.

few yards from the former. lies the gaard of Vingnces. side of the Mesna bridge. side of Lillehammer and crosses the Mesna (to the right. a 'regstue' (p. 20 Kil. Lavsen^s. In summer many of them migrate with their herds to the sjetcrs. with 1800 inhab. It is called Lillehammer ('little hill') to distinguish it from at Hamar (p. — . 9. 17 Kil. 61 Shops. The town is old. The scenery is pleasing at places. and so on. Lillehammer (585 ft. 197 Kil. which are often seen in heaps on the roadside. but on the whole the valley is somewhat sombre. rod. refer to the 'uprooting' of trees and removal of stones. 58). The line ascends the left bank of the Laagen. with the notice-board 'Til Mesna Bad'. The chief occupation of the natives is cattle-breeding. W. shore of the lake (ferry from the 'fasf skyds-stations whence a road with At Lillehammer begins the Gudbrandsdal. are the house and garden of Hcrr Sandvik^ in which some old houses from the Gudbrandsdal. The Railway skirts the E. near the gaard Frssegaarden (620 ft. Moen. station to the S.. leads to Gj^vik (p. The Gausdal soon opens to the left. end of the town. 58). bench on the roadside. near which is a Bath House (ascend side-street on S. or ryd. to the right. Faaherg the church of that name is on the right bank which is here crossed by a bridge. side of main street. opposite side. r:O0. with fast skvds-stations. which flows through a ravine. among whom curious old customs still survive. but has enjoyed municipal privileges since 1827 only. KiUherg. to the E. 192 of the Laagen. adm. or 'hell cauldron'. several saw-mills. Hunder.). through the town and divides it into a N. with which Norwegian names so often end. It forms several pretty falls l'/2 M. as in other districts. where Hunner-0rreter. VeL^ten. The A — Opposite Lillehammer. half. above the sea. 18). about 50. The Laagen here forms a fall called the Hunnerfos (seen from the train). are caught. sells silver trinkets. 60). on the way to the town. but the arable land has been laboriously reclaimed by the removal of great quantities of stones. The brawling Mesna flows from the E. a cottoii-mill. 180 ft.000) are a well-to-do and high-spirited race. or lake-trout (p. and a S. 11 Kil. ascends the Gausdal to the >\W.^^om the rail.to Otta. etc. F. . LILLEHAMxMER.). Route. moderate prices carved meerschaum-pipes at G. a chapel.). on the pier). The name extends. Fvisenhevg. not only to the main valley.. the above-mentioned falls). stretches for more than a mile along the road to the Gudbrandsdal. commanding a fine view of the narrow lake. From Faaberg a road. above Lake Mj^sen).. The syllables rud. and two 'ramloftstuer' have been erected (also musenm. Kil. According to Norwegian ideas the valley is well cultivated. the finest being in the *Helvedeshel. xxx). but also to all its ramifications. . about Pleasant walk of ^ 2 ^^. to a 1 hr. The inhabitants {Gudbrandsdeler.. E. which is watered by the Laagen or Lougen (p. railway-station and the church lie at the S.

). The Vinstra flows to the left in a deep gorge. From Skjseggestad a lonely path leads to (1 day) Solliden and thence either to the -Atnevand and by Foldal to Jerkin on the Dovrefjeld (p.) are very fine points of view. 203 Kil. Vigstad. 1-1 1/2 hr. . The train runs on embankments along the left bank of the river. Hundorp.) F'Vforkainpen (4250 ft. Near it are several barrows ('Ksempehouge'). Vinstra — Beyond the church of Settorp or Nordre (-ffoi. carr. formerly a heathen place of sacrifice. station a road leads over the 'Harpebro' and through the Skordal to the (12 Kil. From Vinstea via Kvikxe to Gjendesheim 1^/2-2 days: road. "We penetrate the Ranklev by a tunnel and cross the Laagen 243 Kil. rise the snow-clad Rondane (p. the old church of Ringehu.) the *Furuheim Hotel (pens. with skyds-station).. in 41/2 hrs. 5 hrs.). at the S. 74). the road ascends the Vinstradal. see path the rest of the way (11-12 hrs. per month. to meet express-trains).) — — — or down the valley of the Atne-Elv to Atna (p.) Kon'gsUkampen.. Losnaos). From Hundorp a road (right bank) ascends the valley of the Foasaa — to the Fagei'hei Sanatorium (carr.) ascends to the Haifjelds Sanatorium.. where we bend sharply to A .). above). 1'hQ Skeidkamp (3775 ft. left bank of the Laagen (bridge) to (1 Kil. The church of Tretten lies on the left hank. 74). Vinstra. We proceed between the (1.) Golaa Sanatorium. skirting the 224 Kil. with fast stations. an extension of the Laagen ahounding in fish. To the E. ca. From the rail. A^?7j/cnap.) Harpefossen. Fron we reach 268 Kil. was once the seat of Dale Gudbrand. The valley becomes marshy.).) the Kampeseeter. a month. Loma. extremity of Lake Losnn (640 ft. In the distance of Lake Losna. mentioned in 1270. Farther on we pass the church of Sendre Fron. From Christiania \Vc cross the Laagen and skirt the steep Hoknafjeld (2405 ft. skirting the base of the Kjennaas 252 Kil. 70). — . Ringehu.)cn The railway follows the W. Olaf. The 232 Kil. omnibus in 21/2-3 hrs. We then ascend by the church of Kvikne and the gaards of Harildstad and Ungstad to Masingen. 2hra.) and the (r. by the Vaalebro. . the powerful heathen opponent of St. and other precipitous heights.). double room 70-120. Tretten (Hot. hut transformed into a cruciform church and provided with a spire in the 17th century. near the gaard of Skjcpggestad.-. and forms a considerable fall near (260 Kil. whence a road leads to the left to the Foe/or Sanatorium. which soon becomes a mountain-torrent. Myre. hank (3550 ft. open 15th June to 1st Sept. the church of which stands on the other hank. baths. 214 Kil. The railway approaches the Laagen. 80-100 kr. The gaard Huntorpe and crossing the Frya. On the opposite hank stands valley contracts. board 80 kr. into which the Golaa plunges in a lofty fall. reached by a hridge. Beyond it is the gaard Hove. rock-barred river. 12 Kil. in the Gaufdal (about 2400 ft.) and Prccs^ekamp (4200 ft. From Tretten a new road (17 Kil.. Pleasant walks. Farther on we skirt the foaming. as far as (30 Kil.62 Route 9. On the opposite bank lies the church of Fodvang. 0i€r. passing several gaards. we see the Solbraakampen. VINSTRA. opposite road ascends on the the junction of the Vinstra and the Laagen. and bridleFrom Furuheim (836 ft. fare 4 kr. room 20-70.

To the left. on which. with a church. To the S. with the inscription 'Erindring om Bendernes Tapperhed^ commemorates the 'peasants' bravery'. . — We reach (4 hrs. KampesoEler (3050 ft.. situated between the Laagen and the Otta-Elv.e»lstad. The Road to the Pjoadal ascends to the church of Iledalen and (!20 Kil.) Sikkildals-Soctre (good quarters). Farther on the route runs to the S. of the Aakrevand. and — Mum .) Serum (p.) GJendesheim (p. to avoid the marshes. is seen the lake of Olstappen (IV2 31. crossing several brooks. A poor district. D. which they hurled down on the invaders. to the (4-5 hrs.] A tablet on the rock to the left. 278 Kil. Otta p. the owner of which claims to be of royal descent. Sinclair (see below).). "We which atTords views of the Jotunheim Mts. they were intercepted by an ambush of 300 Norwegian peasants at this spot. Ramsay and Capt. At Aasen a road to the Breistelen diverges to the right. 9. where we obtain horses for Gjendesheim (6 kr. in summer). a little to the N. fields irrigated by cuttings cottages The large slabs of slate often seen in ('Stuer') roofed with turf. a little lower down. Most of the Scots were thus destroyed.) and rowers for the crossing of the two Sikkildalsvande (1^/2-2 kr. base of the Aakre-Saeter (3130 ft.to Otta. and leads over the Skulfjeld and the streams Loner and Mui'ua. bank of the larger lake.). To the right is the Sikkildahhorn^ to the left the Gaapaapigge.Nelson & Sons). Sjoa^ opposite the mouth of the stream of that name. and follow the S. we walk along the N. The Elv near train recrosses the its Laagen by a long bridge. keeping up as high as possible. On 26th August. with stunted pines and birches. — on to (24 Kil.on this side Capt. The scenery becomes wilder and grander. . Aakrekampen. The gaard of Skadbu or Skaabu and several others are passed. If the wind is strong. Route. . when Col. who had landed a few days before at the Klungenjes on the Romsdalsfjord. to the (1V2-2 hrs. and then to the W. is a monument (870 to Kvam ft.lxxii. also Thomas Michell's 'History of the Scottish Expedition to Norway in 1612' (London. The road goes of Klevstad. [See 297 Kil. descend into the Sjodal. Serv. however. cross the Sjoa by a new bridge. new. the others from the 1T-I8th centuries. bank of the first and smaller lake. this district are chiefly used for the drying of malt. 287 Kil. about 1/2 ^. and Laing's 'Norway'.. 18 Kil.. is tlie steep hill of Kringlcn. the last 'fasf skyds-station. 162). T. cross the 'Eid' between the lakes.) and guide are procured. then at war with the Norwegians. 1612. from Sjoa) Bj. and almost all the survivors were put to the sword. of tlie Aakrekampen. Skyds-Station kept by Loftsgaard Engl. were trying to force their way through Norway to join the Swedes. --^Blekestad's Hotel. now tnllow the well-marked 'Sikkildalsver. Ch.). situated at the W. at — and henceand copious Otta- {Grand Hotel. The natives had felled trees and collected huge piles of stones on the hill above the road. forth follows the right bank.). then cross the ridge (fine view of the mountains and glaciers of the Jotunheim).) good quarters). The valley turns to the N. The main building dates from the beginning of the 19th cent. A bridge crosses the Laagen to the Gudbrandsdal road. 63 the S. 64). OTTA.. Sinclair with 900 Scottish auxiliaries. an interesting old gaard. where horses (to the Sikkildals-Seeter 8 kr. I1/2 kr. It crosses the green mouth and reaches the terminus .

Ci (11 Kil. at the foot of which the Bcevra descending from the snow-mountains of Jotunheim. to the Russlien Scclre (p. 4 pers. about 3/^ M. Travellers coming from the E. half. on the Nordfjord. to 190 Kil. quarters). and bv the large group of sfeters called . We pass the old farms of Tolfstad. (21 Kil.W. Gardino or Garmo (indifferent quarters). (to Stryn) or 168 Kil. 12 Kil. which forms a fall by the bridge and carries its deposits far into the lake. chiefly following the Sjoa. 67) via Nordre Snerle . 17 Kil. cent. Lindsheim.). joined bv the road coming from Laurgaard (p. and Snerle (plain quarters). rises the Skardhe little A farther on. fair). Farther on. Just beyond . 5OV2 kr.) Hindsaeter (3150 ft. and thence to GJendcsheim in 4 hrs. 63) joins otirs. The road from Bjelstad i Hedal (p. partly with the use of the old materials. the scenery here being by no means striking. taking 21/2-8 days (cariole or stolkjperre for 1 pers. The roads from Grotlid to Marok and Stryn belong to the W. 163). (The lowest fall may be visited in 1 2 1^^^^6 highest. should. on the Geiranger Fjord.) Stonnksoeter. in 1^ '2-'2li^^s. by the (18 Kil.) in its E. long. Good XiGHT Quarters at Serum. which descends from the Tessevand (3020 ft. 120 kr. ters). from the old church first mentioned in 1270 and expanded.). 152). called the Vaagevand (1135 ft. and Marok.. Pol/ossen. the Lomsklev conceals part of the lake. Beyond Grotlid. Then walk. the Oxefos. coast of Xorwav and are therefore described in R. ca. ca. 100. (to Marok) . The valley expands and the snow-capped Lomsegg Near Serum our route is (p.). choose the Stryn route. coming across a bridge on the left.. . S0RUM From Otta Road from Otta via Grotlid to Stryn. however. a vast improvement takes place. and Grotlid. bank of a lake 36 Kil. we pass the 5 (5340 ft. The road now follows the S. past the Lemundsje. Bjernstad. into a cruciform church in the 17th centThe old ornamentation points to the beginning of the 12th ury. .) Randsvcerk (2300 ft. as the date of the original building. beyond the gaard Storvik (tolerable quarmouth of the Tesse-Elv. From S0rum we may drive by cariole in about hrs. 3 pers. Sjerrma [Station.W. The road crosses the stream. 34 kr. two-horse 'kaleschvogn' for 2 pers. quarters) to the (18 Kil. falls into the lake.64 Route b. 80. in 1 hr. and that to Marok to the X. from Sc^rum a road diverges to the left to JotTinheim. at Skaare and BJelle (Stryn road)^ and at the Djiqnas Hut (Geiranger route). whence the road to Siryii runs to the S. on the N. 152) becomes visible in the distance. Beyond the gaard of Volden about 12 Kil. more.). of Vaoge.. 2 pers. on the whole. . 20 Kil. Facing us rises the huge Lomsegg (p. and the Ottavand in its W. Brovik. The road ascends the wooded and monotonous Ottadal. bank of the lake. following the foaming river. which now takes the name of Ottavand.. and forms several fine cascades.) Opposite. The road slowly ascends the Otta to the top of the fjeld and runs level for some way. 9. 26.

) Brcendtn. The country here is tolerably well peopled. beyond the lake. the remains of old moraines. an old 'Stavekirke' (p.d (* Hotel).) Mork (2190 ft. the landlord. 66) and ascending the Brotedal. and on the N. The branch to the left ascends the BcTverdal to Rejshjem (15 Kil. we observe the Loms-Horvng (5660 ft. Farther on it traverses thick deposits of sand. 152). from Mork 5 good quarters at Sven Kvitingen'a).) the lower end of the Liavand.) Dyringen Sceier. Hence a somewhat trying descent brings us to the Nerstedals-Scvter (p. and also acts as a guide private skyds).) to the (IV-' hr. Route. via Aanioi tu (17 Kil. with the bluish-green Otta-Elv.) and the Tvceraadahkirke (6830 ft. bank of the Liavand (. By the Praestegaard is an old 'Stabbur'. 14S . 5 . leaving the road at Dyringen and crossing the bridge. 10 Kil. 7th Edit. side was lengthened and the lofty spire built. with views of the Rivenaaskuten and the Tvseraadalskirke. whence it goes Oil. by the Holatinder in the background. to the (1' 4 hr.). from the We Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 9. ugh the Steindnl and traver. . The apse is old and has the usual round tower. On the right. bank of the Ottavand. descending from the Aursjef. is the *Church of Lorn (1290 ft. bounded on the S.or Brenii-Sater (occupied till the middle of Aug. ascend along the brook issuing froui the Sotkjarn and cr^ss it into the Tvaraadal. FLekhei (fair station). which to the bank. Farther on we recross the Otta-Elv by a bridge in the old Norwegian style.). 9 hrs. Aa. A silken flag with a hand holding a sickle is said to commemorate the introduction of irrigation into this district.). Our road continues to follow the S.) — Sota-SiEter (i2320 ft. Andvord or Anvord (tolerable quarters). 1. p.nsta. the Tvcerfjeld (6365 ft. About 2 Kil. 15 Kil. The distant snow-peak ahead of us is the Skriduleft Beyond the Prcestegaard the road crosses by an old bridge laupen (p. on an old moraine.•several fine Mulntain Excursions (with guide). lead-.).to Grotlid LOM. supported by 26 flat-hewn columns.).^c the glacier between the Tundredalskirke (05(X) lit. has lost its original character through the introduction of a new ceiling. when the W. 11 Kil. hank of the brook and" the S.). 151). — — are frequently irrigated which have been the regular crops here from time immemorial. A fooipath. passing the (3/4 hr. . ahng the S. to (7-8 Kil. and thence. From this valley we ascend to the right thr. 65 the bridge. known to have existed in 1270 and afterwards transformed into a cruciform structure. leads .:3 . by the Grotnafjeld (6380 ft. by means of large shovels ('skyldrek'). near the church of Skeaker lies a little to the right of the road. 67). A road. with its nave and aisles. The interior. 28). turning to the left bevnnd the Nordlijer. The fields of rye and barley. lies the station of — . to the left of the road. by the glacier-clad Hestbrcepigge (p. farther on is the former station of *Lindsheim {Lars. 4 hrs. Beyond the church the road forks. about 1 Kil. and the Svaahe (6135 ft. from the fork.Kirke (p. where rain is scarce.'J475 ft. On the right we pass the confluence of the AarElv. On this road.). From Lindsheisi to the Sognefjord. is well informed. On the left soon opens the Lunderdal^ with its immense moraines.) to the Fortundalnbriv. a good starting-point for .

on the Strynsvand (p.). The country looks parched. then along the 7?ef^yesA:acr?The Svarthytdal is next vand (3070 ft. are the Aasen-Sa:tre. the starting-point of the passes to the Sogne district. which here forms the 0ibergsfos.) in a series of falls. 19 Kil.) we descend vapidly into the Sundal and through the Hjelledal to BJelle. 138).S(sler (2990 ft. 141). to the last-named valley. 3. The lake contains several islands. 50 beds. lie the Hegerbotten-Saetre (3020 ft. Kol'. R.). Towards the end of the latter theRauddal opens to the left.. Thousands of fallen trees ('Vindfald') rot on the ground. ^ the (IV4 hr. bank of the stream..). leads through a wild district to (14-15 hrs. the result of cutting down the forests.). We cross the Thordals-Elv. whence the route descends steeply through the Sprangdal to the Faaberg-Stel (p. By crossing the bridge over the Framrust-Elv. which lies on the Glittera-Elv. frequented before the opening of the Videdal road (p.-I kr. we next reach the Fredriksvand and the long Poloand (1930 ft. The path ascends through the Rauddal. We pass the Vuluvand. l-li/s kr. near the fine series of falls called the *Polfos. To the S.) to the (IV2 hr. — — . On the right the Gjedingsbcek descends from the Sletflykamp (6160 ft. landlord speaks English) finely situated amid wood. Sota-Seeter). (pay for 23) Polfossen (*Christ. to the right.) the Strynsvand. Tlie Opnaaset becomes visible beyond tlie Skridulaupen. a pretty mountain-lake on the .brcB to the FjeldsU-Scefer (see p. On hills formed by debris. the outflow of the Glittersvand. D. 183). through huge rocky debris ('Ur'). 80 0.) Mork (1 (p. with about pens. we reach hr.Hjelt€rs Inn. fed by numerous glaciers and snow-fields. By crossing the bridge and proceeding towards the N. 183). by which we cross the Otta-Elv. telephone. much — The road passes the falls of the Otta-Elv. The valley expands and takes the name of Billing sdalen.. as rain is very scarce here in summer. lie the sseters of Billingen. or S. to the S. and surmounting the ridge to the S.W. commanded on the N. (with the snow-clad Tundredalskirke in the background. of the Framrust-Sater. (4360 ft. B. After reaching the Kampliamre (4065 ft. 2. which is overlooked by a bridge. 148). we reach the Botten-SoEtev.E. on the hill. from which its foaming current issues.). . of Polfns. of which. to the S. with the Framrusthovd and the Glitterhe. on the opposite side of the Otta. In the background is the Opnaaset . The Bomma Bridge. 65). Trout-fishing may be enjoyed here. overgrown with ftrs and pines. Our road now passes the Nordbjergs-Kirke (left). From this ssfter a grand route. "We continue to follow the gorge of the brawling Otta and reach the Hegcrbottenvand. 65). POLrOSSEN. the Tundredal to the S. to the right. at the lower end of the Rmiddal lies i% . We cross a bridge over the Kvarnaa which descends on the right from the Synstaalkirke.. (see The road ascends rapidly p. Passing two saw-mills.) Framrtut. From Otta then to the right over the From the Sota-Sseter across the bridge and along the N. On the left flows the Otta-Elv. as there was no market for them before the construction of the road. 3-4 kr.W. commands a view of three valleys.by the snow-clad Skridulaupen. p. the Brotedal to the W.66 Route 9. skirting first the long Rauddalsvand and then the Rauddalsbrce. and the Billingsdnl to the N. As above to the Tvapraadal.) Musuhytt-SoEter ascended to the HandspiJcje (4520 ft.

64). including 44 lbs. — and Nces.. The curious wall of the churchyard is built of slate. is the high white ridge of the Josiedalsbra. 185. Road from Otta to Naes. which descends from Lake Via at the foot of the Rondane (p. Route.g. through the Gudbrandsdal. leads to (11 Kil. between this and the Kvitlenaava (6263 ft. reached from Otta in about I1/2 ^^• good 15 Kil. on the left bank of the river. which diverges from the road to the right.). We pass several deposits of debris. 80 kr. The scenery becomes grander. IjAURGAARD.. which the river has formed in forcing its passage through the rocky barrier of Rusten^ descending in a series of rapids and cataracts. cuisine). see p. 67 Ny- left. Afelmen Stuefloten^ and Ornmrn. 18 Kil.9. is the Formokarnpen (4836 ft. to Stryn. Beyond the bridge over the L7a. It A bridle-path. but it is questionable whether this service will be maintained. * Station The road crosses the and ascends to . through the valley of the outlet of the Selsvand and crosses the wooded ridge to (21 Kil. forming the background of the valley. and pair for 2 pers. In the distance.W. A Diligence has heretofore plied twice weekly in summer over this route in 3 days. less in proportion for 2..) if taken in advance (e. 159 Kil. Those who do not travel by diligence should carefully avoid the places at which it puts up for the night. and the meals and night quarters provided en route are good. statiun) in 2V2-3 (lays. c. The road on which Laurgaard lies leads to the W. ca. 183. at the tourist-offices in Christiania). The valley bends towards the N. From Grotlid to Marok. Fare 24 kr.. On the left is the Skridulaupbra.). 28 kr. 64 the N. (pay for 27) Grotlld.to Nas. be recommended. on the Romsdals-Fjord. and owned by the station-master at Laurgaard. . 70. we see the church of Sel to the left. The diligence travels quickly. 62. stolkjserre for 2 pers. The best Night Quarters ai-e found at Lauvgaard^ Brccndhougen^ Toftemoen^ Domaas. of luggage. . the largest of which is near Laurgaard. The road traverses a *Ravine. Carriole ca. and conspicuous mountain to the N. see pp. (p. (15. Laurgaard or Laargaard (1040 ft. accomplished by skyds (skyds.station at the rail. 184. Holscnt^ Lesjevcerk. 3. as the diligence passengers take precedence of others. and forms the Daanofos ("thunder-fall") close to the road. 3 pers. We cross the river to Laurgaard. and most The large of the old tombstones are of 'klaebersten' or soapstone. 41 kr. 184. 55. The scenery becomes grander as we travel westwards.) S0rum before cannot. 4 pers. it crosses the bridge now return to the left bank of the Laagen. Laagen by the bridge mentioned at p.). see pp. The Formokarnpen (see above) is ascended hence.) the Hevringen Scetei% litted up as an inn. The grandest point is at the ^Bridge which 5* We . with the GLitterhe and Skridulaupen. into wliicli the Vuludals-Elv falls to the right are the is Scetre (2685 ft. We then pass the Heimdalsvand and Grotlidsvand. 76 kr. or 4 pers.. a little in the Rusten Itavine. 74). Finest parts for walking between Stuefloten and Ormeim and between Flatmavk . however. ^ carr. 186. The road compar- atively level.

good cuisine. "^Station). 11) from ours. a long day's journey. high up on the right. end of the Lesjeskogen-Vdnd (2050 ft. — A bridle-path ascends from Holseet by the Lora-Elv to the Stovsccter and the Nysoitev (about 5 hrs. to the Aursj0-Hytte and the Eikisdalsvand. . Below (left) Is the bed of the Lesjevand (1720 ft. 210. bank of the Laagen. or kr. partly Laurgaard. l^/o lir. from Domaas.). D. The grass is irrigated by means of runlets. The drive from Holsaet to Lesjevserk takes II/2 hr. may be taken to the Hardeg-Sccfer on the S. where the climate becomes Alpine. Toftemoen (^'Fru Tofte s Hotel. 12 Kil. and order his vehicle to meet him there. and soon pass the church of Do L-re (1550 ft. Lesjevserk {^Station. from Brsndhaugen).). Holsset (^Station. rising to the W. provincial English 'toft'. birches. where a fine view of the Sneheetta (p. The peak in the distance is the Store Horungen. an 'inhabited site' (Tuft) on a 'sandy plain' (Mo).). From Holaaker to the Aursje-Hytte and thence to LiUedal and Svndal. 10 Kil. lies at the divergence of the Trondhjem route (R. The broad floor of the valley is covered with debris. with theKj«flen rising above it.). English spoken). S. The ascent is very gradual. IV4 The Romsdal road leads as far as Stuefloten through an uninteresting mountain-valley. now drained. Brennhaiigen. On the right rises the Rustenfjeld.. 69). Domaas. overgrown with stunted pines. moderate).. A little beyond the church.'s drive from Toftemoen. . reach 15 Kil.K. the Rondane. l^/o'hT. or Dombaas (2160 ft.^^^^ Laurgaard) belongs to the parish of Dovre. or Brcennhaug (i^/-2-'^^U ^^.) and crosses the mountains to the S. on the left the Kjelen. Comp. which forms the . lies the once royal gaard of Tofte. As late as July large patches of snow are seen by the roadside.). The road ascends over huge deposits of detritus to the gaard of Lid. 2. in which cultivation almost ceases. From Otta carries the road to the right bank of the river. 1 V2. 11 Kil. from The traveller should walk to the bridge. Beyond the ravine we enter an Alpine valley. An excursion of 4-5 hrs. affords a fine view of the Dovrefjeld. lies at the S.). and in 1^/4 hr.68 Route 9. about 2 M. B. AVe now pass the Lesje-Kirke. TOFTEMOEN. with a scanty growth of pines. 12 Kil. Holaaker (*Station. R. 12 Kil. 71) is enjoyed. about 13/4 hr. so called from a deserted iron-mine. The Jetta (5425 ft. a huge mountain-range between the Lessc Valley and Vaage. We cross the Laagen by a new bridge. 65). which may be broken by spending a night at the pleasant Nysteter (p. 20G. see p. and heather. Fine gaards on the slopes. Hotel. The farms are nearly all on the sunny side of the valley ('Solside'). see p. situated on an aucient moraine. Braendhaugen (1555 ft. a timber -built house of the middle of last cent. Fine view of the deep ravine of the Laagen. and Jotunheim. to Aanstad (p.

Farther on the road skirts the Kauma. including the Lomsegg. To the former descends the Laagen. The Romsdal Mts. lV4hr. are the Svarth0i and Storh0i. 65).) Horgheim. Provisions necessary. which forms a fine waterfall. a place whence the whole district derives its name.50 ft. 154) hrs. partly over loose stones. 12 Kil. . see p.W. 165) and Galdh0pig (p. 2nd Day.).. 5 to the N. side of the Ottadal. The vegetation rapidly becomes richer {Linnaea bovealis abundant). an angling and shooting resort. guide 12 kr. more the path ascends to the left. In IV2 hr. The path next skirts the W.). We descend to the stream and cross several brooks and deposits of detritus.. to the S. is Beyond Melmen. more we reach the top of the first hill ('Tup'pen'). This part of the route. 202-200. slope of the Horung for 1 hr. We descend in about 2 .to Nces.. end of which we reach in 3-4 hrs.) Grensatre (srnters oi Enstad and J/er^nie. each. Stuefloten [i^j^ hr. 21(i). The remaining stations are (10 Kil. more. is also abundant. We reach the road near the skyds-station of Andvord (sec p. here eaten by the cows. IV^hr. (one double bed cofiFee.E.. very clean).) Lorafjeld we pass several tarns and the W. 65). near the church of Lesjeskogen. horse 12. 13 Kil. with a grand mountain-background. Good weather indispensable. and beyond it. A ride of 1 hr. Pines and then birches appear.W. especially beyond Flatmark. commanding the mountain-range on the S. to the N.. (1 hr.) Xas. takes a whole day. The broad snow-clad mountain to the left is the Loms-Horung (p. Beyond the 'bautasten". xlvii).) Flatmark. from the Glittertind (p. pp. The Alpine or Lapland character of the flora becomes very marked. 13/^ hr. the W. An old by the roadside. (12 Kil. Among the next is one on the left with a tastefully carved portal. called the Digervarde. and the Tundredalskirke. the discharge of the Aursj0. At the church of Skeaker the greenish 0(ia is crossed by a long bridge (splendid view). Route. M«rlmen (well spoken of). lies the gaard Einabu. The descent to Skeaker takes a full hour (ascent 2 hrs.) Orme/m. To the W. The path ascends slowly through a birch-wood in the Gven- in height. as numerous brooks have to be forded-. The path descends to the Aura. and to the latter the Rnuma^ which flows out of the W. 9. 69 watershed between the Skager-Rack and the Atlantic. who said to have halted at this gaard on his flight in 1029 (p. and reindeer-moss. The scenery becomes exceedingly bleak and wild. From M0lmen to Skeaker (p. side of the larger Fillingsvand. and farther distant the Snehaetta snow-range. the L0fth0i with its great glacier.. 152) to the Fanaraak (p. and (14 Kil. may be ascended hence in 6-8 hrs. refers to King Olaf. which commands a view of the whole Jotunheim chain. After 2 hrs. with the valley far below. (there and back. with guide). 'the Saint'. The first gaard on the slope of the valley is Bakke. will amply repay the pedestrian. in twu days of 8 hrs. to the S.*). 202. The scenery becomes more imposing.. lies the Auvsjei (3395 ft. see 11/2 lir. to the S. are conspicuous to theN^. M0LMEN.. and the temperature rises. Near the church (i^o^^^from Lesjevaerk) is — dal to the (1 hr. to the Nysaeter milk. about 52. 65)..). and bread form the only fare . 1st Day. end of the lake. on the right. (see below). In the distance arc the mountains of the Romsdal. The Siorhei (6690 ft. Details. Walking difficult. the Hestbrfepigge. The excursion to the Digervarde. (11 Kil. not to be confounded with the lake mentioned at p. over stnny ground brings us to the second 'Top'.

Jerkin. or mountain-inns. Rondane. . — of the Snehfetta then came in sight amidst the haze. From Domaas in the Gudbrandsdal over the Dovrefjeld to St0ren (Trondhjem). and ascends rapidly through moor and bog. The tenants receive an annual subsidy.) direct to Toftemoen (p. Interesting walk to the highest point on the old road (4105 ft. *Ant. is one of the four 'Fjeldstuer'. 74). We pass the s?eters. Solberg's Inn. less used since the opening of the railway (E. walkers). The Trondhjem road diverges to tlie N. The only point from which the Snehaetta is visible is the hill to the W. — 21 Kil. and beyond them the Snehatta (p. or S. D. as we look back. of Jerkinshe. 11). with stunted pines. Jerkin s Sanatorium. It is not a mere mountain.. are several valley of the Folda and ascends to . belong to the state. 68). The other three 'Fjeldstuer'. 155 Kil. To the N. to Stuefloten (p. farther on. So rises Mont Blanc. The road crosses the Fogsaa. with fast stations. Road. there and back view of Jotunheim. L. Travellers from Molde who combine this route visit to the Romsdal may easily reach Trondhjem in four days: 1st. with a Domaas.e. 202): 2nd. . and Jotunheim. from the Gudbrandsdal. from its mantle of ice. On the right are the Blaaheer. Vardesje (2985 ft. 68. and ptarmigan shooting to be had).) Jerkinshe. ascent 5 hrs. to the Dovrefjeld. we reach the plateau. commanding a Ariew of the Kollen. Grand view of the mountains. an affluent of the Glommen. 1. in a grand but solitary situation. which descends to Sundal. where the Driva. Kongsvold. — The road crosses the Fogsaa and passes several lakes. to Domaas. see p. In about 1 hr. 70 0. 3rd. Snehaetta.). (pay for 11 in this direction) Fogstuen or Fokstuen (3120 ft. . 1^2 ^^-i B.70 10. who travelled by this route at the end of April (i. basin ('Botn') are distinctly visible. and Rondane) we observe three saeters on the right and others to the left. seen from the Brevent. now disused. crowned by a 'varde'. takes its rise. founded by government on the Dovrefjeld for the use of travellers so far back as 1107-10. rise the Hundsje and Skreda Fjelds. On the Fogstuhe (5840 ft. wild-duck. From Fogstuen the old road. to Aune. fre- snowshoers. the snow and glacier of whose W. von Buck. crosses the lofty Havdbal-ke (3750 ft. kih.) The road leaves the to the right. and Drivstuen. and are bound to keep the roads open in winter and to forward the mails. several miles to the north. . R. Jerkin or quented in winter by where our road joins the (1 hr. 10 Kil. and in the evening by train to Trondhjem. but a mountain on a mountain a great and sublime apparition commanding the whole of this solitude'. not recommended for Hjerkin (3140 ft. which separates Southern (Sendenfjeldske) from Northern Norway (Nordenfjeldske Norge). 71). with 30 rooms and 45 beds reindeer. beyond which the stream is called the Folda. the Foldal road (p. To the left are extensive mountain-plains.^ io Steren. The Fokstue is now private property. in winter) writes: 'The lofty pyramid . .

often crowded in summer) is another good starting-point for the ascent of the Snehaetta and for that of the Knutshe (5565 ft. ^'Station). Scenery still grand. IV4-IV2. The Dovrefjeld termin. To the E. similar viSw). The ascent was tirst made by Esmark at the end of last century. from Drivstuen. In clear weather (rare on the Dovrefjeld) the view is very extensive in every direction. B. Stuen. .. — — . Drivstuen (2190 ft. The road now enters a narrow ravine enclosed by huse rocks. settled weather indispensgfiiide 4'/2. first the pine.. 10. 15 Kil. Fine Alpine flora. mica-slate. vegetation becomes richer. . descending from the right. The valley expands. is best ascended from Jerkin (12-14 hrs. 14 Kil. (pay for 17) Rise (well spoken of). . through which the Driva careers headlong. 12 Kil. over snow and ice. and gradually descends. and later a few fields of barley and potatoes appear. . D. The road. rents. R. or S. Beyond (l'/2 hr. The road ascends a Mil to the W. '^Staiion. 10 Kil. but deficient in picturesqueness.) 14 Kil. IV4 kr. ates at — Aune (1770 ft. Kongsvold (2950 ft. 211). and a few paces from the road. 28) here diverges from that to Trondhjem.. We cross the Gisna. forming a fine waterfall. Route.<sbjerg (1365 ft. past the little gaard of Grenbakken (on the left).l 11 Kil. to the N. For 3-4 hrs. To the W. on the Sundal road. and soon cross the Driva by a new bridge. which here unites with the 0rkla. The old road ('Vaarstien') leads up and down hill on the right bank. 1 kr.). and far inferior to that from the Galdh0pig (p. we ride across a rocky and mossy tract. 3 hrs. boundary between the Stifts of Hamar and Trondhjem. *StaUon. then the birch.. 60 0. the valley of which latter it traverses. formed by the union of the Knldinto the valley of the Driva vella and the Svonaa. The snow-capped mountain beyond is the multi-peaked Horn (p. which has lately been much improved. is the AUmandbjerg. we see the church of Qpdal^ with a pointed spire. Then an ascent to (1V4"^V2 l^^.KONGSVOLD. Molde R... A little farther on about 9 Kil. is a remarkable gorge of the Driva called *Magalaupet ('gully'). the course of which it now follows. horse 6'/2 kr. It follows the Byna and crosses the low watershed between that stream and the 0rkla. or Nystuen (good station). composed of . also called Ny-Aune or Nij-0vne. 'snow-hat'). then descends gradually to the Svonaa. well spoken of). which looks quite near. .. able). The route to the Sundal (Christiansund. The chief object of interest is the Onely shaped mountain itself. to the Johan Jerkinshytte^ known as Reinheim (12 licds Lastly 2-3 hrs. 152). which is botanically interesting. We get a last glimpse of the Snehaitta. near the mouth of the Vinstra. We pass the mouth of the Aamots-Elv on the left. Austbjerg or U. the road descends to the 0rkla. Striking view The road crosses the of the Snehaetta. 71 TheSnehaetta (7630ft. provisions necessary. .E. descends to a fertile zone of the valley. . the sixthin height among the mimntains in Norway. there and hack. crctssing several torkey at Jerkin). The Trondhjem road quits the valley of the Driva and becomes uninteresting.

of lugcrage free).. presented by Christian V. 10 ft. We then pass the church of Kvikne. lies Gaard Hoel. In summer one through-train daily. where we have a tine view of i the 14 Kil. It passes the church of Inset.. (p.). (pay for 11. and reaches (11 Kil.'s drive from Bjerkaker. in I71/4 hrs.) Trondhjem next day (fares 36 kr.). (10 Kil. About 3/4 hr. then on the left bank of the stream. fir -clad valley of the Sokna. 11 Kil. a road with fast stations.) and follows its right bank. 33 kr. From Bjerkaker to j9'rkedals0rex. next reaches (15 Kil. where a famous drinking-horn is still shown. From Acstejekg to T^nsjet. Still ascending. which flows through the Stubs0 (right) and enters the Glommen at T0ns8et. 212. with fine views.) J0rke. through meadows and forests. 14 Kil. Fine views. 74). respectively drank when on their way to be crowned at Trondhjem.. 74 Kil..) Aavlivold.W. crosses the foaming Naven (Nava) at a copper-foundry with large chimneys. crosses the 0rk]a 211). Haarstad (720 ft. 22 kr. (pay for 17) BJei-nsmoen Teinsat (p. Bjerkaker or Birkaker (1325 ft. and reaches the valley of the Gula. Another train stops for the night at (14 hrs. particularly of the snow-mountains to the S. 5 a first-class ticket entitles to a sleeping.. — The road leads across the T0nnen Fosbakken (tolerable).) Bak and (8 Kil. but not in the reverse direction) Frengstad (indifferent). Bj0rnson. 14 Kil.). (350 M. wilh fast stations. 70. Garli or Garlien (^1355 ft. the poet). 80. which after its union with the Hauka takes the name of Sokna. a good road. 72 Kil. quarters at a pleasant gaard). Kalstad i Melference. an interesting route from the 0rkladal to the Glommendal. and Charles XV. The road traverses the uninteresting Soknedal and follows the course of the Igla. first on the right. (pay for 17. The road follows the narrow. in circum14 Kil. 50. 50 0. It passes near the church of Steren (to the right. runs high above the 0rkla Ravine. stopping at 14 only out of 68 stations (fares 47 kr. and descend to the Tennen. 28 kr. crosses an elevation. John (Bernadotte).) we reach 10 Kil. in reverse direction for 13) Prcesthus (700 ft. the road skirts the deep *i?a fine of the 0rkla. (pay for 17) Nyti'een (good to pay for 12) 0sterdal 3Its. Gi'ut. a station on the Trond.) Tensast. passing several gaards. ^Station) lies on the watershed between the 0rkla and the Gula. dalseren. see p. in which the Sokna forms waterfalls and drives mills 'Kvaernhus'). and cross the brawling Jen-Elv. with its substantial gaards (birthplace of B.berth . St^rren oxEngen i Slereni^iO ft. from which a road leads by Garberg and Foseide to Surendals0fren Our Leikkens road passes Kobbevvcerk. 12 Kil. Hence to (12 Kil. BJERKAKER. to the left. out of which Charles XIV. dalen. on the opposite bank). From Christiania to Trondhjem by Railway. and traversing beautiful forest. 562 Kil. Railway (Nordbane). 13 Kil. ^Station). and (p. After crossing thelgla the road enters a picturesque ravine. quarters). 12 Kil. . ( — hjem Railway 11. and then that of the Stavilia. The road ascends high on the right bank of this stream to (14 Kil.. 56 lbs. Oscar I. Beyond the church of Soknedalen (870 ft..72 Route 10.) Noevevdal (poor The river forms many rapids. The road descends in curves to (he 0rkla (780 ft. 76).. — 14 Kil. Observe the huge birch-tree. arriving in (11 hrs. pay Soon after we cross the low watershed for 17) Steen i Kvikne (praised). good station") lies on a height to the left.

0xna (666 ft. The value of their timber has risen greatly since the completion of the railway. Olaf's Hotel.ELVERUM.. to the 158 Kil. but they still adhere with pride to their original name of peasants ('Gaardbruger' sometimes parodied as 'Sofabender'). 214 Kil. Rasten (840 ft.) Leiten (760 ft. 59. Beyond (144 Kil. and now follows theE. Restaurant. Stai (860 ft. Scenery uninteresting at ping-place. to . The traveller may go to Eidsvold by early train.Tickefs for the slow train available for the express on payment of differerce. Hot meals are provided for express passengers at Hamar onlj' (IV2 kr. Fine view of the floor of the valley. the Glommen forms lake-like expansions. The last part of the journey.) Hamar see pp. beer (25 0.). 164 Kil. (570 ft. has been retained in many of the raihvay-buildings. are among the richest in Norway. Before (184 Kil. *Hansen. Rail. in spite of the intense cold. Koppang(915ft. 247 Kil. 16 kr.) the train crosses the river of that name. Rena (735 ft. Rail. Near (204 Kil. St.). Orundset (640 ft. The important GrundsetMarked.) Stenviken (785 ft. The characteristic form of the old houses of the district. The peasantry of0sterdalen.).). Ilseng . From cliange carriages. . Christiania to (126 Kil. 224 Kil. to the left. The timber is felled in autumn and winter. and the like. 190 Kil. 139 Kil.) we pass the drilling-ground of Terningmoen. The train gradually ascends is through the lonely -wooded regions of Hedemarken. is the finest. tea. take the steamer to Hamar. a small stoppassed. Jernbane Hotel.. Hjellum. and there join the express in the afternoon (comp. on the right bank of the Glommen.) the train crosses the Glommen by a long bridge. the district traversed by theGlomraen and its affluents.). Ophus (805ft. Here. 60. a great horse and timber fair. . 58). Route. Hersand S. the hardy wood -cutters often spending weeks in the forest. In order to secure good rooms at T0ns8et it is advisable to write or telegraph beforehand.). 11. not far from the church of Aamot. takes place here every March. Restaurant'). Fine view of the Skreidfjeld (p. first..W. bank (views to the left). thence to Trdndhjem. 2min.: Rail. some of their forest-estates extending to many square miles. with their open roofs and tall chimneys. 73 10 0. p. At the otlier refreshment-rooms nothing can be had except sandwiches (10 0. 135 Kil. Some of their gaards are comfortably and even luxuriously fitted up. . Aadalsbrug. opposite the station. the left of the station-exit. 171 Kil.). diners help themselves). Restaurant. especially beyond R0rus. and farther on. 141 Kil. per pint bottle). The best views between ITamar and Rena arc to the right.) 237 Kil. of Lake Mjcsen. Aker. 58). for travellers by ordinary train at Harnar and at Singsaas (same charge). intersected by the river in many branches. and passing the night in wretched huts.) Adsta (740 ft. 131 Kil. We and go on by the narrow-gauge Reros Railway ^ (engage sleeping-berth"). the valley of which the train ascends to R^ros. The scenery assumes a more mountainous character. well spoken of) is the first station in the valley of the (jlommen. near which are several inns. Elverum (610 ft.

347 Kil. Thence via Kongsvold. . —From (18 Kil.). high above the Glommen. Koppang Hotel.). where it suddenly ends in a chaos of precipitous cliffs. carpeted with yellow moss. Restaurant. Ryhaugen. 324 Kil. A new road ascends the right bank of the Atne-Elv. near the Atnethe Sje (2296 ft. from Atna. Fine views towards the S. Lille -Elvedal (1660 Rail.. From Christiania R. as we look back.. 337 Kil. Rise. to (22 Kil. when the thermometer sometimes falls 60° Fahr. Bjeraancesset. 285 Kil. both close by and well spoken of). with a view of the Rondane. Restaurant. The train skirts the river. Dalen splendid view of the Snehsetta. 82 Kil. which may be ascended from Lille-Elvedal (carriage-road nearly the whole way).) Barkald (1485 ft. BUeslerdalen (to the E. From Str0mb a path leads across the hills to the Bjenihull-Sater (good quarters) and Myssu-Sceter. To the W. and crosses two bridges. The gorge extends from the Tyldal on the E.) the Glommen forms the Barkaldfos. T«rns8et (1620 ft. These peaks and the still higher Rondeslot (71Ci0 ft. It is about 650 ft. 172» S. to a point about I1/4 M. well spoken of)..). . On the opposite bank rises the imposing Grettinghratten (3820 ft. 70). The mountains increase in height. and Treen). a mouncomposed of gabbro and serpentine. and Aune to the Sundal. HANESTAD. a small stopping-place. from the Glommen on theW. near the mouth of the Atne-Elv. Rail.) Atnebro (good (luarters at the gaards of Ncessct. are high mountains . and the Rundvashegda (6900 ft. The gorge was formed. 17 Kil. Schulrud's Hotel) lies near the confluence of the Tenna and the Glommen. and again enters monotonous wood. — — the attempt of a giant to divert the Glommen ft. chiefly on the right bank of the latter. and its lowest point lies about 130 ft. Imposing view of the chief peaks of the Rondane Hegrond (6700 ft. station for several gaards on the opposite bank of the Glommen. rising above the forests. to the Atnevand and the Rondane (see above). It is the centre of the N. Dcehlie's Hotel. — — tain The train skirts the base of the Tronfjeld (5610 ft.). The train now runs through wood. The former — ..) Kroghaugen ('Station! a route leads to the S. and (33 Kil. A bridge crosses the The Road through the Foldal to Jerkin offers the shortest approach from Christiania to the Sundal and Nordm0re. distant) lies on a height above the river. below the Glommen. of which rises the Store Seilen or Dele Selen. deep. .] road next leads past the church of SolUden to (21 KiJ.) Krokhaug-Foldalen (see below). 272 Kil. Brcenden^ Uti. Atna (1170 ft. Large tracts of dead pines killed by the extreme cold of winter. at the Foldal (see below). 71. [From Hira a road leads to the left to the Our Slorfj eld. to the S. Hanestad (1250 ft. toRingebu A road leads from Atnebro to Sirombu. 62). in the Gudbrandsdal (p.) may be ascended from the gaard oi Stremib (4 Kil. IV2 ^r. and through the Uladal. 0sterdal. the entrance to Glommen here. Ole Hek- to:ris Hotel.W.).). into the Rendal. . Skyds-Statiorij in the village. with a view of high hills to the N.). below zero. Jerkin (p. see p. according to tradition.74 Route 11. Auma (1600 ft.) Siorbaknioeyi.).Scaler Sanatorittm (13 Kil. 17 Kil.) the Sfygfjeld (6730 ft. and the valley contracts. 5800 ft. from the Atne-SJ0) through the Langglupdal. At (304 Kil. crossing the stream at Hira. which formerly belonged to the Stift of Trondhjem. Dreary scenery. Fine view of it. Drivstuen.).. A visit from Barkald to the curious gorge of Jutulhugget takes about 3 hrs. by : . 10 min.

The train follows the valley of the latter to Melhus. Reros Hotel. apart from the mines. 420 Kil. Larscn s Hotel. The train ascends more rapidly. see p.). while the Glommen. 22 Kil. bordered with extensive terraces of glacial detritus and sand-hills. traverses an extensive moor.) Lanyen. side of the town. 302. above the sea-level. The mines yield about 500 tons of pure copper annually. have been converted into pastures by careful manuring. to {bTSAl. yielding 4 per cent of copper. A little farther on is the copper-coloured site of an old furnace. to the N. after the discovery of the copper-mines. 75 'Stavekirke'. and traverses a bleak plateau. — — .. 368 Kil. Ny Solskins Gi'ube. Kongens Grube. to the K.). see p. i^C6/aMrt/n<.). 11.) Jensvold (2090 ft. Near — . halt of 6-10 min. The mining is carried on by electricity. Sceteni i Revos and {il K\\. — From Reros the train returns on the same rails to the main line (views to the left). ToUjen Pasturage now takes the place of tilled fields. 385 Kil. passes the Storskarv en on the right.. It lies on the Hitter-Elv.) S0ndervil:en or\ ihc FoEimindSj0 (about 2300 ft. 72. the ore of which yields 8 per cent of copper. Tclnas (1G30 ft. . Nypladsen (2055 ft. the present cLurch is modern.. 14 Kil. dating from 1210.* Rail. 406 Kil. on the right side of the Tront'jeld. and the forest is gone. the Dragaas Hytte at Aalen^ and the . end of the lake).. The line traverses the extensive Godtlandsrnyr. Yast expanses of turf.E. 358 Kil. in an exposed situation.). on the watershed between the Glommen and the Gula. and reaches 399 Kil. the Hummelfjeld (5050 ft. which descends to the TrondhjemsFjord. distant.). Os (1975 ft. 9 Kil.. situated on a dreary and inclement plateau. To the S. (1685 ft.) Jensvold and (18 Kil. Observe the curious timber houses. From T^nsa-t to Kvikne and Auslbjerg. Thence to Sweden. Beyond (412 Kil. R0ROS.) Skotgaarden on \\i&Aursund'Vand^ to visit (not without privations) a settleAnother skyds-road leads to theS. A stone to the left marks tlie highest point of the railway (2200 ft. Tyvold (2180 ft. Route. The town was founded in 1646. 74). roofed with turf.). The smelting-works are the Reros Ilytte. 3hig Orube. Heaps of copper ore (Kobbermalm) generally lie at the station. We now cross the turbulent Glommen. via (17 Kil. descending from the ft. The vegetation assumes a thoroughly Alpine character. Corn does not ripen. Cattle-breeding is the only resource of the inhabitants.) ment of Nomadic Lapps.). with 1800 inhah. The train crosses the Nera. the village lies on a slope (Lid) on the opposite bank. furnished by the Kurctasfos at the outflow of the Aursund-Vand (see below).to Trondhjem.W. To the right. by (16 Kil. The chief Aursund-Sje (2285 mines are Storvarts Grube^ 2716 ft. From Il0ros we may drive by skyds. well spoken of Mad. near it. The train descends circuitously on the slope of the broad and wooded basin of the Gula. lias disappeared.). (247 M.W.).) the train crosses large expanses of de'bris. flows round the AV.. Lovixa Hytte at Lille-Elvedal. rise the Rdndane (p.).E. where the dwarf-birch alone thrives. aiid the largo church of 1780. on which a steamer plies (hotel at the S.) R«ros or Reraas [20(50 ft.

454 Kil. which falls into the fjord at Trondhjem. near the Lille Lerfos (to the right. train skirts the rocks oi Dreilierne (seven short tunnels) and enters . A the ravine of the Dreia^ which it crosses by a lofty bridge.) is the KilUngdalen Mine. with a bridge 480 Kil.). Rognces (300 ft. 10). Holtaalen (985 ft. (432 Kil. with the We now descend country villas of several Trondhjem merchants. .). The per-foundry.).E. with a finely situated new church (to the right). In the and afterwards the cuttings we distinguish first the clay. Kotseien.) and (472 Kil. 517 Kil.).) we get a glimpse of the 0rkedalsfjord. p. Stj^ren (290 ft. with a bridge over the Gula. 551 Kil. We Rail. 510 Kil. Bjergen (455 ft. trance of the Forradal. 538 Kil. and flows into the Gulosen. Lastly (comp. and crosses the hill between the Gula and the Nid.slate granite and gneiss formations. Norye) is pleasantly situated 1 M. A little above St^ren. river. Below lies the church of Hov. passing numerous farms. At (546 Kil. At the stopping-place Sclshak we reach the Nid-Elv. The train crosses the river. — — . Ler (80 ft.). with a new church. at the confluence of the Sokna and the Gula.) Reitsteen (670 ft. IVo^^m ^oi. Rail. The train crosses a tributary of the Gula twice . Below it lies a copvery picturesque part of the line begins here. (463 Kil.) Nypen (230 ft.). p.) Trondhjem (p. with skyds-station. the copper pyrites of which is brought to the railway by a wire-rope line. a bay of the 0rkedalsfjord (an arm of the Trondhjcms-Fjord). station. 2. 442 Kil. is the church mentioned on p. S. Kvaal (160 ft.). Seberg (100 ft. On the left are several old gaards. at the rail. 499 Kil. a stopping-place. over the Gula. view to the left. beyond which we reach the harbour and the station of 562 Kil. 217). On the left.). The train now descends. The train turns to theN. a fine waterfall. and then follow its left bank. and a 'tophue' now descend the valley of the Gula to or peaked woollen cap. Restaurant).76 Route 11. 72. Eidet (1380 ft. leathern breeches. prettily situated.terraces are passed. which here forms the Gulefos on the left and dashes through its narrow channel. The costume of the peasantry here usually consists of a red jacket. The beautiful rocky valley is well cultivated at places.). along which the Dovrefjeld road ascends (R. to the left. EIDET.. 212). and of a snowy mountain in the distance. Restaurant. Three short tunnels. and partly wooded. Large terraces of de'bris to the left mark the en486 Kil. 541 Kil. Melhus (75 ft.).) Reitan (1780 ft. Hovin (170 ft. ^Ve cross the Gula. Heimdal (465 ft. Rail. (350 M.). Numerous which turns We now quit the Gula. below the mouth of the Sokna.W.) Langlete (770 ft. 524 Kil. to the N. Steven's Hotel. 530 Kil. Singsaas (575 ft. for the last time. Restaurant). 535 Kil.l. R. The valley expands. B. — and ascends a little. Lundemo (108 ft. 212) a short tunnel under the suburb of Ihlen. Map.

). Vast quantities of timber jtist above its influx into Lake 0ieren. 33 kr. — ated. 29 Kil. 58). (fares 9 kr. 59) diverges here to the N. 112 Kil. 59. From Kongsvinger to Fllsen. which forms cataracts at places.W. frontier. From Christiania by Railway to Charlottenberg (and Stockliolm) 143 Kil.}. a long basin of the Glommen. prettily situ.. From Cliristiania to ['21 Kil. 73 Kil. Skotterud 133 Kil. Bingsfors. us towards the S. In summer one througli-train runs daily between Christiania ). at the mouth a branch-line ('Sol0rbane' 50 Kil. Sceterdeen. see p. Skarnce'^. . 143 Kil. all the way to Kongsvinger. 67 Kil. 87 Kil. falls into the Glommen. 100 Kil. which channel is followed by the railway (comp. in which Kongsvinger lies.E. and crosses the Swedish . Blakjer or B laker. 50 0.) runs of a tributary of the Glommen. Disenaaen. erected in 1683. fully 1 M. (89 M. to the N. to let). with 1400 inhab. 1st class sleeping berth 5 kr. junction of a narrow-gauge railway to Bjerkelangen (to be prolonged to SkitUerud)42 Kil. Aabogen. 92 Kil. p. 37 Kil. Galterud. 301). train r. the last also ^vith various factories. Fetsund^ where the train crosses the broad Glommen. and Stockh(»lm without change in 15' 2 hrs. Eidsskog. Haga . The Fortress (^Ffestning. Fares 43 kr. Restaurant). . in 40 min. (comp. first station in Sweden. The railway turns to the S.L'ailway in a'/z-o'A lirs. 79 Kil. The train now follows the E. Kongsvinger (480 ft.. enter the lake here every spring on their way down to Sarpsborg and Fredrikstad. called Draget. Sander. 30. The train quits the district of Vinger. see R. 49 Kil. a halting-place. 5. Aarno's (Rail. 7 kr. lies on the right bank of the Glommen. of Lake 0kren (330 ft. 58 Kil. Mellerud' s Hotel). 4 kr. p. 122 Kil. descending from Lake Mjesen (p. Serumsanden . and quits the Glommen. . from the station. played an important part in the wars between Sweden and Norway (line view). (89 M. the Charlottenburg through less interesting scenery. At Ncps. but now dismantled. Maynor. 127 Kil.). a little beyond Magnor. Restaurant^ with rooms The small town (Kongsvinger Hotel.) Lillestremmen. Lillcstremmen lies on the N. 40 . on application to station-master) 3 kr. 31/2 M. the Vormen. *Iiail. bay. all with extensive timber-yards. 301)..) Charlottenberg the and thence to Stockholm.77 12. 20. 2nd class berth (not obligatory. The Eidsvold line (p. . 48.) and tbe long lakes near Aabogen and elsewhere are basins of a now deserted channel of the Glommen. 40 Kil.E. 770 ft. The Vingerse [Alb ft. Qeft) bank of the river.

crossing the Glommen by the bridge mentioned at p. 5 kr. by the '0stre Linie\ uninteresting. 1 The train crosses 94 Kil. 15 kr. Slitti the broad Olommen. Steamers ply between Christiania and Moss several times daily. more. from the station.. near the pier. and. with tombstones of the 18t. but the traveller should stop at Sarpsborg.78 13. 13 kr. 8 kr. Mr. . lies on a bay of the Christiania Fjord. and spending one night on the way if necessary. From Christiania to Gotenburg one through day-express (going on to Malmo) in 12 hrs. a sea-bathing place. (221 M. a thriving town of 8000 inhab.). . Olsen's Hotel. Fredrikstad. Mr. 1814. and passes through a tunnel. and Fredrikshald to Gotenburg. Ise. the Christiania Fjord from the Bundefjord. Gautistad. R. . 9. 21 Kil. Moss Hotel Brit. 5. Opposite the church and the Moss Hotel is an old churchyard. C... the Kjelbergs-Elv. To the right is Ncesodden. 45 0. p. . The train then runs along the Nipen. with change of carriages at Mellerud (fares to Fredrikshald 8 kr. in A great part of their course lies between the Hjell0 and the mainland. vice-consul. 6Kil. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Railway. Restaurant). Vestby. 48 Kil. 79. 79). Ljan. 40 Kil.) and one through night-express (with sleeping bertha) in 10 hrs. 35. affording a fine retrospect of the town.. vice-consul. . Eidsberg. 50 0. a large peninsula separating 24 Kil. 13 Kil. Ml/sen. FredrUshald and Trollhdttan. 20 kr. the strait between Moss and the Hjelle. . The convention of 14th Aug. ll/j2 kr.lxxvi). 61 Kil. Victoria. Restaurant. : Next stations Billing.) train rounds the suburb of Oslo and skirts the base of the Ekeberg (p. comp. 35. Tomter. Moss (Rail. 19).Railway. now a promenade. Map. 5 min. (fares 26 kr. (fares 30 kr. with nickel-mines. K. The railway-journey itself is uninteresting. Christiania.h cent. 6 kr. — Near (32 Kil. The see p. 90 0. (As far as Moss. 20. a town with 13. night-train 11 kr. station for Soon. Travellers in the reverse direction should leave the railway at Moss and take one of the local steamers up the beautiful fjord to Christiania.). in conformity with which Norway ceased to oppose the union with Sweden. 55 Kil. — Rail. 356 Kil. 35 0. reaches (81 Kil..ffaiL Restaurant. The station is on the S. 8 Kil. 21. Askim. 4 hrs.). ThiisJ. The train skirts the Bundefjord houses.400 inhab. Rygge.. Onse. Rakkestad.. 22 kr. Fredrikstad f. Steamers run daily from Moss. going on in each case by the next train.) Oppegaard (320 ft. J.) Bcekkelaget we survey the islands and villas of the Ormpassing many country sund. Vogt). Spi/deberg. from the steamboat-pier on the Hjelle.). \ thence to Gotenburg in 6 hrs. more than M. Skandinavie. to which a bridge crosses. Soner. Raade. 75. 60. 45 0.) Sarpsborg (p. Ski (420 ft.) Aas is an agricultural school. 60 Kil. 45 Kil. lies . was signed here (p. The train ascends to (18 Kil. H. Brit. From Ski to Sari'sborg.. 3 kr. 73 Kil. From Christiania to Kornse^ in 51/4-5^4 lirs. thence to Gotenburg 16 kr. *Fru Arnesens Hotel. 81 Kil. Kraakstad.. 39 Kil. 55. 35 Kil. 2 kr. From (4 Kil. On the Hjelle are several pretty villas and the orphanage of Orkered. 9 kr. side of the town. The train now descends to the fjord and skirts the picturesque Mossesund. The line then crosses 29 Kil.

y^«?.^^^a2v^• .Z . 'SBarregaard.•* «^A ni 200 IT' •*' IB?! ^i*' !i>i % lOOO jdumfdbrrik.100 400 600 800 5iK^.'hafit- ' 1:26.' ^orgeffite >^ph. Anstalt Ton. IVearflEstod. .2?r.

.

to the W. is floated down to the sea. which has daily steamboat communication with Christiania (6 hrs. see p. and the 'Forlystelsehus Valhalla'. *Aarsland's Hotel. Pleasant views of the broad river. I1/22kr. From the station we either follow the road through the town. At Hafslund. and was once strongly fortified. Holland. 78. From Sarpsborg of the yards. Sarpsborg (. 80). and 6Kil.SARPSBORG. 109 Kil. on the left bank of the river. The banks . 106 Kil. The huge volume of water. left The some curiously worn train crosses an arm are covered with saw-mills. fell into the river with all its inmates and rattle. on the W. a theatre.23). To the N. D. a large new church. Victoria Hotel. The busiest quarter is the Forstad. in 1570. the most richly wooded district in Norway. 116 ft.i?a/Z. More than one-third of all the timber exported from Norway is floated seaward on the Glommen (5. was founded in 1840 on the site of an ancient town destroyed in 1567. with the quay of the Fredrikshald steamers. The scene is most impressive in May and June. B. station for the S. 2. the huge *Sarfsfos which affords water-power to numerous saw-mills. 2V4. of Fredrikstad is the Hankei Kyst-Sanatormm (three hotels and numerous villas.000 logs in 1897. and then to the right. pension 120 kr. The old town on the left bank was founded by King Frederick II. Beyond Fredrikstad we pass on the rocks. Route. In the winter of 1702 a portion of the right bank. falls from a height of 74 ft. by a path which rejoins the road. to theS. 1 kr.000 horse-power. in width. 79 on the Christiauia Fjord. of the town the river forms the lake of Glengshelen. long and 1300 ft. a small town on the left bank of the Glommen. — to Ski. paper and cellulose factories. and to the S. Sannesund.340. port of Sarpsborg. The buildings adjoining it (reached by turning to the right beyond the bridge) afford another superb view of the fall. broad. 73). comp. Greaker. . with the railway -station. Oti the left bank there is a channel ('Temmer-Rende') for the descent of the sawn wood. About 7 Kil. at the month of the Glommen^ on which the timber of the Jdsterdal (p. K. R. etc. bank of the river. 103 Kil. A few hours suffice to visit the fall. France. lo theE. lies Tosekilen or Ilundehunden^ a pleasant sea-bathing place.). a popular place of amiisement. About 10 Kil. of Sannesmid.) and Fredrikstad (1 hr. 2000 ft. Glommen.).p. of Fredrikstad. or turn immediately to the left. The finest point of view is a rocky projection to which we descend in a few minutes to the right on this side of the bridge. per month). are some aluminium works with an ele<tric plant of 20. timber and brick-fields. on which lay a large farm-house. 73.E. The road then leads under the railway and with it crosses the fall by a Suspension Bridge (see p. The town owes its importance to its timber-trade with Germany. The joint population of the two places is 4000. The train quits the Glommen. Restaurant. etc. having been gradually undermined by the water. A steam-ferry plies between these two parts of the town. * Christians en's Hotel. .

C. Hotels. Christiania. It then skirts the grounds of the Villa Red (PL A. (carr. R. . it is commanded by the once important fortress of Fredrikssten. but was shot in the trenches at the back of the fortress on 11th Dec. 3). 2 kr. and affords a view of the Brate. (d. 1766) and Christian VII. and a rocky height on the left.. 3 Kr. C. Norway and the adjoining parts of Sweden. vice-consul. again attacked the town in 1716. exchanged its old name of Halden for Fredrikshald.000 logs were collected here in 1897. 4. 234). 3). 80 0. and overlooking the Sarpsfos to the right. 4). the marble for which comes from Fuske. ••'ScHULTZs Hotel (PI.. to the gate ('V. On the fjord are some large marble-polishing works. and were again unsuccessful. (d. Kirkestra?de. Bail. 4) affords a fine view of the Fredrikssten and of the islet of Sauge (p.E. R. We follow P. . see p. an old town with 12. 3). On the S. these two at the station (PI. and in 1661-66 founded the fortress of Fredrikssten. D. ifr. *Iveesen"s Hotel. Port' in the annexed Plan) of the *Frbdriksstkn (PL E. 11. Fredrikshald. IV22 kr. immediately to the left beyond the Vest-Port. in consequence of which Frederick II. Upwards of 1. in a marshy hollow. A walk on the harbour (PI. and crosses the Tistedals-Elv. Kolbjernsen's Gade to the E. Woods and patches of arable land ('Smaa-Lene') alternate with marshes and meadows. .. The ascent of the Fredrikxsten (there and back) takes about IV2 hr.)..000 inhab. 7 kr. D. cross the outer wall of the fortress. centres of the timber traffic of E. . Steamers to — . rebuilt after picturesquely situated on both banks of the It is one of the Tistedals-Elv. Fredrikshald a second time. 365 ft. B. new.). with a flagstaff and some guns. chiefly owing to the gallantry In 1718 Charles XII. SevThe train passes between the fjord on the right eral tunnels. *Graxd Hotel..]. and dates in its present form chiefly from the reigns of Frederick V. The best point of view is the Brandbatteri (PL 11 E. From Christiania The train now crosses the Glommen by a lofty bridge "borne by the four piers of the suspension-bridge above mentioned. The garrison consists of a few companies of infantry.). 80 0. near Bode (p. Fredrikshald owes its name to the bravery with which the inhabitants repelled the attacks of the Swedes in 1658-60. 2 visitors admitted).. FREDRIKSHALD. (carr. Berg (230 ft. PI. in 1826. b. where a simple monument commemorates the gallantry of the brothers Kolbjernsen. Klein. Skjeberg (128 ft. a tire Fredrikshald. B. whereupon his army raised the siege. W. The Swedes under Charles XII. This fortress crowns a rock rising precipitously on three sides. admission free). The villas of the wealthy merchants line the fjord. Farther on the train reaches the Idefjord. C. 1808). including the excursion to Wein 3 hrs.000. to Slromstad once or twice daily (fare 1' 2 or 1 kr. 131 Kil. besieged of Pedcr and Hans Kolbjernsen. is . — — Restaurant.80 Route 13. which here enters the Idefjord. Adjoining the harbour is the market-place (Torvet. 3. and ascend a broad road in 8-10 min. 119 Kil.) Brit. 81). 137 Kil.

ascending gradually by the road on the left bank for i^o^'^.') After 9 min. and a dubious hand. Leaving the park by the S. mills. Fjord is jdcturosqne. Passing through the fortress to the E. 'alike in fortune and misfortune. keeping to the right.E. and country-houses. which affords a view up the valley to the villa of Wein. could but fall at his post'. 4). and Gyldenteve. The passage from the lOefjoid . descend on the left bank of the river to (35-40 min. we reach the Tistedal road a little below the bifurcation mentioned above. and descend in 6-8 min. D. Stortaarnet. except Mon. tlm 0danarks-Sje. extending to Fredrikshald. E.. The train quits the valley by a short tunnel at (140 Kil. left. (fare IVs or 3 kr). with Brater and the Swedish coast opposite. 6 On leaving Fredrikshald. and soon reach a wooden gate leading into the Commandant Park and to the Monument of Charles XI I. the way to whii. 7th Edit. 81 good view is also obtained from the Klokketaarn. see p. and. For a view of the pretty Tistedal. but) straight on. 'Vane').) the Skonningfos bridge. we again turn to the left (the road leading to the town and to the Tistedal). 'He left the name at which the world 5<rew pale. Route. to the effect that the hero. iliQ Aremarks-Sje. ga'e ('0. A Where the road to the right ^ 'His fall was destined to a barren strand. and S. Johnson. erected in 1860 by the Swedish army. (A finger-post on the left shows the way to the Skonnivyfos. exit (comp. Adjacent are a stone — Time permitting. diverge to the right. A small Baedekers.to Qotenhurg. .).) the church of Tistedalen. PI.) and cross. We then ascend to (10 min. Norway and Sweden. the Saug0 and walk through traveller a may take the ferry (10«. through the Svinesund into the wide Single the rest of the route.W. 'A petty fortress.«/)ern (340 ft. marking the exact spot where the If time is limited we return by the same route. Port'). 'To point a mural or adorn a tale\ (Sam. from which 20 min. We retrace our steps nearly to (8 min. which is connected with the large /I. We turn to the left and after 5 min. unable to flinch. was the master of his fate. we observe the once important forts of Ooerhjerg. It consists of a cast-iron pyramid with an inscription by Tegne'r. 61/2 Kil. and the 0rj€-Sj0 by canals constructed for the timber traffic. factories. long. 2).) Tistedalen^ and runs along an ancient moraine resembling an embankment. we have with its waterfalls. (not to the left over the Skonningfos bridge.) to the Fine view of the fjord From Fkedrikshald to Christiania bt Sea steamer daily. At (141 Kil..h should be asked. where to the S. which commands a view of the Femsjer (see below) and of the Tistedal. narrow valley to the other side of it. 13. we turn to the divides. in TV2-II hrs. and. 83. to a broader road leading from Fredrikshald to Id.) Femsjeen we obtain a beautiful view of the lake of that name (275 ft.). and crossing the bridge to the left to Tistedalex.) the high-lying yellow country-house of Wein (proii. F. FREDRIKSHALD. hero fell in 1718. more bring us to Peder Kolbjern^ sens Park (PI.

301). beyond which we enter a thickly wooded district. Wed. the engineer (p. junction of the Goten- above the Stora Lee (branch-line. PI.. break the force of the waves of the Kattegat and Skager-Rack. Beyond (150 Kil. either entirely barren or clothed only with some scanty vegetation on their E. fare. Haftensund. A few paces farther on we obtain a fine view of the lake. & Thurs. Good and calling at Stromstad.). ED. 167 Kil. F. 55) and of a line to (3 Kil.. leaving Christiania on Wed..) Men (Rail. for a short time. Frid.).) Bdckefors we cross the line from Udde valla to Bengstfors (p.) on Lake Wenern. — — 14.) Aspedammen (left) we get a glimpse of the 0rsj0. The Smogen (Sun. I1/2 kr. mornings (16hrs. 4 kr. Eokedalen. Dalskog.) Sunnana From Mellerud to (124 Kil. local steamers also ply from Gotenburg (Stenbro. FJellbacka.) and several times daily to Marstrand (2 hrs. 'inompkJirs'). D. The fortress of Fredrikssten is visible to the W. Restaurant. Beyond Mon the train traversos a bleak heath. 217 Kil. see RR.82 Route steaml30at 13. first-class only. surrounded by barren hills. 189 Kil. quick steamer 'Goteborg' performs the voyage by day in 13 hrs. Sun.). At (178 Kil. and Marstrand (fare 16 or 12 kr. 356 Kil.. & Frid. and Marstrand (Sun.. The line crosses the Swedish frontier. Large timber-yards are passed near (159 Kil. The district beyond Ed abounds in marshes. 233 Kil. 84). Mellerud (Rail. p.. nights and Gotenburg'on Sun. 55. though the scenery can hardly be described as picturesque. burg and Falun Railway (R. Glimpse (right) of part of the fjord of Fredrikshald. Steamboats. Grebbestad. the sea-bathing places are much frequented. thought seldom made).- — The voyage through the Swedish island -belt ('skargard') is interesting. Lysekil. Ehrensvard'' ply twice weekly. From Christiania to Gotenburg by Sea. 5 1 kr. Several tunnels.) is the last Norwegian station.). prettily situated 1^/4 M. we come in vieAv of Lake Wenern and the small chalybeate baths of Rastok. Korns0 (475 ft. only). Restaurant) the Swedish custom-house examination takes place (comp.) Prastebakke. and hence the sea is generally calm. leaving Sat. — A.. They steer within the island-belt ('indenskjsers'. & Christiania on Tues. . 288). (201 M. 42. side. (Gotenburg on Mon. and the water is much .' Tangen. calling at the following intermediate stations: Sti'd7nstad (whence local boats ply daily to Frednkshald). to the left. 75 0. Thousands of islands. Beyond a tunnel we pass the Tiakersjb on the right. The 'Oscar Dickson' and 'Albert 325 Kil. Ed {*RaU. Kommunikationer 19S). 2) once daily to Uddevalla (51/2 hrs. Swed. almost uninhabited. Gotenburg.. but the Norwegian customs-examination usually takes place atFredrikshald. The district. is marked by the traces of forest conflagrations. Restaurant).). LyseUl. Farther on. only).). 185 Kil. The climate here is said to be unusually healthy. comp. Scenery monotonous. weekly from Tistedalen to SkuUerud (a plies thrice pleasant trip. At (207 Kil. By the station is a small monument to Nils Ericsson. 16 kr.

with numerous 'bautastenar'. Grnfverna. Mr. and a brisk trade In this rock is the Rammelklava or Djefvulsklava^ a narrow cleft. swept by the waves of tlie Skager-Rack. into the picturesque fjord of Fredrikstad (p. so that this region (Bohusldn) is justly regarded as a cradle of northern sagas. 80). stone chambers ('valar' ). .S^jjiogren. At many points on the coast there are remains of ancient castles. is a 'stensattning' (standing stones comp. in anchovies. 78). formed partly by water and partly by glacier Stromstad is a great depot of oysters and lobsters. and are descendants of the ancient vikings. symbols.t\xon&e) on the right. do not call at Fredrikstad or at Fredrikshald. who have left representations of their exploits in the 'Helleristningar' (see below) still to be seen in the parish of Tanurn near Grebbestad^ at Brastad near Lysekil. Route. commanded by the fortress of Fredrilcssten (see p. p. scratched on the rocks in prehistoric days. In the environs are numerous caverns and 'giant's cauldrons' (jdttegryttor). tombs. Windmills crown almost every height. Beyond Stromstad the vessel steers through the narrow Harsten. On the peninsula of Sotcnds to the left are the fishing -villages and bathing-places . and enter the narrow Svinesund^ the boundary between Norway and Sweden. 2600 mud and sea baths). are the Vdderoar and the Vdderbodsfyr. AVe now enter the Sotefjord. 273) in the form of a ship. Blomsholm. with 800 inhab. with its dangerous sunken rocks ('blindskar'). Fjellbacka. through the Kosterfjord. and the scenery becomes less interesting. At the mouth of the fjord we steer to the E. at the efflux of the Strdmsa from the Strdmsvatn. Salter 14. The thousands of islands through which the steamer passes are little more than bare rocks. We then pass the Hoaleer (right) and the Singeleer (left). of Stromstad. ships. but steer direct to — Stromstad (Gdstgifoaregard . T.E. is curiously situated at the foot of a rock.W. and elsewhere. 1. The cod. sometimes wealthy. To the W. however. and oyster fisheries are the most important. 41/2 ^^. The badgyttja ('bath-mud') is obtained near the town.. a favourite watering place (pop. and 6* . sund^ passes the Nordkosters D ubbelfyr (\\gh. . the next station. near the top of whicli several large stones are wedged in. consisting of figures of men and animals. herring. supposed to In the neighbouring parish of Tanum are a great many 'Helleristningar' or 'sgraffiti'. Stads-Hotel British vice-consul. Lundgren)^ the first Swedish station. 83 and purer than in the recesses of the long Norwegian fjords. etc.STROMSTAD. Below Moss the fjord widens. At action. The Gotenburg steamers.W. The inhabitants The *Christiania Fjoru down to Moss is described in R. commemorate a defeat of Scottish invaders. lobster. are chiefly fishermen. battlefield of Greby . Near Grebbestad is the and steers S. on a bay of which (the Idefjord) lies Fredrikshald. and monuments (^'bautastenar").to t^e N.

The rocks are covered with Klipfisk (p. and in the Societets-Park is the Alphyddan. and at Gullholmen on the Hermano (right). to the N. Hot. Goteborg . Mr. on the long peninsula of Stangends. per hour. fee).. British vice-consul.. To the left lies Fiskeof Sciences. of Marstrand. Opposite the town rises the fortress of Karlsten. Sommer Hotel. into which the N. We next pass ofbrown granite. with the bathing-place of Aroidsvik. To the N. hills of shell-marl. A. with pleasant villas. The Kapellbuckar (200 ft. Lindberg . of 1460.. British vice-consul. on the E. ChristensonJ a town with 1600 inhab. 285) and to Bdckefors (p. on the Daisland Canal (p. Mary. more to Gotenburg (p.. Hot. to the W. are interesting. which with the Bokends forms the GuUmarsfjord. extending far inland. it vies in popularity with Marstrand. 277). The mild climate has gained for Marstrand the name of the 'Swedish Madeira". Marstrand (*Stads-Hotel. and other small Tangen. 236). with quarries Steering S. Sailing-boats 1 kr. we then call at Lysekil (Hotel Bergfalk.. through the Svanesund and between the islands of Orust and Tjorn and the mainland. and the water is very salt and bracing. 60 Kil . Handsome church of St. is visited by about 2000 sea-bathers annually. where several prosperous skippers reside. They touch at Siennngsdy Ljungskile. Thorium)^ a favourite watering-place (2800 inhah. Cramer''s Hotel. to the VV^ of the islands of The Gotenburg steamers follow the outer course ('ytre vagen') Orust and Tjorn.. Central Hotel. Near the ti)wn are the baths of Gustafsherg.. C. being protected by the island-belt. side of a small island.}.) and Bengstfors (89 Kil. We pass the Maseskdr and the Kdrringo^ with their lighthouses. — .). arm of the Gota-Elf discharges. in 41/2 hrs. Extensive view from the Flagyberg. is prettily situated on the Byfjord. a cotton-mill. Farther with a zoological station of the Stockholm on we touch at the Gaso (right). TSAi-Q^aWa. rooms only. Pleasant walks surround the town. at Grundsund (left). — watering-plact-s.). (Uddevalla Hotel. Beyond Eifsborg the steamboat reaches the mouth of tlie Gota-Elf. Good bathing. 288). a good restaurant (board from 2^2 kr.84 Route 14. 82. Hot. tlie Hallo Fyr and the Malmo. Though Lysekil lacks shade. in 3 hrs. bdckskii^ a bathing-resort Academy .).E. Mr.. Among the frequent lighthouses and beacons we next observe the Hamnskdrs Fyr^ near the dangerous Paternoster Skdr. The sea here is generally calm. The Kalgardsberg is the beat point of view. and a small museum of antiquities. once called the 'Gibraltar of the North' (view. Norden). is the /too. Farther on we pass the large island of Bjorko. The larger steamers now pass through the Kirkesund^ the smaller through the sh&Wow Albrektssund. W. Railways run from Uddevalla to Oxnered (p. LYSEKIL. and sight the red houses and the church of Mollosund^ on the island of Orust. a town with 7600 inhab. Beyond Lysekil the Uddevalla steamers take the inner course ('inre vagen'). F. which it ascends in 1/2 hr. To the left opens the Elvefjord.

Ascent of the Folgefond lOi Central Hardanger Fjord. Norheimsund. . \yestern Sognefjord. . . . Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord. . to Fjeerland From Aurland to T0njum in the Lardal c. From Cliristiansaiid to Stavanger by Sea The Stavanger Fjord a.WESTERN NORWAY. . Jostedal From Solvorn to Fjarland. d. 102 Excursions from Jondal. ^stens^. 112 to Eide on the Har- to Gudvangen on the Sognefjord. Western Hardanger Fjord.. Fjeldsli-SiPter From Marifjseren to the Jostedal From the Krondal over the Jostedalsbrse to the Kordfjord Frcm Faaberg over the Jostedalsbrir to Hjellc.. . Fjserland over the Jostedalsbra. The Sandeidtjord From Sand (Stavanger) by the Suldalsvand to Odde on the Hardanger Fjord 87 91 01 92 93 94 96 99 100 17.. e.. .. The Lysefjord b. Page R(Mite 15. From Balholm Naererfjord Gudvangen. . Aurlandsfjord and lol 132 From Sogndal to Solvorn-. The Serfjord 104 Excursions from Odde 107 . From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea The Hardanger Fjord a. From Trengereid to Aadland and Noj-heimsund From Vossevangen through the Rundal to Kaardal Flaamsdal '21. or via Stalheim 19. in the 120 121 123 1*26 The Sognefjord a. . 16. . (As FAR AS TRONDHJEM. ... to Balholm. at the mouth of the Fjaerlandsfjord From Balholm to Sande i Holmedal From Ulvestad to Gr0ning From Fjserland via. The Sandsfjord. Auster- 134 135 135 . . 136 137 137 13S 139 140 141 dalsbrse From Marifjaeren to Sogndal From Skjolden to the M0rkereidsdal. the Veitestrandsskar to Nordre Na>s 127 129 129 130 130 From b. . 110 Excursions from Vik i Eidfjord Excursions from Tlvik Ill Bergen 20. to the Mauranger Fjord Excursions from Sundal. Hylsfjord. and Saudefjord . 104 c. 6. From Balholm or from Gudvangen to LaerdalsOTen From Amble to Sogndal d. b. to Eide on the E.. and Eide 103. . 18. 7 . . Veitestrandsvand. From Bergen via Vossevangen danger Fjord. . . The Eidfjord 109 109. to J0lster to .

. 190. Grotlid to the Tafjord From Faleide or Visnaes via Grodaas to Hellesylt and Marok From Grodaas to the J0rundfjord From Hellesylt to the Strynsvand Excursions from Marok c. f. Jotunheim a. From Skjolden to Fortun and Turtegre From Andvord to Rejshjem. From the Nordfjord to Aalesund and Molde . From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. Viksvand. From b. 193 196 . The Galdhepig From Rejshjem over the Sognefjeld to Turtegre From Skogstad or Nystuen to Lake Tyin and . From the Gjendebod to Rejshjem L From Eidsbugaren through the Melkedal to Skogadalsbeen and over the Reiser to Turtegre^ to . e. .. Leirdal to Rajshjem d. Vettisfos From Vetti to Tvindehougen and Eidsbugaren From Vetti through the Utladal Gravdal and . . c. l'(2 173 to 174.. Fefrdefjord From Mo to Gr0ning and S0knesand From Klagegg to Aamot. . Strynsdal From iS'^ordfjordeid to Volden Skjserdal. 24. 176 176 177 180 Gjegnabrse over the Joste- From Loen via the Skaala to Opstryn From Hjelle to the Sundal and by the Erdal dalsbrse to Faaberg in the Jostedal 183 26. 187 187 188 189 From Hellesylt through the Norangdal and by the to Aalesund PLxcursions from Fibelstad-Haugen and from 0ie From Bjerke to F^rde on the 0stefjord Jerundfjord 190 .. Page b. From Fagernees 158 159 160 164 166 23. 25. g. .. .191 192 d.175 . a. 183 183 185 . 171 171. 168 llU From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord Dalsfjord. 145 148 161 152 155 Eidsbugaren h. Loendal.86 Route 22. . . From Eidsbugaren Gjende k. Raufjordheim and up Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugaren to Lake Gjende Nyboden From to the Gjendebod on Lake i. From Bergen From Aahjem to to Aalesund and Molde by Sea Volden . From Marok and sund or Hellesylt via Sjaholt to Aale- Molde the Romsdal the J0rundfjord 193 From Sylte over the Stegafjeld to From Aalesund to 0rstenvik and .. . and over the Jostedalsbree Olden . The Nordfjord. 141 143 145 . From the Strynsvand via Grotlid to Marok . . Oldendal...

sfjord From Alfarnses to Nses in the Romsdal From jS^veraas to the 0ksendal From Reitan to Ormeim 28. . On Ryvingen. Excursion to the Eikisdal 199 to the Eikisdalsvanil. Direct Sea Route b. to Namsos .. The voyage by the Large Steamers pre.Stuefloten b..M. The = .M. By Land through llytte the Sundal the LiJledal to 209 209 the From Opd0l to the Inderdal From biindals0ren through il. Aursj0 209.in VINGEN. but the course of the steamer is considerably longer. 207 207 20<S via Christian ssund c. 2.). particularly off Cape Lindesn<t>s. an outlying islet about 41/-2 M. and their inhabitants. the Oplandsfolk . or 128 Engl.) Mandal. . The Ki/sf/olk. Route 27.210 29. The fjords are confinned inland by narrow and deep valleys. and go thence to Stavanger by railway. 8 kr. The first steamboat . From Christiansand to Stavanger by Sea. 75. These valleys are usually watered by river's which frequently expand into lakes. 1 S. As the voyage is often rough.station is (2^2 hrs. 13 kr". on the coast of Listerland... with its own peculiar character.'r-. gradually rising towards the bleak and barren table-lands ( Fjeldviddev) of the interior. Christiansand. From Molde to Trondhjem a. M.. 200 202 20lj 2f)3 2('4 20') 20(5 From Eidsvaag to Eids0ren on the Sundal. 20. Steamboats. see p. plv daily in 17-20 hrs. are mostly engaged in cattle-rearing. Snaasenvand and Fiskumfos. 217 218 15. are much engaged in the export of mackerel and lobsters to England. The small Local Steamers are much slower and call at many unimportant stations. and near Jaderen. particularly between Ekersund and Stavanger. . 80 0. Excursions from Stavanger. but is often entirely in the open sea. or dwellers on the coast. as the coast is imperfectly seen from the steamboat: but the entrance to theFlekkefjord and some other points are striking.«ents few attractions. S' Pa. . to — . about 4 Engl. dialect. Each valley forms a little world of its own. by Stenkjser. 25 0.zian sea-miles (206 Kil. M. By Land to Battenfjordserren and thence by Sea . distance from Christiansand is officially stated at 32 Xor\ve. and tlie Moldetjord JOT Excursion to the Romsdal From Nffs to the Eikisdalsvand From Ormcim and from . of dift'erent companies. The distances given below are given in Norwegian sea or nautical miles (S. Trondhjem and Fjord 211 212 Railway from Trondhjem to Storlien (Ostersund. Molde a. The vessel's course is at places protected by islands (Sky'irr). but they afford a good view of the interesting formations of the coast.) from station to station. many travellers take their passage to Ekersund only (11 hrs. Stockholm) From Trondhjem. Route. from Christiansand). and customs.). By and Holaaker in the Gudbrandsdal Land via Angvik and 0rkedal its . (fares 12 kr. to Bergen 21 kr.

M. 13/4. with a light equal to 34 million candles. British vice-consul. by a .. where there is good shooting and trout-fishing. Flekkefjord (*WahVs Hotel. For a short distance the coast-clififs are covered with grass. Tidemand (pp. Mandal (Svendsens Hotel. more we reach 6 S. very fair. runs the Siredal.) Hotel Trygstad. 31/2 hrs. Jjederex. with 3800 inhab. from the pier 8 S. and since 1650 has been marked by a beacon-light (the earliest in Norway). cursion may be taken up the valley of the Mandals-Elv. S.) Fedde. English spoken. Sundt). From Christiavsand wliicli is tlie first is a land siglited as y^e approach Norway from the S. fair. Mr. Andersen). a small seaport with 1700 inhab. pens. 6 S. Mr.F. In Grand Hotel. and Kleven (with the harbour). R. Bagefjord (not always called at) from Flekkefjord we reach — is the station for Sogndal. Steaming up the Flekkefjord.. Eyde). end of Jcederen. 169) is called Sendenfjeldske or 0stenfjeldske iVorgre. via the (45 Kil. A fine survey of the environs is obtained from the rocky hill marked by a pole on the top. of a line drawn from Cape Lindesnses to the promontory of Stadt (p. D. a prettily situated seaport. The part of Norway to the E. to the (100 Kil. towards the N. . Farsund (Jansen's Hotel. and 4 min. 1 kr. A pleasant exAd.. 0. Beyond Mandal we pass the mouth of the Vndals-Elv and the conspicuous lighthouse on CapeLindesnses (formerly Lindandisnais.). reached in 25 min. of that name. on the Logavand.M. a town with 2900 inhab. at the mouth of the Mandals-Elv. and is situated partly on rocky islands. the outlet of which falls into the Lundevand. . British vice-consul.88 Route tlie »S. 160 ft. and then the mouth of the Feddefjord on the right. M. from 31/^2 kr. — — — — . which affords good fishing and shooting. — — Ekersund or Egersund. Mr.). P. This cape is the southernmost point of the Norwegian mainland. 2. Engl.E. EKERSrND.E. 14. on the fjord a good harbour. the southernmost town in Norway.M.) 6 S. 15) is a native of Mandal. the flat coast-district extending to Stavanger.. Between these lakes runs the still uncompleted railway-line from Flekkefjord to Ekersund. 15. Mr. Vestenfjeldske Norge.M.) Aaserals Turist-Hotel eg Sanatorium (1150 ft. J. lies in a rocky region. 60 beds English spoken. which empties itself into the sea in a cascade. Ekersund.. Salvesen's Hotel 6-7 min. to which the Kvinesdal descends from the N. consists of Mandal. passing the lighthouse of Lister. and To the S. In 2^/2 lirs. Dutch Ter Neuze). Naze. After quitting the Flekkefjord the steamer passes the mouth of the Sira. at the S. P. into the easternThe steamboat now steers most of which falls the Lyngdals-Elv. and a large porcelain-factory. in the market near the station. M. we next call at (21/2 hrs. in height. . lighthouse. and to the N. British vice-consul. lies (10 Kil. Malme. with 1700 inhab. from the railway-station. I. with the Siredalsvand (120 ft. that to theW. T. near the mouth of a fjord running inland in three long ramifications. British vice-consul.. Puntervold.

of the town. NoRDSTjERNEN.). Fishing-tackle: J. Route. Juell steamboat-quay. agent. adjoining which are the ruins of the old church. Berentsen^ who will also change English money. Beyer (p. including .) Stavanger. Svele^s. Valbjerg-Gade. and the sea is often rough. vVbout 400 vessels. Mr.^:. passes the Tungences. 1. at the Str0mstenen (PI. but as it has suffered frequently from fires. said to date from the 12th cent. 48 e. not to cut his hair until he should be king of all Norway. two horses 2V2 kr. xiv. etc.. O. Bena Norwegian artist. (46 Kil.Racine. the district enclosing the fjord. D. 1-4 pers. 0steTvi\a. The coast here is unprotected by islands. 1849). of the Nedre Holme-Gade (PI. 2). Jensen. which gave him the sovereignty ot:' the whole country. enlivened with a few churches and the lighthouses of Obrestad and Feiesten. 2kr.2. near the park. Kirke-Gade 44. per hr. 0. or 2 kr. prettily situated on a branch of the Bukkenfjord. it now presents quite a modern appearance. B. The Railway from Ekersund to Stavanger (76 Kil. in 2^/. Shops. is unattractive. with 26. in Jorenholmen British Vice-Consul. and (4 hrs. to the E. has been burgoma. corner of Kirke-Gade (PI. ©r Stavanger Fjord.M. the vessel turns to the E. and released him from a vow taken ten years previously. To the N. the poet (b. Carr. a native of the town.)3'/4hrs. L. R. . Gkand Hotel. Ifedre lldlme-Gade 22. 15. from Stavanger by road. S.. Fnrrier: 01. with a woollen . of the latter. 1^ 2.factory (61 Kil. near the Confectioners & Cafes: .ffaar. Wood-carvins:. 21/2-3.. Kongs-Gade 3i.. from Ekersund) reaches lo S. Holme-Gade. 0vre Strand-Gade. end of the Stavanger Fjord.. Wess/i:s Hotel. Stavanger Privatbanlc. The chief stations are: (38 Kil. montory with a lighthouse. which traverses this coast-plain. Provstebakken 2. To the left rises the lighthouse on the Hvitingse. with one horse. small.3). and (76 Kil. capital of the 'Amt' of that name. hut in bad weather will he preferred by many travellers to the steamboat. Bennett og near the Grand Hotel. F. a little manufacturing town (2000 inhab.) Time. : . — — Carriages at Carl-sell's. etc. and an ascent to the and a farm-house.to Stavanger.. 97) gained a decisive naval victory in 872. The steamer affords a distant view of the flat and dreary coast. The Steamboat on leaving Ekersund passes the Ekere.. 89 narrow street opposite the railway -station. where HaraldHaarfager (p. Banks: Post & Telegraph Office. C. A little farther on. beside the Torv (PL 0.ster of Stavanger since 1892. 3. 0vre Holme-Gade (PI. Larsens Exke's Private Hotel. — Hotels.. Kjelland.) Ncerbe Sandno's (restaurant). Bergeland-Gade. llasTmissend. right past the cemetery . prettily situated at the S. . and about 12 Kil. cornor Hot. Nordb^-Gade 4. Stavanger Tlusflidsforening Kirke-Gade 20. 2).. 2 kr. Tourist Agents: Th.000 inhab. 0vrt' Sernner. 2).). — — — Warm Baths.). and is also one of the oldest towns in Norway. a pro. Middelthon). Alex. Stavanger. F. 1. embroidery. Goldsmith: HeUsirem. 2). STAVANGER. Norges Banl\ Skairen. on the steamboat-quay. a large island with a lofty iron lighthouse.. Sea Baths. fares 4 kr. Kirke-Gade. We steer past the Flatholm Fyr and netter the mouth of the Hafsfjord. C. is the church of Sole. and now fitted up as a dwelling by Hr. It dates from the 8th or 9th century. Stavanger. C. is the commercial centre of the Ryfylke.

2). B. C. The * Cathedral (PI. 862). Petrikirke (PI. and dedicated to St. Svithunskirke. 3). The aisles and the S. recently restored). terminates in a square form. leads in 6 min. After the Reformation it was sadly disfigured. end. by the Bredevand. 1). in the old Norse style. fine view from the top). nearly 1/2 M. 2) was built by Yon der Lippe in 1863-65. which runs far inland. natural history specimens. To the S. Swithin (^Suetonius^ Bishop of Winchester. . 4). 1). C. is a small Park (PI. anchovies. the latter a conspicuous light-coloured edifice on an eminence. side of the peninsula of Holmen. 3). once the residence of the bishop. The choir. side of Holmen [Ryfylke-Bryggen PI. Opposite is the town-hall. 3. STAY ANGER. belong to the port. but since 1866 it has been restored by the architect Von der Lippe of Bergen. The main street of the Holmen quarter is the Kirke-Gade. of the town lies the Bjergsted. Its rich Gothic style points to a date considerably subsequent to the fire of 1272. with 4450 sailors.. or by rowing-boat (20 e. D. side of the choir are entered by remarkably fine portals. near the railway-station (PI. was founded by Bishop Reinald.E. 1) is at the mouth of the harbour of Vaagen. C. Stavanger Is the first port of call for the steamers from Newcastle. 4). In 1272 it was burned down. end. or public park. a favourite promenade skirting the lake. and has a very effective E. which. on the N. which adjoins the nave without the intervention of a transept. and mackerel. 60 steamers. via the Lokkevei (PI. two at the E. Beside the museum is a new Hospital. Fish is the chief export. per pers. The park may be reached on foot in 20-25 min. the upper part of which commands a fine view of Stavanger. leads to the docks by the . to the cathedral. and Hamburg. 3). now the Latinskole. C. On the hill to the N. the most interesting building in Stavanger. The nave is separated from the aisles by massive pillars. A. passing the Volhergtaarn (PL C. five on each side. To the E. and two very small ones at the W.) from the steamboat-quay in 10 minutes. Farther on are the Theatre and the Museum (PI. Kotterdam. is the modern Roman Catholic St. d. with its old chapel {Munkekirke. in the peculiar northern Romanesque style.. where the key of the church is procured. and the finest church in Norway after the cathedral of Trondhjem. 2) and the Bjergstedvei (PI. C. containing antiquities. particularly herrings. C.90 Route 15. Hull. Pulpit of 1658 and Gothic font in the interior. F. an English prelate. The quay of the large steamers (PI.W.W. with the Brandvagt (PI. The choir is flanked with four towers. B. 3). is the Kongsgaard (PI. — — — — Spilderhaug (Fl. C. who was transferred to Christiansand in 1685. which evidently belong to the original edifice. but was soon afterwards rebuilt in the Gothic style. adjoined by the Kongs-Gade. long. 2. The St. at the end of the 11th cent. To the S. That of the fjord steamers is on the N. The Peders-Gade.. etc. window.

I Stokte ts5 .W Hessal.

f=^^?fp -/..~ C«1n7--.r- rSTAVANGERFJORD .

later the steamer comes in sight of a curious rock high up on the N. a. by steamer from Fossand). is more extensive but less picturesque. 4.. of Sole. or Stavanger Fjord. along the Hafsfjord (p. the first Sun. The only inhabited places are the islands and the deposits of debris at the foot of the clift's. coast of Norway. above the fjord.LYSEFJORD.).W. very fatiguing.) tlie cathedral (past the ranseum and the Egen^s fire-station. there and back in 9-10 hrs. The Stavanger Fjord. 35 min. The *Lysefjord. lies the station of Lysebunden (two beds of the Stavanger tourists' club at the gaard Nerebe). 189^. bank. but this is fatiguing and not recommended. . The excursion steamers on other Sundays (2 kr.W. On the Kjerag. The lower part of the slopes is generally cultivated. An excursion mav betaken to Sole. to the N.) are not recommended. 89). The fjord is almost uninhabited. and enclosed by precipitous cliffs rising to a height of 3300 ft.). see p. while snow-fjelds appear in the backgruund. a broad basin to the N. lies on the Helefjord. to the conjecture that the whole country was once covered with glaciers. in each month to Lysebunden at end of the fjord. at the entrance to the fjord. farther on. — the scene of which is descried in the distance (p.). & Wed. Y2 ^r. A large moraine here led Esmark. long. (p. . The Bukkenfjord The Lysefjord. the Norwegian savant. on which lies Fossand. among huge rocks. nearly opposite the mouth of the Lysefjord. 91 Tlie finest views of the town. then to The view from the tower on the L'Uandshaug (460 ft. a village on the coast of Jsederen.). crash like thunder is heard. and immediately after it rays or jets of steam shoot out horizontally A from a kind of cavern in the face of the rock at least 2000 ft. broad. after a cessation for many years). is an arm of the sea. 500-2000 yds. Hegsfjord or Hele (tolerable quarters). a mountain towering above the head of the fjord on the S. of Stavanger. 89). 10th. is studded with numerous islands and has ramifications indenting the land in every direction. about the year 1821. side. Steamboat on the E. 12 Kil. At the head of the fjord (21/2 hrs. be taken from H0gsfjord or from Fossand to Lysebunden. Thr.). lioute. On three days a week all the year round the steamer calls at H^gsfjord and at Fossand On these days a rowing-boat may (2 hrs. inscription on the tower refers to Harald Haarfagers victory in 872. Opposite Heleslid lies the island of Holmen. Sandnaes (24 Kil. and the surrounding mountains are enjoyed from the * Vaalandshaug or Vaalandspiben with tlie waterworks and a tower (rfmts. From Lysebunden to Hdle in the Stefersdal. the fjord. We mav then return by Afalde. the grandest fjord on the S. to the S. ^About 20 min. others enclosed by precipitous cliffs. from (JiP)0 ft. and at places 1400 ft. some of them with smiling shores. stat. 37 Kil. 89). the left). returning next day (with two rowers 15-20 kr. The scenery is little inferior to the finest un the Ilardanger Fjord. to which we may also drive from rail. a curious phenomenon is sometimes observed (last seen on Nov. deep. near the church of Gjese. 75. in 3-4 hrs.

b. Jsels^r or Jelse (Inn). vdth a church. The 'Koberf (good restaurant on board). near the mouth of the Store Aa. a gorge through which the Bjerheimsvand empties itself into the fjord. call at The steamers touching — Returning to the mouth of the fjord. From Tou a good road leads past the Bj0rheimsvand to the Tysdalsvand. Most of the steamers touch here and exchange passengers for different destinations. .. (fare 3 kr. and the indirect coasters in 5-10 hrs. 8 Kil. a pleasant village amidst orchards. and across the Ncerstrandsfjord to Narstraiid. at Tou afterwards enter the Fisterfjord. to Knutsand then enter the mountainous Erfjord. 5). and Saudefjord. and steer up the Aardalsfjord to Aardalsosen or Aardal. . end walk left. (Thence to Thveit. which the direct steamers from Stavanger reach in 21/2-^ lirs. Steamboats. starting 7 times weekly (not on Frid. near Bergeland.). Hylsfjord. past the Talge (left. In an hour we pass Strand and Tou. which has its name from a 'helmet'-shaped hill near the church. smaller. On the left lies the Vadse. we next steer N.L^LS0. Stavanger The Frafjord. on which we may row to the gaard Nedre Tysdal at the E.92 Route 15. is also worth visiting. lakes.) from the RyfylkeBrygge. where we call at Haalandsosen. is a considerable village. Steaming down the fjord again and up the Fisterfjord to the N. near Bergeland. We next enter the *IIjj0sen fjord. about 27 Kil. starting four times weekly from the quay at the Vaagen. as the S.. There is a good salmon-stream here. where we quarries) . vik . see above.resort. 60 0. 50 0.. and follow the road down the Store Aa to Aardal (see below). and call at Tytlandsvik or Tetlandsvik on a bay of its S. end of the Helefjord is called (visited twice weekly by the steamer). On thence over the hill to Thveit i Aardal.) Observe the extensive moraines of ancient glaciers. in all. ply to Sand in 4-5V2 hrs. with snowy peaks in the distance. From Bergeland the Hjaafosser may be visited. which descends from the 0vre Tysdalsvand and other. leaving Stavanger we get a glimpse of the open sea to the hut it is soon shut out by the islands. to Juteberg or Judeberget on the Finde then across an open part of the Stavanger Fjord. a summer.. (fare 2 kr. we pass between the mainland and the Rande and reach Hjelmeland. On the right are visible the mountains of the mainland. somewhat resembling the LysefjorSL. and thence direct our course to the W. thence through a narrow strait between that island and the Bjerge. Fiskaaen. The steamer usually steers N.E. and the boats of the Stavanger Steamship Co.. next across the mouth of the Sandeidfjord and past the Folde to Jgels^f (see below). bank. to the StjcErnere.. with its wild and grand rocks. The Sandsfjord. to Jcelse. with marble and the Fogne (right). and at Valde on its N. . From the head of the Hj03enfjord a rough and fatiguing path crosses the mountains in two days to Viken in the Ssetersdal (p. get a glimpse of the Atlantic (left).) to Saude in 51/2-71/4 hrs. bank. Between these places oi^ens Bjerheimskj fpf ten.

The Sandeidfjord. farther on (3/4 hr.. to (2 hrs. with its zinc-mines to the E. touching and Hjelmeland. see p.) the bridge across the stream descending from tlie Aabedal. passing niiraerous sfeters and waterfalls. IV2 kr. or take a longer route. we enjoy increasingly beautiful views of the Store Lid-Vand. which forms the pretty Sands fas 5 min. to the pretty Svandal. Walks to the S. with the Suldalsfos. from Aartun) Seljestad (p. 41. with several waterfalls. 96).) bridge at the Hellandsfos. and Jcelse to above described. from Saude arrive at the top. and in 2'. into the Hylsfjord to the N. and the Saudefjord to the N. flows the Stor-Elv. — As far as the About 35 min. and leads poor fare. and soon commands a fine retrospect of the snow-draped Kirke Nut and the Slettedal. a church-village at the mouth Odde. a green oasis. pleasantly situated. the ascent. 94). reach R.. Route. and of the whole basin ofAartun. we find tolerable nightuuarters.from Jaelse we fjord afterwards expands a little. Feom Saude throcgh the Slettedal to Seljestad. 94. V/o day (road under construction).) Birkelandsdalen. li/o. 70 0. from Aartun. or S.E. Farther on we see the Folgefond (p. by a good bridle-path ascending the wild Hylsdal. B. at Tou. and thence to (10 min. ia the gaard of J0sti-eim. to the N. see above. or about halfway to Seljestad. in 7-8 V2 hrs. Route to the Suldalsvand. and crossing the ''Hylsskar^ where we enjoy a splendid view of the lake below (comp. commanding a grand rocky landscape.2 hrs. — . Narstrand. with the parish-church and a view of the Sendenaa-Fos. amidst a dreary chaos of rocks. and gradually descend to the R0ldal road and in a few min. at which lie Saude or Sevde and Saudesjeen (*Rabbe's Inn). and waterfall.). Several About halfway up we fine views. As we once more descend. The In 1^2-^^^^. reach the gaard of Fivelland. along the fjord. Steamer The as Sandeid twice a week. reach (10 hrs. which gradually narrows and is enclosed by lofty rocks. To the right rises the snow-clad Skavle Nut. through a monotonous landscape. at the grand head of which lies the station of Hylen. above the village. with houses. 101). Once a week the steamer enters the *Hylsfjord. 15.E. favourite resorts from Stavanger. *Rasmus8en^ of the Logen. from Sand the steamer reaches the head of the Saudefjord. and thence to the Breifond Hotel and ^- 2. p. Guide and provisions indispensable. Iiy2 l^r. SAUDE. 2. S.Fjord. which here forms the Hellandsfos. the path begins to ascend.) Indre Saude. We now begin — We c. After 5 hrs.W. below.). stream. to (3'J min. but The route now enters the Slettedal to the N. 93 The vessel next steams up the Sandsfjord. Fine waterfalls descend from the cliffs. to the right. from Saude. R. cross a wide tract of moorland with numerous ponds. Aardal. as we look back on the Saudefjord. (fare 2 kr. — Sand (*Kaarhus^ with view. a little to the left. At Aartun. 2 hrs. steamers go either by Judeberget. From Hylen to Vaac/e on the Sulihilsvand. . l'/2-2 hrs. lake. The Sandsfjord now divides In ll/o-'i hrs. . fields.

whose valley the road ascends. at the Some of the steamers call at stations on mouth of the Vindefjord. recalling the form of the Lake of the E. lies Laleid. and passes Vatshus. At the head of the fjord lies Sandeid (Fru whence a road leads N. 93.. there being five reaches in all. In front we obtain a good view of the curiously rounded and polished promontory of Boshaugen and of the — — . Jselse or from Nserstrand they steer N. Steamek on tlie Suldalsboth directions) to Ness in 2'. To the left is the Skotifos. farther on. steamboat-station). The church of Suldnlen and the gaard of Mehus lie to the left. . The *Suldalsvand or Suledalsvand (steamer. The road crosses the river about 10 Kil.. To the left is Kolbeinsthveit. — The Logen. into the Sandeid- which presents no special attraction. Opposite rises the curious rocky pyramid of Straabekolkn. where the road ends to the right is Helgences. Fine view in front. To the right lies the gaard of Vik. 2-3 From Sand (Stavanger) by the Suldalsvand Odde on the Hardanger Fjord. From Sand From fjord. In a bay to the left are the large farms of Kvildal and 0i€stad . see above). with a saw-mill. see p. "Weidell's 16. that travellers are recommended to walk on for about 3 M.94 Route 16. Pays. at its efflux from the Suldalsvand. leaving the carriage to follow. with the Hylsskar rising above it (p. is 28 Kil. from Sand and remains tolerably level until we reach the Suldalsvand. Both the river and the Suldalsvand. Osen or Suldalsosen (*Underbakke's Hotel. . from Sand we reach 19 Kil. whose handsome residences are seen at various spots. beautifully situated on the right bank of the Logen. OSEN.). We then traverse the rocky defile of *Suldalsporten. has a number these fjords. 98). then Vorvik and Vaage (good quarters. We here enjoy a view of the central reach of To the left. English spoken). the S. to 0len (8 Kil. to the left Vegge. forms several waterfalls (Sandsfos. long. out of which it flows. 2 kr. to suits. The first section of the road is so picturesque and at the same time so hilly. It then crosses a tributary stream. 93 ). where the imposing cliff to the left rises to a height of 330 ft. abound with salmon and have been leased for 40 years by English anglers. Lucerne. the lake. Road (fast skyds) to Horre (Breifond Hotel) 2nd Day. Sand. Road (fast skyds) to Odde^ a drive of about 7 hrs. 93). Vikedal. p. — . according as the steamer on the Suldalsvand skyds) to Osen^ a drive of 2-2V2 hrs. on the hill. 1st Day. of handsome Inn). daily in Road (fast' vand (once or twice . part of which is enclosed by high mountains.*Hotel Suldal. the Yrkefjord to the W. p. After a drive of 2-21/2 hrs. but at first is not broader than a river. Two lateral fjords diverging from it. 4 hrs. The lake now suddenly expands. and the Vindefjord to form a complete cross. (fare in about 3 hrs. gaards.

Looking back. On the right are the precipices of the Horreheia. To tlie S. the roads to Telemarken and the Hardanyer part company. . due to the ceaseless energy of the river. spanning a small stream descending from the left. farther on (3 hrs. Ch. bank of the lake. Above the sma. with overhanging rocks and several water. 95 mountains to tl>e N. three houses recently acquired by the same proprietor. which is enclosed by finely-shaped mountains. B. and traverse a narrow ravine. Engl. Farther on the valley is less interesting. The road now reaches the narrow Ljonevand passes the gaard Ljone. 10 min.) — Roaldkvam (p. At the top of the hill (84 1 ft. towers the LjonehaU. *Breifond Hotel (R.4. English spoken. about 5'/2 Kil. Charming scenery.).E. 24 . . a huge cliff worn smooth by the river. This part of the route shows the most fantastic rock-formations. days a \\eek (and at other times if required) it goes on to (4 Kil. IV2-2. At Botten or Botnen the road tmie more irosses the KratlandsElv. Nees or Ncesflaten [Hotel Bratlandsdal.to Odde. Beyond the Huarebro. the road remains tolerably level for some distance and crosses . is the . Most travellers will find it preferable to walk as far as the top of the ascent. service in July & Aug. AVe then cross the Hagerlands-Bro to the right bank of the stream. The Hardanger road leaves the lake and ascends the Horrehrakkene in windings which walkers may avoid by short-cuts (rather mar-hy). rise the snow-clad Kalle-Fjeld and The steamer's terminus is Nses. 2.J On the Hardanger road. here issuing from the Reldalsvand (1'2'25 ft. from Naes we cross to the left bank of the Bratlands-Elv^ and farther on we pass the gaards of Bratland.\l Himdefos^ the outlet of the Reldalsvand. S. lV2kr. Farther on we pass Hcegerland. To the left is the lofty Flasefos. Beyond the gaard of 0reha>kke we cross the border betwixt the Stavanger Amt and S^ndre Bergenhus Amt. end of which appears Reldal (p. 8 Kil.S. at the beginning of the road to Reldal.4l). l-li.E. with a series of rapids.). and skirts the W. falls. At the gaard of Thornces. — Kil. we see the broad snow-field Bredfond or Breifond towering above the Keldalsvand to the S. and crosses the bridge of that name." drive from Naes).. [The former skirts the lake. but three the long Kvenne-Heia. D. Ni^. The hotel commands a fine view of the lake and of the Haukelifjeld and lies within a short walk i}/^ hr. at the N.). (I3/4 hr. on the site of the former skyds-station of Horre or Haare. 6). 16. English spoken). on the slope of the Kaalaas. which affords a fine view of the lake and the snow-clad mountains in the background lies at the mouth of the BratlandsELv.) of the Haarefos.'s drive) from the Breifond Hotel. Route. Conveyances meet the steamers. The road ascends the beautiful *Bratlandsdal passing at first through a grand gorge. near the steamboat-quay. on the left the Elgersheia.

Folgefonn. In the following route the distances are given in sea-miles from station to station. most 'of them taking the interesting course via Tere (p. but the course taken by the steamers is considerably longer. l-lV4kr. The voyage by the direct steamers takes 10-12 hrs. The road gradually descends the Gorssvingane. D. ten being large vessels from Christiania and two from Hamburg. 106). . affords an attractive view of the Hesteklevfos. walk from Seljestad and beyond the 20th kilometre-stone 'fra Odde'. B. pay for 24. From Stavangek to Bergen about twenty steamers ply weekly. A footpath leads to the left to a point marked by an iron signal. . (from Breifond Hotel. M. a dreary solitude with several ponds. farther on the road passes below the *Esp€landsfos^ on the left. 17.. with the long snow-flelds of the Folgefond as a background to the left. (pay for 26) Odde (p. from which we have an admirable view of the Avild and wooded gorge of *Seljestadjuvet. Thence we proceed in zigzags past Svoagen and the Hedstensnut^ to the green plateau on which lies 21 Kil. by the others 12-15 hrs. where the view becomes unimpeded. SELJESTAD. 101). Lower down the road crosses to the left bank of the stream (continuous picturesque views). IV4. The larger boats touch at Kopervik. through which the road threads its way. 107). 98). S.) is a kind of rocky gateway. and the *Lotefo8. 98).). a little above the road). — pay for 28) Seljestad (2040 ft. Seljestad's Hotel. On an eminence to the right is the inn (p. We soon obtain a view of the snowy Folgefond (p. on the right. Far below us flanked by steep hills. beyond which they proceed direct fo Bergen. The similar road 6 min. It proceeds across the plateau and crosses two arms of the stream.Hotel. At the lower end of the Gorsvand (2815 ft. The road from this point to Odde repays even pedestrians (5 hrs. 23 Kil. From this point to Odde is a drive of 2 hrs. beyond the next bridge ascends to the right to the gaard of Skard . and the **View increases in magnificence. A projecting rock a few paces to the left of the road.). farther on a narrow road descends to the left through wood to the gaard of Jesendal and on to Fjsere (p. . 2. some of them at Haugesund only.96 Route 16.. from Raldal. R. The direct distance by water from Stavanger to Bergen is 25 Norwegian sea-miles (100 Engl. and farther on diverges the road to the ga'^rds on the height to the left. The old bridle-path and the streamlet which lower down becomes the Hedsten-ELv are seen from time to time by the side of the Gorssvingane. About 10 min. while five smaller steamers ply between Stavanger and Bergen only. About 10 min. pastured a few hours from here. Those who have a day to spare may pay a visit to a herd of reindeer. with the sombre lies the narrow Gorsboten Gorsvand^ at the lower end of which is a waterfall. 22 Kil. — . belonging to the villagers. From Stavanger to Bergen by Sea. 1-11/4. about 40 min. or a walk of 3hrs. Ilaugesund^ and Lervik only. The road now descends in curves.. one of the grandest and most characteristic mountain-scenes in Norway. Stunted birches and firs begin to appear. Beyond stretches the wide valley of Odde.

89. with a chapel aud a lighthouse. Mr. 18) does not begin till the Her0 and the Ter0 are approached. around which are placed stones. in height. and partly cultivated. end. a large and populous island. end of the Karme. on the mainland. 89). The vessel steers N. callBakdeker's Norway and Sweden. mild and humid in winter. 26 ft. at the S. or Karmgood. leads from Haugesund to the E. It contains numerous barrows. As the fine scenery of the Hardanger Fjord (R. high. plain but Brit. the average death-rate being only 12 per thousand. on the left are the /)use-Fyr and Tungences-Fyr on the Randeberg . to (48 Kil. Jonassen's Hotel. G S. or ancient burial-places. of the Karme lies the small and solitary island of Utsire. 8 ft. J. of Haugesund is an unprotected part of the coast. 97 Nearly the whole voyage l)y all these steamers is in smooth water. 933) is pointed out. marsh.M. On the left. vice-consul. to the N. on a square pedestal. To the N. About 16 Kil. R. On this spot rises the Haralds-Stette. and beyond it the Rennese and other islands. near which herrings usually abound. Farther to the N. except for a short distance between Stavanger and Kopervik. sund.M. on the Karrne.KOPERVIK. It was erected in 1872. with 6000 inhab. is exceptionally healthy. Petersen's Inn). Haugesund (Grand Hotel. lies 2 S. where the supposed tombstone of Harald Haarfager (d. to the right the Hundvaage. — — — .. The steamer now enters the Karmsund. and to the N. adjoining which. Route. — From Haugesund tlie larger steamers proceed direct to Bergen (sometimes touching at Lervik). in height.W. beyond Kopervik. 17. is the old church of Augvaldsna^s. . 2. is the chief centre of the herring-fishery.W. is an old 'bautasten'. representing the districts into which Norway was formerly divided. about 7 Kil. of which rises the Haraldshaug. B. passing either between the Bemmele and the Storde or between the Storde and the Tysnivse. The island is nearly flat. on the thousA road andth anniversary of Ilaralds famous victory (p. and poor pasture land. Tradition says that when this pillar falls against the church the world will come to an end. the 'Five Foolish Virgins At the end of the Karmsund. especially near the N. with 850 inhab. the traveller loses little by going thus far at night. Kopervik. . known as 'Jomfru Marias SynaaV (the Virgin Mary's Needle). the lighthouse of Falnces (Skudesnces). Before entering the open Bukkenfjord we observe on the left the lofty lighthouse on the Hvitingse. an obelisk of red granite. on the Bukkene. on the opposite side of the 'Sund'. or Kobhervik (Mad. The climate. 1 kr. Jacobsen). but consists chiefly of moor. We pass on the left the small seaport (1200 inhab.) of Skudesnivshavn^^iih. Stavanger^ see p. 7 — . o5 ft. 7th Edit. the Mostere^ the KLostere with the ruined Vlstenkloster. and between Haugesnnd and Langevaag. are five similar stones. protected by islands. aud is almost destitute of trees. its lighthouse. The lirst station at which the smaller steamers usually stop is Ferresvik. to the W. 98).) 0len (p. some of which have yielded valuable relics. cool in summer.. and leaning towards it..

crosses the mountains. To the W. Here. the first station in Bergens-Stift. 43/4 hrs. Beautiful scenery. 2 S. . To the E. Sunde. four steamers running thence weekly to Bergen. boasts of a church built by Olaf Tryggvason (995-1000). From Fjaere a narrow road. We now enter the Befmrnelfjord. where passengers to and from 01en-Fjsere (see below) change steamers.). to the E. promontories. annexed Map. passing the Bemmele on the left. where some of the steamers call. 8 Kil. islands. from Bergen). to the E. with the stations Aukve and (at the head of the fjord) Fjaere (tolerable quarters). 2 S.). and on which rises Siggen{ 1540 ft. founded probably in 1164. appears the huge snow-mantle of the Folgefond (p. from Stavanger. 94). of Lervik opens the Jalfjord. in the neighbourhood are some remarkable 'gianfs cauldrons': p. (from Sunde) Tare (Olsen's Inn). carriage from Fjsere to the Lotefos in 4 hrs. via Rullestad (tolerable quarters.. direct steamer traverses the Be^mmelfjord and then the Klosterfjord^ named after the monastery on the Halsene. 100). Several steamers call at Etne. Grand mountains in the background. and one to Stavanger. the large island of Tysnaese. opposite. (about 50 Kil.) Gaard Jesendal on the road to Odde (p. Comp.M. end of this tract — skyds-station). From Stavanger about an hour. or Leirvik.. whence a mountain-path leads direct walk of 11-12 hrs. a S. lies at the S. 96. This district is called the Send-Horland.M. The scenery now becomes more interesting. and several barrows. and wooded hills. to the W. the oldest in Norway.98 eel 17. three into the Hardanger. Near the Lyngholmen. one of the narrow inlets of the Hardanger (p. and visited 6 times weekly by at the head of the Etne-Pollen.). Route. on the Bemmel^. amidst imposing scenery. others at Langevang. is an important station. is the RyvardensFyr on a rocky island. Mosterhavn^ on the Mostere. coast of the fjord. on the mainland. 101). lies 01en (•/««. 102.M.uing Eastwards from the Skoneviksfjord runs the Aakrefjord (steamer once a week only). a little island and village near the N. with the villages of Rnkeincs and Vikevik. steamer. 2s3) and Vintevtun to (18 Kil.M. On the Jdlenfjord. . To the S. whicli tlie steamers pass in is N. 6 S.. on the pen- Beyond Lervik the insula of Husnas. one of the 'towers' of Bergen. 3 S. Comp. P6). the mountains are higher and less barren on every side the eye is met with a profusion of rocks. a small island opposite Heloik where passengers for the Hardanger sometimes change boats (91/0 trs. the natives Seringer. Lervik (Dahl's Hotel). practicable for onehorse vehicles. arm of the Skoneviksfjord. Sletten. enlivened with bright-looking hamlets nestling in sheltered creeks. to Seljestad (p. end of the Storde^ one of the largest of the islands at the entrance to the Hardanger. the Map. Some of the steamers next touch at Tjernagel. contains remains of a Benedictine monastery. is the Skoneviksfjord. Travellers have often to change boats here. on which a steamer plies. side of the HusncBsfjord. on the E. LERVIK. . The wooded Halsene. from Sandeid (p. which contains gold-mines of little value. a very fatis. p.

.

EflflMteot Rek.^i" 1:500.? -'^f^ ^>7 ija^ u^rapK. Fiye Hands<jj Knfl^ ^lon^aa!* ^*^ J) f Safer Kandrs:- f - 6 Bugle j/SbrdQ. memmndsluxi'ii-.000 YTRE HARDANGER EnoL stiles. Anstalr 'Stavan^er ® ' l'jal"berg . . . . o ^ J-.'6. .t Skerieha\n l^rftotym I KUmT. $^ / ii«srT.mfinlusiipu. Slddtremnunte^ livrarAe. Senof}. '-^SyweM/is .| ^ Tlt^ette Bjoto ^i ^ g^ iBrUiRgen Grinuifid o Stensvi -TOis nefldfK^ I sda« './^- onn^ei'i lotdoUT. ' Tws Vlrrn 'ftrppe^ T^dc 'KOiIl\S r pxJ/p/T J? >Sti-ajidvik°Y 11" '^ ^ '§. Flattf ^^= '•*. I.KLOSTER sizuis G-f Xfttia^^T^ conn' la-lseno' I N.— "^^x„ _-. ScmA^ FJORD . Hjd ^4tfTl^ -. ^ Muttg.^j 7/ t eraa-in-/ Boi Fuse . . unSwbimi 5.'-•-= el"b6 V^. Srmtrct.K. ^''^ p/. s )c 5 . ^ * L }' Ltuket IvinnuigeFj. Xehcanmer.^ ^^.frTv/l B rejUBas^ ^"^5- ^ 6 MM ft-«^^* s E L <) fr >. Srardalj 1 . L. ^-^ %*^ Siqlen ^S<> "' Jnib^h T. derne Tp/./a7i/r Bjjroov - ~~ .

114). Excursions may be made hence and the Ulvenvand. 112. the Lysekloster (sei below). 20. lies Hakonshellen. of the Tysnaeser. the Korsfjord. The next station. Route. .). recommended for a stay. 17 S. by which the Newcastle steamers enter the we have a glimpse of the open sea. with extensive petroleum deposits. and then steam past the island of Bjere (left). to the W. The Bjerne fjord is next traversed. anglers. (fare 8 kr. a strait with a strong current to the N. 119) now comes into sight to the N.) in "22 hrs. To the right is the Lysefjord. The steamer then rounds the peninsula of KorsncBs and passes the mouth of the Fanefjord. to the S. (from Haugsund. On the mainland shore of the Vatlestremmen.). 2 hrs.E. is the N. into the By fjord. GOD0SUND. near the TysncBsklrke. at the N. 372"'^ tr. with sea-baths and boats for hire).). twice weekly (Sun. 99 The district of Nord. 120. end of the strait. with the station of Bratholmen. 11 from Tere) Bergen.. on the mainland. . steamer change at Here into the steamer from Bergen to Odde. 5. at Solstrand. a new hotel for sea-bathers (two houses English spoken) commanding a beautiful view of the Folgefond on the opposite side of the fjord. of the little island of TrcBle in the Korsfjord. Here the steamers call twice weekly.M. (fare" 13 kr. on a small island to the N. with the mountainous ^4^^^ (p. From 18. to the right. Our course turns N.W. t > £"1^6 almost daily Odde in From Bergen vid Vossevangen (railwayl to Fide. via Nestun.). of 0$. the terminus of the branch-railway from Nestun (p. Another alternative is allbrded once a week by the Bergensk-Nordenfjelske Tourist skib. Beyond the island of Bjcflkcre (left) we call at Bukken. From Stavanger to The Har danger Fjord. 16) is the most interesting. Skjaergaard. also lies on the TysnsBser. of Bjere.to Bergen. and Thurs. On the left our course as far as Bergen is bounded by the island of Store Sartore. 20 0.: hrs. CO 0. To the left lies the Lille Snrtore. a narrow strait between the mainland and the Tysncese^ an island attractive to artists. see R. Vaage. Or we may direct by Steamboat. and situated about 1 M. The Lervstakken near Bergen (p. from Bergen). Passengers by the Thurs. From Telemarken vid Haukeli and Reldal to Odde. and otliers. spur of the Lyderhorn (p.Norland begins here. and the ruined Lysekloster (dating from 1146) on its E. From Bergen to the Hardanger Fjord: Steamboats to in 91/2-15 hrs. p. Then Godesund (^GuUaksen's Inn. 77. Odde on 'j:i> the Ilardanger Fjord the overland route already described (R. Einingeviken. 120). on the mainland (to the right). Numerous lighthouses now appear. (fare lO'/s kr. in each direction. just S. pens. see R. 120) on the left. The steamer passes through the Loksund. bank. 12V2-19V-. to Hatciken. see p. with the charming island of Lyse (pleasant day's excursion from Bergen. The promontory of Kvaroen. We obtain our last view of the Folgefond (to the W. . The next station. lies on the Tysnsese.

41/2 lirs. The costumes are only seen to advantage on a Sunday morning before or after divine service.). and the narrow strip of fertile and thickly -peopled land between them. 176>. 10 0. The women wear the 'Skaut'. The distances are given in Norwegiah nautical miles (comp. (fare4kr. On this strait are the stations Uskedal. 10 0. and the J0rundThe people (Har anger or Harlnger) and their fjord (p. Wergeland. are also curious and interesting. (4 kr. fjords. An English company is engaged in the extraction of Beyond Her0 the gold. It certainly presents a most characteristic example of peculiarly Norwegian scenery. is Hardanger the best-known of the Norwegian been celebrated from very early times. a kind of brooch or buckle) are curious.. p. national characteristics will interest many travellers.M.) ^ to Berei in 5 hrs. calls it 'c?ei underdejlige Hardanger the 'wondrous-beautiful'. which. a kind of cap of white linen with stripes. . or Sylgja. from Bergen. and S. to Sttndal thrice a week in 5 hrs. 101) with its buttresses. from Bergen) and Here (11 S. is the peninsula of S long anas consisting of greenish slate with veins of auriferous quartz. bank of the fjord. call at different stations on different trips and alter their routes accordingly. To other attractions must be added two of the finest waterfalls in Norway. overtopped by the Englefjeld and the Kjeldhaug and Demelsviken or Dimmelsviken to the . p. — a.) .M. The bridal crowns and gold and silver trinkets (such as the Selje. Our description follows the course of the Hardaiiger-Sendhorland Steamboats. The other steamers do not call at Sundal but keep nearer the N. 50 0. the broad surface of the fjord. The national music and the Hardanger violin (Fele). sides respectively the steamboat-stations Ters (10 S. Steamer from Bergen Tere in Kvindherreds-Fjord which forms the avenue to the Inner Hardanger.100 Route 18. . to the E. in which steel strings are combined with the gut-strings to increase the sound. 98).S. STONGAN^. both easily accessible to good walkers. and sometimes a picturesque red bodice. the Nordfjord (p. the vessel steers into the Stor-Sund^ a strait between the islands of Skorpen and SnUsthveit on one side and the mainland on the other. such as the Fjcerlandsfjord (p. ^ At the entrance — . embroidered with beads. 192). At TeT0 we obtain a beautiful survey of the snowy Folgefond (p. side of the peninsula. and the embroidery. fjords which have recently grown in favour with travellers. Yet it cannot be denied that the Hardanger has formidable rivals in beauty in some of the N. to to the Mauranger Fjord. 87). and carpets ( Tapper) manufactured in this district are much sought for. 129). with the barren ice-clad fjelds. (6 kr. The '^Hardanger Fjord and the beauty of its scenery has . coverlids fSlumretctpper). The Western Hardanger Fjord. Opposite Terer. lie on the N. at 0lve. on the E. however.

.

:„'.INDRE HARDANGER &VOSS =.'..rvSv/''"^ t WH ^„.''. ..i^ r:5^/i- ^ "'^.

Sundal (*H6tel Siindal). is one of the best guides.. 18). broad. From the Bondhusvand a path constructed by the German 'Nordlands-Verein' in 1890 ascends to the Folgefond. more to the margin (about 4450 ft. 96). which covers a plateau ubout 36 Kil. uncomfortable for riding. on which we observe tlie cliurch of — /Ilikps. Some of the steamers now cross to the stations Gjermundsharn and Mundheim on the N. long and 6-15 Kil. SUNDAL.) of the huge *Folgefond ('fond' or 'fonn'. passing at one point over steep debris ('Ur'). and a few paintings. .. Samson Olsen 5w?id(d. stretches one of its arms up to the foot of the ice-clad Folgefond (not visible from the fjord). Thence by a good path. 3-3'/2lirs. This fjord.M.: a fair path through the Melsdal to the Mtdtand the Myrdalsvand^ beyond which the ascent is rather steep. in 2 hrs. To the E.M. Route. crosses the glacier-brook to the left by a bridge. (inn).l ( Hotel Rosendal). and on the way we enjoy a superb view of the *Boiidhusbrae. 75.). The steamboat-station is 3 S. from Sundal. 12. It diverges from the above-described path 12-15 min. In about 2 hrs. bank (see Map. Jondal. then on sledges. towers the conspicuous Melderskin (4680 ft. 1 pers. 15 kr.) Bondhusvand.Fjord. which descends from the Folgefond. 2 pers.). or to the station SkjelncBS (quarters at the Landhandlers) in the large VnraUhe. and the mainland to the E.). the Bondhusbrie (on horseback. adjoined by tlie Malmanger-Nut. on which a steamboat plies eastwards thrice a week and westwards twice a week on otluT days it may be reached by boat-sky ds from Skjelnres (about 18 Ivil. p. One of the boats belonging to the Norwegian Tourist Club conveys us to the other end (rowed by the guide brought from Sundal. on the left bank of the stream. 101 bdtween tlie dark Solfjeld on the S. a small lake from whose steep banks fall several cascades. between the Selsnut and the Fonddalsnut The adjoining From the lake to the sseter is occupied till the middle of July. we reach the Oarshamyner-So'ter (about 2300 ft. The chateau contains a statue of the Countess Bariatinska by Thorwaldsen. the fjord is called Sildefjord. (from TeT0)IiosenAa. 102. near the towerwith the park and chateau (huilt in less church of Kvindherred 1678) of the Barons Hoff-Rosenkrone. glacier about 1/4 hr. etc. 1 kr. the owner.' row). — sater be ascended in 6 hrs. see p. and ascends rapidly between the huge boulders of an old moraine. Grand view of the Folgefond and of the fjord down to the open sea. Near Sundal is the gaard of Bondhus. 60 0. Then 2V2 S. to the (8/4 hr. flanked with lofty cliffs. and the SkinmlergsNut on til e E. which may — . without any distinct peak or — .. . the starting-point for a visit to the Folgefond and its beautiful glacier.). A bridle-path ascends the valley of Sundal enclosed by high mountains. At ^nses opens the *Mauranger Fjord. a field of snow). Between the Yaraldse Thence to Bakke. before the Bondhusvand. with Its pretty 'Regstue' (p. crossing remains of old moraines.

arm of the Mauranger Fjord (boat from Sundal in 1/4 hr. about 50 kr. from Bergen (fare 3 kr. to the N. in 9-14 hrs. in which case the return may be made via Gjerde.M. B. 490 ft. guide. Jondal (Utne's Inn). 4 pers. (from Tere) Bakke (--^Bakke Hotel. 103). frequented by the English. Passing Rervik and Vikingnces (Pension. however. on the E.102 Route summit. 60 0). the traveller will find a cooking-apparatus. is On Norheimsund — — . to Tokheim (p. The other steamers do nut call at Sundal to Eide. . 8.) Netland in the Steinsdal (p. From Strandebarm a path leads by the gaards of Haukaas and Solhjerg and the Torahella sseter to (4-5 hrs. The Central Hardanger Fjord.IV2.). the snow-clad Tveite Kviting (4190 ft. to the top (5425 ft. in height (130 ft. 3 Kil.E. per week. But the route along the bank of the fjord to Sandven. (fare 8 kr.E.) in 4-4V2 hrs.).). more attractive. 4 pers. which. beer in bottles.). Hisfjord. As from Sundal. 2 pers. At the tourist-hut Breidahlik^ on the rock called Bottenhorgen. with a view of the Myrdalsfos to the S. 1. in one sheer leap). service). is a waterfall.) At the to the N. on the E. The fjord contracts. head of the bay. 70 0. & Frid. Ch. leaving the Mauranger Fjord the steamer steers direct to The other steamers. 'brus'. however. where we obtain a view of the Hardanger Vidda. side the Folgefond descends abruptly. Gotskalk Gjerde: 1 pers... D. and afterwards descending rapidly to (8-9 hrs. to Eide on the E. passing the hut in the Urebotn and the Hundser (5370 ft. a bay of the S. From Gjerde. 11/4 kr. 106. 50 0. 12 kr. 20. a bridle-path ascends to the Folgefond and crosses it. R. and the Tervik-Nut (3520 ft. at both of which the steamer touches once a week. with an extensive view of the Folgefond to the S. after calling at (p. IS. though longer. is not particularly difficult. with guide (1 pers. noted for its 'Hardanger boats'. a bridle path is being constructed. may be crossed without difficulty.. we next cross the Hisfjord. 1 1/4. 106). 101). The horses are here to sledges and ascend the gradual snowy incline in about 3 hrs. bank. The ascent of the Folgefond also forms an attractive excursion from Sundal. 32 kr.W. The usual descent. bank. to 21/2 S. omitting Sundal. 10. Steamek from Sundal to Eide twice a week (Tues. on the 0stre Pollen or E. 10. and coverings for the next part of his journey. Lathe's Hotel)^ on the Strandebarmsbugt. 103). 8. in all) Tokheim (p. and farther on. 12 kr. loses much of its eifect in dry weather. Mundheim or Skjelnaes (p. travellers may ride to the margin of the glacier and cross the snow in sleighs (16. — . near the hamlet of Fosse. Hardanger TMs enormous mass of snow and ice. touch at 5 S«M. yoked b..) to the N.). On the E.).). which sends offshoots down the valleys in all directions. 2 pers.. Bakke is beautifully situated. Engl. BAKKE. is the church of Strandebarm .

Fkom Xorheimsuxd to Trengereid on the Voss Railway. 104).. 121). From the sseter the path ascends to the watershed (1970 ft. touching Beautiful scenery. end of the Hamlegr0vand. passing the farms of Steine (tolerable quarters) and Birkeland. ascends the Flatebeigjel (GJel. to Sjuscct.. 18.^'^ cross a bridge on the right in order to visit the 0fdhus (0verste Husj Fos.).2 day. a fine point of view.) narrow and picturesque Fiksensund. A carriage-road crosses Skaare. Here. very steep at — places. near the Dravlevand and Jeiklevand. and then descends a little to (6 Kil. may then go to the S. with a path passing behind it. Ch. 285 ft. Admirable view of the Folgefond. side. The steamer touches at 0stens«r (Hotel Ostense). 121). in height. whence a skyds-road leads to Trengereid.. From Botnen TO BuLKEN.. in the season). From this point a good road leads to (5 Kil. lies Gaard Botnen ( Flateb0"s Hotel). — — — precipitous descent past the Eikedalsfos. of the Kvamse and past the mouth of the Fiksensund (touching on one voyage at Stenste) into the Indre Samlen-FJord. Route. D. is a line point. to the S. at the W.). prettily situated on the bay of that — name.). Serv. To the gaard of Steine. Beyond Jondal the steamer passes several waterfalls. guide necessary) leads from F]ateb0 to the N. in 4V2-5 hrs.3460 ft. on the for 11 Kil. 'rocky ravine') to the (5 Kil. grandly situated. we reach Tesse (inn). R. in which. Steinsdal.E. to the Jondalsbrcc. Fine view of . is the picturesque Melanfos. 11. The Torenut (about 3430ft. 2-3 hrs. The steamer rounds a. passes the church of Viker.) and thence to We Bleie (^aae. high. From T0sse we cross by boat to (4 Kil. and suitable for some stay. there and back). ascends steeply and describes a wide bend towards the N. A tolerable bridle-path. a summer-resort. which runs inland from its mouth at Stenst0 (see below). At the head of the Fiksensund. then a — . skirts the Tliorsnnt (5164 ft. 102. and enters the Ytre Samlen-Fjord. 2 kr. 105). 103 Fbom Jondal (guide.). or Engl... Twice a week the steamer. whence a steep path (2-8 hrs. or to theE. steers to the N. morheimsntiA ox Sandven {*Sandveits Hotel. to the Ser/jord^). p.) Hodnaherg (two 'sseter-hotels').) Gaard Skjeldal (1075 ft. near the station of Aalvik. and enters the Norheimsund. Thence to Bakke. said to afford good fishing). a waterfall 100 ft.) Leikedal steter (whence we may ascend Wig Flat thefj eld or X«rA-ed«?s««<ew. the Axences on the W. after 1^2 ^^. reached by rowing-boat from Ska are in I1/2 hr. B. The highest point of the route is 4510 ft.. Beyond Norheimsund we have a continuotis view of the edge of the Folgefond.) Grimestad. Then a steep descent to the Reisceter (1080 ft. to the N. to (1 hr.) Aadland (p. end i^i the Hamlegrevand (1940 ft.Fjord. ()rj0'stens0 to (l'/2 hr.t Skuteviken once a week. NORUEIMSUND.. and thence via Liland to Bulken (p. end of the We Vangsvand. 121).M. to the beautiful Frelandsdal i Samnanger. a road ascends the succession of intervening mountains. above the fjord.E. easily ascended by the Sjau-Sater in 5 hrs. Thence with guide. with a To the W. see p. charmingly situated S. and passes the Saxaklep. leaving JonancBs on the right.) Gaard Flatebe (1100 ft. The latter route (8-10 hrs.. on which lies 6 S. a full day's walk. sen above. to Gaard Eikedal or Egedal (1030 ft. at the S. the prumontury to the E. Beyond the J&fsthus Fos the road ascends the Steinsdal. at the N.). 9-10 hrs. from Norheimsund. 1.) Netland. Nils Vig) a road ascends the Kuvsdal by P/4 ^fJ Birkeland to (3 hrs. on the Aadl an dsfjord.). turns to the E." walk) leads to the Hamlegre Hotel (p. after leaving Ostens^f. now descend by the course of the river issuing from the Thovfinvand to (6 Kil. 1.

1. 0stens0 to Herand^ on the S. p. Steamee from Eide to Odde dailv in 3-4 hrs. . 3 pers. 5-6 kr. 15. S. The lofty rocky banks.). bank.M. running to the S. lies a shady valley. show that this fjord is of the nature of a huge chasm between the snow-clad Folgefond and the central Norwegian mountains to — — — which torrents. Hardanger the Simlehovd [see below). 123). and SerSteamer to the Eidfjord. 4 pers. fine view. the high mountains on the E. 16. 60 0. The Hanekamb (3590 ft. . . Utne (^JJtne's Hotel. has a large church... from which a number of waterfalls descend. A beautiful walk may be for Vossevangen taken by the Vossevangen road upstream to the Gravensvand to the Gravens-Kirke. 124. being the station and prettily situated. for a distance of 40 Kil. less pretending. (1/2 lir. EIDE. 109) to Odde (3 kr. beautiAt the back of the village. 4 Kil. to the right. parts of the fjord. the steamboat steers across the broad Utnefjord. B. 123. From Eide to Ulvik. to 2 S. from Bergen to Odde in 14-16V2 hrs. for 2 pers. fjord.). side. 90 0. or S. with the promontory of Kirkences lying opposite to the E. The S^errfjord. 109.). particularly at the formed fertile . 18 kr. 21/2 lirs. 50 0. R. to the S. 1. good cuisine. R. From Aalvik we then sail Other steamers cross the fjord from direct to Eide (see below). Engl. two-horse carr. and enters the **S«Tfjord ('South Fjord'). lies 5 S. (lOkv. the central reach of the Hardanger Fjord (retrospect of the Oxen).). the busiest place on the Hardanger Fjord. where it is never frozen over. rises the Oxen (4120 ft. pass (14 Kil..W. see pp. and the great charm of therefore comparatively well peopled it belongs. to a few hundred yards. and enter the Gravenfjord.104 Route 18.) affords a fine survey of the Utnefjord. On quitting the Gravenfjord (see above). B. which may be ascended from the S. and At the N. (fare 2kr. see p. . especially of the Serrfjord on the S. and gradually narrowing from 2 Kil. double that promontory. Ch. which fully situated on the S. *Jaunsens. where cherries and apples thrive luxuriantly. 123. see p. end of the Gravenfjord. 60 0. cariole 5V'2) stolkjarre 8 kr. — a large house 74^^* from the quay. side of the bold Samlehovd or Samle.). farther on. At places. At the mouth of this somewhat monotonous fjord.kolle (2060 ft.M. — — — where the channel contracts.Serv. see below). 3min. From Eide to Vossevangen . The road diverges to the right from the Vossevangen road at the Gravens-Kirke.). 2. Eide (^Mceland's Hotel. The Odde steamer steers past the gaard of Tronces. from Vik i Eidfjord (p.) Vinces and Hesthammer (previously touching at Vtne once a week. li/2> ^' '^j pens. Eidfjord. .in July And Aug. c. especially near the centre and The banks are N. 1 kr. alluvial deposits have mouths of the patches of land.).

on the hill. affords an excellent survey of the S^rfjord. On the opposite (W. The last-named still contains an old Above Aga rises the Solnut (4830 ft. On the W.W. leads from the church of Kinservik. Brurastolen. bank. takes 1-1 V2 l^^. — . bank. (fromEide. Vilure. with the head of a bishop at the top. mountains to Jondal. at the entrance to the imposing Raunsdal. though the path is bad. hall lighted from above. to this fjord lies in the contrast — • . A little to the S. etc. 105 between the smiling hamlets ami the The first station is usually wild fjeld towering above them. see p. with the station of Naae and the gaards of Bleie. with fine views. the Thorsnut (5164 ft. a rocky height above the church. The next places on the E. bank is the Vikehugt. Serv. moderate Engl.). a fall of the Aapo-Elv. with the glaciers of the Folgefond in the background. dates from the Gothic period fine W. beyond it. to the S. a landingplace and gaard where the steamers call once a week instead of at Lofthus. 20 min.).mill and gaard. a promontory Sexe. to the Oxen (p. is Oppedal. N. Ch. where just above fertile fields and gardens are the protruding glaciers of the Folgefond from which several waterfalls descend.) is an admirable point of view. . which falls into the fjord here.M.) bank of the fjord are the large gaards of Jaastad. on the S. and a weeping and a laughing face on the right and left. 103. Then. The prominent peak of the Bervenut (1 hr. is one of the finest points on the Hardanger. 5 from Ulvik) Lofthus {Hotel L'llensvang *Miss Muller's Hotel. bank are the gaards of Sandste and Kvalen<^s.. — — — — . Berven or JSeryen {Hotel Udalsvand well spoken of). Hovland. Between Kvitnaa and Digrenaes. with several gaards charmingly situated on the hill.Fjord. 18. side of the Aapo-Elv. Opposite Grimo opens the charming Kinservik (reached by rowing-boat). Farther off is the Skrikjofos. A visit to Bjernelnjkset ('bear's leap'). and Aga. past the promontory of Krosiias. A lofty road. enclosed by a wide girdle of rocks. bank. with a lofty waterfall. The excursion to the Raunadalsvand and back (^0-7 hrs.). portal Gothic choir-window. Route.^^^0°^ the inn (there and back). with a spinning . hank.).) is attractive. in an orchard-like region on the E. with a view of the glaciers on the other side. on the road leading S. 104) and S. The parish-church of L'llensvang. higher but of less volume. near the quay. LOFTHUS. The glaciers of the Folgefond Next station peer down the valleys at intervals. Beautiful walks (to the hill of Hangsnaes. Espen. . is the . Kvitnaa. with several waterfalls. from Ullensvang (about G Kil. a station on the E. in the season). Path from Bleie over the . on the W. Grimo C^lnn)^ on a fertile spot on the W. 3 S. Farther on is Digren(ts. with the Husdal and the Tvtitafos and Nyastelsfos.). the Folgefond. to Lofthus (a walk of 2^/2 hrs.

30. Close to the fjord the Tyssaa forms a fall picturesquely set in pine-forest. 100) may be seen on Sundays. to Dalen on the Bandaksvand. while the name of Odde ('tongue of land') is applied to the large church. ODDE. To the S. English Church Service in summer at the Parish Church and the Hardanger Hotel. 4 S.. IV2. three pers. (1). there and back 3/^-1 hr. 2. — . bank of EitncBS. a large house built on the fjord in 1896.) Eid. B. Then. — — . after Espen. 1 kr. whence a path (bridle-path in progress) crosses the Folgefond to the Mauranger Fjord(p. end of the Sarfjord. 6 kr. with Isberg at a dizzy height above it. 110. B. A group of rocks farther on is called. Hardanger gaard of Aase. unpretending. 9(). two pers. . D. Kristensen's. The Vasthunhro an iron bridge I1/2 M. 1. opposite Digrenaes. S. with the Aabo-Elv issuing from it. three pers. 20 0. 12. and Magnus Isberg (speak English). 16). Lars Olsen Bustetun. 1 kr. 95).. to Seljestad (p. to Noes on the Suldalsvand (p.). li/z. (2). Bergeflot. 40. Hotel. Beyond the lake rise the Eidesnut and Jordolsnut . spans the river. The new road to Tokheim (see above). pens. *Ole Pr^stegaard's Inn. Post and Telegraph Office. Tollefson. — (there and back IVa-'ilirs. 5. Between the Tyssedals-Nut and the Thveit-Nut opens the 'Tyssedal. Guides. two pers. spoken of.. Odde is the most frequented spot on the Hardanger Fjord. Hellstreim (from Stavanger) and M. plainer. . are the gaards of Skjalvik. with the peninsula its waterfall and the Tokheimsnut. follow the Telemarken road. are the Ruklenut (right) the lies the On W. Hammer (from Bergen). Prcesten og Klokkeren. bordered with meadows and corn-fields. S. or S. from Odde. which crosses to the W. — On the E. near the pier.. between these to the S. kept by M. or 135 kr. R. Odde. Opheim. At the top we enjoy a view of the Sandvenvand. Walks. Jordal's. and others. and Stana. gaard of Eitrheim. ascending the (1/2 M. unpretending but well . Asbjern Lars Olsen. four pers. of Odde We . and behind us is a beautiful retrospect of Odde and the S^rfjord. bank near Jordals Hotel. . an old moraine. 96) and back. and many visitors. To the Lotefos and Espelandsfos and back. also called the Ednafos. where the Hardanger costumes (p. Carriages. Beyond Digrenaes are the gaards of Apald and Aaen. with the waterfall of that name. To the right the Aaho-Elv forms a fine waterfall. spend a considerable time here. Biskopen. To the *Sandvenvand.. in another amphitheatre of hills. at the S. But there is a decided lack of convenient paths by which to explore and enjoy the beautiful scenery of the neighbourhood. the terminus of the great routes from Telemarken and the Stavanger Fjord (RR. Nils Aarthun. consists of the farms of Bustetun. D.M. 15 kr. *Hardangek Hotel.106 Route 18. affords a charming view of the fjord. 45 kr.. farther to the W. 101). next the dependance of the Hardanger Opposite the latter antiquities and various useful wares are sold Ly G. adjoining. comes Fresvik with its fine amphitheatre of wood. with the former Hotel Baard Aga as a de'pendance R. — Hotels. 20 or 24 kr. R. especially English. 1. li/a-S. Odde or Odda. at the mouth of which is the fine gaard of Tyssedal. and Tokheim with — and the Raasnaas (left). 2 kr. hank.

7 Kil. splendid view of the Folgefond). to the Folgefond. the *Lotefos and the Skarsfos. a valley enclosed by precipitous rocks. elms. The best point of view is on the hill to tlie left. 180. is the beautiful Kjendalsfos opposite is the Strandsfos. barley). . past a small Bestaurant (plain). The Jordal. side. The road next passes (2 Kil. Road to the Sandvenvand and the (36 min.) Orensdal (reached by a bridge). just above the (2). The Folgefond forms the background. To the Buarbrve (5 hrs. This is the finest of all the glaciers descending from the Folgefond on the E. 1 1/2 l<r.. Excursions. lies the Jordal. We take the steam-launch which plies half-hourly or oftener to (10 min. skirt the Eidesnut and the Kuklenut and descend past the Tokheimsnut to Tokheim and Odde. guide unnecessary). side. 106. on the left.) Hildal (330 ft. the Bondhusbrae (p. small Inn (H. through which dashes the Grensdals-Eiv. to the left. more. By following the road for 1/4 lir. 107 In 6 min. on the opposite bank. but neither is to be compared with the great glaciers of the Nordfjord (pp. In 74^^' from Gaard Jordal we cross a bridge to the left bank of the Jordals-Elv. Route. BUARBR/^>. we ohtaln a *Survey of the Buarbrae and the Folgefond farther on.' walk. lies the farm of Sandven. The valley contracts to a ravine ('Djuv'). see p. (guide 4-8 kr. 1 '/. while opposite to them is the veil-like *Espelandsfos.).^ at the top. To the LoTEFOs and the Espelanksfos (there and back 4-5 hrs. more we pass the gaard of Buar (1050 ft. but fatiguing expedition of 8-10 hrs. 181). from Odde. At the end of the lake. About 272 ^^^. passing under menacing rocks and over 'Ure' or rocky debris. see p. . (1). and consequently has an unusually large central moraine. Good mountain-walkers may ascend on tlie right side of the Buarbra^ . 18. and visit the Buarbrae. an interesting. The path. passing among the houses. G-8 hrs.) the entrance to the Jordal. and(4: Kil. r(Kid. .). one of the most beautiful waterfalls in Norway.Fjord. by a rock called the IJrbotten. more along the E. In 50 min.) The path leads to the right from the landing-place. descending from the Svartenut. to a point immediately facing the *Buarbr8e. which afterwards unite.). which the stony path now follows.. J landing-place of the little Jordal steamer. The Buarbrre is divided into two arms. then turns to the left and ascends the right bank of the stream. there and back 1 kr. where the Vcefos or Hildalsfos descends on the right. the starting-point for the ascent of the Saue-Nut (about 3950 ft.' drive). nearly level for about 1/2 ^-i leads in 20 min. (Guide quite unnecessary. hank of the lake. where the gaard of that name lies on the right bank of the river descending from the valley. is remarkable for its rich vegetation (birches. In returning travellers may quit their carriage at the landing-place of the Jordal steamboat.beyond Gr0nsdal we reach. there and back. B. more we reach the quay of the little Jordal steamer. 106. To the Sandvenvand._. . the waters of which unite below. 101) being the finest on the "W.

or the excursion abandoned. Here we embark in another boat. and in 8 min. which lie about 8 min. (4). Ear danger The road goes on to the gaards of Skard (p. to the E. In summer the volume of water is sometimes scanty. or more). and not without risk in wet weather. more from the Lotefos (comp.) reaches the gaard of Skjseggedal (pron. a superb waterfall 525 ft. about 1850 ft. the top commands a fine panorama of the Ringedalsvand.) The lake is 6 Kil. and we row to its upper end in 11 '2 hr. but when the snow is melting ('Flomtid') and after heavy rain the effect is very grand. On the left the Mogelifos descends from the Mogelinut. and next reach (I/4 hr. while the fjord below is calm. long. is less imposing but more picturesque than the Vmngsfos (p. The path next descends the Fladherge^ and (1 hr. fatiguing. the discharge of the Ringedalsvand (see below). above the sea). to the picturesque and exquisitely clear Ringedalsvand (about 1300 ft.. enjoying beautiful retrospective views of the fjord and the Folgefond. ACEOSS THE FOLGBFOND TO StJNDAL OE GjERDK ON THE 8-9 hrs. of Odde. 1/2-3/4 111'. 96).. 102). hardly pays. Tyssedal (p. had We row from Odde to (6 Kil. may ascend thence in to the left of the road. who serves as rower.). and (1/4 hr. there and back (half on foot). more walk over an 'Eid'. vrtth the huge Einscftfjeld on the S. above the fjord. Otherwise to This excursion may be continued up the picturesque ravine Seljestad (p. 3-4 Kil. and on the right is the Vasendenfos.) a second fall of the beautiful clear green river. 106). The cloud are several of spray through Lotefos issue. To THE Skj^ggedalsfos. near which is a primitive kitchen under the rocks. the picturesque Tyssestrenge fall from a rock 500 ft. By the We which we this digression see the Espelandsfos opposite has a curious effect. and farther on. order meal for return).) a small pasture on the left. The ascent from the landing-place to the foot of the falls leads across 'Ur (5). a drive of nearly 2 hrs. 6 hrs. We cross the Vetlevand ('small lake') by boat in a few minutes. The *SkJ3eggedalsfos. about halfway the Folgefond becomes visible behind us.to the Lotevand. overcharges not unknown. Serfjord. 96). Ascent of M^rfalsskardene (about 3950 ft. SK.108 Route 18. from Tyssedal. English spoken.) better be taken from Odde. (3). at the foot of the Svelberg.). This is the highest point on the route. and Folgefond. 96). We pass (1/4 hr. high. each. (guide 12-16 kr. with guide (5 kr..l. We pass (2/4 hr. . The path ascends steeply over 'Ur' and roots of trees. from which first the Skarsfos and then the fall m. p.) a hay-hut. . or isthmus. We ascend thence on foot through wood. better on the whole in the reverse direction (see p.) a third.TiEGGEDAL. high. Sheggadal 21/2 hrs. A guide (5 kr. steep and fatiguing at places. 10-12 hrs.ills. *Inn. (A high wind sometimes prevails here. It is desirable to have one or more rowers besides the guide fee 2kr. . in which case the night must be spent at the inn. from Gr0nsdal. . Mauranger Fjord . forming a full day's expedition from Odde and back. 110).

20 0. Ch. horse there and back 5 kr. The fatiguing path to the (3 hrs. HI).. grandly situated in a bay near the E. VIK. Beyond the Busnas. The new road skirts the river to the Eidfjordsvand^ a lake enclosed by huge cliffs. B. About iy2 ^^. passing enormous blocks of rock and wild cataracts. which it crosses by a (1/2 hr. The steamer calls when required at Ringeen. On the N.) ascends the moraine. a large house. from which the Kvamfos descends. Meglethun Lilletun^ Varberg. to (1/2 ^r. end of the Eidfjord. Engl. which separates the fjord from the Eidfjordsvand. who speak Eng- lish. on the right bank. bank of the lake.) lofty bridge. 11/4. B. situated on a moraine ('Vor') about 1 M. in great part being cut throiigli the rock. on a small fertile plain. In 1 hr. To THE V0KINGSFOS. 8-9 hrs.). Scehe. lO'J d.distant is the church of Eidfjord. with a saw-mill and a group of houses. above which peers the snowy plateau of the Hardanger Jj0kul(j^. and Vallavik. (from Eide) Vik close to the quay. (fare 1 kr.. At the mouth of the valley running inland between the Skoddalsfjeld and the Rullenut lies Erdal. broad. (fare 2 kr. Beyond two short tunnels we see the gaard of Kvam ('basin') on the hill above. a week to Ulvik via or 0ifjord. with the gaard of Bu (which the Bunut behind it deprives of the sun the whole winter).. Route. 2. D. the easternmost branch of the Hardangcr enclosed hy precipitous rocks. Serv.)^ also from Utne (p.M. the Osefjord diverges to the left (p. which issues from the Hjcelmodal (p. 110). we reach the gaard of Thveithougen. 111). IS. The path ascends steeply. there and back (carriage to Ssebo recommended). from Vik Ulvik Vik 1 kr.Fjord.. 7 Kil. and Reise). by the brothers Nasheim. (fare 2 kr.&xdiS (Megeletun.) the gaard of Maabe. S. The Eidfjord. 1-3. It then follows the W. 10 0. Facing Between the Onen us rises the almost entirely bare Vindaxel.) to i Vik. watered by the Bygdar-Elv and by the Bjoreia emerging from tlie Maabedal. The steamer passes its mouth. Djenne. is a good starting-point for several fine excursions. The path (very bad) of the 'Turistforening' from this point to tl\e fall crosses the river and ascends its steep left bank to the . kept i Eidfjord (*Veringsfos. 60 0. side of the fjord rises the ice-girt Onen (p. TheEidfjord is Fjord.) Varingsfos (unmistakable. daily in 2 hrs. 111). . At the head of the lake we cross the Bygdar-Elo (Hjcelmo-Elv). 5 S. On the opposite bank rises the Eidfjordsfjeld. 1 kr. On the right towers the Skoddalsfjeld. once a to Ulvik in 3-4 hrs. and Vindaxel opens the Simodal (called at only by some steamers). 10 0. 104) twice in 21/2-3 brs. the residence of the guide Halsten H. situated with several other ga. and then descends into the wildMaaberdal on the left bank of the Bjoreia. in the season). where moraines and ancient water-lines are observable. The river issuing from the latter forces its way through the moraine. Stkamer from Eide to week via Utne in 4 hrs.

fos. and descends into the imposing Jljcelmodal. then ascends between the Vetle Ishaug (on the right fine view) and the Store Jshaug (on the left) to the top of the pass (about 3940 ft. 650 ft. where the steamer calls two or three times a week only. the proprietor of which. into the Simodal (guide 4-5 kr. The path thither diverges 5 min. V0RINGSFUS. then bare rocks polished by glacier-action in sight of the top of the Rembesdalsfos.iU)lioutel8. which affords a fine * View of the upper edge of the sombre Simodal and of the massive Hardanger Jekul. We now return to the top and thence follow the steep and fatiguing. gorge to Thveit. Ola Garen^ is a good guide. Rembesdalsfos 5. Beautiful rainbow-hues are seen in the spray. One of the best of these is the passage to the N. we suiall. Beyond the pass w^e traverse first and come a snow-field. especially in the afternoon. reach the Veringsfos Restaurant (English spoken) and in 10 min. forming a cloud above it. which it leaves on the right. Ill). — . via the gaard of ffel^ the Skisceter. The route to the Simodal diverges to the left. 30.. The platform here affords an impressive view of the sombre ravine. Another good excursion from the Fosli Hotel crosses the plateau to the S. but we continue to descend for about 20 min. in all). adds 3-4 hrs. more the stupendous **Vjaringsfos. A dense volume of spray constantly rises from the seething cauldron. The streams descending from the icy crags of the latter fall into the Rembesdalsvand on the W. however. which however soon re-unite. the roar of which has long been audible. Rembesdalsvand 6. — ExcuKsioN TO THE SiMODAL. the upper leap of which. a Splendid day's march (guide to the Skykjefos 4.. from the verge of the Skykjedal . The Fosli Hotel is the starting-point for several line excursions. Daemmevand 7 kr. but perfectly safe. crossing the Bjoreia shortly above the fall.). High above the fall is situated the conspicuous *Fosli Hotel (25 beds). passing the Skykjedalsvand. end of the Eidfjord consists of a narrow bay. we may cross the fjeld to the X. and ascends to the hotel in I1/2 hr. . provisions necessary). The E. to the expedition. but it is generally most convenient to visit . to the Rembesdalsvand. more to the edge of the cliff descending sheer into the narrow Skykjcdal. which lie far below. A suspension-bridge enables us to approach close to the The Bjoreia plunges in a single leap of fall (water-proofs useful). 3 days \ see p. Instead of descending to tlie N. From the Fosli Hotel across the fjeld to the Rjukanfos in Telemarken. and Bcerrast^l. Hardamjer Alpine vegetation. 520 ft. into a narrow basin enclosed by perpendicular rocks on three sides. is directly opposite us. through V7hich a good path descends to S8eb0 (a walk of 8-9 hrs.E. (lark-green Maabevand.). below the restaurant (see above) from the Veringsfos route. and the Skykjedalsvand on the S.W. high.. to Thveit 572-6V2 ^^s. path down to the gaards of Thveit (p. and thence reach Mehus via the RembesdalsThis. The route crosses the marshy plateau towards the Isdalsvand. From this point we have a magnificent **View of the Skykjefos. In 1 hr. Two ridges of rock at the top divide the river into three falls.

or royal domain and thence across the . rises the majestic Vasfjceren (2066 ft.. and then the lake rises till its waters burst their icy barriers and devastate the Simodal (last inundaA tunnel is now being constructed to obviate disasters tion in Aug. near the entrance. arm. beautifully situated. IV4. in 1 hr. higher. frequented by English travellers ^ '-Vestrheim's. We soon come in sight of the farms of LUvik.). A road ascends the latter to the gaards of runs the *Siniodal. R. side of the glacier. S. D. Skyds Station kept by Hjceltnoes. in which rises a curious isolated rock about 380 ft. a grand waterfall nearly 2000 ft. is the snow-clad Onen [5150 ft. On the N. Pleasant *Walk along the .). to the *Daemmevand lake situated 1630 ft. with a grand mountain-background. or S. 18. B. high. known as IJloik. 2 kr.). From Vik we steam down — ^ Hotels. A low wooded hill. 'Sponheim's Hotel (Mrs. Mehus. li/4. — As a rule the Dsemmevand discharges by a passage under the glacier. which terminates abruptly in a lofty rock. situated on an ancient moraine. •Braken^:s. A fatiguing path. from the pier. and to (5 Kil. To the N. the smiling Vlvikfjord into which we steer. is one of the most attract- Hardanger Fjord. by the Lure Nut. from the head of this bay stretches the Aasdal. Wonderful contrasts are aftorded by the dark-green water. called Osen. on the plateau above the fall. 3300 ft. towering above all.E. To the S.E. separates the sombre Osenfjord from its W. bank of the lake lies the Rembesdals-SiHer. . 1. part of which is a single leap of over 700 ft. WUhelmsen" s) on the hill. branch of the Eidfjord. 2 kr.E. on the old road to Graven (p. while to the N. D.}.Fjord.). B. — — — . On the right. is seen the *Slcykj€fos.) the *Rembesdalsvand (ca.. Near the laudiii}:place is the gaard of Sad. amid magnificent mountain-scenery. to the N. to which we may row. Route. behind which there is a fine waterfall. from which we are still 1 hr distant. To the N. a glacier descending from the Hardanger J«rkul. similar charges. largely occupied by summer boarders. into the Osefjord .. and to the E.) Thveit (good quarters). from which the lofty Degerfos descends. 1.) head of the valley. the Eidfjord and turn to the right the N. Ulvik's. IV4'. this opening gets stopped up. To the E.M. flecked with floating ice. the highest gaard in the valley. however. is the chief cluster of houses among the hamlets and farms at the head of the fjord which are ive places on the . 1/4 hr. 121).. ' of this kind. adjoining. . R. with about 1700 steps. Ulvik-BrakencBs. Sometimes. collectively shore to the E. TJlvik. Its terminal moraine reaches the lake. the deep-blue glacier. From the Rembesdals-Sseter we ascend laboriously (g:uide necessary) on the W. in height. thickly clustered round the head of the fjord. Ill by rowing-boat from Vik (5 Kil. 18933. . is the Rembesdalsskaakje. the dai'k fells of the Lure Nut. is the *Rembesdalsfos. BrakencBs with its church. and the gleaming whiteness of the Hardanger Jekul (6540 ft. ascends hence to (l-172lir. 3 S. is a fall of the Bcegna-Elv. The path now leads on the right bank of the torrent to the (1 hr. to Hagestad and Lekve^ an ancient 'Kongsgaard". it ULVIK.. English Church Sei'vice in July and August.

with baths. 'Smebt (PL e B. . 35 0. The Eailwat Station (PL C.m. B. The fatigue is lessened by sleeping at the sseter on the Solsivand on the previous night. 10-12 hra.). (guide at Ose) may be taken iip the Hsedal. opposite the fire-station. 3). but poor food. 3).112 Route 19. ArrivaL Most of the large steamers are berthed by Bradioenken and FibstningsWi/ggen (PI. good cuisine. From the Solsivand to Klevene and the Opstetst^le in the Eundal (p. IV2. The Hardanger boats lie at the Holbergs. which narrows to a ravine. from 2 kr. at the corner of the Walkendorfs-Gade . We may either hire a boat for the trip at the place just mentioned. 128). with electric light. but drivers have frequently to alight and walk. near the market-place. The *Head of the Osefjoed (where the steamers do not touch). in the Plads called -Klosteret'.. R. from 3V2. 1 hr. (1-4 p.. 2). B. 5^ B. well spoken Nordstjeesex (PL d. Fru Dina Leivaas ^ Walkendorfs-Gade 12. see p. with 40 rooms-. Holdt's (PL b . at Bradbeenken. Skandinavie (PL f.] — 19. -end of the TorveAlmenning and the public park. UMk A toilsome walk of 10-12 hrs. part of the town. 104. L. between the Enge and Torve-Almenning.. 3). 1.m. or row all the way from (14 Kil. but some of the British vessels land at the Toldbod (PI. Smaastrand^^ade. As to berths. between the KrosfjcBren and Nipahegd on the E.. of Lekve. Bergen.Ahnenning (PI. In the latter case we get a view of the line fall of the Degerfos (p. 117) is in the S. R. Strand-Gade. from Lekve. near the post-office..). B. Torvet 12. pens. D. & A. p. of the N^ykirke and near the quav of the fiord-steamers. Fru MuUer. Hotels. S. p. Raadstue-Plads. 3).. 3). 184). B. Christies-Gade. 111). 2). I | | j — ! \ — — . Skogen's (PL g.).2). at the cor. 2. branch office of the Bergen Co. cafe'-restaurant. IV4. Splendid view from the top. Hotels. At the head of the fjord lies Ose (tolerable bed. from 2. the Sogne and Nordfjord boats by the NykU-ke (PI.). Hansen. R.). parties should telephone beforehand. to the N. Grand Cafi (PL x. 3). Fru Steen. between the S. be hired for the trip to Ose (4 Kil. or S. B. 2). steamboat should ascertain in good time where the vessel starts from. new. 'dagens kost' 1 kr.) to Eaardal in the Flaamsdal (p.) with coffee 4kr. 3kr. or S. Another walk may be taken to the Solsivand. — — .. Then across the Gravehals (3710 ft. From this point the wild '^Osedal runs inland.. Ole Hakestad of Lekve is a good guide (6-S kr.-1 kr. C. Travellers leaving Bergen by Porter ('Bserer') to the hotels. 1 — : | •. elevator. C. beer on draught. 10 the Opscei-Siele at the head of the Rundal (p. D. and the Vasfjceren on the W. 4. 6.. new. patronized almost exclusively by the English. enclosed by huge mountains. C. C. 9). and lift. B. At the hotels. 2. The ascent of the Vasfjaeren (o850 ft. 2 kr. 1 kr. and thence. to the N. 3 kr. From Ulvik to Geaven (Eide. Private Hotels and Pensions (comp. R. B. "Fleien^s (PL D. 2). 60 0.. Hotel Xokge (PL a^ C. to the Osesceier. [The new road is practically completed as far as Espeland . opposite the Hotel Iforge and the public park. BERGEN. of the public park. from IV2. with eggs or cold meat 13/4-21/4. similar rates. Frk. p. D. there and back. E. or S. 123). B. Metropole. at Lars Ose's). At a group of huts here a hoat may liill to tlie Osefjord (1 hr. IV2 kr. Engen 45 Restaurants. with electric light. B. between the Oseskavl and Vosseskavl on the right and the Gangdalskavl on the left. see p. (2 p. of the Starvhus-Gade. xviii. near the Lille Lungegaardsvand.) takes 12-16 hrs. 2V'2-3 hrs. 2. is worthy of a visit (take provisions). Mattson>s Family Hotels Torv-Gade 1. 1 hr. with garden-terrace and baths. RaadstuePlads. baths. and baths. 6kr. of. Vossevangen). US). B. to the E. rebuilt in 1896. Most of the offices are in the Strand-Gade. each.

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25 .2.

41°). which present a picturesque appearance.) to the S. and in 1188 the Kuvlunger and 0skjegger were defeated by Sverre at the naval battle of Florvaag (near the Ask0). the lanes and passages 'Smug' or 'Smitter'. end of the present harbour. The town extends round the spacious harhour called Vaagen. 119). (Christiania. till the latter were de- . during the so-called 'Bergen summer'. as well as those of the whole district (Nordhorland. and Bagler under PMlipp Jarl and Erf}«V Steinvoey^ fought for possession of the town. designed chiefly to prevent the spreading of conflagrations. as the greatest battles in the civil wars of the following centuries were fought near it. The town must soon have become an important place. and Yoss). BERGEN.E. English and German are much spoken hy the hetter-educated. thus diminishing the danger. at Christiania 26 in.114 Route 19. The climate is exceedingly mild and humid. .) with the Damgaardsfjeld to the S.. and that of July 58° (Christiania. The older houses are timher-huilt.. and are noted for their sociahility and light-hearteduess. towards the Lille and Store Lungegaardsvand. 'pasture among tlie mountains') was founded by King Olaf Kyrre in 1070-75 on the site of the old royal residence of Aalrekstad. In 1135 Magnus Sigurdssen was captured and deprived of his sight here by Harold Gille^ who in his turn was slain by Sigurd Slembe the following year. and Lyderhorn (1300 ft.. at the E. Bergen has heen repeatedly destroyed hy fire. The inhahitants of Bergen. the thermometer very rarely falling helow 15-20° Fahr. Levstakm (1560 ft. alone retain a characteristic medijeval appearance. years later. Ixxv) in three poems. only).. are more vivacious than those of other parts of Norway. which is entirely enclosed hy large warehouses ('Si^gaarde').) to the 8. the rival Bjerkeiener^ under Haakon Jarl and Peter Steyper. Many of the houses are roofed with red tiles. and usually painted white. coast of Scotland the frosts of winter are usually slight and of short duration. The general aspect of the town is modern. The mean temperature of the whole year is 45° Fahr. and these are intersected at right angles hy wide open spaces called 'Alme'nninge'. and the armorial hearings of the town also contain seven hills (formerly seven halls). Situation. The quarters adjoining the harhour..E. Sandhorland. as for example in 1702. while grain and fruit ripen fairly well.. N. which hurst forth in song on festive occasions. The streets are called 'Gader'. Ten 6'2°).W. and is now spreading to the S. ft. and the average rainfall is 72 inches (in the Nordfjord ahout 35 in. A conduit now supplies the town with water from Svartediget (p.. . Notwithstanding this precaution. In 1154 Harald's son Sigurd Mvnd was killed by the followers of his brother Inge on the quay of Bergen. hut the citizens count seven. the disaster of which year is descrihed hy Peter Dass (p. the vegetation in the environs is unusually rich . . In 1181 a naval battle took place near the Nordnses between kings Magnus and Sverre. resemhling that of the AV. Bergen (from Bjei'gvin. stretches over the rocky heights at the hase of the Flmfjeld and over the peninsula of Nordnces which separates the Vaagen from the Pudde fjord (to the S.). Vlriken (2105 .E. Owing to the mildness o"f the' climate.flowers are ahundant. which at that period ran inland as far as the Cathedral.

after an oppressive sway of more than a century. and'brun'j and roe(-Rogn'). and Dutch traders. end of the harbour. C 3 by jBorc/i). and literature. Among eminent Copenhagen founder of modern Danish 1684. rises a Statue of . 3). From the Torv. but in 1763 their last 'Stave'. with cod-liver oil (of five qualities 'Damp Medicin-tran'. known as Kontorske^ and the nickname of Garper Tprobably from garpa.) At the E. and in July and August they bring 'Klipfisk' and 'Rundfisk'. see above). At length. To the N. are valued at 20. p. the poet (d. at which Haakon Ilaakonsen^s title to the crown was recognised (p. 1880). 19. from the E. For its subsequent commercial prosperity the town was indebted to the Hanseatic League. while 16 per cent only. running and containing the principal shops and . the imports at 30 million kr. in front of the Exchange. B. W. 1873)-. and even the Norwegians themselves. C. 7. 113). 'brun-blank'. street is the Strand-Gade parallel with the harbour. C. Bergen also has a considerable mercantile fleet (over 150 steamers and 200 sailing-vessels). (Its (PI. they gradually monopolised the whole trade of northern and western Norway. 115 feated in a great battle near the old In 1223 a national diet was held at Bergen. C. built by Solberg). and Bergens ifekaniske Yivrktted at Solheimsviken. the traveller. the trade of Bergen much exceeded that of Copenhagen. natives of Bergen may be mentioned Ludmg Holberg 1754). and here also is the point of intersection of the electric tramways (p.Tune occurs the first Xordfar-Staevne ('arrival of northern seafarers'). and separating the old part of the town from the new quarter built since the lire of 185'>. and at the beginning of the 19th cent. projects a pier called Triangelen^ at which the fishermen usually land. Ludvig Holberg (PI. which established an office here about the middle From this Comptoir the German merchants were of the loth century. poet. was sold to a native of Norway. carries on 32 per cent of the whole trade of Norway. the painter (d. is Bergen's proportion (b.) end of the Torve-Almenning is d^ Statue of Christie (PI. 3). 'to talk loudly'') was also applied to them. which concluded the convention with Sweden in 1814 (comp. or office. Laksevaag Dampskibsbyggeri at Laksevaag. 117. and forcibly excluded the English. when the fishermen of the N. At the present day Christiania. The ship-building yards are the largest in Norway: Georgernes Ver/t on the Piiddefjord. The exports. chiefly fish. xlix). 2. 'Medicin-tran'. Dahl. /. which is the greatest fish-mart in Norway. 'l)lank''. At the upper (S. d. social reformer. the president of the first Norwegian Storthing. Their"'Comptoir' continued to exist for two centuries more. 2. Even in the 17th cent. In May and . and several banks. by Borjeson. German church. end of tlie Strand-Gadelies tlie Torve-Almenning with the adjoining Tory (PI. coasts arrive here with their 'Jagter' deeply laden. of this point. the musician. Johan Welhaveii. Having wrested various privileges from the Danish government. The Hanseatic 'merchants compelled the northern fishermen to send their fish to Bergen. prolongation leads to the NordnsBs see p. at the head of the harbour. after which their power declined.History. 1857). annually. they were successfully opposed by Christopher Walkendorf in 1559. however. and to the present day the trade slill flows mainly through its old channels. from all participation in it. Interesting fish-markt-t herq — . Bergen was more populous than Christiania. Ixxvi). Route. including the Exchanyn (PI. BERGEN. Here are the principal modern buildings. which togetlier form a long 'Plads'. 3. running S. at : The main offices. C 3. and Ole Bull (d. Scottish. especially comedv. Fish has always been the staple commodity of Bergen.

. C. catalogue 1 kr. old flags. The entrance to the harbour here is defended by the old fortress of Bergenhus (PI. the choir Gothic. Sat. . The gallery at the top affords an admirable survey of the harbour and the — . Walkendorf's or the Rosenkrantz Tower. Liibeck. Jacobs fjorden. Above the gaards of Tydskebryggen. or rooms of the clerks and servants. Kjcelderen (which contained the old Exchange). 12-2 and 5-T. To the N. near the vegetable gardens. Engel. is the more moderu. to the N. On the Ground Floor were the warehouses. weap. see p. Bue. In front of each rises a crane ('Yippebom') for unloading the fish brought to Bergen by the Northmen in their smacks. on the First Floor is an outer room leading to the 'Stave'. originally built by Haakon Haakonssen. with Ms dining-room and bedroom behind and on the Second Floor are the 'Klaven'. extended by Rosenkrantz in 1565. . side of the harbour. One of them has . Bratten. etc.E. on Sun. except Sun. etc.). fee to soldier who attends visitors 1/2 kr. by the FcEstningshrygge (PL B. 1. The *Hanseatic Museum (PI. daily. apply to the sentinel. (counting from the Torv): Finnegaarden Leppen Ravelsgaarden Solegaarden. on the N. — For the Vetrlids-Al- menniiig. owing to the jealousy between the rival nations. assumed its present form after the fire of 1702. to tlie N. 2). at which the large deep-sea steamers lie. ons.. (especially Wed. and other towns of the League. Here resided the clerks of the merchants of Bremen. The nave is Romanesque. of the Toxv.). 2). with Walkendorf's Taarn and the Kongehal (adm.W.. Several balls built into the walls and gilded commemorate an unsuccessful attempt of the English fleet to capture the Dutch fleet which had sought refuge in the harbour in 1665. C. extends *Tydskebryggen (PI. a common room ('SkJ0tstuen') for the inmates of the Gaard was erected a little behind it.) conveys a good idea of how the gaards were fitted up and contains a collection of furniture. Tydskebryggen. and restored in 1848. Svends. 8-6. consists in fact of two towers.m. The interior of the tower serves as an arsenal (fine chimney-pieces.2) in the Finnegaard (open 10-2 and 4-7.... erected in the 12th cent. C. enlarged in the 13th. The remains of only a few of these common rooms survive. bordered with a long row of brightly painted -warehouses. or the German Quay. : . The elaborately carved pulpit and the altar date from the 17th century. of which that on the N. The Tydskebrygge is continued to the N. i kr. etc. or office of the manager.). who. — As the use of fire or light in the main building was forbidden. adm. formerly the Hanseatic quarter. rises the Marieekirke (PI. were forbidden to marry. 118. Sester. Kappen. mostly of the latest Hanseatic period. Each gaard was presided over by a 'Bygherre' and was divided into 'Staver'. There were sixteen different gaards Dramshuset. and Guldsko gaards. 2). B. Enhjernings. . 2). with its two towers. been restored in the Dramshus. Breds.W. and the Holmedalen. belonging to different owners. and 8-10 a. and used by the Hanseatic merchants as a German church from 1408 to 1766. BERGEN. C. or offices. 1. Each merchant had a clerk and one or more servants ( 'Byl«fber') resident here. The Tydskebrygge.\1Q Route 19. fire-extinguishing apparatus.

of the IGth cent.). other days free. porcelain. Bucher in 189497.uniH. etc. also prehistoric curiosities. now the flre-watch. Tidamand^ Gude. between it and the Puddefjord. to the Sydnceshoug. side is the Semands- On the S. A.Jioult. On the groundfloor of the museum are a Fisheries Museum and an exhibition of industrial art while the first and second floors accommodate the Vestland Industrial Museum and the Municipal Picture Gallery. chiefly from W. nf a huge whale. 25 0. — . and to the S. gidd and silver plate. The central block was erected in — daily. 117 with town. side of the harbour.. 1865 hy Nebelong.W.. the wings were added in 1897 hy Sparre. Among earlier works maybe noted: il5.30 to 1. John (Pi.. 178. 4). C. of the park lies the Grand Cafe (PI. erected in 1890-93 from plans by H. A. tliis lO. side of this lake extends the small Public C. Sat. 4). Park. hu9^ an asylum for superannuated seamen and seamen's widows. On the W. The Natural History Collection (first and second floors catalogue 25 0. The exhibition of the Bergen Art Union (Kunstforening) is also shown here (changed from time to time). an eminence on which rises the Bergen Museum (PI. a). of the museum rises the conspicuous Church of St. ecclesiastical vessels and pictures.. Thurs. IJehind tower is tlu. Konyehal. 13tli cent.) comprises a very complete set of specimens of Norwegian fish and marine animals (skeleton — •. then. The Industrial Museum contains furniture and wood-carvings of tlie 15-18th cent. 50 0. On . containing antiquarian and natural liistory collections and a library. side of the fort are the Observatory and the Hospital. Cartoon of the Entombment. porcelain. furniture (mostly Dutch). the peninsula of Nordnses (PI. between the Vestlandske Museum and the Raihray Station.30. The PiCTUEE Gallery includes examples of Bodom. The large and conspicuous brick building on the N. on Tues. A new quarter with broad and regular streets has sprung up within the last few decades around the Lille Lungegaardsuand (PI. tankards. Backer. To the W.. At the end of the peninsula are promenades with benches commanding fine sea-Yiews. two carved church -portals from tlie Sognedal. w here a band plays daily (except Sun. 1. Nordenherg. Eckershevg. 4) a large Gothic brick building with a lofty tower. On the M. on the right. the hill to the W. hy Lorange. with illustrations.EKUKN. articles of clothing. . the Norge Hotel (PI. copper and tin utensils.Gade runs to the S..). On the summit rises Fort Frederiksberg. 1). C. In the entrance-hall. silver ornaments. built by Henr. to the N.MH. a fine altar-piece in carved oak with wings. C. . passing the Roman Catholic Church. x). — The Christies. On the Ground Floor is the collection of Norse Antiquities (good — catalogue. l^orwegian tapestries.m. 11-2 and 4-6. Carstens The inhabitants of Riigen seeking to purchase their independence from Holstein (drawing). C. Norway. netted work.) in summer from 12.<r. r. K. of the restored). a large festal hall (now being — Above the fortress of Bergenhus rises tbe ancient Suerresborg (PI. etc. 3). etc. Mengs. and frequently also from 8 to 11 p. 2) projects far into the sea. Adm. the new Vestlandske Museum (PI. R. 3.W.

It consists of a nave and S. the S. with the Vaagen and Puddefjord. which passes this point. For the Kong-Oskars-Gade. erected in 1248. whichhas given nameto thehill. those who approach the Fjeldvei from this side ascend to the left just opposite the 'Brand-Telegraf of the hospital). 5).. Beside it is a cafe. C. 2-. BEK<. From the upper end of the Vetrlids-Almenning(Pl.).) *FjeIdvei (PL D. Danielssen's Biological Station). along which passes an electric tramway (15-20 min. On the top are a conspicuous iron vane. C. Vitterslevs or Vetrlius which stands the covered market or 'Bazaar'. of the Torv extends the Almbnning (PI. PI. Fine Gothic window and portal in the lower story of the tower. 3). Beneath this bridge flows the Store Strem. The finest point is marked by a white flagstaff (385 ft. — Outside Holme n. C. containing the Public Library (12-1 and 5-7). . to the (20 min. who figures in Holberg's 'Subterranean Journey'. . Niels Klim. is an Aquarium (PI. of Skcmagere. Near this is tbe Korskirke (PI.. with fine views. C. Sun. to the S. which wc may pass to the *Nygaards Park fPl.. D. Several streets here derive their names from the 'Fif Amten'. the hills of Lyderhorn and Damsgaardsfjeld. Farther to the E. on a bay of theSolheimsvik. 3) a road halfway up the side of the Fleifjeld (p. D 3.E. opposite where band plays (Sun. 2. 5-7) and a cafe'. 5). in — — the harbour'). the E. By morning-light particularly the Fjeldvei affords a beautiful view of the town lying at our feet.IJ8 Route 'J'o VJ.E. of the point where we reached the Fjeldvei). the Ask0.. near a station of the electric tramway) a road ascends in windings (accompanied by flights of steps for walkers). which connects the Store Lnngegaardsvand with the Solheimsvik and the Puddefjord. — tensive from the *FI«ien (825 ft. E.andagoodi?e3ta«ra?ii (p. Xyjaanh I'ark.iEN. we may by-and-by descend in windings to the Pleiestiftelse on the Kalfarvei (p. 119. and restored in 1870. D. are a pavilion On a the S.. 11-2 and 4-6 (25 ». Following the Fjeldvei farther to the S. 112). 113) from the neighbouriug Nygaardshro (PI.. at a bend in the road above the cathedral (about 5 min. and a host of rocky islets. PI.e. 4. side of the grounds. Olaf i Vaagsbunden. and Bartskjcerere. a hill ascended by a winding road in 30-40 minutes. i. 5^. gate of the park. of tlirough tiic miisoum is an attractive residential quarter. who were under Hanseatic protection. open daily (except Sat. The whole walk takes 1-1 V2 ^^Tlie view is more ex.) from May till the end of August. 2). rebuilt in 1537. 119). 2). or Church of the Cross.E. The tide flows in and out of this '•stream'. 'at the end of To the N. founded about 1170 but dating in its present form from 1593. 2). 5. . was sacristan here. D. towards the E. A tall monument behind the church commemorates the Norwegians who fell in the naval battle of the Alv^ (May 16th. Bagere. see p. aisle only. - — Walks. is the Cathedral (PI. originally a monastery-church. 113). Guldsmede. 10 0. We may retuvn by tte electric tramvcay (p. Skinnere. the sea stretching into the distance. C. passing the reservoir. 1808). or five German guilds.

5. Another favourite walk is by Kong-Oskar's-Gade. F. C.^ to the S... to the top. 19. or to the E. Farther on the way up the mountain (2Va brs. 3. The About 1/2 l^r. !>. 120) and to the Nvgaardsbro (PI.) across the Puddefjovd to Laksevaag with its large shipbuilding-yards and dry docks (p. in which. is Svartediget (PL G.) is marked by white posts tipped with red. 1 H) Instead of goin. and returning to the town by the Pleie«liftelse. The nearer summit (1990 ft. Rich vegetation in the gardens adjoining the road . 11 D. farther on is Isdalen. and the Lungegaards Hospital. which crosses the stream in the Skrcedderdal and descends in windings to the suburb of Sandviken (VI. From the end of the road ascending the Fl0ien a footpath. a lake whence Bergen is supGrand scenery. left). path ascending the right bank of the Mellendals-Elv. towers Ulriken. PI. 5). 10 0. James. Crossing the streamlet flowing to the little Haukelandsvand (not to be confounded with the lake mentioned on p. farther on. From the Kalfarvei we follow the road to the S. 118). 115). On the left is the road ascending to the Fjeldvei (p. along the fjord. from the Pleiestlftelse (from which in turn another road leads to the left to the Cafe-Restaurant Bellevue. On the summit are two gtonc pyramids. Thence we may return to the town by the electric tramway (p. follow the picturesque road towards the N. The road diverging to the left 5 min. 113). after enjoying the view from the flagstaff above the cathedral. with its villas. ascent of "'L^vstaken (15G0 ft. D. Another good point of view is Ulriken (2105 ft. ascends by the side of the fence enclosing the plantation. 3) by steam-ferry (every 1/4 !"'• 5 0i after 9 p. 1 M. past the Teknisk Skole (PI.station the route leads past the fi-om Solheimsviken.E. 4) leads to the Kalvedal. Cade (late American con(see above) . About 30-40 min. beyond the restaurant. p.E. by which (electric tramway) we may return to Bergen. passing pleasant vilSolheimsviken (p. 5) to (Y4hr. F. which goes on to Fleen and Mellendalen (PI. from Bergen). belonging to Mr. (Kalfarvei) and fine trees in the Forskjennelsen promenade. which — i ^ may las. Farther on is the Kalfaret promenade.m. 120) lies the beautiful estate of Fantoft. to the S.. on the Store Lungegaardsvand. which contains a monument to Christie (p. which crosses the M0llendals-Elv and (leaving the church oi Aarstad to the right) passes the gaard^i oi Ilatilelatiil and Vognstol. and on the right are the Pleiestiftelse{Pl. a picturesque gorge. we take the road leading to the left to the gaard of Lccgdene (about 1 hr. At Sandviken are a large lunatic asylum and many pretty villas. and the Stadsjwrt (PI.we may. 115). G. p. the Cemetery of St.).E.) is the best point of view.). BERGKN. a hospital for lepers. whence we may return hy one of the steam launches starting every V2 ^r. which issues from the Svartediget." to the" easily be ascended. A). We then walk to the pretty Gravdal at the foot of the Lydevhorn (1350 ft. plied with water." 114) and back takes 3-4 hrs. 3). 1). 120). lioutc. whence a path descends to the Svartediget (see below). The view is perhaps the most beautiful near Bergen. A trip may be taken from the quay oi Nest el (PI. The houses and follows the new bridle-path which ascends in windings through a pleasant plantation (above which is a line view). B. leads via the farm of Aarstad (PI.) the Kalfarvei. dating from 1630). From the railway . and then towards the S. from the railway-station of Fjesanger (p. 115). Farther on a guide-post indicates the route to the Skomagerdiget (to the right) and to Blaamanden (1805 ft. 4)..L'nvirons.

1 20 Route W. .) Haukeland ("265 ft. 5 Kil. About 1/2 ^r. pass several small lakes. with fast skyds-stations. seep. Hop. on the hill to the left. The railway is now being continued high up the fjeld and is to be carried through to the Kr^deren Lake via the Hallingdal. the highest point on the line. with villas on the Nordaasvand^ with its charming islets. comp. of Bergen (i hr. near Ose. in 4 hrs. of the Grimenvand. fare 30 0. From Bergen Har danger Fjord. 28.. end of the Arnevaag a narrow branch of the Ser fjord. no authority for the entirely open arcade. 119). (fares 7 kr. 148) has been re-erected here and somewhat freely restored (there is. Rail.). 112. 115). farther to the S. with a church. J Nestun or Nedsttun (104 ft. and crosses the river twice more. where the Udsigt {Dijrteigen.) Os or Oseren^ on the BJeirnefJovd. Near the station. A local steamer plies between Bergen and Os. 2 Kil. is the estate of Fantoft — We — . not seen from the station.). In descending thence Ave overlook the brawling stream which issues from the lake. lies on the bay of that name at the foot of Levstaken (p. Bail. . Restaurant\ near the skyds-station of Midtun. To the bathing-resort of Solstrand. who lisually NESTTJN. — branch-railway runs from Xestun to (20 Kil.) to FanTravellers who wish to lunch or dine in the neightoft is very attractive. is the villa of the German consul. 20 min. train crosses the i^estun-Elv The and left). 3 kr. Two tunnels. . ascends rapidly. 15 Kil. 30 Kil. e.) Ask0. Beyond the Haukelands. — The Railway (station.E. 8 Kil. The drive (2i/2hrs.. a large island in the SkJEergaard. Hotel Nestun. 48 Kil. suburb of Bergen (p. 70. a little to the S. a large island which 29 . at the S. Opposite rises the church of Haus on the Ostere.) commands a splendid view of the sea and coast. Kil. The high level of the line affords a fine view across the Nestunsvand to the slopes of Ulriken. bouring "Bii'kelund Restaurant should order their meal beforehand by sul). Fj«rsanger. threads two tunnels.. 119). Garnses (65 ft. Solheimsviken.Vand we reach (18 Kil. the industrial S. telephone. Front lkr<jen admiis visitors to the grounds (cmiiiire beforehand in Bergen). A pleasant trip may be taken by steamboat (thrice daily from Muralmenning. pp.). at its N. . 20. g.. Restauranf).. 99. 85 0. 29).) to the (1 hr. and from Vossevangen to Gudvangen. Gudvangen on Railway ('Vossebane') to Vossevangen luS Kil. C 2. via Vossevangen to Eide on the or via Stalheim to the Sognefjord. (p. 99). Arne (65 ft. see p.W. where marble is quarried. PI. on the Serfjord. to the N. The pavilion higher up conimands'a beautiful view of tbe Xordaasvand. An old 'Stavekirke' from Fortun (p. Vs hr. end. near which is the large marine hotel of Solstrand (p. Roads from Vossevangen to Eide. Heldal. into the pretty Langedal. 25 Kil. A by a high bridge (views right turns to the N. views mostly to the left) passes through a short tunnel and crosses the Store Stre-m.). The train ascends to (9 Kil.

Skerjeh ..

.

lioule. (extensive view. . Dale (Gullachsen's Hotel). 39 Kil. and walk thence to ^Norheimsund. train passes through nine tunnels. To the S.) on the line charming views of the fjord between these. at theE. 103. and passes through the fiftysecond and last tunnel to (99 Kil. extensive panorama) may he ascended hence (5 hrs. arm of the Sarfjord and culminates in the Hanenip (2440 ft. lies at the mouth of the Bergsdal. M. Monsen's Hotel. with its occasional lake-like reaches. Rail. Restaurant). Across the fjord. Ten tunnels. ascended from Evanger in 2-3 hrs. towers the Myklethveitvete (3740 ft. guide. F~ve tunnels.). well spoken of). The train now reaches the S. Eight tunnels. The engineering of the line on the S.). 4 kr. 51 Kil.)Bulken. which forms several rapids. end of the fjord. and then skirts the S. and ascends the Dal<Elv. to (11 Kil. bank of the Evangervand. Beyond Dale the 78 Kil. . 66 Kil. enclosed by rocky hills. Bolstad(30 ft. Trengereid's Inn). leads from Dale to (6 Kil. A new *E.to IChlc. on the bay of that name at Row to T0ssc. hank of the Serf jord is very interesting. post-road leads from Trentiereid. To the right rise steep cliffs. -JO.. Stanghelle. The train leaves the Serfjord crosses the Dalevaag. On the pretty Olsnas-0 a new school has been huilt. Hotel (p. the longest penetrating the Hcettaparti. on which rises the church of Brudvlk.oad. at the head of the lake. see p. The village with its church lies on the opposite bank of the Vosse-Elv. Above it towers the Brudviksnip (2945 ft. Trengereid (50 ft. A Kraaen the N. The train rounds the promontory. 128). bank of the BolstadsFjord. On the N. 103).) Aadland C/nri). Vaxdal (50 ft. we still see the Ostere.) Fosse^ the highest farm in the Bergsdal. 121 Itnuiids the St^rljonl on tlie N. which here enters the Evangervand. which separates the S. Jacob A. bank of the latter. skirts the W. at the — entrance to the Teidal (p.) Hamlegre . situated at the efllux of . from the E. Evanger (50 ft. Evanger). The train ascends the left bank of the Vosse-Eiv.). end of the Sammaiujer Fjord.. crosses it. and rcinaius in view till we rcarh Stanghelle. Inn).. 59 Kil.. landlord acts as guide. . Eleven short tunnels hetween Garnses and the next station. passing through several tunnels in the rock.) and the Raunip (2475 ft.).). pa.. hroad. 88 Kil.«. from which a short line of rails runs to Jebsen's large cloth-factory. The Gulfjeld (3235 ft. one of them the longest (1410 yds. KVANGKl!. The train follows the left bank of the Vosse-Elv. The train which has a fall above the bridge (right) crosses the Vaxdals-Elv and drives a large mill lower down.«itig between the Gulfjeld and (2145 ft. bank lies Fadncps. Thence a poor road goes on via Redland and the Lien-Soeler to the (20-22 Kil. there and hack. here only 550 yds.

IV2 kr. farther from the station. simpler. ('Loff or 'Bur' is a two-storied farm-house as opposed to the 'Stue'. of the . skirting the upper end of the Vangsvand and running partly through pine-woods to the (10 min. or house of one story. 18. IV4. IO0. right to 'Eide. Vangsvand. from the church.. discharge of the lake. From Ikryeih the Vosse-Elv from the picturesque Vanysvand (148 ft. Voss. IV2-2. The stone Churchy in the middle of the village. gifted . 36... 20. which we cross by boat (5 0.). and follow it through wood and across a wooden bridge. V2. fair. 15. 25 125 0. a candelabrum of 1733. or S.) the Cafi Breidablik whence there is a fine view of Vossevangen and its environs. Telegraph Office at the railway-station-. at the upper end of the village. .) Eundalf Elv. D. to Opheim 12. 2 kr. From Bulken via. of the station. At the upper end of Voss the road divides left to 'Gudvangen. D. 12. bank of the Vangsvand. Carriages are usually engaged here for the whole journey to Eide or Gudvangen. Post Office by the church. or S. (p. or 28 kr. P/i-u/2. 18. — Railway Station to the W.. The Vossinger are a The environs large farms and and enterprising race. or 1(3 kr. R. 15.). to the S. A. L. . 2 kr. B. . Hardanger'. Skirting the N. to Eide 12. the poet (p. is the farm of Fin^ beside which is preserved the Finneloft^ a timber-house built in 1300. Two-horse carriages for 2. we see. Sogn'. a few yards farther on. *Vossevangex l-l'/z. the upper story in frame-work. on the side next the railway-station.).). To the E.122 Route I'O. 14. in the village. 30. the E. The charge Hotels. cbarmingly situated at the E. Fru Mette Bet Pettersen" s Pension. to Gudvangen 25. and then in rapid curves to (I/2 hr. from Voss. VOSS. R. 4. on the upper road diverging to the right from the Bergen road. also telephone to the Stalheim Hotel . A suspension-bridge crosses the river to *LUand^s Hotel (English spoken). S. dating from 1271-76. to the W. cultivation has taken more complete possession of the plain than in almost any other part of Norway. of the station. to save delay in changing horses: stolkjjerre to Eide 7. or S. Grimesiad and Skjeldal to the Hamlegrevand and thence on to the Fiksensund (Hardanger). R. Quarters may be obtained also in lodging-houses. or 5 pers. per month. B. 11/2. several pleasant villas. 115). '-Meinhaedt's. 2. The following is a pleasant Walk of IV2 hr. Holberg. A path leads to the S. : Many of Vossevangen are admirably cultivated. B. Voss or Vossevangen (125 ft.. Kjeller's.) The lower story of Finneloftet is in the shape of a blockhouse. patronized by English travellers and often crowded. Engliih Church Service in the season. see p. unpretending. indicated by tickets. with its large patches of snow. Hotel. was tutor at the parsonage in 1702. or 20 kr. 108 aliove Kil. or 40 kr. IV2 kr. David PRxEstegaakd's. to Vinje 10. end. About 1/2 M. B. by the church. or 20 kr. 24. is suited for some stay. village and immediately to the W. contains memorial tablets to pastors of the 17th and 18th cent. mainly patronized by Germans. 103. from Breidablik) fferre and (7-8 Kil. each pers. 3. in an open situation outside the — — — — — •. 80 kr. to Stalheim 91/2. (driver's fee in each case extra). should be agreed on beforehand.). . to Stalheim 16. opposite. . 2. Although the mountains are near. of Fleischer's Hotel. R. On the left bank we ascend to the road leading uphill. i'/z. D. it.). . 55 ft. well spoken of. and Bible of 1589. *FLEiscHEfi''s Hotel. tlie long crest of Graasiden (4270 ft.. to Gudvangen 12^/2 kr. There is no inside staircase (adm. of the village. The road on the other side of the valley continues to ascend to (3-4 Kil.) Rogn. — .

the ascent of which also takes about b hrs. The tunnel is Over the Gravehals to Kaardal in the expected to be completed in 1903.' drive from Voss. 91/2-10 hrs. 8V2 M. About halfway along it. long. Vold^ and (about 30 Kil. Eide (see p. diverging.). on the Slondalsvand. leads thence in 13/4-2 hrs. and the road descends in zigzags into '"Skjervet. The road crosses a bridge between the two parts of the fall.). moderate) is prettily situated at the N. Farther on the road is carried alongwooden viaducts or has been hewn in the rock immediately overlianging the lake. and then across a slightly sloping snovv-field to the higher E.). is coloured dark-brown by a number of marshy ponds.. bank of the lake. by King Sverre and his Bjerkebener. On the left the Skjervefos descends in two halves. 3V2-i hrs. and in s/^-l hr. lo the attractive (5 hrs. to the E. The road crosses tlie Rundals-Elv and ascends its left bank. Many old moraines. Between the roads to the Hardanger and the Sogn (described below). from VosseYangen) Male reaches its highest point (870 ft. still ascending the Rundal. . and reach 8 Kil. the Oxen (p. diverges to the left. then Via Klevene (see past the Brione feeler and over the watershed to the Solsivand and on tu The ascent of tlic Ljanehorje (4680 ft.ad a few yds.W. from Voss) Eggereid (1850 ft. The upper part of the valley terminates suddenly. to the E. From Vossevangen to Eidb on the Hardanger Fjord (comp. road thus far) to the Hamlegrevand and on to Jdstensef on the Hardanger Fjord. We pass Nedre Vasenden.Q Rundals-Elv. is the Gravens-Kirke shortly before which the road to TJlvik mentioned at p. more to the Opsaet-Stiale (i8'20 ft. guide 3 from the Gudvangen n. a deep and picturesque valley. through a beautiful wooded tract.' of the church of Vosaethe Klepsoeiei'. Ill). the seat of the large electric-power works for the construction of a tunnel. above the Runde-Vand.). through the Gravehals (3725 ft. It then descends gradually and crosses the boundary of the Hardanger district. Thence a footpath ascends over pastures and loose stones (difficult at places) to the S.(0 FAdc. . 134). as far as the Joatedalsbrse. llnde.) to the S. diveri. 104). It then turns into a side-valley and beyond the gaard of (ii-12 Kil. summit. above) and the Slondals-Saetre. via Grimesiad and Skjeldal (6 Kil..W. of Voss. or from Bulken (p. 1041 after 3 hrs. and to the S. — . to the left. a road (and also the new unfinished railway to Christiania) ascends the Rundal to the E. via Almindingen to Klevene (2480 ft. see p. 104) becomes visible. From Vofs. W. whence the view embraces the mountains to the N. The road skirts the E. ( . upper Flaamsdal (p. vangen. end of the beautiful Gravensvand. p. leads via Ringheim (p. to the Hardanger J0kul. traverse a rocky defile. kr. 124. (pay for 25 in the reverse direction) Seim i Graven *Nsesheim"s Hotel. Orove^ Hemberg. according to tradition. there and back 8 hrs. 47. summit (commanding a picturesque view of Vossevangen). To the Ballingskei. on the right bank of ih.). to the gaards of Kleve (where the ''Sven esti\ a path once used. at the lower end of the Gravensvand.. (iUAVENSVAND. 122). see p. the upper resembling a veil.es). passing several farm-houses. To the S.). — '22 Kil. to the Folgefond.). 103.). 124) and Traae to — — (Jlvik (p. and commands a fine view of the entire lake and of the massive Nceshcimshorgen (_32o0 ft. A footpath. Rich vegetation. Another grand view is obtained from the Hondalsnut (4800 ft. Vl'o N. The Skjcrve-ELv^ flowing S. is easy and A road.

About 2 Kil. About 4 Kil. commands a fine view. It then gradually descends between the Kja?rringtjeld and the . The road ascends gradually and passes a little to the E. Tvinde or Tuinne i Voss (310 ft. S. 1. we descend a few paces to see the fall. By the gaard of Lene^ where the road runs close to the lake. using caution). part of the road as far as Tvinde and still more the descent from to Gudvangen will repay pedestrians.' walk) ascends to the E.^. in a pleasant situation. side of which rises the KJoBrring/Jeld (3445 ft. long. To enjoy this we leave Voss early. The new iron bridge. 123). we see (left) the Lenefos. From Vossevangen to Gudvangex on the Sogxefjord.) beyond the Vaineseder ^ between the Evashoved^ on the N. is the Merkadals-Elv. Ulvik. or inner llardanger P'jord. The valley is enclosed by lofty wooded rocks. . on the E. Ill). (electric railway in progress). Those who cannot start from Voss till The first Stalheim about noon shduld spend the night at the (36 Kil. from Vossevangen. 1. the road returns to the right bank of the stream.E. p.So/€ X?ii and finally describes a wide curve down the Hylleklev.). D. 122). The valley expands. 123). joining the main road at Tvinde). commanding a fine view of the Ulvikfjord.). not far from the Vinje-Kirke. Vinje i Vossestranden (735 ft. which descends from the L«rnehorje and turns a saw-mill. and skirts the Ei^pelandsvand (good lishing). to the right. reaching its highest point (1900 ft. 111. . and also the Lenevand^ 4 Kil. We . along which a path leads via Aarmot to Vik on the Sognefjord (10-12 hrs. 10 Kil. The second of these.) Stalheim Hotel. 48 Kil. (comp. 122). leads over this stream to the gaard of Grotland. The finest point on this route is the top of the Stalheimsklev^ seen io best advantage by afternoon-light. . *Tvinde's Hotel). A rich wooded and grassy region. *Vinje's Hotel. 4-5 hrs. The descent on the other side. on the N. of Ihe Gravens-Kirke. the feeder of the two lakes.. 2 Kil. 20 Kil. on the S. 12 Kil. of the Lundarvand.. and can go on to Gudvangen the same evening. R. aQords direct communication with the Eidtjord. The old bridle-path (very steep . Ill) with the D^gerfos. 11/4 kr. finished in the autumn of 1899. p. . about 2/3 M. B. on the S. It next crosses two copious streamlets descending from side-valleys on the left. a drive of altout 6 hrs. tinaUy passing the Hotel Wilhelmsen (p. and of the Vasfjseren (p. from Yinje. above Tvinde the Vossestrands-Elv forms a picturesque fall across which the road is carried by the Asbrcekke Bro (435 ft. This road ascends the wooded lalei-al valley between Nsesheim's Hotel and the Gravens-Kirke. 128). . From Ber<ien Froji Gkavkn to Ulvik a new ruad. on the opposite bank of which we observe the gaard of Dukstad [past which comes another road from Voss. expected to he. The road becomes steeper. of the snow-clad Onen (p. behind us Gra('siden{. and the Graahellerfjeld. see p. On the left is the line '^Tvindefos. on the right the hornshaped Hondalsnut (p. On the left (ahove).121 Route -20. To the left towers the abrupt LjQ'neftor/e (p. VINJE. 123). pass the small 3/e^srrn?d. farther up. Ill). 2. is the gaard of Ringheim (p. The road then ascends the Vossestrands-Elv.

— The hotel is situated at the top of the Stalheimsklev. and is well worth following The Kaalene first descends a little. lV2-'2. high. which descends on the E. presenting a curious picture.). however. with 150 bed?. but vehicles are always to be had. In the distance the background of the valley is formed by the hill from which the Kilefos near Gudvangen descends (p. R. atolkjeerre 3 kr. then crosses the bridg. 2. a line mountain path. 134). D. rises the Malmagrensnaave (3610 ft. Cariole to Gudvangen 2"kr. — *Stalheims Hotel (1120 Gudvaiigen. B. is Opheim's Hotel. B.). from Vinje. Beyond the Opheimsvand the road crosses the watershed between the Bolstads-Fjord and the Sognefjord." and skirts its N. which. Anders Olsen Gudvangen or Ole Myren). and a telephone (25 0... The river descending thence forms the Stalheimsfos.). balconies. 125 The road ascends the course of the stream. 21/2. S. diverges to the right.' for V'j hr. 12 Kil.. cended in 3 hrs. The ^^'View hence of the deep and sombre Nserodal and the huge mountains enclosing it. 50 «r. to Gudvangen.) to Vossi-vangen and to Gudvangen. 122.) Brakke. The hill rising to the X. It is advisable a German). about 4 Kil. On the left is the commanding Jordalsnut (^3620 ft. on the right are the Kaldafjeld and Aaxel (see above). STALHEIM. belongs to a company (manager.. and leads along tinheights. vangen. 1 kr. of the hotel is the Stalheimsnut. there and back (guide 3 kr. To the S. From (10 min. Serv. with a charming view of the ravine of Stalheim. 134. from 2. 134).. 4. hijtrh above the stream. A.to Oudvangen. to . By the church of Opheim. from Vinje) Opheimsvand (955 ft. of which a green dale runs towards the >>'. Ch.W. in Aug. Engl. from which the Jordalsnut may be ascended (with The Brcekkenipa asguide. On the right. S.W. — prepared for visitors. called "Naalene. to the .). to enquire as to rooms beforehand by telephone from Voss or from GudEnglish Church Service in summer. p. 40. 14 Kil. the first gaard in this valley. abounding in fish. then. end of the (3 Kil. all of lightgrey 'Labrador' rook or feldspath. is considered one of the grandest in Norway. *Framnces Hotel. to the ft. over the gorge whence issues the Sivlefos (p. to Voss.. 6 0. The path goi-^ on to the gaard Jordal. IV2. which descends to the Sognefjord. S.. I1/2 kr.W. Herr Dinger. . and finally ascend in a curve. prettily situated on the lake. We also enjoy a fine view. is a fine point of view. hank. especially by afternoon-light. built of timber and lighted by electricity. Gudvanyen The road winds down the Stalheimsklev and leads thence (a walk of 2 hrs. the Aaxel. looking to the S. itous rock about 800 ft. from This large hotel. the Kaldafjeld (4265 ft. to the E. Route. from Vinje. 20. D. verandahs. besides baths. a precip- forming the head of the Ncvredal. Stalheim is not a skyds-station. 1/2. Above the wooded hills of the opposite bank tower mountains of grey crystalline rock. of the broad valley towards Opheim. etc. We follow the left bank of the Nceredals-Elv. R. through a ravine. 133). see pp. see p. 133). A number of other walks and rides in the neighliourhood are beinjj — .). 1 kr. 133). traversed by a narrow road. does not come in sight until we descend into the Naeredal (p.

Europe (350 The Climate of the W. distance by sea from Bergen to LcerdaUercn at the E. is the same as that of the W.the fjord appear the glaciers covering the plateau. 127). as far as the point where its great ramifications begin. old word 'Sogne'. and studded with pleasant dwellings. and partly by the enormous glaciers which once covered the whole country. M. with banks rising abruptly at places to 5000 ft. . In winter. branches The of . The Steamboats perform the voyage in 151/2-24 hrs. a narrow arm of the sea). glacier). At the heads of the N.. have good restaurants. however. There are two lines of steamers one starting from Bergen . on the Fjaerlandsfjord (56 M. Those who have to spend a night on board should lose no time in securing a sofa or a state- room. Like all the other fjords. on the Naerefjord (70 M. averages 6 Kil.) 19. but their berths are limited. Nowhere in Norway is the rapid decrease of the rainfall from W. JostedalsbrcE ('Brae'.. from the coast) 50. p. it is unattractive at its entrance. and at Lserdal (87 M. Sognefjord. the annual rainfall is about 80 inches. coast. (4 M. p.. to E. the other confining itself to the fjord The distances of the chief stations from each other are given in stations touched at The following Norwegian sea-miles (comp. 8. at the entrance to the fjord (p. while its southern rival unquestionably carries off the palm for its softer scenery and its splendid waterfalls. In other parts of the fjord the narrow banks present a smiling character. deep at places.) 16 inches only. until the fjord ends in a number of long narrow arms. on the In Lysterfjord (80 M. where the rocks have heen worn smooth. according These vessels are well fitted up and to the number of stations called at.) in width. — Comp. to the N. In the grandeur of its mountains and glaciers the Sognefjord surpasses the Hardanger.. but its general character is severe and at places monotonous. being fringed with luxuriant orchards and waving corn-fields. The The Sognefjord. the longest of all the Norwegian fjords. (112 M. end (if the Fjord (starting-point of the routes to Christiania through the Valders and through the Hallingdal . but their route varies on different trips. RR. vi). J.) from Sognefest to Skjolden. these arms are only partly frozen over. from which waterfalls descend. tliese E. xviii. The scenery improves as we go E. partly by the action of the waves.126 21. being rainy and mild in winter and damp and cool in summer.) 31. a short and warm summer being succeeded by a long and severe winter. measures 180 Kil. description generally follows the order of the by the Nordre Bergenhusamts steamers. At Sognefest. 7) is 31 Norwegian sea-miles in a straight direction. and is nearly 4000 ft. is the largest glacier in The *Sognefjord (from the sq. arms the climate resembles that of inland European countries. so marked as in the Sognefjord.

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from Vadheim I0 Balholm. B. 24). The first stations Alverstrem and Lygren are rarely touched at.VABHEIM. above which rise> the Norevikshei. Then. opposite the Vadheimsfjord. On the S. Gulathing. IS of little interest. to the E. the ancient meetingplace of the Gulathing. On the N. We enter the pleasant Vadheimsfjord on the N. 10 0. On the S. is a waterfall with a factory adjacent. The mountains become higher. As we steer farther E. 127 The W. (fare 10 kr. 70 0. side of the fjord. Next. on the Arnefjord with its fine mountain-background. Eivindvik or Evenvik. Sogn. Neset. (see p. At the mouth of the Sognefjord lie the Sulen-0er. (from Bergen) Vadheim (^Vadheim Hotel. to the right.). (T kr. Ncese or Nesse. 1). see p. at which the steamers call alternately with the stations on the N. in the distance rises a higher chain. 98) the district of Nord-Horland formed the ancient Herdafylke. 126) plies twice weekly from Vadheim. bank lies the pleasant village of Kirkehe. to the left of the steamboat). The fjord-steamer 12 kr. On the N. lies the station of Sognefest or Syynefest. R. prettily situated.) runs the overland route to the Nordfjord and the Moldefjord (R. 90 0. with its church on a high rock. and Eidsifathing) suppressed hy King Magnus Lagaheter (p. At these places the steamers nsually call once a week only. bank lie Brakke. then . opens the FuglscEtfjord^ with the station of Bjordal. It carries — 19 S. with a waterfall. past which we steer.). through one of which (W.M. I3/4. situated at the mouth of two valleys.. bank just named. to Balholm at the mouth of the Fjeerlandsfjord. near the mouth of the Hejangsfjord. end of the Sonde. 20 0. On the same bank are the stations of Befjord or Lervik and. on the Eikefjord. 21. The scenery improves. or S. Then Maaren. (about 5 Kil. on the small Risefjord^ and Trapdul or Tredal. the 'Solundare' of Frithjof's Saga. 8-IOV2 hrs. bank and call at Bergen. to tlie mouth of the Sognefjord ns through the 'Skj*rgaard' fringinji which with Send-Horland (p. at the N. Route. On the S. This was one of the four great Norwegian 'Things' (Frostuthing. of which rises the Stanglandsfjeld. bank we observe the Lihest (2275 ft. To the \V.). on the small Gulenfjord. More important isSkjarjehavn. On the mainland. 112. Ladvik or Lavik. The voyage .. Steamboat from Bergen to Balholm 5 times a week in lU'/y-lS'/a IJi'S. Borgarthing. a group of islands with hills rising to 1830 ft. 11/2 kr. bank lie Ortnevik and Sylvarncvs or SelvamcBs. called at once weekly. the beauty of the scenery beconies more . the chief place in theW.)\ to Vadheim only. to La-rdal. beyond the promontory of Va'rholm. 3 kr. The verandah of the inn overlooks the tjord. a. Sognefjord. The low and generally hare hills in the foreground have been worn down hy the glaciers of the ice period.

^erinus consideration for indifferent walkers. *Kvikne''s Hotel. bank being Hotels. . or to Gidbraa in the Exingdal (with guide) and on to NoEsheim (nightquarters at Jac. fatiguing hut interesting). (restored in 1891). 21. a . 2 S. ascent 12 hrs.). frequented by Germans. farther on. From Vik we may drive inland about SKil. : .M.. 121). The passage to Balholm takes about ^/4hr. beautifully situated to the S. about 4 kr. B.). Vik or Vikseren (*Hopstock)^ lying in a fertile region at the mouth of two valleys. A pleasant row may be taken on the *Esse fjord (2-3 hrs.) and the Gjeiteryggen . nearest the pier. to the E. from IV2 kr. Balholm. passing the Myrkdalvand). and to the S. 129). and ends at (1 hr. The road goes on. . and the Ofriddal on the E. the former a 'stavekirke* (p. even from Yik. with its branch the Seljedal. are interesting. to — 6 S. . of the mouth of the small Essefjord. BALHOLM. The old churches of Hoperstad and Hove. Sognefjord.i2S Route striking. 28} of the beginning of the 13th cent.) Aarhus i Teidalen. — — — Balholm^ the chief place on the fertile and highly cultivated Balestrand. pens. Snow-mountains form the background. . is adapted as a residence for those in search of quiet. and a modern 'bautasten'. On our right lies Vangsnas. from Aarmot onwards. then the Furunipa. A pleasant and well-made road.). we observe the Vetlefjordsbrae (p. They next steer to the S. 124.. pointing it out as the tomb of King Bele of the Frithjof s Saga. whence a carriage-road descends the Teidal to FadnoEs on the Evangervand (p. II/4. while between them peep occasional expanses of snow. in any one of three different directions. ascended in 8 hrs. In the dis- tance. the Bodal on the W. each) to Stalheim (p. separated by the sharp ridge of Kjeipen from the snow-clad Guldaple. 125. rates. in order to cross one of the mountain-passes (about 8 hrs. with a large birch-tree and seats. S. as rendered by Tegner. where we observe a 'Gilje' and other salmon-fishing appliances.) the farm of Flesje situated among trees on the fjord. with a good bath-house on the lake. 131). 2. The mountains rising to up^^ axds of 3000 ft. overlooking the fjord. or to Vinje i Vossesivanden (p. shaded at places by tall trees. D. but we may drive the last 11 Kil. assume picturesque forms and are clothed with vegetation to their summits. Boats may be obtained at the hotels at moderate IV2.M. English Church Service in summer at Kvikne's Hotel (church to be erected). on a W. leads from the hotels to a (V2 M. the Vindreggen (3868 ft. past the villas of the painters A. bank once weekly. frequented by English travellers "Hotel Balestrand a few yards farther on. the Toten r4610 ft. promontory where the fjord again turns towards the E. charges at both: R.A^^ the Munkeg (4l3o ft. : The Sognefjord here turns at a right angle to the N. Vangsnaes is said to have been Frithjof's Framnces. rises llambseren (p. the last part of the route passing the Jordalsnut. Norman and Hans Dahl. . Larsen's). which is surrounded by a noble series of mountains to the N. thence proceeding next day over the fjeld to (about 10 Kil. part of the road before Aarmot is entirely destroyed.) mound. The steamers call at Kvamse on the N.. also with bath-house. . The the supposed scene of Frithjof s Saga. round a promontory at the mouth of the small bay of Vik.

and 1 Kil. a little to the N.e Bejumsbrie in tlie background the latter again disappears. To the left diverges a broad bay of the fjord . 128) on the left and the Storhaug (1210 ft. beyond (* 4 hr. past the Lange-Sceter.). Baedekek's Norway and Sweden. The glaciers of the Suphellebrae come into sight tirst. broad in its S. and the Gotopfjeld or Gotophesten (5650 ft. which leads to it from the landing-place.Vand in the Vilcsdal. descend pa^t the Torenoes Sceter (5 hrs. the Essefjord . but as we approach the Mundal. by boat)! 5 — The most beautiful excursion from Balholm is to the *FJ8erlandsfjord. 1st Day. This fjord is 20 Kil. then through a guod deal (if wood. 171): cross by boat to walk thence by the road to Scmde (p. in all. in which the Jostedalsbraj is seen. mount ft. where we get a "^Svco-.). Serv. on the otlier side of tlie mouth church of Tjugum. 171. A granite stone recalls King Oscar II. dividing into the Svcnefjord and the beautiful Vetlefjord. which runs inland towards the N. nearly 2 Kil. lies at the entrance to the broad Mundal. 129 of Opposite Balholm. and on the left the Harevoldsnipa (5360 ft.). FJ^.) to the N. 21 . are said From Mell a toilsome mountain-route leads to command superb views. On at the mouth of the Bergedal. The entrance is commanded by the Toten (p.. 132. The Melsnipa (see below) to the E. By rowingtolerb^iat to the gaard of Svcertn at the head of the Svarefjord (see below able quarters)-. li/j--' 1^. 3 S. from Svteren) to the Holme.. Ch. Its banks are less precipitous than those of the Naerefjord half. to the gaard Greninff. Fjgerland (*H6tel Mundal.^Aard (2300 a steep and rough path to the pass of fine view looking back to the Sognefjord.) and Trodalseg (3645 ft. Ilorsevik. separated from the Jorddalsnipa by the Jorddalsdal^ behind which appears the snowy Jostedalsbrae. Route. — After the steamer has rounded the promontory of Mencvs we observe on the right. 7tb Edit. 133). (fjord-steamer from Balholm to Fjrerland four times a week in 2-3 hrs. The good road.. and over marshy ground to Mjell (8-10 hrs. across the river.. then ascend the valley gradually for about 3 Kil. IV2. From Balholm to Sande i Holmedal (two days). 173. 9 .. with guide). at the head of the Vetlefjord. From Ulvcsiad a road ascends the valley to Mell. where we see the Vel'efjovdshra descending from the Jostedalsbree. then those of tl'. 3-4 hrs. The steamer calls once a week at Ulvestad. down the Eldal to Eldalseiven on the Viksvand (p. From Mjell bridle-path to the gaard of Hof. rises the prettily situated continues for some distance at the same level. D. 2 kr. ascent said to be easy).) on the right. in its N. in summer).or S. see p. 's visit in 1879.M.Sognefjord. and on foot and 13/4 hr. above the Rommedal. near Haukedal (p. and. 7-8 hrs. and the Melsnipa (5800 ft. the right lies the gaard of Rerge. ascends past the parsonage.) . Engl.RLAND. then from Sva'ren). 2nd Day. a grand example of characteristically Norwegian scenery. of Fjctr. to the N. We now obtain a **View of the head of the fjord with its snowy background. long. R. ascend a steep and marshy slope to the watershed. affording a charming *View of the Fjserlandsfjord and across the Vetlefjord with the JostedalsbTce in the background. A visit to the glaciers which descend.) a path descending to the right. the Rommehest (4110 ft. (p. (To Sogndal. the steamboat-terminus.

Grand passes from Fjserland lead across the Jostedalsbrse to J^lster Skirting the Bgjumsbrse. to Seikvesand on the Kj0snsesfjord (p. The Vettle Suphellebrae. from the fork of the road. at the N. i)iie. into the Bejumsdal and the Suphelledal.Kvitevarde. An alternative and better route from the Troldvand leads through the Seknesandsskar round the Seiknesandsnipa (4965 ft. To the *B«jumsbrse.) Nordre Noes. two valleys separated by the Skeldsnipa is interesting. on a hill to the right. . to the W.). we look into the B«rjumsdal. is said to have the linest ice. and finally follow a steep and rough footpath.. This is reached by taking the path to the right 5 min.) glacier.. Hans Bejum. passing between the houses of Bejumsfustene and 0de fjord.). is the gaard of Horpedalen.'s walk from the glacier. to the N. at the end of which. cross the latter (rope necessary) via its highest point. the foot of which lies 450 ft.) the Veitestrandsskai' Stelen. ends about 1 M. Sognefjord. B0JUMSBR. 21. traversing the wild ravine of the Lundeskar. 152 ft. 6 hrs. — . though the view of these from the steamer is much finer than that obtained close to them.. 4 kr. 5 or 6 kr. and finally (.130 Route land . The road crosses the Bjerjums-Elv. and then traversing the . About 480 ft. The stream issues from a great vault in the glacier. above the fjord. of tUe S0kuesandsnipa. with an impetuous stream.) the Troldvand. of the Suphelle Gaard. and. 137). Eenrik Mundal. or Little Suphelle Glacier. in 9-10 hrs.. descend to (I1/2-2 hrs. 3. farther on. The roar of the ice-avalanches is frequently heard. to the N. over loose stones and boulders. where the Snauedal joins the valley beginning at the Veitestrandsvand. one pers. diverges to the right beyond the gaard of Bejum. after crossing the Suphelle-Elv twice. to (10-12 hrs. to a mountain-valley enclosed by precipitous cliffs and to (41/2 hrs. the lower part is formed of accumulated masses of ice wliich have fallen over the rock.).E. from the fork of the road. and ends at the Bejums-Sceter (restaurant). it is a walk of 13 4 hr. The *Store Suphellebrse is also i^ ^hr. and about i/^hr. the grander of the two glaciers. 173). two pers. 173). 173). To the left. crossing the broad Elv. The road skirts the W. Guides in Fjferland Johs. we ascend (p. and finally down the latter valley to (4V2-5 hrs. end of the Veitesirundsvand (p. Mundal. The carriage-road ascends the right bank of the stream. in 3 hrs. with the Jostedalsbrae in the background. from Fjeerland the road into this valley diverges to the left.is above) descend through the S0knesandsskar. Of these the upper only is united with the Jostedalsbrae. of the Suphelle Gaard. the Jakobhakkadn by a recently improved path to the glacier in 2V2 hrs. vs'hich extend as far ^ — . We may drive the greater part of the way (stolkjaerre there and back to both glaciers and back. above the fjord. and Anders T. About 4 Kil. while that to the Suphelledal crosses the brook and goes straight on.) Seknesand. (guide 10 kr. thence we ascend on foot and cross the stream in Y2 ^^. above its base a rock divides the glacier into two parts. Mundal.) Lunde (p. fallen rocks. : . bank of the fjord.to ^^^ glacier. A fatiguing expedition may be made hence (guide and provisions necessary) to (3V2then down the Snauedal to the gaard of 4 hrs. From Fjserland we may also walk direct up the Mundal pass between the Jostedalsbrse and the Jestefond. as the (2 hrs.

Skriken (4115 ft. to the N. and amidst lofty mountains the Storhougfjeld to the S.. 9* . lies the gaard Husebe. (p. we may ascend the Rambcer whence.).. and Xjuken (^3200 ft. (see above. to the 8. to the pretty new church. with a 'Stue' (wooden house) of the 17th century. To the left is the gaard Stedje or Steie (inn). Pleasant walk on the bank of the river to the WitterfiiU Avith its mills. 3 8. and the church farther on is the gaard of Henjum. bank is the station of Fedjos or Fejos (with a churcli). 128. The fjord-steamer to Gudvangen (p. : the Henju'nsdat. Hermansvaerk (Knudseris Hotel) lies at the mouth of . we enter the Sogndalsfjord. 135).M. 132). Rounding the peninsula of Xordnas. r28). The first station of the Bergen steamers VanysrKfs (p. (fare 4 kr. but touches at none of the intermediate stations mentioned below. 1184. with its thriving orchards. To the W. 2-3 hrs. hank of the fjord. SognAsil (* Daniel sen s Hotel. with a lofty 'bautasten'. The details as far as the Aurlandsfjord (pp. is the Blaafjeld. commanded by the mountain of that name (2570 ft. On the right rises the Storhougfjeld (4235 ft. Olsen's Hotel) lies on the Sjestnind the fertile N. and the Fr€sviksbr(E (p. to the GunvordhrcB (5150 ft. a spur of the Skriken (see below). above which rise imposing mountains.). On the left lies the gaard of Fiirdal (touched at on the return from Sogndal). 132). from which a waterfall descends. 131 From Balholm Gudvangen. 133) steers direct for the mouth of the Aurlandsfjord (p. at the mouth of the 0verst€ Dal or 0fste D<d. (from Balholm) Lekanger or Leikanger (J. On 15th June. On the S..M. and then to the S. skyds-station at the gaard of Fjcvrn). Balholm.). 134) have reference to the course of the large Bergen steamers between Bal- The Fjord Steamer holm and La-rdal (p. is charmingly situated on an old moraine — — through which the Sogndals-Elv has forced a passage. easily ascended in 3» 2 hrs. Hofslund. To the N. see p. the parsonage.W.). of the steamboat-quay are the residence of the 'Amtmand'. through which a day's excursion may be taken to the N.). is . bank of the fjord. a 'bautasten' beside which bears the Runic inscription: ''Olafr konungr saa tit : . affording a grand view of the Jostedalsbrse and tlie fjord (those who do not care to mount so high may go as far as the Kongshei or the Kongsvand. and Sogndalsfjivrn. easily ascended and aftording a fine view).). to 21.Sognefjord. consisting of the numerous gaards of Sog7idai<kirke.). SOGNDAL. .). 132. The Bergen steamers first enter the narrow Norefjord to the E. b. On the left are the gaards of Lunden and Slinde (boat-station sometimes touched at). 2'/2 S. 126) Aurlandsfjord and Naerefjord. Route. To the E. On the right is Fimreite^ on a fertile hill. with smiling and well-cultivated banks. tlirough the Gulscetdal (521)0 ft. V'2 S. Magnus Erlingssen was defeated and slain here in a naval battle by King Sverre. plies from Balholm to Gudvangen in 31/2 hrs. The steamer skirts the S.M. To the left is the church of Olmheim.

passes the promontories of Meisen and Hensene. The path then descends the Bevgedal to Gaard Bei-ge on the Fj se rl an ds fjord (p. from Fresvik.. 134). 'Aur") of a stream.hroad. the time when the sun appears above the hill). passing several sseters. {i. bank to Gaard Selseng (17 Kil. 125j takes fully 8 hrs. 'King Olaf looked from between these then follow the road to Stedje (p. From Sognpal to Solvoi:n (14 Kil. Gudvangen and twice a week also the Bergen steamers. p. with a small sanatorium. From Selseng we may ascend Thoystadnaklcen (5250 ft. to 3 S. with its vista of rocky headlands (p. On the right is Siinlences . either perpendicularly. above the sea. we obtain a superb view of the upper Aurlandsfjord. Their monotonous murmur alone breaks the profound silence of the scene. by the Nonhaug ('non' is 2 p. from which we row in 1 hr. situated on a bay formed by the projecting hill of Nute. and steers either to the E. We may . to the E.nd Sfalhiim (p. The Bergen steamers enter this fjord. the Horunger in clear weather). forming the slopes of higher mountains which are rarely visible from the lake. 134.) Fjserland. pay for 19) or to Marifjjeren (22 Kil. At a few spots only dwellings have been erected on the alluvial deposits ('0r'. or to the S. after leaving Fresvik. the highest of which is called Toflahongsf^le. imposing to the E. A visit to the FresviksbrcB on the Fresviksfjehl (5145 ft. steer to the S. From Sogxdal to FjiERLAXo (12-15 hrs. Fresvik (indifferent quarters).) and runs along its E. of the Fjserlandsfjord and of the Jostedalsbrse.). From these abrupt slopes descend lofty waterfalls. Beyond the SoIsUcTs we observe on the left the buildings of Buene. From Selseng we may ascend the Langedal. 3000-4000 ft.). the fjord -steamer steers fjord -steamers to The — . respectively. an enormous ravine about 1 ^ o Kil. thessa'' FRESVIK. while the stones'^. (comp. Brednas or Breinces^ beyond which we pass the mouth of the valley of the Kolar-Elv. see p. and reflected in the sombre fjord. A tolerable road ascends from Sogndal to the SogndaUvand (1500 ft. with precipitous rocky banks.. pay for 2S).e. on the left. To the W. ). 136 ).132 Route mille staina 21. to the central of the three depressions in the mountain. Sognefjord. about 4130 ft.. or in streaks of foam gliding over the dark-brown rock. 137) recommended also to pedestrians. From Fresvik through the Tundal and across the hills to the Jovdal — r. by the promontory of Ncerences. whence we may return to Sogndalsfjseren by boat (an excursion of 1 hr. view of the mountains — The steamer returns to the great highway of the Sognefjord. between the promontories otSaltkjelnas and Solsnas into the *Aurlandsfjord. opens the Gunvorddal.M. or are perched high above the lake on some apparently inaccessible rock. to the left of which rise the peaks of the Fnidalsbrce (5165 ft.). farther on. to (6 Kil. and commanded on the S. with a 'slide' for shooting down timher. To the left. 129). with its two large 'Kcempehouge' ('giant tumuli'}. direct to Lardal (p. 131).. is said to be attractive. 8-9 Kil.m. Then. by carriage in 3 and 5 hrs. with the Gunvordsbrse rising above it. Passing the promontory of Beiteln. steamboat does not reach these places for 12 or 14 hrs. the Fyssefos. in all). Fine view looking back on Lekanger. high.

S4) high Opposite the Middagsberg.) and Vossevangen usually await the arrival of the steamer to the foot of the Stalheim. — VikingVANG Hotel. then. About '/2 ^^^' from Gudvangen the road crosses a great 'Aur' (p. bounded by perpendicular rocks. whose waters unite below. 132) and the clear river.tariff I) to Stalheim (13/4 hr. The mountains enclosing the ravine arc so lofty and abrupt that this little hamlet does not see the sun throughout the whole winter. — Engl. the Dyrdalsfjeld. broad. (from Fresvik 8 from Balholm) Gudvangen. rises the Sjerpenut. to the top 12. endangered by the river. I'^S. Those who have enjoyed the view from the top of'the 'Kiev' by favourable afternoon-light may drive on to Opheim or Vinje the same evening without more than 61/2-T hrs. the Solbjergenut. to the N. . particularly the Sjerpenut (see below). 4 S. This is probably the finest part of the fjord. to which a good road leads from Gudvangen (a pleasant walk).Sogne fjord. On the right. between the Middagsberg and the Rdiiegg^ are the gaards of Styve. and to the right the waterfall of the Bakke-Elv and the small church of B<ikke. Between these two hills.W. arm of the Aurlandsfjord. to the right of it are the small HestntTsfos and Nautefos. Hansen's Hotel. 1. It is at first about 900-1000 yds. (as to charges. the landward continuation of the fjord.. beginning with a leap of 500 ft. IV2. Gh. ThO'^c who morning start will find even the ascent on foot (2V2 hrs. 122). ^1. of the former. The fjord contracts to a defile about 200 yds. Soon after entering it we see on the right a waterfall of the Lcegde-ELv. on the right bank of which lies the gaard of Sjdrping. see p. in breadth. nearly 1000 ft. English spoken at both. and the grandest of all the ramifications of the Sognefjord. above them rise the snow-masses of the Store Bra. we obtain above. The picturesque *Nser«rdal. We now observe the mountains of the Naer«rdal. the S. comes the ^Kilefof. with caf^ and restaurant. preserves the same wild cliaracter. To the right .M.) As to ordering rooms at Stalheim by telephone. the Gjeitegg. On the right. E. on the right. losing anything. Conveyances (skyds. Farther on several waterfalls are seen on both sides. in the season. high.«klev 9. Several veil-like waterfalls. To the left. Serv. at the influx of the Nitredals-ELv. 133 into the **Naer0fjord. From the Kilsbotten. on the W. The fjord then turns more to the S. a waterfall 1840 ft. make an early attractive. GUDVANGEN. and afterwards between the Gjeitegg and the Middausherg^ fine glimpses of the snow-clad Steganaase (p. D.. the Nissedals-Elv descends from the Skammedalsheidn (not visible from the steamer). Gudvangen is a group of gaards at the head of the Naererfjord. at the mouth of the Dyrdal. both about 5 min. nr S. " . Route. in connection with the Pension Vikingsnccs. see also p. A visit to the Stalheimsklev does not take : — even if the traveller walks one way. The steep ascent at the beginning is best accomplished on foot. On the E. in height. from the steamboat-pier. 12. An electric railway is in progress. To the right is a waterfall descending from the Ytre Bakken^ forming a double leap far above. B. 21/4 kr. Opposite rises the pointed Krogegg. are the gaards of Dyrdal. farther on.5. to Vinje 26Kil.

) and the the left open several deep ravines.. the chief place in which is 4 S. The road ascends the 'Kiev' in sixteen somewhat steep zigzags. 125). Beyond the cliurch the bridle-path (road under construction) ascends the Flaamsdal. from Stene to 0sterb0. from Gudvangen) the road recrosses to the left bank and reaches the foot of the ^Stalheimsklev ('clifT). Comp. between the Blaaskavl (Skavl. 125). ascent. (Boat-skyds to Stene and thence on foot up to the Hallingdal. are the Stegesatre. ascended in 6 hrs.) to the Opscct-Sfele (p. from Aurland. with its small stone church. rises the long (to the N. From Aurland to T0sjum in the Laerdal (2 davs). which towers the huge Jordalsnut (3610 ft. commanding a fine view as far as the Horunger. see pp. At the head of the fjord. Nedberge.) we reach the comfortable '^StaUieim Hotel and enjoy a superb view (see p. we observe the gaards o{ Horken. '"snow-drift^ 2815 ft. and (in a ravine) Kappadal. the left bank are the gaards o{ Hemre and Hijlland.Sceier and up the Barshegda (4685 ft. and afterwards passing the lofty Hodnsnipe on the right. The Aurlands-Elo abounds in fish. 123). 6 Kil. bank. mounting a 'Kiev' in windings to a higher part of the valley. 123). Sognefjord. consists of light-gray feldspath. to the Hodnsceter (8 hrs. two picturesque waterfalls. 1st Day: steep ascent of about 4000 ft. Fine retrospect. 132). Beyond the gaard of Berekvam we traverse the Bevekvamsgjel. The road follows the right bank. about 8 hrs.). At the top of the pass (1125 ft. The steamer sometimes calls at Underdal.).). on the hill. 102. from Aurland. is visited only by the steamer from Bergen to Laerdal. the Map. 3-31/2 hrs. We ascend several other 'Kleve'. which terminates the The vehicles of visitors to the 'Kiev' usually await their valley. pass the gaards of Melhus and Kaardal (near which the new road makes 23 bend'^). 6-6 V2 ^rs. Farthei on (13/4-2 hrs. . from which is the church ofFlaam. To the right. thence (Bru7i's Inn. and reach Myrdalen. Thence we proceed over the Gravehals (3725 ft.). The *Upper Aurlandsfjord. to situated. 3 Kil. On spoken of).. from the promontory of Beiteln (p.. AURLAND. to the Skaale. with two waterfalls near. 2nd Day. and the ffeiskarsnut on the S.M. the Jelben Flenjanoase (•4840 ft.E. first the Skjerdal. high up on the steep E. at the E. then the small Voldedal and the Vasbygd. with a fine girdle of mountains. from Fretheim. We then pas? the line Rioudefos on the right. the ascent of which takes nearly an hour. On the rocky slopes are seen many traces of the avalanches ('Skred'} which fall into the valley in the early summer. fine view) on the N. On the right and left are the *Sivlefos and the *Stalh€imsfos. — right. finely whence we may ascend by the Melhus-ScBter the Steganaase ('ugly' or 'terrible nose'. with a church. lies Frethelm (^the steamer-terminus). which stretches to the S. Farther on. the highest peak of the Syrdalsfjeld. 48-46. well — the tourist-hut in the Steinbergdal. a narrow ravine. about 7 Kil. see p. at the mouth of the Flaamsdal.). to — . To the left. end of the tunnel now being made through the Gravehals (p. (from Fresvik or Gudvangen) Aurland or Aurlandsvangen The fjord widens. up its valley lies the Vasbygdvand. On return at the bridge.134 Route 21. with the gaard of that name. 5660 ft. gradually ascending. to the Flenje-Egg^ with its highest peaks. p.

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.000 . k -. ^ - ^. ' -Joilsnnnse re j^BrundJiovd ^ r. !§i_ _ "V AlSTIlO f'ivtrnxuis L >?r . JBodU'Hukken indMrdul v^ ^ iStoi'liaugTj UllHXfj O wnrstad .j.^ VcJuiuiu.Sotasalor 7^ Hub:iisl)Ta umasp^^^* X: -4 61"3C.. ^^'^*"^^'>-^: J -.' t«ni-qetl ^ ^ ^^-^ •^^ Hauyruiase r""T .-i ajiuasi- 4-. ^ .n 77/7>.INDRE SOGNEFJORD ^'^^"n^^.Sn^ . ! 1 . ' ^ Tnniiiin Vi> " yi i. \-.. ^^ '^ "<?Jrersase I jl N.\ >&n-teiltrtsiina«e .''.4 ^^^^ .JHJfm 1 Ot^^^^X^^ Hcmginulen - Siihitm ^ -r "^ =•/ 3 ^ .'..iJ. ta/ifftn ^ - °Ii>dna. J.Botftw)flase.„. /t I / ' 'Tl '^ ?^ •• " halderne/ ' ^ s\:ar'. ^— ^^ L 0^^=^^^^^ jSC' 500.sc r.. C- V Kupefj 4'::t ^a>!^!L o/Tro'^'"^" r -^ ^ I'Tubeteld — . off"?™ TrimmtTi <-^^W.

(rather steep) admirable view of the Sognefjord. (fare 4 kr. (from Sogndal Amble (''Hiimm's Inn). the. from which Lcerdalseren (p.Tostedalsbra. reached from Lserdals0ren by small boat. Opposite the headland of Fodna-s. the Hallingdal. with the Store Graanase in the background. An easier ascent is from the Vindedal (^SGehelitw poor quarters). the Jotunheim Mts. week From Balholm and from Gudvangen to the mouth of the AurThe steamer rounds the Saf/ances.) Knupanger. A road skirting {he Eidsfjoi'd. between the Lemegg and the long Glipsfjeld descends the Vindedal. to (2 Kil. a substantial farm-hnuse opposite Sogndal. above the Vindedal and 2-3 hrs. also 6 times a Steamer from Balholm to Lccrdalseren times a week in 7-12 hr?. beautifully situated.. and skirting the fjord. stands the school attended by the children of this scattered district. The best plan is to sleep at the Vindedals-Sater^ i'. passing the Amhlegadrd (the owner of which. We either stoer direct to Lserdalseren. with 20 pillars in the nave and 4 in tlie rectangular choir. a spur of the Hausafjeld. the base laiidsfjord. behind which rises the Lemegg{see above).) takes 1 hr. which descends 5000 ft. 1.). the Fresvil\sbr£e (p. and Voss. and then descends past several large farms (each with a 'Stabbur' and belfry) to (7 Kil.M.> hr. The water in this bay is almost fresh on the surface('forskvand ) but salter below. 132). towers the Storhougfjeld (p. AMBLE. To row direct from Eidet to Sogndal (6 Kil. the Heganaase (4900 ft. 80. On From Ytre Fr0ningen the ^Blejan (55G0 ft. is bounded on the left by the Vetannase and. on the right. on the right. 135 and of the J0ranaase with the Troldelifjeld.) Eidet (a poor station). A rough srcter-path then descends to the (7 hrs. (boat with two rowers 1 kr. The fjord itself is best seen from the brink of the Lemegg. . has a collection of relics relating to the large Norwegian family of that name). 136). to 5 S.).) church of Tenjum in the Lcevdal ... From Balholm or from Gudvangen to Laerdals^ren.. higher. it was unsuccessfully restored in 1862. : — -^ To the N. Route. or first to the N.) may be ascended in 6-7hrs. superb view looking back on the Sognefjord.Sognefjord. 136) is 10 Kil. — — — green plateau about 400 ft. particularly of the precipices of the snow-clad Blejan (see above). a . and laud at . farther distant. (fare 4 kr. — ) From Amble to Sogndal (13 Kil. The road leads through pine-forest to the top of the hill.31). from the top. and sometimes calls at the substantial gaard of 6 eren.-. now called Lcerdahfjord. 132. via Sogndal or via Gtidvangen^ From Gudvangen to Lcerdalsin 81/2 hrs. Ytre Freningen. The fjord. see p. — To the S. On the left opens the Aardalsfjord (p. of the Holten. Herrings are largely caught in the Eidsfjord. — . c.). distant by the highroad.. 21. Heiberg. rises the Blejan (see above) to tlie W. Beyond Kaupanger the road begins to ascend. seems to have been built about 1200 Fine elms and ashes. charmingly situated on the crditer-shaTped Amhlehugt. Hr.^ We pass the gaards of Haugene. almost perpendic\ilarly to theN.). Wc next pass Indre Freningen and the promontory oiliefncestangen. at the mouth of the Eierdal. wUh a fine view of the avalanche-furrowed slope of the Storhaugfjeld towards the S. farther to the E. the Horunger. The small 'Stavekirlie'. A pleasant road leads hence. to which we cross by boat. leads hence to (QKU ) Lo/tcsnces.

. to Marifjseren only. — — LcErdalseren generally shortened to Lcerdal.). On the N. on the left. The entrance of the Aardalsfjord is somewhat monotonous. English spoken at both. S. to the left..). a curious -looking modern timber tolerable shops. l'/2.M. in 0-71/2 brs. 40 0. 200.. see p. B. 135). 0ren\s Hotel in summer. D. water of the fjord near the surface is fresh and of a milky colour. (fare 60 0. 40 Kil. 144). English Church Service at Lserdalsat tbe upper end of the village.. with a group of houses around it. Towards the E. View limited. 1 kr. between which lie the Ytre and Indre Oferdal (see below).136 Route 21.) Oferdal. to the right.. The village. R. in length where the wildest scenery is combined with the most smiling.. 1/2. 135. R. 2.E. After rounding the promontory we obtain. y Pleasant Walk of '/2 br. xxxiii) and partly on deposits from the mountains on the right. to Skjolden at the head of the Lysterfjord 3 times weekly. p. the Haugnaase [5250 ft. with the Haugmailen in the background is the Jostedalsbraj (p. with luggage 60 0. in 341/2 brs. the Returning from Aardal . when d. enclosed by bare rocky mountains. Oferdal We . lies partly on an old coast-line (p. arm of the Sognefjord. 11/4. which issues from the neighbouring Aardalsvand.W. ^LiERDALS^REN's HoTEL . next obtain a view of the ScBheimsdal to the N.). bank is the station of Nadviken or Vikedal. The little village. and a little later we see the superb girdle of mountains around Aardal or Aardalstangen (Inn). along the bank to the winter. — (1 day. the terminus of the Valders route (R. A. On We the wooded S.) and Ytre (W. we observe at the end of the OftcdaL. Aardal is the starting-point for a visit to the Vettisfos . from li/a. rises the snow. Owing to the numerous glacier-streams falling into it. IVzkv.). 7 S. has a doctor. 135). a view of the Lysterfjord (see below). . bank rise the Bodlenakken and then the Brandhovd. in l'/2-2 hrs. (fare 3 kr. To the S. 1 kr. I>. a chemist. to Aardal twice weekly. Telegraph Office Post Office beyond the hotels. towers the Blejan (p. 11/4. then round the wild precipice of the Bodlenakken and enter the *Lysterfjord the N. edifice. Opposite. ..pier (used the fjord is frozen). lies on a broad and marshy plain at the mouth of the Lepra. 8). the steamer calls when required at the station for the valleys of Indre (E. 2kr. and on the right the Freibottenfjeld. 40 0. which lie between the Brandhovd and the Bodlenakktn.). each pers. from the hotels (carr. and thence to Haugene at the mouth of the Eierdal (sec p. Sognefjord. B. with its 800 inhab. 126). lies several hundred yards farther inland. Steamer from L£erdals0ren From LjerdalsOTen to Fodnces. S. A. (from Balholm — 1 Kil. (fare 2 kr. two houses with 80 beds in all. . The Aardalsfjord and Lysterfjord. at the mouth of the Aardals-Elv. with its pretty church. Pier 3 from Amble) Laerdals«rren. to the S.). 50 0. — *Lindstr0m's Hotel. and a few The church.. AARDAL.clad Slettefjeld or Middagshaugen (4435 ft. . less pretending.

of the Sogncfjord (Fresviksbr?e. The church commands a magniticent view of the fjord and the Feigumsfos (p. The construction dating possibly from the 11th cent. of the junction of the two roads lies Hillestad (HiUestad''s Hotel. with its large tumuli ('Ksempehouge") and the oldest 'Stavekirke' in Norway. 138). famed for its orchards (small-boat station.M. 140). Slingsby as unusually attractive. 80LV0RN. fast stations (see above). a skyds-station..). are the hills of the Krondal (p. 130). On the" right. 113) and W.W. after leaving Solvorn. — 2 S.) to the N. the starting-point for a visit to the Austerdalsbrae farther up the valley. 137 precipitous HaugmcBlen (4135 ft. 126 (to Aamot. end of the Veitesirandsvand (640 ft. at the Gaupnefjord. 21. speaks English).. From Marifj. (j^HoteL SoLvorn. 4 Kil. 28). finely situated on a bay in the W. On the E. of Marifjc-eren (10 min. appart of the Jostcdalsbrje to the right of it is pears the Hesleb r IT the Lcirmohovd more to the N. in a charming situation. In 1 2 ^^'''. To the left towers the huge MoWen (3645 ft. From Hillestad the road leads by Bafslo. A little to the right lies Fet .) Soget. a drive The new road passes the base of all the way). . also . obtained for the ascent of the Molden (see below on foot 3-4 hrs. A hilly road ascends from Solvorn to the (2 Kil. a glacier de. and walk thence in 10 hrs. We may then row (pay for 16 Kil. about 1/2 tr. Hansen Vigddl.'^cribed by Messrs. we pass the gaard of Ytre Kroken.). pay for 33. In 2'/4 hrs. for a visit to the Jostedal (p. We . more. 80 0. backed by the snow-mountains around the Veitestrandsvand (see below). 132. Bing (p. up to the old church of Joranyer. pay for 6). (where the steamer calls when required). at the S. prettily situated on the dalsbr£E is visible.). K. and follows the course pass many of the Bygde-Elv. touched at when required). lies Joranger.) Hafslovand (455 ft.. S. by the VeiteNses is strandsskar to the Suphelledal and to Fjjerland (see p.. long. farms with well-cultivated fields. end of the lake. and ornamentation of the church are specially interesting. 1. Route. with its old church.Soynefjord. where guides and horses are B.M.) we obtain a view of the distant snow-mountains to the S. the bank of which is skirted by the road from Jlarifjperen to Sogndal mentioned below and on p. a lake 14 Kil.. 174). To the N. 139). Joli. (see p. which is of 4-5 hrs. chiellv on the sunny side ('Solside') of At the the valley. Rambairen. 1 hr. C lies Vrnces the promontory opposite Solvorn. A footpath leads to tlie foot of the glacier in 31/2 hrs. 1 kr. whence part of the Jostepier). where rustic quarters (and sometimes a guide) may be had at the gaard of Naes or Nordre Noes. Several of Herr Bing's original rnntes across the entire Jostedalsbrse are marked on the Map at p. the Molden very steep on the \V. then from the lower to the upper glacier. which we see from the steamboat as we approach. above us. — lying to the N. side. well spoken of.eren to Sogndal (22 Kil. K.) is the gaard of Hundi^hammer. ?cc p."^ore we reach . Solvorn — guide. bank of the fjord. from Aardal the steamer reaches On the W. On ^ . side rises the may be ascended nearly 4 S. which the whole way on horseback.). Marifjseren {* Hotel Marifjcrren t^- Skyds-Station. to (8 Kil. The 'Lop' or arcade was removed in 1722. with a church and parsonage. from Solvorn. the best starting-point Beautiful walk to the N. to the X. bank. highest point of the road (about 900 ft. .). etc.). .W. To the S. About 2 Kil.

Bolstad. Flohaiig. Aas^eter. at Mirirkereid ascends the M0rkereidsdal. Here the valley forks. The steamer passes N<xs.) Sota-Sceter whence we proceed We — — . then to the E. of the Bivenaaskulen (6190 ft.) t the Vigdals-Sccter. 135). ^ of the fall rises the SerheiwsfjeLd . cent > . The fjord contracts to a narrow channel. 139). see p. where the road to Solvorn diverges to the left (see p. carmeet the steamer). The descent is rather steep. then. Passes (guides necessary). then to the W. The sombre M0rkereidsdal extends about 20 Kil. 137).. elms. On the opposite bank lies Loftesnss (p.Scoter (left). liank is the small station of Hoiheim or Hojumsvik. a mounfain-inn kept by Ole Bolstad. •. to the gaard Kilen. From the latter the path crosses a hill. from Skjolden). 1. The road skirts the E. and on the right the imposing Feigumsfos which descends from a valley to the N. (pay for 19) Sog?idal. several mountain -passes and for snowshoeing expeditions on the neighbouring glaciers. 65). and leads to the N. with the support This is a good starting-point for of the Norwegian Turist-Forening. and then descends the winding ''Gildreskreden ( Skreien). Beyond the gaard Oklevig the road attains its highest point. where caution is necessary in driving.) to the Aasater (reached also by rowing across the lake). the Skurvenaase (4520 ft. The upper part of the Lysterfjord is grand and picturesque. see p. finely situated at the mouths of the Fortundal (p. on the left. well spoken is — of).). from D0sen (a fatiguing walk of 9-10 hrs. Adja. riages The route to the right into 1he Rausdal (see below"). bank of the streamlet in the Rausdal to the permanently frozen Rausdalsvand. the Bul-Sater. SKJOLDEN. Thence a steep climb over the Storhougs Vidde (2600 ft. and forming the Helvetesfos and Futesprang. bank of the Hafslovand . (pay for 14) Billestad. to the Fosse-Sater. above the pier. to Moen and Markereid or Merkei (6 Kil. 131. the highest in the vallev. and traverses a pine-wood. It is the starting-point for an excursion to the Fortundai and to the views of the Horunger (pp. ahout 650 ft. with a fine portal. descends abruptly to the O7-miergs-St0l. and ashes begin to appear. On the W.M. guide necessary). Oaks. of the Rivenaase (3450 ft. Superb view of the fjord. On our right rushes the On'0-EliK descending from the Veitestrand and Hafslo lakes. the old stone church of Dale. and the mountains of the Sognefjord. in two falls. ascend to join the rente from the (p. to Gaard Ormherg in the Jostedal (p. affording glimpses of the lake and the Jostedalsbrse to the iJ. charmingly situated. 148) and M«frkereidsdal. 149 et seq. slope of the Skurvenaase (4505 ft. Below lies jyageleren. 14 Kil. to the N.ids Route 21. Fishing in the Fortun-Elv permitted to the guests of the hotel. with a road leading past the farms of Skole. A steep path ascends the left branch to the Aasatmnd and skirts the W.) and over the Kollbrce down to the Tvceraadal and on to the (10-11 hrs. 14S) and the Sota-Steter cross the river here. D«rsen {Inn. Then 2 S. to the fjeld-gaards of jefvre and passing the Buskrednaase on the right Nedre Vigdal. at the junction of the glacier-routes frum the X0rstedals-Sfeter (p. about 27 Kil. the HafslovandS. Skjolden (*ThorgeiT Sulhems Inn.). 137. through the Vigdal. Grand view of the Hafslobygd. Fast the Rausdals-Sceters and up the E.}. in height. From D^sen and touches 1 at — the steamer goes on to the head of the Lysterfjord S. passing the Knivebakke. From D0sen we may ascend the Daledal by a bridle-track passing the gaards of Bringe and" Skaav and the sseter of Valla gjei'det. and proceed to the Fjeldsli-Saeter. Sognefjord. To the N. The road now skirts the Barsnoesfjord.M. and the Daleti-Sater. Kil.

) and the Tundredah-Kirke (6500 ft. This excursion takes 1V2-2 days there and back.). The lower part of the valley is well cultivated. 138). Above Gaupne rises the Raubergsholten (2675 ft. it is usual to engage a cariole for the whole journey. in length. Stetre and to the W. soon reach the first of the basins peculiar to the Jostedal. 140). descending from — . and at intervals they recede. and enters the small basin of Fossen and Dalen. To the left rises the Homped(dskulen (4820 ft. on the hill to the left. Passing the gaards of Myten. 14 Kil. Beyond another gorge. 140) in the Jostedal (a long day's walk). bank of the Gaupnefjord to (3 Kil. . opposite the church of Gaupne. We cross another rocky eminence. are generally wooded. at slopes on the W. between (p. 91. like almost all the Norwegian valleys. and Myklemyr. in spite of the interest and beauty of the Nigardshrce (p. Fast Skyds-Stations . The road asoends on the right bank of the turbulent and muddy river. marking the diflerent zones of the valley.) Sota-Sceter. The passage of the Jostedalsbrge should be attempted only by experienced mountaineers with good guides. over the fjeld and thruugh the Martedal and Fagerdal to the gaard Faaherg (p. The road pas-es an old moraine and crosses the KvcBrne-Elv. The — — The road leads past the precipitous MarifjcEren^ seep.). with a bridge leading to Orraberg (p. To the N. SPERLE. The river expands until it covers the whole floor of the valley. Route. forming basins which are usually bounded by rocky barriers.Sognefjord. part (if which consists of the Jostedulsbrcc (p. from which torrents and waterfalls descend .). the longest glacier in Norway. The road soon enters a gorge called the Haugaasgjel.). 0en. "Jostedal. with the waterfall of that name. To the W. we have a pretty view of the Liaxel and the Jostedalsbrae. Sperle (properly Sperleeer. The high and shapeless rocks which flank the road all the way to Leirmo begin here. (From Leirmo we may visit the *TunsbergdalsbrcB. Alsmo lies on an old moraine ('Mo'). we see the twin peaks of the Ashjernmun^e (5270 ft. in which arc the falls of the Vigdela. and continues through the deep and imposing basin of Myklemyr. and de2. is a rocky rift or ravine in the midst of a vast plateau of snow and ice. is scarcely worth the trouble. while the E. 'noses'. 126j. half is formed by the Sporteghvce and numerous snnw-clad peaks or The sides of the valley. rising to 3000 ft. the W. Past the Rausdalsscend past the Sotkjarn to the (12 hr?. and are often broken up by transverse rifts. once occupied by a lake. the Tvccrctadals-Kirke (6830 ft. and.) Reneid the mouth of the Jostedals-Elv . 140). 65). with its ramifications. 139 Or we may quit the Eausdal by crossing the Harharshrce. To the right towers the Kolnnasc. named after the hamlet of Leirmo. — From Marifj^ren to thb Jostbdal.) We cross tlie foaming Tunshergdals-Eiv. Teigen. the road loads through a narrower part of the valley. 14Kil. 137. After crossing the Fondela the road turns to the right to the gorge of Haumdn. with the large gaard Ormherg on the right. and in front of us is the Vangsen (p.. In front of us rises the Leirmohovd. From the rocks on the right falls the Ryefos. we reach the basin of We — 16 Kil. simple but good quarters). Beyond the school is the gaard of Sperle.

the Lodalskaupe. where the crest of the lateral moraine projects a little into the valley. which may be reached by the foot-bridge across the river between Kroken and Faaberg. 178).. on the opposite bank. which is flanked on the right by the Haugenaase (4260 ft. of that name which opens on the right.) Kvandal (p. see p. Johannes Snetum. Farther on we cross a hill and obtain a fine view looking back. porter 10 kr. In 2-3 hrs. between the Haugenaase (4260 ft. and start early next morning. rising from the great Spertegbrcs behind. more we reach the first 'varde' on the opposite side.). which we reach at Sunde (p.) and on the left by Vetlenibben and the GrenneskredbrcE. the Kjeudalskrona. From Bergset. To the S. 179). living at the Lien-Scster. — . We then reach another On the right the Gjeitsdela forms three fine waterbroad basin. marked by the last 'varde' in the The passage of the glacier now begins. which serves all the 900 inhabitants of the valley. however.) and by a very fatiguing route skirting its margin to the (I1/2 hr. the last gaard. The road leads past the Berge-Saier and crosses the Jostedals-Elv. does not accept the conditions of the Norwegian Tourist Society. Corn thrives thus far. slope. . Or we may follow the Jostedalsbra? farther to the W.) Haugeneset.). Beyond Sperle a steep ascent leads to the Nedre Lid. . We then descend into a beautiful basin containing the church of Jostedal (660 ft.) and the Liaxel. and other mountains of the Nordfjord come in sight. On the left we observe the Bakkefos. to the (3 hrs. who. After crossing the Jostedals-Elv the road passes the gaard Kruken. rises the imposing Vangsen (5710 ft. which is wooded at the top. the ListelsbrcB on the left. between the Tveerbr?e and the Nigardsbrse (see below). 12-15 hrs. here open to the right. on the Xovdtjord (p.). . in the Krondal. glacier on its N. which may be visited from Jostedal Between the valleys of Vanddal and Gjeitsdal which (4 hrs.E. with a falls. and ends at 19 Kil. 14-20 kr. The descent to the foot of the glacier is not worth the trouble. which descends from the N. and near it the 0vre Gaard. or ravine. 181). Faaberg (1310 ft. without proceeding to Faaberg. side of the Tvarbrce or Bjerneslegbroe.f^^^^ ^^^^ BergcSaeter. and descend by the Stmdibra to the Oldeavand.. Beyond the gaard of Gjerdet we cross the stream issuing from the Krondal. a grand but trying route. is seen the pyramidal Myrhorn. Tolerable quarters but poor fare may be obtained at the house of Rasmus Larsen Faaberg an admirable guide.140 Route 21. (Guide. A path diverging to the left before the Berge-Sseter by-and-by crosses the stream issuing from theNigardsbrffi and skirts the N. Before us soon comes in view the *Nigardsbr8e. which descends from the Strondafjeld. about 1/2 ^^. we ascend the E. slope of the glacier valley.E. so often described by Norwegian and other writers.. We sleep at the gaard Kronen (2 or 3 beds). In 1 hr. and past the 'Gjel'. From the Krondal over the Jostedalsbr^e to Loen or to Olt)en . is obtained from the point.)..Tostedal (good water). The best view of this famous glacier. That society recommends Lars Larsen Lien. . FAABEKG. 139. From Faaberg through the Fagerdal to the Meirkereidsdal. We descend across the Kvandalsbrce (20 min.).

.

r JOTUNHEI M \mtoqjim('" ^-' '» ^. i^4^'/^ .

whence we ferry to Hjelle (p. and N(fbber while the rounded summits are Jleet-) generally range from 5900 ft. the snow-line here being about 5580 ft.Stordal. rising occasionally into rounded stnnmits. reach the Z/Ocirt?s6roe (about 2910 ft. V.).K). The Swiss Alps are much higher (Mont Blanc. 22.E. 247). A pass. : — : : •. 180). a name given to it by later 'Jotunologists'.). The peaks of Jotunheim (called Tinder^ Pigge. but are surpassed by the Jotunheim mountains in abruptness. A\hile the Galdhepig (p. (in Switzerland 8850 ft. or via the Nigardsbra?.). Hnrne. 'holes') descend from these masses of snow. then across the Jostedalsbree.) the sseter i>f J'aabergsteil (1875 ft. which we ascend to the right.) on the W. This last was explored for the first time by Ke'dhnu in 1820 and named by him Jolunfjcldene. xxviii.). and down to the Beidal on the Loenvand (p. to ("2 hrs.784 ft. 141 FiioM Faaberg over the . 149) on the scale of 1 2'. and the third is the region bounded by the Sognefjord on the W. which comes down from the Stovnaase and the Klul'hen (5150 ft. extends the FaahergstelsbroE.).s three districts with the Alpine characteristic of well-delined mountain-ranges. 22. 165) exceed 8200 ft.). 183). We first cross the Gredungsbrcc or Ei'dalsbrtje. and the plateaux of Valders and the Gudbrandsdal on the S.ter. The highest point of the latter is reached to the right of the Lodalskaupe (6790 ft. Huge glaciers (Braer. It is usual to ascend in the evening. is at present probably the best-.. . li".. Jotunheim. said to be easy. and the N. To the W.) and to the left of the Stoniaaae.0(Xl) have been published. the heights are taken from the 'Norske Turistf0renings Arbog foriS94\ The map published by C immermeyer of Christiania under the title 'LommeReisekart over Xorge Xo. part of the district the traveller has to depend on antiquated and almost useless maps. where the path to Mork over the Handspikje. the second is Sencbnere (p. but for the entire W. rising to the N. and descending abruptly at the margins. by a poor path. The amphitheatre-like mountain-basins which . Section 30 D (Galdh0piggen) and Section SOB (Bygdin) of the Topographical Map mentioned in the Introduction (p. and we reach the Gredung s-ScPtei\ the gaard of Gredung. For the Horunger our map (p. Next morning we ascend the desolate . it possesse. or the 'Giant Mountains". One of these districts is on the Lyngenfjord in Troms^ Amt (p.000. mentioned at p. 15. but is now getierally known as Jotunheim. skirting the RauskarfJelfJ. to G600 ft.E. Borgund. Although the greater part of Norway consists of a vast tableland. Lom.). 66. as a reminiscence of the 'frost giants' in the Edda. leads frf)m Faaberg via the stone hut on th« Liaxel.. scale 1 l(XD. the smaller being called Huller. 190). and then descend by a difficult and unpleasant mcky path past the Skaarene to the lower end of the glacier (2300 ft.Tostedalsbk. Eoute. Vestre-Slidre. where quarters are obtained. to the Jostedalshne.JOTUNHEIM.000 price 1 kr. and finally the gaard of Erdal on the Strynsvand. in height. 13-14 hrs. Lyster"' may also be recommended (1 175. Farther on we keep to the left and in 2'/'. though also based on insufficient material. The descent to Gredung takes 5-G hrs.2) and the Glittertind fp. just above the sa. diverges to the right.t: to Hjelle on the StryssVAND. The plateaux between the peaks are almost entirely covered with snow. chiefly Norwegian students.' hrs. The valley now becomes less steep. (guide 12-14 kr. but corrected and completed. of the Xiiiardsbrse.

Johns Day (June 24th) and remain there till Sept. but the charges for the different expeditions are given in each case. that a traveller must often wait until a group of tourists is collected. Even frequented routes often lead through the de'bris and detritus of the 'Ure' (p. recognisable by their club-button. The cowherds ('Fcekarle'' or ^Driftekai'le' ) are generally good-natured and .Band'. The guide is not bound to carry more than 2 'bismer'-pounds (24 lbs. Members of the Turist-Forening. above the forest-zone. per day. (paying 40 0. and even this he carries unwillingly. The other charges are also correspondingly low. are known as Botner. as otherwise the traveller may have to put up with very inferior accommodation. complete the chief features of this bleak northern landscape. while the beds. or over strong glacier-torrents. Their number.). milk.142 Route 22. either in the refuge-huts erected by that society or in the so-called 'hotels' (mountain inns of the simplest character). the Bygdin. however. Most of the travellers are Norwegians. but thanks to the spirit and enterprise of the Norw^egian Turist-Forening (p. h(jspitable fellows. as a rule. are fair and broad enough for two persons if necessary. and the Gjende^ all at a height of about 3300 ft. non-members pay 1 kr. and the day's expenditure (not including guides) need not exceed 31/2-4 V2 ^r. A marked difference in travelling in the Jotunheim as compared with the Alps is the absence of proper paths in the former. across marshes. moreover. lOtli. The Fceboder or FoEla-ger are still simpler. The Jotunheim inns are inferior to those on the more frequented routes. but generally speak Norwegian fnly and are scarcely on a par with those of Switzerland or the Eastern Alps. the traveller must engage a porter.m. The usual fee is 4 kr. and are therefore much less picturesque than those of the Alps. which contain at least one livingroom and one sleeping-room. JOTUNHEIM. One of their peculiarities is that they rarely terminate in a pass. cheese. The cows (Keer) are usually sent up to the mountains (til >'^'(vters) on St. On the other hand the approach to the mountain-tops is generally easier than in the Alps. The Guides are active and obliging. that the waters of the uppermost lake Three large lakes. and surrounded by barren. . is so small. but culminate in a nearly level '. and girls are often their sole attendants. who receives about two-thirds of Wumen . For the longer tours. enclosed by precipitous sides rising to 1600 ft. the flows off in both directions.) of luggage. either bridgeless or inadequately bridged. much inferior to that of the Alpine club-huts. with a the passage from one side to the other is someseries of lakes times so slightly marked.xxx). 25 ». and butter. Unpretending sleeping accommodation may also be had at most of the Sceters (also called Stel or Sel). who regale the traveller with 'Fladbr0d'. occur here frequently. Inns. therefore. Tyin.xxv) fairly good quarters are obtainable at all the chief resorts. The commissariat department is. The valleys lie. with a few exceptions. The sleeping quarters are generally better than those of the Alps. sparsely grown rocky hills. and parties often consist of two or three ladies travelling alone. or more. have a preferential right to beds at the tourist-huts (except those built with subvention of government) until 10 p. It is advisable not to arrive at the sleeping-place too late in the evening.

Aardal. 138) in 3 hrs. should always be ordered in good time. two days. over the Galdhepig (p. the path being almost too bad for riding. this route is a little uncomfortable. Vettisfos. As the Sognefjord steamers to Aardal are not timed very conveniently. Farther on. on leaving one of the sseters.. which may be reached a day earlier by the omission of Rejshjem) and to Lake Gjende (p. though very useful for steeper ascents. 157).. xxiv). The following tour (9-10 days) includes the Finest Points in From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti (p. A boat and rowers are always ready in the travelling season to carry passengers to the upper end of the lake (IV2 ^^'^ 1 pers. side beyond lies the Fosdal with the Eldegaard^ to which a zigzag path ascends past a waterfall. are not in favour in Norway. 166. In addition to the approaches to the Jotunheim considered in the followthe route from Vinstra to Gjendesheim (see p. two days. 144).Totunheim is. 32. and the quarters at Aardal are unpretending. the Stegafjeld . as a rule. is the . but hardly repays visitors to the Vettisfos only. Distances in the following descriptions are calculated for good walkers. 161). by rowing-boat. excursions from Lake Gjende and thence via Gjendeboden to Eidsbugaren (p. on horseback.) Aardalsvand. It should be borne in mind that walking in . however. To Vetti about 5 hrs. guides. An early start "is almost impossible if. 162j may ing description — . Those who travel without a guide should. 2 pers. JOTUNHEIM. 142).. via the BcBverlunScster to Rejshjem (p. From Aardal on the Sognefjord to Vetti. it is less required. whence numerous paths always diverge ask to be shown the way for the first half-hour. on the right bank of which we observe the gaard Hcreid. is much more perfectly understood and practised in the Alps than in Norway. 80 0. . owing to the want of guides (see p. much more fatiguing tban among the Swiss Alps. 148). but must be paid for separately. excursions from Turtegre. a guide's fee. also be mentioned. 151). Route. 3 pers. see p. most of the excursions may be made on horseback.Ouides. two days. Ample time should therefore always be allowed. the rest on foot. the whole 'technique'' of mountaineering is not always the case. a lake 14 Kil. In the hire paid for a horse the services of an attendant are never included. or on foot. We walk up the Aardals-Elv. on the day before if possible. 62 ). 143 Alpenstocks. Ice-axes ( Iseixer'') and stout Ropes (^ReV) are now supposed to be provided at the chief stations of the Turist-Forening. with the precipice of Opstegene on its E. via Fortun (p. 152) to Spiterstulen (p. — — Jotanheim. to the (i 4 hr. if he is a full-grown man ('voxen Mand') he receives the same fee as a guide. food. 11. etc. — a. With the exception of the greater ascents. 1V4-1'.'2 hr. one has to wait for Norwegian felluw-travelleri. Turtegre may be reached horn Skjolden on the Sognefjord (p. high up to the right. where. by cariole. 1 kr. 55). long. via Skogadalsbeen and over the Reiser to Turtegre (p.. via the Skinegg and Tvindehougen to Skogstad or Nystuen(i^. owing to the want of paths. one day. p. half- — a-day. surrounded by abrupt clifts and deep ravines. No charge is made for the return-journey. 1 kr. viz.4 hr. one day. and good ones cannot be procured there (comp. A standard rule of Norwegian travel is that horses. To the right we see . It is recommended only to those who are going on to Jotunheim or who intend making the circuit of the Horunger. On the other hand. boats. 149). 22. though as a matter of fact this Indeed. 136. one day.

with the Eldeholt. 138). Steep ascent to the Ileljabakken. through ihc Fardal orLangedal.) ascends the right (W. more to a steep — . 4'/2-5 hrs. and ascent of the DyvTiaugstind (p. To the right is the fine Gjellefos. a fall of the Morkedela. 1st Day: From Gaard Vetti. Jotunheim. VETTISFOS.) bank of the Utla. we see on the right the mouth of the Aordela then the gaaxd of Moen (poor quarters). horses to be had for returning to Farnaes Anfind and his son Thomas good guides). The ravine ends. To the left huge precipice to the right are the 'Plads' or clearing of Gjeithus and the Raudnces. in order to enjoy the fine path leading to the Vettismorkaview from the platform constructed 1894 above the ^Circuit of tue Horunger (with guide. — The road from Farnses to Gjelle (7 Kil.. 168) to the Tut'tegrei-Scelre (p. or 'bird-path') to Fortun (p. farther on. A height near the fall commands an admirable view of it. 149). 4 kr. 2nd Day: Across the Keiseren Pass (p.) the *Vettisfos. at the Heljabakfos. : . then the Midnceshamer.144 Route 22. ing the Raudnffis we see Farncfs^ at the N. advisahle in hiring horse or vehicle. . a fall of the Utla. a narrow gap or pass at the base of the Austabottinder and the Soleitinder (p. to the left. the fall. Then. 146).E. with guide. Sseter. A disagreeable path (guide unnecessary) leads hence at first up and then down hill.4-! hr. Those who have 3-4 hrs. 850 ft. with several farms and the JSondalsfos. 15'J). whence a path leads through the Lovardalsskar (4700 ft. long. Gaard Vetti above. crosses the river. 3rd Dav Via Fortun to Skjolden (p. Farther on we thread our way through a chaos of stones above the wild Utla. first descends to the left. or in ^^'4 hr. and provisions brought from Aardal). to (V'o hr. 146) in 7-8 hrs.J. and ends at Gjelle. . a horse must be obtained at Farnses or Ojelle. Bargaining Guide to Vetti unnecessary. rises the Bottnjuvkamh. which joins the Utla a little lower down. From Gjelle a bad bridle-path (best on foot for the suitably The path shod) ascends the Vettisgjel. from Farnaes the road crosses the Utla. or Vettismorkafos. Then climb of ^j^-^U ^r. more to the highest Guridals-SoEter (p. more to Gaard Vetti (1090 ft. a ravine 4-5 Kil. but a closer approach may be made by crossing a small bridge to the other bank. to t^kogadalsheen (p. from which we have a view of the 'Plads' below. 148). and of three small waterfalls to the left.). — spare in may ascend for li 4 hr. After 30-40 min. quarters at Anfind Vetti' s. 1880'). in height. with its . 150). to the Muradn-Sccter. just beyond which it crosses another bridge ('Johannebro. On roundLestscpter. the Nondal. About 5 Kil. In I/4 hr. where we land. excessively steep desceut (whence probably the name of 'Fuglesteg'. into the Berdal^ where a refuge-hut Thence to the gaard of Fuglesteg (2495 ft. end of the lake.) and by an has been built. passing the^are and Stokke sfeters.Salter and the Fleskedals-Scetre (p. A bridlepath ascends to theN. 530 ft.W. 3. . 2 Kil. by the Vetiismorka. farther on. 145). high.. and reaches the gaard Skaaren. From Farnjes to Fortln (8-10 lirs. Scenery very imposing. we reach the *Afdalsfos.

1551. c. rises the Gjeldedalstind (7100 ft. rises the Riingstind with the below is the Maradalsfos to the right.. we and afterwards the precipices of the first observe Friken (p. To the right rises the Stelsnaadind A path descends to the left through scrub and across the Morkedela to the above-mentioned platform overlooking the Vettisfos. bank of tbe lake and river to the upper end of Lake Tyin. : .. From Gaard Vetti to Skogadalsbeen (6-7 hrs. To Eejshjem (6-7 hrs. and to Tvindehougen or Eidsbugaren (p. Gravdal. 7th Edit.from Vetti. on the S. of the Morked«fla. FLESKEDALS-S^TRE. From Our route now leads through pines and birches and Q'o l^r. recross the river by a bridge. reach a plateau commanding a view of the Utladal to the N. to the left the Flcskedalstind. zigzag up the Vettisgalder towards the N.)Gaard Vetti and tbe Vettisfos. 3rd Day. and skirt the E. 2nd Day. 150J to the left.'). ascend its course. side. A grand expedition (guide o'/s kr. Hence along the N. at the lliingsbrcfi — naasi. with the Marndalsfos on the left.Jotunlieim.E. . From 1st Vetti through the Utladal.). To the right rises the Koldedalstind. . and in '/o br.l. 22. SHngsby in 1875). side the St^lsnaastind (6790 ft. It then ascends through wood to an open space where we enjoy a *View of the Skagastelstinder (p. . first ascended by 31r. 144. from the bridge. affords clean quarters (if open enquire at Vetti). 146 ) In ^4-1 hr. we reach the top of the hill. head of the Stels-Maradal. The route to Tvindehougen returns to the left bank of the Fleskedals-Elv and follows the course of this stream.) cross it to the Vettismorka-Sceter ('2190 ft. and Leirdal to Rejshjem. both of which may be ascended with guide without serious difficulty. Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. To the right rise the Stelsnaastinder Farther on we ascend to (IV2 ^^•) ^^^ defile with a large glacier. see p. bank of Lake Tyin to Tyinsholwen (p.) crosses the Fleskedals-Elv..? hr. along the Koldedela to the Lower Koldedalsvand. and on the N. cross the Uradals-Elv at the head of this lake. Carl Hall in 1884). We then descend slightly and cross the river again to the (i/2hr. the middle one of which. first ascended by Hr. the upper vallev of the 3Iorked0la. 2 hrs. Grand views. We then return to the left bank . from Smaaget. . Grand view of the Riingsbrse and other Horunger. . Day. 145 From Vetti to Tvindehougen and Eidsbugaren. From Vetti we 8-10 hrs. owned by Anflnd Vetti. 2 hrs. the MaradalsThe view of the Horunger increases in grandeur.. From Skogadalsb0en to Slethavn (8-9 hrs. To the W. In another i/. 11/2 lir. b.) four Fleskedals-Ssetre. 157). Route. where there are a few sickly pines and others overtlirown by the wind.). Those who sleep here may ascend the Skogadalsnaasi in the afternoon. we 'Naes' between the Fleskedal and the Uradal. We then descend rapidly towards the Upper Koldedalsvand or JJradalsmulen and follow the whitewashed 'varder' to We the S. 10 — — . To the N. of Smaaget. where we have another striking *View of the Horunger behind us. and(20min.

We then follow a cattle-track ('Koraak") through sparse birch-wood at the foot of the TJrabjerg. At the E. the Skagastelstinder rising above the Midtmaradal. and partly over rock. . . The ascent proper begins at GJertvasbeeh (2950 ft.). the Stfirlsnaastind to the E... bank of the Utla. 167). The ascent of the Gjertvattind (p. and lastly by a broad crest to the summit. buttress of the group. along which the steep path ascends. see p. 144). and (I/2 hr. to the S. see p. the E. consisting of two saeters. Keiser (p. with the extensive Maradalsbrse (p. pass the abandoned Lusahoug-ScBter.. The direct ascent from the sseters is very steep. Jotunheim. on the other vside of the valley.) reach — Skogadalsb«ren (2915 ft. 149). 144) to the Fleskedals-Scetre. 145. In 3/4 hr. The Store Utla. In front of us are Skogadalsbfi'en and the Guridals-Saeters (p. ^vhose sharp peaks tower above a vast expanse of snow: to the left. About 500 ft. affording a *View of the Horunger. In lOmin. and then skirts the slope high ahove the TJtladal.E. 157).. descends after S/^hr. and up the Gjertvasnaasi.) reach the confluence of the Store and Vetle TJtla. in the prolongation of the Utladal. descending into the Maradal. 168). more the lonely Vradal opens on the right. . SKOGADALSB0EN. The latter descends on the left from the Vetle ('little') TJtladal. We cross the XJradela by a small bridge ('Klop'). 150). . — higher we reach the base of the peak. there and back. the highest point remains to the right). This is an excellent starting-point for excursions in the E. 3-4 hrs. From Skogadalsb0eii we may scale the Skogadalsnaasi (6080 ft. On the left rises the Hillerhei (5260 ft. p. Horses may be obtained at Skogadalsbeen to carry us to a point beyond Muran no saddles). slopes.) Lusahouge (see below) and then climbing to the right. follow the E. by ascending the valley to the (V2 hr.. following the 'Varder'. cross a bridge over the Melkedels-Elv or Skogadala. has forced its passage through the rocks and dashes along its channel far below. The path descends rapidly through fatiguing underwood ('Vir') to (3/4 hr. more we see below us. . Vetti (p. the sharp pyramid of the Uranaastind. 132). Our route ascends the green Friken (4630 ft. there and back).. From Skogadalsb0en we may also ascend the Uranaastind (p. the starting-point of the first climbers of the Store Skagastelstind [route from Gjertvasbeen. 167). always inhabited in summer (from 24th June till the beginning of September). We pass a bridge. end of the Uradal rises the Uranaastind (p. Grand mountain-view. more the GjeHvastop (4685 ft. . We continue our journey through the Utladal.. '21/2 lirs. Fine view . to the left. and (3 4 hr. from Skogadalsbgren. 157). we see the Blejan and the Fresviksfjeld (p. the mountains of the Skogadal and Utladal. 167) takes 8-10 hrs.). In l-l'/2 hr. we reach the first plateau (4265 ft. part of the Horunger (p. and forms several falls over the rocky barrier of the Tunghoug. * Club Hut). then. the Styggedalstind.) a small birch-wood. fallen from the S. then ascend a slope of snow. and in 3 hrs. with an immense mass of 'Ur'.). without a" guide. crossed by the path to the (1 kr.146 Route From 22. To the S. to the N. the Vormelid-Saters.

(The route through the Kauddal to the Gjendebod follows the left bank of the Utla see p.) Rejshjem (p. 162.. 154). To the N. In ascending we look back at intervals to see the impressive view of the Horunger. we skirt the imposing 7me>77eW (p.).). The valley now takes the name of Gravdal. On the S. appears Loftet (7315ft. into the Upper Visdal.). Route.. Grand viewof theStyggedalstinder to the W. a series of tarns. comp.E. adjoining which on the N. The mute through the Visdal goes round the N. to the A'/rXreO'^^^e. descending on the left from the SjortningsbrsB. from the Lelrdal.). .. from Skogadalsbeen. from the Leirvand we reach the saeter of Slethavn (owned by Amund Elvesceter. 162). 153 to (4-5 hrs. to the N. guide necessary). On the right are the Uladalstinder.. if open). The route. To the E. 164) converge. LEIUDAL. 147 behind us of the Styggedalstiiider with the huge Gjertvasbrie. near the lofty fall of the Duma. below). . To the left are the grand glacier tongues of the Smerstabbrse and several of the Smerstabtinder. of the Storebrse rises the Storebr<stlnd (7306 ft. side of the Leirvand . We at length come to the stone refuge-hut on the Leirvand (4930 ft. from the Yisdal. an offshoot of the Smerstabbrae. and from the Hegvagel (p. towers the curiously shaped Kirke (7070 ft. unites at Uladalsmynnet with that coming from Lake Gjende (p. The path ascends and the flora becomes Alpine. We next have to wade (best near the Utla) through theSand-Elu. We next reach a higher region of the Store Utladal and (1 V2 ^^from Skogadalsb^en) the Muran-Saeter (3325 ft. Descending the Lelrdal. 146. used by reindeer-stalkers. Visitors also speak well of the ascent of the Kirke (see above. plain quarters). good quarters). it then descends to the E. farther on. 152) on the right.E. more we pass the prettily situated YtterdalsScBtre (3085 ft. with a great glacier. — 10* . and ascends through the Kirkeglup^ between the Kirke on the right and the Tvserbottenhorn on the left. 22.). Grand scenery. and the Rauddalstind to the E. tower the Stetind and the SkagsncBb (6560 ft. where the routes from the Gravdal.Jotunheim. which cannot be mistaken.). the Tvctrhottenhom (about 6890 ft. there and back). 12-14 hrs. bank of the Utla. To the left. but the curious-looking Skarstind (7885 ft. Passing these. both of which may be ascended by robust mountaineers with good guides (each 8-9 hrs. side wc observe the Skogadalsnaasi and the second Melkedalstind then a large waterfall descending from the Rauddalsmund (p. above which towers the curiously shaped Storebjern (p. To the W. on the opposite (right) bank of the river (bridge). In 2 hrs. 151). with descent through the Gravdal to Skogadalsbeen (p. We cross the Leira by a bridge and descend by the route described at p. tolerable quarters. Nearly opposite the Rauddal is the stone hut of Stor Hallercn. 165). In 2 hrs.. with its glaciers. 5-6 hrs. thcKirke totheN.) We now follow the N. rise the Rauddalstinder.) is the only one of its peaks visible.

It then leads along the S.) and the waterfalls mentioned below. It here diminishes to a path and crosses to the right bank.)(p. a lake in the bleakest mountain environment.e ^/e«e of Fortun (these two with certificates from the Turist-Forening). lies l above the church. Farther on. between the Tuffm on the left and the Sognefjeld on the right. lies below the gaard of fjord. more.E. base of the huge Tundredals- — We — — . We ascend the Fortundal. to Jotunheim. w^e reach ((i 2-8 hrs.). 22. Also on the right. next ascends the left bank of the Fortundals-Elv. The road skirts the overhanging rocks of the Smalaberg. 151) via Fortun (2 days) 20 kr. to Liabi-ce the right the (GlOO ft. 154). To the left is the Svaidalsircp. Good Bridle Path thence E0jshjem Guide and horse from Fortun to to the Turtegre Sostev (3 hrs. to Svensh^i (6-7 Kil. On the right is the Kvcefos. beyond which we see the Fortundal. per day). and at the foot of the Krossbakkenose we turn to the right for the lliand (4308 ft.). and ascending a rough path to the right. diverges at once to the left. (in the distance). The fertile valley To the N. with a fine view of the Jersingnaasi (see above) on the left. and the starting point for several lofty Mouxtais Passes (guides necessary). where the roads to both valleys begin. we pass behind the cottages and climb to a rock projecting over the fall (caution necessary). and Ivar 0iene of Turtegr0. Berge of Turtegr0 and 0. Knud Fortun of Fortun. 144). \ guide alone 10 kr. with the huge precipice of the Jersingnaasi N. From Skjolden on the Sognefjord Road from Skjolden to Fortun (6 Kil. Good Guides for the Horunger region: Ola J. The skyds-station. beyond the seeters of Aa and Tvoerdal. (ndt necessary for Turtegr0). 138). on an old moraine. 138) . a steamboat-station at tlie head of the Lysterarm of the Sognefjord. Thorgeiv Sulheim of Eide. us. 6 Kil. and thus obtain a view of the beautiful valley in both directions.148 Route d. from a great height. from Svensh^-i we may either ascend to the left over the Kkppeskar or follow the great bend of the river past the p^'^or gaard of Bagli. high . and of the upper part of the Kvfefos to the S. To the right the Lingsfos falls (p. At a point about 21/2 hrs. with ^Biene's Inn (moderate). which issues from the gorge of Skagagjel in a tine fall and flows down to the Fortundals-Elv in two arms. is Gaard Fuglesteg (p. The road continues to follow the left bank of the Fortuns-Elv. The route (3088 ft. an Eide (^Thorgeir Sulheim' s Inn. Furaas of Fortundal. I). from Fortun) the Narstedals-Saeter (good quarters at Nils ^fiene's). Fortun i Lyster (150 ft. a group of gaards with a church. 4 kr. and the Fortundal on the E. follows the course of the Fortund(ds-Elv and skirts the moraine of Eide. Crossing both bridges. . The road to Fortun from which that to Merkereid (p. behind us lies the fjord. rises the Fanaraak is enclosed by wooded slopes. Halvai' Halvar&en and Torger G. Skjolden(j^. from Fortun). to the (lU-12 min. of the Liabrpe to the X.) Ovabergs-Elv. K. may then go on. bank of the milk-coloured Eidsotind. with a view of the Stenegbrce to the left. to a bridge over the Fortundals-Elv and (without crossing it) to a small rocky hill by the Havshelfos (where a ladder descends to the salmon-fishing apparatus). 1. in 5 min. Tariff Fortun and Turtegre.). Eide of Skjolden. The valley becomes wilder. crossing the bridge. lies near the mouths of the Ma^rkerThe steamboat eidsdal on the N. at the E. pier. above new 2 M- Walk up the Fortundal. situated near the opening of the two side-valleys of Midtdalen and Vettledalen. FORTUN.

The worst of the ascent is over in ^/4hr. to the TundredaliNext day Soeter (12-14 hrs. the three huge Ska-^ast0lstinder. from which glaciers descend in all directions. 154). 168). 2. The view embraces the Fanaraak (p. is the 'Oscarshoug (87. or S. farther to the right and more distant.) an<l covered with ice even in summer.). near the sffiter oi Dokka. near the church oi >Skeake7' (p. in the M0rkereidsdal (see p. At the top is a varde . which flows through the valley. with retrospects of the Fortundal. the Fortundal. we reach the second terrace of the valley. — We ascend 3.Jotunheim. and cross this. F^ir the second pass we follow the Fortundal as above but ascend to the left at the Krossbakkenose to the Fortundalsbrcc.). The district attrai-ts a steadily increasing number of Danish. and in any case the most easily accessible. In 25 min.r0. R. between the Tundredalskirke on the E. from N0rstedal). At the top the Ovabergs-Elv forms the Dok~ A. and reaches (about 3 hrs. and ascend the Gravdal to the glacier. and guides always obtainable here (Ivar 0iene recommended. 138). the Maradalstind. also Jensen Berge of Skjolden). To the right. crossing the Elv. i/o-l kr. 1 kr. where the night is . 151). when Crown Prince. good bridle-path. V2 ^r. by a tributary stream. beyond the inns the path forks. jjartly over glaciers. Horses are usually.. We cross the stream by a picturesque wooden bridge and ascend near the gaard of Sevde.). leading to the N. the StyiZgedalstinder . from Fortun) station A — where fair food and a*^commodation may be obtained in the mountain-inns of Ivar 0iene and Ole Berge (60 beds in all. commemorating the visit of King Oscar II. W. and English mountaineers. Turtegr^ ('2790 ft. The path runs up and down. a view of the foaming Optunsfos. 149 E. is the Simogalfos. nearer. p. kirke TURTEGR0. Good view of the falls of the Ovahergs-Eiv. The main route remains on the right bank. while another fall is formed to the right. — One of the finest points of view. side of "this we descend through the Greindal to the Fosse-Sceter. ascends the steep Fortungalder in windings.). passing the EikscBtre. to the Soia-Sater Tvscraadalskirke on the we — (9 hrs. the left branch ascending rapidly to the Sognefjeld (R^jshjem. Here begins another steep ascent of Y2 ^r. affording.. About 1 2 M.. through which leads the route to the Keiseren Pass. passing the gaard of Berge (_1085 ft.E. descend viil Kvitingen to Aamot^ whence we go on to Lindsheim.spent. the right leading to Helgedal and the Keiseren Pass (p. Norwegian. (6500 ft. after which we descend (fine view). rising over the t-xtensive MaradalsbriP . cross the stream by a new bridge. B. D. In front rises the First Dyrhaugstind.a/'o. On the W. ). Route. more. high up. passes below the sreter of Gjessingen. the grandest group of mountains in Jotunheim. and the (as described at p. past which a path leads to the Riinggadn-Seeters (p. to . We follow the bank of the lake (rough walking) and ascend for about 275 yds. with precipitous slopes and needle-like peaks. The path ascends through the fertile Bergsdal. 65). between the skyds and the church. 22. in 1S60. 60). above Turtei. 150). which forms several fine falls (Tvrtegrsfossene).beyond Dokka.. about '/a hr.% ft. at the gaard of Optun. Ttirtegre is headquarters for excursions amid the Honinger. a few paces to the right of the path to the Sognefjeld. 30 0. crosses the stream descending from the Skagastelsbotn.«. then the Helgedal. 80.

which lies on the 'skar' or 'band' (ca.) on the E. the Kiingstinder (Soleitind and Austabottind not visible). Hei-r C. At the mouth . . guide 2 kr.which projects its icy foot into a weird lake. 5740 ft. licent Siyggedalshroe^ The Englishman. the Vesle Skagasielstind (7710 ft. C.).iingsbotn a huge basin also containing a large glacier. to the W. Besides the Riingsbotn and the Skagast0lsbotn we may also visit the Styggedalsbotn. right). first ascended bv Hr. Riingstind (ca. the vast Jostedalsbrse as far as the Lodalskaupe (p. . W. The "View embraces towards the E. have been mainly instrumental in destroying the reputation for invincibility. in about 4 hrs. Hall. (guide 2 kr. with able guides. the Dyrhaugstinder ^ to the right of these and farther off. of the valley lie the Riinggadn-Scctre.). Between the >Skagast0lstinder and the Dyrhaugstinder we see the snow-mountains on Lakes Bygdin and Tyin. where the formation and birth of icebergs may be studied most profitably. 141). by the Soleitinder and the Austabottinder. the Midtmaradalstind (6310 ft. to the Styggedalstinder on the E. DTRHAUGSTIND. tind. the Centraltind (7750 ft. Hall in 1890) . by the Simlenaasi. due S. partly over 'Ur'.). The floor of the Skagast0lsbotn is covered by the Skagasielsbrce (4430 ft. of the Dyrhaugstinder opens the *E. the passage of the Skagasfelsbrce to the Skagastel Hut..) . the Dyrhaugstind and (W. Suitable for experts nnly. Maradalstind. Mr. to the jST. 7215 ft.. right of the glacier. the Soleitind.). the easternmost in the Horunger group. the passage of the Styggedalsbrce to the Gjertvasbr^. 6330 ft.). .): the GJertvastind 0~'i-0 ft. and the pass leading from the Maradalsbro: over the 'skar' between the Store Styggedalstind and the GJertvastind to the OJerivasbroe. It commands the best general survey of the Horiinger. Keilhau and Boeck. surrounded by the Riingstind. Still more extensive is the view from the *Klypenaasi (3757 ft. the nearest of several peaks of the Dyrhaugsfjeld (with guide. and the Kolnaasi (5414 ft. by the Kolnaasi.). 1883).). Still greater experience is required by the Store Styggedalstind (78(X)ft.). 1885). 1885). which may be ascended in 2-2V2 hrs. the Soleitind (6825 ft. crosses the stream twice. .W. The excursion from Turtegr0 (there and back) occupies 6 hrs. the N. 144) . the pass over the Riingsbrce and the StelsmaradaJsbrce to Vetti (p. 6230 ft.) the Lsvnaasi or Nonhougen prolonged towards the S. 154. 71C0 ft. the E. and Riingstinder. the following are comparatively easy: Northern Skagasielstind (ahont 7220 ft. To the W. bv the Styggedalstinder. with the magnibounded on the W.). the other Dyrhaugstinder. from the Austabottind and Soleitind on the W. The wav passes the HelgedaU-Sccter (p.. According to the report contributed by the latter to the year-book of the Norwegian Tourist Society (1896).). to the N.). 1820). Hall. Midtmaradalstinder (ca. the S. A visit to the grand and wild **Skagast0lsbotn should on no account The route passes be omitted (there and back 5-6 hra. to the W. (guide 2 kr. on the E. of Gjessingen (p.). and ascends through the valley between the Dyrhaugstinder on the W.). on the right the Riingsbree.) above the Skagast0lsbotn (3-4 hrs.). the Skagastelsneb (ca. long enjoyed by the chief peaks of the Horunger. the Skaga3t0lstinder and to the right of them the wild Maradalstinder. 10 hrs. 6460 ft. and the Dane. and follow its crest. 168). One of the finest easier ascents from Turtegr0 is that of the N. Joiunheim. and on the S. the S. the middle Riingstind (6282 ft.). the Fanaraak and the Sm0rstabtinder.\bO Route tlie 22. to the summit. there and back 9-10 hrs. Sli7igshy. the Stelsmaradalstind (6617 ft. Dyrhaugstinder (ca. lies the Skagast0lsbr3e. Hall. AustabotLower down. and the pass from the Midtmaradalshroe over the Midtmaradalstinder to the Stetlsmaradalsbrce. . C. The following are more trying: the highest Dyrhaugstind (6895 ft. 149).. on the left.)near the two Skagaxtefle (sfeters . ^^Dyrhaugstind (6234 ft. and the Fanaraak (p. the highest Maradals'tinder (ca. beyond the limits of the Horunger district). Hall. are the Store Riingstind (6910 ft. We ascend rapidly past the Skagast0le to the top of the Dyrhaug. . from Turtegr0).

^^^^^ .f YJ' ..>^ f1B^i|-il / ^^ ^M' ^-> / . V rOiV ^'-g .

.

on the opposite bank. We may then ascend by the broad track on the left bank of the Glaama in 20 min. Andvord^ see p. . In the background rise the Galdheer (7300 ft. often close to the stream.). the ravine is very narrow. in diameter. about 175 yds. above the hotel. is the passage of the Skagasteihtindskar or Midtmaradals$kav (. on the right. The road crosses the Bsevra. Inn kept by Ole Halvorssen Rejshjem^ the oldest guide to the Jotunheim.). We follow the B. 1883). The Ascent of the GijiDHepiG offers no particular difficulty and during the height of the season is accomplished daily. on which a pleasant meadow-path a leads to the left through a plantation of alders to Glimsdal group of farms. where there is a mill. however. Route. who speaks English and knows the country thoroughly. The following is a pleasant walk of 1-2 hours. and huge blocks of rock have fallen into it from above. 165). which conceal the Galdhepig. . 151 The most difficult uf all are the Store Austabottind (^Q^ift. are several 'giant-cauldrons'.Jotunheim.). the largest being about 10 ft. Towards . R0JSHJEM.oS ft. and the Juvbra with their imposing masses of ice and snow. are the gaards of Glimsdal and the falls of the Glaama (see below). From Andvord to R«rjshjem. between the Skagast0lstind and the Dvrhaugstinder. Walk e. over the MidtmaradalsbrEe to the Midtmaradal and the Utladal (p. avoids. . To the left. where the Glaama descends in four falls. An interesting Glacier of 12-14 hrs. more to the gaard Engum.. We pass the gaard Sulheim. 144). .. The road to Rejshjem (14 Kll. We follow the Andvord road for 12 min. All these tours require 12-16 bra.-everdal road (p. Slingsby in 1876 and now ascended several times everv year.. 22. the Staberg. By the upper bridge over the Bsevra.W. but does not now act as guide house often full telephone) lies at the junction of the Bseverdal and the Yisdal (p. Hall. to (1 hr. often by Norwegian ladies. and down the latter to Vetti (p. At one point. The Galdh^pig. which may also be reached by a direct footpath in 1^2 ^^^ We next ascend to the S. 1883). the Mellemste Skagastslttind (7565 ft. and the Store Skagostehtind {lllbii. It is a favourite resort of the Norwegians for a stay of some duration. and then the gaard Gaupar. but conquered by Mr.1 the RaubergsStul.) the barren and stony Galdehei (5240 ft.) ascends on the left bank of the BcBvra. 65. whence the summit is reached in 2^2-3 hrs.oT.. . which the bridle-path. like the JIatterhorn.). 153) for 2 M. The night is spent in the Juvvashytte (4-6 hrs. A small foot-bridge crosses thence to the right bank. Uall. . i^9A)-^ the Store Stuggedalstind (7805 ft. Hall. and is the best starting-point for tlie ascent of the Galdherpig and other fine excursions. R0jshjem or Redsheim (1800 ft. at the top of the fall. more.).. and cross the bridge to a rocky hill. and near a white church ascend the bridle-path to the left to (1 V2 ^^. once thought inapossible. made an island by the two branches of the Bjevra and commanding a fine view of Rejshjem and the Galdheer. with a waterfall in the gorge. 145).

to SpiierMulen (p. is the highest peak of the Ymesfjeld. 71) and the Rondane (p. 125 M. to the N.W. 31). 8. Visa. it extends to the SnehcTtta is marvellously extensive. with the Keilhaustop and Sveilnaaspig. a peculiar mountain-plateau with precipitous sides. The latter part of the ascent over snow and ice is nearly level.W. driving practic1st Day.. and connected with the other mountains of Jotunheim by the Hegvagel (p. every Knud Vole or his son). port. and Baevra. AVe now obtain our first view of the summit of the Galdhifrpig and the Sveilnaasi. may be ascended on horseback via the gaard Sulheim (p. A fair path leads additional person 2 kr. the view is confined to the Glittertind.) the Elve-Sceter 2nd Day. extends the whole of Jotunheim. From E«jslijein over the Sognefjeld to Turtegr^r. backed by the Tverbr(s. Adja'^ent is the small Juvvand. twenty beds. accent on first syllable). its dark rocky spur. .152 Route 2:>. . the E. to Lal. Knud Vole.) We next ascend a ridge of rock covered with loose stones. . The Lomsegg (8S85 ft. looking almost black as they rise above the vast expanse of snow and above the Styggebrce or Vetljuvlrce.E. 74).. the loftiest mountain in Norway. At the Juvvashytte begins the ascent proper (guide 6 kr. (p. 153).. are the Smerstabto the W. US) via Turte2r0. The view On the N. 8 hrs.) reveals the Jotunheim range in longer array than that frrmi tlie Lomsegg. 6230 ft. where snow-shoes ('skier) are provided for those who can use them. Crossing snow and a stony tract. path leads from the Juvvashytte across a glacier ami then down. 153). Stout shoes are required for the upper Beeverdal (p. 20 kr. tn the Elve-Sa-tei. a walk of 6V'2 lirs. but often full).E..) on the Styggebrae in I-IV2 ^^-i ^^^ t^^e 3/4-I hr. (Beware of the crevasses.e Gjende. over stony de'bris to the snow-fields. enclosed by the valleys of the Leira. with a shelter-hut. more to cross the glacier. to the S. 166-164. and champagne.) are seen in relief. . . good and not dear. 165). built and occupied by the guide. to the S.to the N. Horse and guide from R^jshjem to Fortun (p. 165). Turtegre. In ll/2hr.) summit.(p. Another path finally crossing the Visa bridge.).. and a piece of the Sognefjord the Jostedalsbrae and the Nordfjord mountain-chain lastly the Sne. hsetta group A fair — From E0jshjem f. which is about the same height as the Galdhepig: to the S. the Gausta (p. 151) in 5-6 hrs. Jotunheim. more we reach the Juvvashytte (ca. is said to be visible in clear weather beyond the Uladalstinder. and of the Sm^rstabbrEepigge and the Fanaraak The view of the valley is also very picturesque. of Rf<j«ihjem. we reach the 'Varde' (6365 ft. 164) only.W. distant. To a third of the way. descends to the W. see pp. and S. — . The **Galdh«rpig (8400 ft. are tinder. the Horunger. Imposing view of the Glittertind and Gardh0pig. No inhabited valleys are visible. to tlie left of the Glittertind (p. Riding practicable part of the way. Lastly we mount a toilsome snowy arete to the (Y2 lir. against which the semicircular cliffs of Kjedelen (7300 ft. able to (8' Kil. stocked with coffee. GALDH0PIG. to the S. (guide unnecessary for experts). The view from the Hestbraepigge (6095 ft. To the B(JBvertun-S(t:tef.

Jotunheim. of which rises the Dumhe. At the Bakkeberg-Steter. then follow the N. from the Bseverdal churcli the road crosses the Leira^ which falls into the Rsevra a little lower down. We now descend. 147). At the W. V4^^. To the left. and of the Blaahei.). About 2 hrs. we come in sight of the Heidalvand. To the right. from the Elve-S«ter. about 3 hrs. to the W. leading to the Leirdals-ScBter. more.. from the Elve-Sa3ter we leave the Leirdal (through which a path leads past the Ytterdals-Saetre to the Leirvand. end of the lake we at length reach (4i/2^rs. passing the saeters of Rusten and Flekken. on the other side of the Leira. of the nearer. On the W. above us. 31/2-^ hrs.). with large farm-buildings amid smiling corn-fields..) and tolerable food (B. passing the BcTrcrkJttrn. are the ends of the glaciers on the N. side of the valley is Bakkeherg. two houses with good quarters for 10-12 persons (50 0. with the gaards of Horten. 50 e-..). after leaving Bsvertun the route to the Sogne- We — . on the rlghtbank of thestream. right bank of the Leira for 2 Kil. bank of the lake. slope of the valley for 1 V4 lir. where grain and potatoes are cultivated.farther on. We here obtain a fine'*View of the flat upper basin of the Leirdal set in snow-mountains and glaciers. crosses a new bridge over the noisy Baivra (the old bridge. generally covered with snow. near the Rusten-ScBter. The road. 'Hals'. B. with its extensive glaciers. 22. fully an hour from the Elve-Sseter. About 2 Kil. ascends steeply through the grand gorge of G(il~ deme. is the high fall Duma^ below which lie the Ytterdals-Saetre. above the Beyond the Elve-Sseter a poor bridle-path ascends the left bank of the Leira.). see p. The path skirts the S. the BiTvertunvand (3045 ft. with its numerous promontories and sjeters (right). and then follows the valley of the latter. Route. a pass). above 1897). of the Store Juvhra: and the Store Grovhrce. which we follow to its head. -with its overhanging cliffs. situated on the opposite side of the river and surrounded by tilled fields and pastures. to(4V2 Kil. Just before reaching the bridge the route to Turtegre (narrow After following the cart-track) turns to the left into the Leirdal. 147) and ascend to the right to the BcecerkJiTim-Hals (about 3600 ft. is passed on our left.) Bceverdnls Kirkc. it reaches the bridge below the large farm of Elve-Saeter (good accommodation). To the left are the slopes valley. with guide. About 15 min. facing us is Loftet (p. This has recently become a favourite starting-point for the ascent of the Galdhepig (via the Mytings-Sceter to the Juvvashytte. Farther on the ravine expands to a pleasant basin.EVERDAL. see p. partly hewn in the rock. A rickety bridge. 153 Rejshjem. are the two Liscetre. from which the Bievra issues in a waterfall. side of the Galdhepig. into the Upper Bseverdal. On the left descends the Ilfos. and after I/4 hr. on the left.E. from ElveSaeter) the Baevertun-Saeter (3050 ft. 151. A carriage-road ascends through the Raverdal [or Bm-erdal). was destroyed in .

149). The route rounds the W. in the distance. We here cross the boundary of Bergens-Stift. shortly then before its junction with the Bsevra. fjeld crosses the Dommahro or Dombrui. Adjoining it is a fall of the Baevra. Later the route descends to the Herrevand.) the ruined stone hut of Krosboden. To the right. Jotunheim.In the distance. the traveller should never lose sight of one varde until another is visible. 147). Carl Hall in 1885). ascend for about 13/4 hr. all of which now ascend to the left to a higher region of the unite here. lies the broad back of the Jostedalsbrae. The wooden figure attached to the varde formerly bore the inscription 'Vser rask snrn en L0ve. which we skirt for about 1^2^^^.). and see to the left the ^Smerstabhra^ one of the grandest glaciers in Norway. beside the Smerstabtinder. buttress of the Fanaraak and descends to the Juvvand (4115 ft. When — . The Baevra issues from the Smiefrstabbrae. The best point of view is the *Oscarshoug (p..E.. rises the Kirke (p. with which the plateau is strewn. a curious rocky knoll in the middle of the valley. crossing its discharge by the wooden Hervasbrui ('Brui'. the highest peak. to the Nupshaug. In 40 min. is the extensive Prcestesteinvand^ with its numerous bays. og skynd dig som en Hind! See Veiret det griner i Fanaraak Tind!' 'Be quick as a lion. where the Domma. bridge 4305 ft. 4900 ft. The glaciers descending from the Fanaraak (6690 ft. (there and back). and the Skagastelstinder. a slight eminence to the left of the path. overtopped by the Smerstabtinder. Of these peaks either the Saksa or the serrated Skeja may be ascended from the Baevertun-Saeter with a good guide in 12-14 hrs. 11/2 lir. ascended for the first time by Hr. We now descend by a good path to (V2 l^^O Turtegre (p. for the storm-cloud lowers on the Fanaraak Tind (peak) We We : — !' overtaken by fog. . through bog and brook. theUranaastind (p. without a competent guide. pass (1/2 hr. the first of the large lakes.154 Route 22. Farther on. from Baevertun. About ^/ihr. In 1/2 lir.). more we reach the highest point of the Fjeld (ca. the Dyrhaugstinder. is more difficult and takes longer. 157).). flows underground. to the left are two other waterfalls. to the S. To the left lies the Rauskjeldvand. valley. SOGNEFJELD. to the left.) almost join the Praestesteinvand on the S. the Storebjern ('Big Bear'. to theE. through the monotonous valley of the Baevra. In front rises the whole range of the Honinger^ including the Riingstinder. reached after a walk of about 8 hrs. 7510 ft. and liaste like aMnd.. whence we enjoy a superb *View of the Smarstabbrae and the Smerstabtinder. to the S. from the Herrevasbrui. over rock and rubble. 149). from the summit of the fjeld is a curious varde called the ^Kammerherre\ a high mass of rock with a pointed stone on the top. The Smerstabtinder now disappear from the retrospect. from Krosboden we come to the first of the stone varder with which the whole route across the Sognefjeld (or Delefjeld) is marked.

crosses the foaming Bjerdela. Lake Tyin (3535 ft. except by a few 'Fiekarle' (p. but seems hopeless for the present. where travellers bound for the Skinegg disembark. Those who are making the tour sketched at p. the lake.). To the left we see the large W. Fine distant view. over Vasenden {*H6tel Framnces. the Rauhergskamp^ p. R.broad. unpretending). whence a broad road leads over the 'Eid' (isthmus) to (4 Kil. 55). situated close to the S. 1-21/2 Kil. . 40. 50 ». 2 kr. 50. end of Lake Tyin. lie the chalets of Tyinsholmen. The boat should be ordered to meet us at Tyinsholmen. The distance from Skogstad Fa*e/?f/e. (pay for 16). whence the Aardela issues. on Lake Tyin. . A 'stone man' on the ridge.E. 25. 142) in summer. The row across the lake from Vasenden to Tvindehougen (for 1 2. 6 Kil. diverging from the Valders road between Skogstad and Nystuen (p.) is 14 Kil.) is ascended from Tvindehougen in 1^ 2tr. — . 3 persons with 1 rower 2 kr. with 2 rowers 3 kr.) takes at least 2 hrs. (also in the The *Skinegg(4800 ft. S. 20 ». The institution of a steam-launch would be very desirable. thence via Tvindehougen to the top of the Skinegg^ and back via Eidsbuijaren and Tijinsholmen^ takes 9-10 hrs. descending from the left near the Opdals-Scpter (2940 ft. B. same time from Eidsbugaren). so as to avoid the rough walk along the bank to Tvindehougen. Similar piles of stones farther on also indicate the way. from Nystuen it is 10 Kil.) Eidsbugaren (p. bay. . 60. The masses of snow in the hollows. Tvindehougen. though there is no path. deep. of the steep Uranaastind and other peaks. a club-hut of the Turist-Forening (keeper. near the brook. 20 0. 55) to — 1 kr. 80. The way can scarcely be missed. often reaching down to the water's edge enhance the appearance of desolate loneliness.). 5 kr. or 22. 3 kr. About 3 Kil. end of the lake. The Melkedalstinder become prominent to the right of the Uranaastind as we proceed. Jerstad recommended). with the Trudvang Hotel (Gudbrand Anderson). serves as a guide. at the N. VASENDEN. Its banks. 40. 143 pass the night Others may go on from Vasenden the same evening.Jotunheim. is 11 Kil. Jotunstel Hotel. farther on. 155 g. at Eidsbugaren. is one of the chief stations of the Jotunheim guides (Anders K. 157). long. Prom Skogstad Nystuen to to Lake Tyin and Eidsbugaren. which we cross at this point (40 min. like those of the other Jotunheim lakes. Route. farther on are the Koldedal and Koldedalstind (p. 4 kr. from the parting of the ways. and at places over 300 ft. are uninhabited.?. Beyond the first brook we turn towards the hill. From the hut we go at first towards the N. and ascends steadily along the slope of the Stelsnesi (to the right. in a line almost parallel with the bank of the lake. Oudbrand Skattebo Andersen). The path along the bank of the lake from Tvindehougen to Tyinsholmen — is marshy and crosses several brooks. 157).. The road to Lake Tyin. Tlie exoursion (pay for 17).. and then ascend on the left bank of the second brook.

TIEW FROM THE SKINEGG. Johmheim. 17 ^^' ^ If? Ui .156 iJowfe 22.

and Thortinstinder on Lake Bygdin. end of Lake Bygdin (p.. The extensive view vies with that from the Galdh0pig (p. 152).). and ending with the Styggedalstind to the right . there and back. and also the whole of Lake Bygdin as far as the Bitihom. cross that glacier to the Brccskar. The dangerous descent to the Koldedal should be avoided.] The at the 'hotel' of Eidsbugaren (kept by Ole Eejshjem . magniflceut excursions. the Uranaastind (see below). to which we are now nearer. p. with their vast mantles of snow.W. takes half-a-day (guide necessary. 2 kr. and other peaks. 150). contains a number of beds. to the N. Boeck. The fare D. View (see p. end only is visible. 166. which takes about 1 hr. Falketind. and N. 4 kr. and at the top of the hill. though higher (5145 ft.Of mure abs'u-bing interest are the mountains to theW.). whence we look down into the Skogadal to the W. 145. the Gjeldedalstinder (7090 ft. To the N. can be equally well made from Tvindehougen or Tyins- It is the starting-point for several holmen.) and Koldedalstinder (see below. The view embraces the mountains seen to the W. Towards the W. which. [In ascending from Eidsbugaren we steer direct towards the N. however. We ascend the valley of the Koldedela (p. peak.W. point of the Uranaase. better return by the same — route. enter a side-valley to the left. and 5265 ft. 20 0. lie too far back. The best point of view is the N. Route.). The Ascent of the Langeskavl.Jotunheim.). Keilhau and Chr. the S. and accommodation are tolerable (R. we survey part of Lake Tyin (not Tvindehougen) and the whole nf the Fillefjcld. now hardly adequate to the increasing stream of tourists. Towards the foot we have to cross several arms of a copious stream descending from the lakes on the 'Eid' between Lake Tyin and Lake Bygdin. or a whole day there and back (guide necessary. side of about 800 ft. and still more prominent are the Sletmarkh0.. follow the route to the Langeskavl. The Koldedalstind or Falketind (6700 ft. and farther distant the Horunger (beginning with the . in order to ascend the extensive Uranaashra. The AscEXT of the Uranaastind from Eidsbugaren takes 6-7 hr. 151). 159). the highest E. is ascended in 8-10 hrs. 80 0. peaks. Eidsbugaren is plainly seen during the whole descent. St0lsnaastind).s. (guide 4 kr. which after a time we leave to the W. the Uranaastind descends precipitously into the — we row We We We . 2. 30 ». whicli crosses EIDSBUGAREN. 167).. 1 kr. rise the mountains on the N. Through the Koldedal to the Fleskedals-Scetre and VetH. more to the . with 1 rower. 1^1 some patches of snow and passes to the right of a small lake. with the Stugun0se near Kystuen and the majestic Suletind (5810 ft.Skagast0lstind on the left. From Tvindehougen obliquely across the lake (1. to the left. see p. or 3 pers. side of Lake (ijende. To the S. ascend the course of the Melkedela (p. instead of turning to the right into the Melkedal. Next to these are the Fleskedalstinder. where we keep as far as possilde to the right. peak..). ascended in 1820 by Prof.) towers above masses of snow. Lastly an ascent on the N.). but is W. of Lake Tyin. the Langeskavl. where the Breikvamseggen.. 166).). the Sjugultind. which is always free from snow. 156).. ^ ''Excursion to the Store Melkedalsvand see p. 1 kr. the Melkedalstinder. of the Skinegg. or 1 kr. and the first of the'jotunheim mountains ever climbed. Of that lake itself the W.. 22. 145) to the foot of the Falketind. rise in succession. Galdebergstind.).). 1 kr. most of the way over glaciers. (p. and climb to the top. p. The bare summit of the Langeskavl (6115 ft.<ummit of the "Uranaastind (7045 ft. avoiding the soft snow-patches as much as possible.

Our road crosses the Vinde-Elv. 11 Kil. Skammestein. Ve pass the Beito-Sceters. 141). From Fagernses to Eaufjordheim. and then skirts the Hceggefjord. Below us. the Uranaasbrfe. — The road. and partly into the Skogadal (p. it rapidly ascends through wood. the W. see p.158 Route 22. Fine view of the lake. 28). and snow-mountains in the distance. tains. there and back. 52. a splendid point — of view (ascent 3-31/2 l^rs. while the N. FagerncBs. To the E. We pass. where a road to the Hedel-Seeters diverges to the right. but largely rebuilt. the loftily situated church of Skrut void or Skrantvaal and (farther on) that of Rogne. the E. descends partly into the Melkedal. arm. side of which the road leads through a pass. below. a refuge-hut at the E. early. RAUFJORDHEIM. and up Lake Bygdin to Eidsbugaren. lies the Salbo. end The road now ascends steeply Hagge and the — — . To the left is the gaard of Northorp. whence a good road leads to the left. This approach to the Jotunheim is apt to be tedious owing to the long and sometimes windy passage of Lake Bygdin. but the placing of a steam-launch on that lake would overcome this Ascend the Bitihorn to — objection. Farther on it crosses the Vin^tra. h. The continuation of the road to Lake Bygdin. on the E. the discharge of Lake Bygdin. and Bitihorn (p. Uradal (p. with several gaards high above it. connected by a river with each other and with the Hedalsfjord. and to the N. the main road bends to the left towards Lake 0iangen. but in the meanwhile travellers turn to the left before crossing the Yinstra and proceed to Eaufjordheim (Knut Lekken's Ivn). The Hotel Jotunheim is to be opened here. on the right. To the E. existing at least as early as 1327.) Leken (see p. to (26 Kil. is the Voldbo-Fjord. Mugnatind. Farther on the road runs above the Hedalsfjord.) Raufjordheim. and the MelkedalsbrcE. 146). Jotunheim. 166). Nearly level at first. to the left. 2nd Day. also to the left. are the Dalsfjord and the Merstafjord.Fjord. Two days. over the SLidreaas. opened in 1897 and not yet marked on our Map (p. at the N. 1st Day. already mentioned. wMch diverges to the right from the Valders route at the Fagerluud Hotel. (pay for 25) Hole-Sater on the Holesund. Beyond Okshovd. end of which is the church of Voldbo. guide 1 to kr. ascends gradually and crosses a marshy plateau enclosed by mountains. with the SLettefjeld. . ascends the valley of the 0stre-Slidre-ELv. and ends at the 17 Kil. 53).). row up Lake Bygdin Eidsbugaren in 6-8 hrs. the Bitihorn (p. slope of which is the 0iangenshei. chief church of 0sire SUdre. rise the Mellene moun23 Kil. arm of which descends into the Melkedal (p. divided by the Melkedalspigge and furrowed with crevasses. To the W. it sends forth two glaciers. *H8eggen8es Hotel. 167). To the left. an old 'Stavekirke' (p. 60 ».) Fosheim and (20 Kil. 3-4 hrs. running a little vray from the left bank of the stream. 159). Farther on. 159). is the Mugnatind. Drive to (51 Kil.

is bounded by lofty mountains. splendid view of the other Thorfinstinder to "the N. There has long been talk From the Raufjord a of the installation of a steam-launch here. affording a magnificent view of Jotunbeim. in breadth. a basin formed bv the Thorfinstinder before us rise the three KnutshiilsUnder. there and back).). The S. enclosing the knutshul. 164. On the right we first observe the Sund-Sater and the mouth of the Brcilaupa. whence we may ascend the *Kalvaah0gda (7160 ft. Route. The other route.) is wearisome. 5 kr.. the "jagged crest of which is called \he Brude/elge ('bridal procession"). To the left.) on the left and the Svartdalspig (7030 ft.) from Raufjordheim takes 3-4 hr«. whole way. ascend the W. The 'Horn' soon becomes visible. on whose steep slopes large herds of cattle are pastured. Arctic willows). farther on..) on the right. deep. about 25 Kil. and of the vast plateau to the E.). For an hour the route traverses 'RaV. a still finer point than theBitihorn. side of the valley. of Lake Gjende.finshul. which is separated from the Svartdal to the N. though free from danger since the Tourist Club improved the path and bridged the streams. . of the Raufjord. to the left. 4786 ft. bank.W.) and crossing the Langedaltbrce (6233 ft. LAKE BYGDIN. end of the long 'Tjsern' (tarn . 22. We next pass the deep Thorfinsdal (see below).. We to Eidsbugarbx by boat in 8 brs. . The highest part of the route is reached at the 8. Fkom Ntboden to Lake Gjende (p. meaning 'red'). serving as a guide. commanding the whole valley. two routes.. 12 kr. or table-land with a series of lakes (p. . (for 3 persons -with two rowers 8 kr. see p. Storms sometimes make the navigation of the lake impossible. so called from the lion impregnated ('raud'. very grand. we then order to avoid falling stones. and the soft soil peculiar to the Norwegian mounMagnificent view of tains.).. not indispensable. The path then follows the E. (Path to Gjendesheim. leads through the Thorfinsd"al and the Svartdal.) between the Sletmarkpig (7070 ft. 1 and at places 700 ft.). narrow strait leads to *Lake Bygdin (3484 ft. of which the 'Faekarl' has the key. 40. side of the Thorfinsdals-Elv. to Nyboden only. keeping well to the left of several swamps at the beginning. it 1/2-2 V2 Kil. Guide (2kr. From RAurjoRDHEiM — walk along the N. the Svartdalspigge.. we obtain a superb view of the Thoi'. farther on are the 'Faelaeger' of Hestvolden. by a 'Band'. 159 with which it is an arm of Lake Bygdin. 4 kr. The ascent of the *Bitihorii (5'25Uft. Fine survey of Lake Bygdin and half of Valders. It ascends steeply at first on the W. but toilsome. dwarf birches. and for another hour it ascends steep rocks.. and the Knutshulstinder (p.. to W. preferable and comparatively easy (4-5 hrs. 4 kr. From Nyboden we may ascend the huge 'Thorfinstind (6932 ft. a shooting-lodge. with remains At the base of tbe Thorfinstind reach the Langedals-Sater^ and close to it Nyboden. bank is lower and less picturesque. 2. 'red'. The boat skirts the N. 2kr. 20 0. bank to Eidsbugaren (12-14 hrs. 161). through the Langedal. 7 hrs.). On the N. but the highest (7680 ft. in length from E... 161). slnpe the there and back (guide not indispensable). •. the largest of the three lakes of Jotunheim. This ascent should be made early in of old moraines at its entrance. 142).) About 4 Kil. into the Vesle Aadal. whence we see the mountains to the N. passing the Langedalstjcern (4900 ft. To 1. 10 kr. or ground covered with underwood (juniper.Jotunheiin. . 40 0.) rarely to be found at Nyboden. leads to the N.) of them is not visible. the imposing Alpine landscape to the W. relieved by several peaks and large lakes. guide. One.

we observe to the right ahove us the Galdebergstlnd and facing us the Langeskavl (or Rustegg') with the Urauaastind (p. Or. 157). 155).. lake (4750 ft.) on the left. rise the Koldedalstinder (p.). 1 kr. skirting the W. skirting the W. for 1. guide (hardly necessary.. side of the lake rises Dryllenesen (4934 ft. the Skinegg (p. 157). din.) the rapid Melkedela (see above) by a narrow wooden bridge. at first rapidly over loose stones (caution necessary). then by the course of the glacier-stream into the Vesle-Aadal. 80 0. The route ascends rapidly to the plateau between the Gjeithe (4790 ft. SVARTDAL8AAXLE. from which falls the Galdebergsfos. 157. into the Vesle Aadal. p.). whence we soon reach the Gjendehod (p. 2. 20 0. (A still finer route is rough) 2 kr. of the snow-mountains to the W. Rounding the sheer rocks of the Galdeberg. (comp.. we observe the three peaks of the Sletmarkpig (p. which commands a superb survey of the whole IN. from which the SletmarkbrcB descends to the N. into the Vesle Aadal. an imposing scene. We then ascend the Oxdalshe. rises the Galdebergstind (6785 ft. crossing (IV'2 hr.) Langedalsbrse. horse 4 kr.) though the path is Eldsbugaren^ see p. bank of Lake Bygcross (1/4 hr. farther) the mouth of the Tolorma. We follow the N. 161). Grand view. To the E.). and descends abruptly to the N.). 40 0. and soon reach the Svartdalspigge. to the left tower the huge then cross to the left bank. cither follow the latter from varde to varde. The lake owes its milky colour here After a row of 6 hrs. sides of the hill of Heistakkene and then uniting. and to the right the huge Sletmarkpig (7070 ft.) the mouth of the Heistakka or (1/4 hr. On the right next opens the valley of the Heistakka. Far below lies Lake Gjende (From the Svartdalsaaxle we may ascend the now descend to the W.) and a glacier descending from tlie left.1 60 Route 22. . we reach Eldsbugaren (p. that already described. huge precipice descending to Lake Gjende. To the S. Jotunheim. On the S. To the left rises the Grenneberg (4210 ft. and follow the right (E. or 1 kr. or. on reaching Lake Gjende. covered with. Beyond a second. and E. From Eldsbugaren to the Gjendehod on Lake Gjende. and then over soft grass. pp. 159). which point may also be reached by boat (with one rower. 3 persons.) and the Rundtom (4870 ft. Looking back. and skirt the lake to (1 hr. the Svartdalsglup. we enter the Svartdal. side of . Farther on we have the Sjugulstind (7040 ft.W. and lastly. traversed by the Hmstakka. 155..)- We We We Voyaging on Lake Bygdin. to the MelkedMa. and smaller. at the foot of which lies the Grennebergstjern (4110 ft.) bank of the Svaridela. 157).).) a brook which descends thence. called Gjendehvynet^ through may Avhich the Svartd0la has worn a deep gorge. we next pass the Langedals-Elv. below the Svartdalspig without difliculty. which forms a waterfall. from Nyboden through the Thorfinsdal. 4-5 hrs. .).E. particularly the pointed Semmeltind. 159. a genuine glacier-brook.). better. 157). Paths ascend the left bank of the Hmstakka and the right bank of the Tolorma. . we may shout for a boat to ferry us across (10 mia.. From Eldsbugaren to the GJendebod. ascend a ridge the *Svartdalsaaxle the left to loose stones to (58U6 ft.).Totunheim. and then the Galdeberg. side of a small lake. to the S. looking back. i.

and the Uladalstinder. 4 kr. and N.) 8 kr. the Svartdalspig. end (guide) and then make the steep descent to the Memurubod. The lake is fed by several wild glacier-torrents. 80 0. to the W. it is encircled by lofty snow-mountains... The *Memurutunge. to the Memuru- bod with 1 rower for 1. . there and back. and between them the deep Svartdal then the Langedal and the Sletmarkpig. or (also for 4 pers. and at the foot of the precipices of the Memurutunge. This is the centre par excellence of the Jotunheim tourist traffic.. B. or 'Solside'. 7th Edit. ascending left bank of the stream. To the N. D. Steinom. opposite the glacier of the SletmarkAnother hour.). and 480 ft. and then mount rapidly to the right (practicable for riding. Ole J. There are few places on the banks of the lake where landing or walking for any distance is practicable. rise the pointed Melkedalstinder and Kauddalstinder. 1-1 1/2 Kil. A second rower is always advisable. on the S. *Lake Gjende (3210 ft. the Kirke. 40. especially when seen from a height. bounded on the W.. by the Store Aadal. extends from W. 1 rower 3 kr. deep at places. Memurutinder. Storms often make boating impossible for days together. These peaks are not seen from the Gjendebod. on the N. 4 kr. by the BukkeloEger or the Hegstuelefte (dangerous without a guide). good wine. 2 kr. or 'Bagside'.J'Aunheim. fixed tariff. to Gjendesheim with 5 kr. and on the K.). in height. all near the Rauddal.. on the S. first summit "of the Gjendetunge. The Ascent of the Memukutunge takes about 4 hrs. a tourists' hut at the entrance to the Store Aadal. 4 kr.. 80 0. forms a kind of mountain-peninsula. The route in the Vesle A. S. brings us to the pig. and the N. 18 Kil. 2 kr.. 162).. to the S. 70 0. 161 Fairly experienced mountain-climbers should combine the ascent of the Ojendetunge (p. The View embraces. after crossing the above-mentioned plateau we bend to the left and ascend to the N. with 2 rowers 6 kr. or follow the bridle-path through the Stove Aadal for about I'/ahr. 3 kr. and interesting Alpine flora. with this route (a digression of 1V2-2 hrs. — Boat . prominent among which is the Skarvdalstind. . The descent leads to the Store Aadal (p. the . to E.). but become visible as we ascend the Store Aadal. Here we turn to bridge to the — the course of the stream the N. small lakes.) and Svartdalsply (7030 ft. by the Gjende. and Tjukningssuen. the Hinaatjernh0. over the debris on the steep slope of the Tungepigge. on the W. From the Gjendebod we may either make the very steep ascent to the E. On both sides it is enclosed by abrupt mountains. with snow-fields. To the N. where the Sjoa. 60 e.W. 20 0.. GJENDEBOD. Farther N. and the Knutshulstind (7680 ft. 20 e. and W.). broad. 163).).. Instead of returning the same way. the Knutshulstind with its deep 'Hul'. at least (guide 2 kr. or including the descent to the Memurubod 6 hrs. long. issues from it. lies the Langevand with the Sm0rstabtinder. falling precipitously to Lake Gjende... bounding the valley on the W.). 30. see p. are the highest. wind sometimes divides in the middle of the lake and blows E. or 3 pers. a tributary of the Laagen. 70. Guide. 6 kr. a plateau about 5020 ft. of which the Beshe (7585 ft. Ikr. The post-office delivers letters here.adal follows down to Lake Gjende. The colour of the water is green. it is far more interesting to traverse the Memurutunge to its E. at the same time.. 162). 20 0. side of the Tungepigge. the Besh0. and cross by a Gjendebod (20 beds. 2i\ Route. with 2 rowers 3 kr. by the Memuru-Elv. It presents a still more Alpine character than Lake Bygdin. To the E. 2. About '/4 hr. — H . In this case Baedekbus Norway and Sweden.

lies to the X. side of the grand waterfall of the Rauddals-Elv to the ^. p. As we approach the *Ilauddalsmund the precipice with 'which the Rauddal terminates towards the Store Utladal. from which the Sjortningshra. from the Gjendebod. to cross the 'Band'. We From the Gjendebod throdgh the Rauddal to Skogadalsb^en. 159). the Veslefjeld descends abruptly to the lake. descends. from the Gjendebod). (patience very necessary). rise the slopes of the Me- murutunge (p. Jotanhcim. The route 'gabbro' rock here has given rise to the name of the valley. 159) with a great amphitheatre of glaciers. To the N. but at first unpicturesque. We E. 166). takes about 8 hra. we enjov superb *Views in both directions: to the right rise the Rauddalsiinder (7410 ft. bank here lies Gjendesheim. from which issues the muddy Memuru-Elv. of the Svartdal (p. 161). 165). 165).). including the curiously shaped Storebj0rn (p..) is one of the finest in Jotunheim and is superior to that from the Memurutunge in commandcross the bridge to the W. the Beshe is conspicuous during the greater part of the trip. crossed by a bridge.o7'e Utladal^ about 3/4 hr. This detour adds about 2 hrs. a boat must be ordered to meet the traveller there.1^2 Route '22. where the Rauddal begins. right bank to a (V2hr. The *Row down Lake Gjende flue to weather ffares. The route leads up the Stove Aadal on the 10-12 hrs.Scctev. To the E.) waterfall formed by a brook descending from the rapidly to the left. end of the lake. bank of the river to the N. from which a route leads to the W. traverse this to the pass adjoining the Visdal Ileilstuguhe (p. not difficult: to the left is the Melkedalstind with its sheer preguide indispensable) cipice. consisting of a club-hut and the hotel of Anders Rusnces^ a good starting-point for the ascent of the Veslefjeld and the Besegg (7-8 hrs. there and back. we survev the whole of the Rauddal. we observe the Eauddalstind on the left. from the Gjendebod). the N. The view from the (2 hrs. first ascended by Hr. at the mouth Memurudal. through the Svartdal (p. The ascent of the highest Knutshulstind (7680 ft. 167) on the S. 154). side of the valley. flanked by the Rauddalstinder . the scenery again becomes very grand. . see p. at the entrance of which lies the cattle-shed of Vaageboden. for about Vz lir. and between them peeps the Fanaraak (p.). of and parallel with the Melkedal (p.) *Crjendetunge (5095 ft. thence to Skogadalsb0en.) requires we obtain a view to the S. p. From the Memurubod an interesting and (with guide) comparatively of the ascend the easy glacier-pass leads to Spiterstulen (U hrs. This grand. and between them the Sletmarkpig (p. (guide 7 kr. Carl Hall in 1890. skirting a long lake for the last 11/2 hr. and more to the E. On reaching the 'Band'. 146. Soon after starting Gjendeosen (3-4 hrs. follow ing a survey of the whole lake. the path on the W. 161). next cross the Rauddals-Elv by a snow-bridge and traverse toilsome 'Ur"' and patches of snow on the S. the Sjugulstind on the right. It takes about IV2 hr. Memurudal to the W. or culminating point. named Gjendeosen^ issues the Sjoa.. The red ('raud') on the N. round the Svartdalsegg to the Langvand and the Store Aadal (a round of 10-12 hrs.) and the following tarns to the Rauddalshoug (3 hrs. and" the Melkedalstind (p. and then ascend steeply to the left. A view is obtained of the mountains of the Utladal and Gravdal. with its almost unbroken series of lakes. It then the brook and leads on the N. to the excursion. Memuruhroe . now descends on the S. 165). 159). . Towards the N. GJKNDESHEIM. Farther on it crosses ascends Grisletjfern. above the Muran. valley. Ahout halfway down the lake.E. is the club-hut of Memurubod. We . 154) in the distance: looking back. guide From the On . and descend the Heilstuguhroe to the (p. side of the GvisUtjcErn (4590 ft..

. Travellers with steady heads may descend to the Eid separating the two lakes.) Rusvasbod. side the Tind ends in avast 'Botn' or basin. Ascending to the left. bank..tre (3-4 hrs. the Besvand. On the W. 1>-J.). turn to the left to the Seindre Tvevaa and round the Russe Rundhei (6233 ft. 7-8 hrs. Guided by varder.. in 11^2-2 hrs. . 64). we descend abruptly to the Memuvuhod. there and back) coincides with that of theVeslefjeld as far as the Besvand.E. bank of which lie theses ovBesseScetre. we ascend to the Besvand (4525 ft. we cross several torrents descending from the N. From the Bes-Saeters we may follow the W. We at first follow the left bank of the Russa-Elv. BKSII0. a curious ridge or arete. and terminating in the *Besegg.) the three Ruslien or Rusli-ScBtre (3125 ft. end of the Rusvand (4085 ft. separating the Besvand from Lake Gjende. to the JBessa. and reach the (3 hrs. where the road from Serum and Storvik ends (p. It is safer.) to (i^-yhY. towards the W. on the N. Route. and not rising much above the Besvand. at the E.'endesheim to the Gjendebod (p. advisable). If the boat is not in good condition. in depth. and go thence by a carriage-road.Jotimlicim. 1(5^) lirs. to return to the Bes-Stcters. may now follow. IGlX) ft. 11* . lower. From G. in 1 hr. however. passing the Nedre Sjodalsvand (o'MrOH. 161) an interesting route (lo which the difficulty of crossing the Leirungs-Elv is a serious drawback) leads through the 0vre Leirungsdal...) W. Magnificent view.). Skirting the lake. where the huge Besha becomes conspicuous. It is also possible to descend to the Memurubud by skirting the base of the Besh0. A good bridle-path leads to theN.). on the N.). We now come in sight of the snowless summit of the *Nautgarstind (7Gi5 ft.). to which we have still a steep ascent of fully 1000 ft. The view from the summit embraces the whole of Jotunheim. To the S.. and above all the enormous Beshe quite near. between the Leirungtbra: and Knutshulstind. Lake Gjende. rather fatiguing. we then row across the lake and ascend by the BeshebrcB. to the Svrn-tdal (p. and the Rusvand. 159).). and crossing the Russa-Elv. Far below lie the Memurutunge. The view embraces the whole of the dark-green Lake Gjende. and then descend — ^ past the Hestfjivrn.) on the W.. and tlton(<' past the Svartdalsaaxlo Onide necessary (5-6 kr.-^ee below). and tor that of the Besli«f (8-'J Knud — We The ascent of the *Besli0 (7585 ft. traversing 'Ur". are the precipices of the huge Besh0. traversing a spur of the Besstrands Rundhe (4910 ft. or to descend direct to Gjendesheim. At the (3 hrs. bank of the Upper Sjodalsvand (^266 ft. a little farther. From the Ruslien S^tre to the Memurubod (p. bank as far as the glacier. We ascend a cattle-track ('Koraak') to the Hindfly. to (li^hr. After following the height to the S. lying to the right.W. Stordensrusten. Fine view of the Tjukningssuen (. Guide. good quarters at all). Ascent of the Nautgarstind from the Rdslien Sa. which lies 1200 ft. we follow the slope on the N.). witli guide). with the Koldedalstinder and Stalsnaastind to the S.). end of the lake we ascend the Rusglop^ between the Glo}^tind on the E. The route to theVeslefjeld follows the S. and Tjukningssuen (7910 ft. more we reach the summit of the barren and stony Veslefjeld (5675 ft.. wade through the Seindre and Kordre Tveraa. side. 162). the narrowing crest of the Veslefjeld. The slope towards the last is precipitous. 9 hrs.) the Besstrands-Sceter. descending precipitously to Lake Gjende.).

On the right rise the Uladalstinder. II0GVAGEL. Splendid view of the Semmeltind to the N. extremely toilsome here. a female . 158). very af tractive. easily ascended from the N. to the S. 3-4 hrs. the imposing Vladalstinder (7605 ft. to the top of the Galdh0pig necessary. to the S. to the Uladalsband. on the second hrs. Kj (vmhulstind (7655 ft. and afterwards more to the E.). reach the Langevand or Langvatn (4630 i\. and negdehrattet. bank (IV2 hr. not indispensable. and to the left. we descend to the Stremvand. (The Semmelhul is also crossed by a route into the Yisdal. 'Semmel'. which commands A steep ascent of ^/ohr. a a of the which Vinsira bridge. keeps to the right below the slopes of the Semmeltind (7480ft. to the Brurskarsknatte. 159) towards the N. no less unpleasant..164 /?o?//c 22. to Valdersflyen. From the Gjendebod to R^jshjem. 8kardalseggenCi1\bi\l).) Horse as far as the steep ascent On — and ascend the left bank of the Storeaadals-Elv and pass tlirougli the defile of Hmstulen. unpleasant after rain. In the reverse direction it is best to row from Eaufjnrdheim to the SundSccter at the N.). from the Gjendebod). we reach the Vardesten. The path then descends to the Leirvand (p. The steeper ascent soon begins (2i/2brs.). saving fatigue. a i large rock 9 ^^. splendid view). but much grander.: horse to E0jshjem 8-10 kr. We We from the Semmelhul glacier. direction. This and the second lie to our left.uide 4 kr. the Hellerfos (see below)..) in a N.E. 147).).). not. Walkers will find the passage of the Semmelaa. to Spitersfulen. From the Hellertjeern we follow the main track. the Glimsdalsfos. From the Hellertjjerx to the Leirdal and E0jshjeji. (right) side of the wild Hellerfos. in 8-10 hrs. 70 0. 161). The route.).. end of the lake we to the right into the insignificant valley ascend past the two Hegvageltjcerne to the Hjergvagel ('Vagge". and riders must dismount. [see below). side. between the Memurutunge and the Gjendetunge. In 1 hr. easy ascent. brings us to the first of the four 5.W. which leads to the N. k.. signifying 'mountain-valley'. 152). a Lapp word. either direct (5 Guide to Spiterstulen (4 kr. Jotiuihehii. . to Ytterdals-Saeter 5 kr. longer than our present route. 5430 ft. has been by cross the visible from the Valdersfly onwards. skirt the Hellertjcern (4300 ft. we ascend the course of a hrook p.W.).) Our path now ascends rapidly on the E. We traverse a weird wilderness strewn with glacier -boulders. to the left of the diverges to the right (p. avoiding the extensive marshes of the Leirungs-Elv.).E. from the Gjendebod). Behind us is a superb view of the Sletmarkpig and Svartdalspig. and the fourth to our left. and reach Ravfjordheim (p. and to ascend the bank of the Breilaupa (p. 60 0. is much less toilsome (guide. and then turn . above it.«.) or via the Galdhepig (see p.beyond it the bridle-path to the Memurutunge next observe. the third to our right. a grand view of the Horunger to the S. the first day we walk to liejshjem. From Gjendesheim to Lake Btgdin (G-8 hr. and reaches the top of the hill in 1/2 ^^' (^ hrs. To the right.. Uladal Lakes (about 5180 ft. the highest point of the route. to the Uladalsband 2 kr. Passiny: the Leirungsvand. the marshy plateau of Valdersflyen (4600 ft. the discharge of the Hellertjsern. end of Lake Bygdin. EnutshulsAfter crossing tind (p. 162). At the W. skirt spur Bitihoi-n. Semmeltind. which descends . and skirt its N.. Around the Leirungsdal rise the Kalvaaheigda.

165 reindeer).). Eileo Halvorsen Ofigshe). two glaciers with magnificent ice-falls. 147. o( Spiterstulen. more (guide not indispensable). Instead of taking the direct route to R0jshjem. bank of the In case of doubt observe the small varder.) a rocky barrier through which the Visa has forced a passage. through the Bukkehul. is good.2 hr. pers. From Spiterstulen m."^^ come to a pine..).wood. IV2 kr. Route to the Leirvand. The Rejshjem route continues Visa. opposite which the GUtra falls into the Visa. We soon reach the limit of birches (about 06OO ft. side. ascends on the N. it is much preferable to ascend the Galdh0pig (p. Route. with picturesque trees ('Furuer').. and even on the glaciers offers few difficulties to Alpine climbers. In another Y2 1^^. We cross the . 164) and the Styggehe (7315 ft. 162). commanded by the Skauthe (GG75 ft. To the S.) Lank of the Visa. each addit.) takes 8-10 hrs. VISDAL. and one of the Memuruiinder (7965 ft. we wade across the Heilstuguaa. guide 4 kr. where it joins the route across the Semmel Gla- now descend to the two N. we at length reach (2 lirs.Jotunheim.).) the Skauta-Elv which forms a waterfall above. we observe to the left.) on the E. After another liour it reaches the "Uladalsband (5760 ft. Shortly before reaching the saeter. After 1 hr. We Uladal with the Yisdal. (The limit of pines is here about 3280 ft. its highest point.). TJladal Lakes (5170 ft. ). 22. the highest ScCter in the Visdal. The route down the *Visdal (to Spiterstulen 1^2-'^ l^^s. so long as it remains on the rocks. Splendid view up and down the latter valley.). The route.). It crosses the Visa by a bridge 1/2 lir.) and ('/. From Spiterstulen to Rajshjem about 5 hrs. To the left towers the Kirke.. and traverses the three peaks of the Sveilnaasi. side of the Sveilnaasbt-ce. we perceive the Uladalstinder (p. at first traversing soft turf.) Vladalsmijnnet. to the S. AVe cross (1/4 hr. Splendid retrospects of the Visdal mountains. to the left. there and back (guide and ice-a-xe . above the sea-level. Spiterstulen (about 3710 ft.) Above us. hrs. descending from the Heilstugubrce. especially the latter.). 152j from Spiterstulen (4'^ hrs. most of them quite bare on the N. by a curious bridge. To right rises the HeUsluguher (7U10 ft. the junction of the or from the Gjendebod cier. necessary). more) follows the right (E. is an offshoot of the Styggebrae. p. to follow the E. With a guide (generally obtainable at Spiterstulen) we may a?cen«l the Leirhe (78S5 ft.the Kedre Sulheims-Sseter the ascent of the Glittertind (8385ft.. the Sveiluaasbrai and the Styggebra (p. .^152). affords plain quarters for 20 persons and good food at moderate charges (iu the house of the guide. distant). On the other side of the Visa is the Nedre Sulheims-Sceter (3190 ft. a pleasant contrast to the 'Ur'. see p. . hank of this lake over most trying 'Ur'. tlie . Following the E. the Heilstuguhe (see above). for 1 pers. The crossing is easy in the early morning only later in the day we ascend a little in order to cross hy a bridge (whence Spiterstulen is 1 hr.

The saeter-path. — — . whence the Glittertind is also visible. hut we follow the margin of its ravine. the Hestbrsepigge to the W. quarters for the night obtainable. The Lauva descends from the right. and worthy of a visit for its own sake from Eidsbugaren (best time in the forenoon. In a strikingly grand situation.. About 20 min. it commands the Uladalstinder to the S. R0jshjem. see p. tlie Smiugjela. are seldom well acquainted with the Horunger. and A A still finer point is the Lauvh0 (6710 ft. Quitting the lake gradually ascend the *Melkedal. guide not indispensable for adepts). Following the FinhaU-Elv thence and crossing the S/naadalsElv in the Smaadal^ we may turn to the right to the Smaadals.. the valley has no level floor.166 Route 22. the Galdh^pig to the S. . best at the 0vreb0-Sater). the finest point on the route. This is a magnificent b\it fatiguing route of two days (way marked by 'varder".). — Below the Visdal Saeters begins the magnificent descent to Rerjshjem. see p. the valley divides. the traveller who intends to explore these mountains should dismiss his guide at the Helgedals-Sseter. with several ponds. I-IV2 day). between the Lauvh0 on the N.). where we cross the curious bridge to the left. there and back).). 64. Vegetation ceases entirely. skirting the profound Ravine of the Visa. and the Gokra.).e. Steep ascent through the latter. The branch to the left ascends to the Langeskavl and the Uranaastind [p.). As is so often the case in ^S'orway. from which the huge Kvitingslcjelen (69T5 ft.Scetev (3905 ft. Thence across the lake and past the Oxefos to Storvik (p. . passing several waterfalls. may be ascended hence. To the mouth of the turbid Melkewe dela and across that river. 151. Jotunheim. Tlie Grokraskard. from Eidsbugaren) we reach the •=*Store Melkedalsvand (4382 ft. Even in July miniature icebergs (of 'aarsgammells'." As the guides of Eidsbugaren.. Grjota. may be ascended. MELKEDAL. which has now become ^'^' reaches the road. a 1.. 1st Day: To Skogadalsbeen 10 hrs.. . From the Visdals-Sffitre we may also ascend the Ookkerdal. yearold ice i. 2nd Day: To Turtegre 61/2 hrs. etc. above the bifurcation of the valley we ascend a steep snow-slope to the plateau of MelkehuUerne. to the pass oi Finhals (3885 ft. winter-ice) are seen floating in the lake (fresh ice . The Visa is lost to view in its deep channel. descends very rapidly. 160.W. (guide 6 kr. After ^^'4 hr. Vetti.) to the N. — Eidsbugaren. From Eidsbugaren through the Melkedal bjffen. In 20 min. and the Gokkeraxel on the S. 157. and next reach the Smerlid-Soeter and the Naaver-Sceter on Lake Thessen. and in about 11 first houses. to Skogadals- and over the Keiser to Turtegr^a. path ascending to the right for a few hundred paces leads to the linely situated Visdals-So'tre (2960 ft. 4-5 hrs. a fine point of view. 157) that to the right is still called the Melkedal. see p. more (about IVo tr. The rocks are polished smooth by glacier-friction or covered with loose boulders. but consists of a chaos of heights and hollows.

farther to in front of us is the Skogadalsnaasi the right are the Melkedalstind. . ^ . Above it tower the Skagastelstinder and the Styggedalstind. The torrent is again crossed by a snow-bridge [caution necessary). Rauddalstinder . by which the descent from the Uranaastind may be made [see above).later. — beyond Skogadalsb^fen the Muran route leads to We turn to the left and cross the Utla by a bridge [2788 ft. more to the Melkedalsband watershed ('Vandskjelet'). 'forest valley'). bank of the Gjertuas-Elv or Styggedals. Styggedalstind. reached from Eidsbugaren in about 10 hrs. and the Melkedalstinder all reflected in tlie dark-blue water. the right [p. or we may wade through it knee-deep a little lower down. the Uranaastind. next.'). the Falketind. and the scanty 'RaV or scrub is soon replaced by fine birches [whence the name. the Melkedalsbne.W. rises the Langeskavlj then the Uranaastind on this side of the latter is tlie K^dberg.W. . The retrospect becomes grander and more open as we advance: to the left is the Smerstabbrse at the end of the Store Utladal is the Kirke more to the right are the About 1/2 hr. arm of the Melkedalsbrse. 167 being called 'natgammel Is'. . . After 24 hr. The Skogadal is at first a little monotonous. opposite whicli we pass ^ 2~^li^^.Jotunheim. niglit-lce). descending to the N. whence we ascend the a steep slope of snow in 20 min. and.Elv which descends from the Gjertvasbrae and the Reiser. now usually called the Ojertvastind (17 iO ft. The Melkedal now ends in a barrier of rock ('B£elte'.) the Vormelid Sseter [p. the Rauddalstind (p. without defined path. dal).. extends the large Gjertvttshnr. A view of the Horunger is now disclosed (p. bank is the deserted sseter of Gjertvasbeen. A walk of another hour over 'Ur' and snow brings us to an ice-pond at the foot of the First Melkedalstind. The stream has to be forded between the second and third. 146). Route. To the left. a broad basin. To this point also descends from the left the W. The striation of the rocks by glacier-action ('Skurings-Striber')i3 frequently seen. The lower region of the valley which we now enter is the "^'Skogadal. from the 'Baelte'. over which the river falls about 590 ft. brings us to the tourist-hut of Skogadalsb^en [see p. but with the rising temperature the vegetation improves. at the base of the E. On the S. Rough walking. 146). . 162). . and to the N. . girdle).). Farther on appears the Second Melkeascended either from the Rauddal or the Melkedalstind [7110 ft. The route skirts the three Melkedalstjerne^ through which flows the Skogadela. end of the lake. . to the extreme right. Beyond it the path to the right leads to the [1/2 ^ir. The Maradalsbrse descending from the Skagastelstinder is particularly striking. A walk of 2 hrs. 147). 149). whence a path leads to [1 hr. 22. SKOGADAL. the stream forms a small waterfall. Guridals-Ssetre on the N.) while we follow the good sseter-track to the W. To the W.

the huge Jostedalsbrse rising above the mountains on the Lysterfjord. and then. After 1/2 ^^. especially the mountains round the Styggedalsbotii become conspicuous to the left.. and only a few touch at the minor intermediate stations. guingth ence direct to Christianssund and Trondhjem. the Fanaraak. Aalesund.) Keiseren Pass (4920 ft.) to Molde. The path then crosses the Steindals-Elv. rises the Koldedalstind to the N. of the steamers touch at Aalesund only. to'the left of this lake. Farther on we*pass the Dalsfjord To the W. known as the ^Norske Hest\ which pastures upwards of Bergen. usually not difficult. The patli. The scenery increases in interest.).M. (204 Engl. The path now leads along the top of the hill. (fares 16 kr.). The Horunger. 12 kr. which with that of Nordfjord (p. (163 Engl. 176) formed the ancient Firdafylke.. These are the distances as officially reckoned.1 68 Route 22. 112. now Lapp 'Galsa'. the fine Skautefos^ formed by the confluence of the Helgedals-Elv and the Styggedals-Elv. The steamer steers between the islands of Ytre and Indre Sulen. and to the right the Steindals-Eio coming from the Fanaraak. 1 br. and leads through the wide valley. side of the GJertvathrcE to a low pass. on which lie the ILvand and the snows of the Storfond. KEISEREN PASS. M. — good. 51 S.). see p. 40. and the mountain-forms show more variety. ClooOft. longer. In 20 min. and descends to the Styggedalsbvce and thence to the Helgedals-Seeter '(see below). The distances given in this route in Norwegian nautical or sea-miles are those from station to station. Ascent of the Gjertvastind. grand route. and in 1/4 ^^' more reach a bare rocky height commanding the ^Styggedalsbotn (p. extends the -broad Helgedal. and Molde. To the S. M. only about Mr. between the Styggedalsnaasi on the left and the Ilvasnaasi on'the]right. In front of us.E.M. taken for the first time by A C. ^ — 23. 146. passing the pond of Skauta. a huge basin of snow and ice. others call at Aalesund and also at Molde. sometimes scarcely fordable. on the left.. see p. Polletind (1740 ft. but they are greatly increased by the sinuosities of the bays and straits through which the steamers thread their course. Some 10 kr. to the 'Skar'. 171). over debris and snow. Wm. lie the Vctre and the lofty island of Alden (p. 42 S.) here rises on the island of Indre Sulen. see p. SO. 127. others again at Flore.) to Aalesund. below. of the Sognefjord the steamer skirts the"district of Sendfjord. 149). 50 0. To the mouth]of the Sognefjord. 150). to the W. . (fares 20 kr. we pass. Molde. To the N. Steamers ply almost dailv to Aalesund in 15-18 hrs. to which the path now rapidly descends. mountain). to the Turtegre~S(xter (p. After 3/^ hr. From Bergen to Aalesund and Molde by Sea. and not difficult for good walkers.) Gjertvand^ passes and ascends steeply. . to 3folde in 19-22 hrs. next leads to the (20 min. we cross the Helgedals-Elv which flows towards the "W. from Skogadalsbeen. to the (3/4 hr. 75 0. lead's past the N. The . about 660 ft. above the snow of the Styggedalstind. O^'o hrs. past the Helgedals-Sceter.^^ see in the 'Botn' to the left the outflow of the Styggedals Glacier. Slingsbv in 1876.

Satrencvs (Suude's Inn). on which lies Kalvaag or KaUevaag. to the great glaeier-region^of the KJeipen (4460 ft. 20 S.^on this^island. We next steer to the N. another station of the Nordfjord steamers. fjord. Frlis). Bing in 1897. of Bremanger.. begins one of the finest parts of the voyage. Wm. stretching far into the sea like the hack of .i hus>. and Uedals fjords. Mold0 (Inn of H. The lighthouse of Stabbemfyr stands on a solitary cliff to the W. 176). The steamer crosses the mouth of the Nordfjord. between Bremanger noted for the rapidity of the tide ebbing and flowing through it. of the Kjeipen (see above) to the Aalfotenfjord fp. 177). To the left. To the left lie the islands of Skorpe and Aralden. The vessel next usually passes to the W. broad. Hornelen. 160 1000 slieep. we may row to Rise (quarters) and walk thence by a wild path to the N. ^Ve steer to the N. This is the Smalsorhorn of the Saga. being touched at hy most of the steamers. C. The peninsula of^Stadtland. of the high Atlee (2283 ft.). The steamer plying from Bergen to the Kordfjord also steers from Flor0en to Mold0en by a route similar to that described below. and (3 hrs. through the Vlvesund. affording a fine mountain-view. and the Kugsunde. 23.M. a small island between the mainland and the Vaagse^ the latter with hills attaining a height of 2300 ft. said to have been visited by King Olaf Tryggvason about the year 1000.E. but calls at jnore stations. Flor«r (Olsen's Hotel) is a station of some importance. the snowy heights of which are visible from the fjord. whence we may ascend towards the N. a With the passage of station of the Nordfjord steamers (p.. and then across the bay of Sildegabet and past the islands of Barme and Stljee. is a hilly plateau 28 Kil. awaiting a favourable wind for the circumnavigation of Stadtland. then the Frei-0. which opens to the S. a strait between the Vaags0 and the mainland. and steers across the Stangfjord^ passing the promontory of Stavna.'long and -i-13 Kil.s and the Slav fjord. Sunniva. The Skdtestrem. from Flore) reaches a strait to the N. 172).W. On Bremanger is Berdle or Berle. with its almost sheer cliff". To the right some relief in the grey mossgrown rocks is afforded by a few high but slender waterfalls.).E. The ) . recently explored by Mr. Slingsby). is called at by the local steamers. angle of Bremanger. at the N. A local steamer usually plies once weekly from Flor^ up the small Eikefjovd to the station of that name. on this fjord. the entrance to the Ferdefiord(p. of is — 7 S.. ('herring s mouth' On the latter are the ruins of a Benedictine monastery and of the shrine of the Irish St. round which we next steer.M. the Freifjord^ as the strait between the mainland and the large island of Bremanger is called. The little town is the commercial centre of the Norddals.-.e risrht hand with a loi\g wrist. the tutelary saint of Bergen. Eike. ascended on the seaward si'l(» by K. In former days sailing vessels had often to lie here for several weeks. towers the huge Hornelen (2940 ft. Route.FLOR0. It makes connection with steamers plying on the GulenFrom Kjelkences.

. up a steep hill. see p.E. on the left. a station of the Bergen and Nordfjord steamer.) to Enerhougen on the KjedepoUen. to the gaard Eide. land is rather steep bridle-path leads thence in 3/4 hr. situated near the church and parsonage of Vanelven. 196).M. AAHJEM. and ascend past the little lake Storlivatn. to the N. especially by Beyond Aalesund we have a grand *View^ of the Serndm0re Alps (pp. necessary). From Vik . the local steamers much longer. — From Indselsseter by water to Vdlden about 14 Kil. On the Stadtland. 197. 195.on the Dalsfjord (good quarters). see p. 207. short of the gaard Almklov)^ diverge to the left.). A Staalet. is the Kjcerring (1683 ft. Then a walk. Then down a steep road to where (3/4 hr. as they touch at many small stations. adjoining which on the S. Carriage-road to Bryggen on the Nordfjord. see p. to Tverberg. with splendid view. (pay for 7 Kil. To the right is the lighthouse of Gunaviken. opposite the Seljee. 190-192) to the right. bank of which is very abrupt. by Volden. we drive up the JVorddal. past the waterfall of Sarpen. Even in summer the sea here is often very rough.) over the Mandseid (about 500 ft. past several small lakes.M. end of the Vanelvsfjofd. from Moldfif we reach 15 S. Farther on we pass the Lepse. highest point 'wrist'. above the sea-level and the large islands Gurske and Hareidland. Steamboat to Aalesund. 9 S. Feom Aahjem to Volden (p. bank lie Eidsaa (station of the Aalesund and Aahjem steamer) and several other gaards. the highest gaard in the valley. of the Romsdal is now disclosed.) — at Ravn3. and sometimes calls at Hereen. however. 196). and down. at the S. with the Renstadhul. 180). is the Yanelvsfjord (see above). — evening-light. We drive in V2 lir. (3 Kil. Finally we enjoy a panorama of the whole Romsdalsfjord. A view of the mountains to the N. The bay to the N. to (3 hrs. and at 0rsten>:ik (p.) Indselsoetei. In 6-9 hrs. see p.W.E. Fine view of the S0vdefjord from the top of the hill.). promontory is calle(i near'Jthe tip of the middle linger. the most conspicuous being the Skaala (p. Molde. On the N. the Landhandler). on the Sjavde^ord. 171). 196) 2 days (guide and provisions We ascend the road in the Almklovdal for about 8 Kil. 196). Aalesund. to (4 Kil. — . once weekly (p.E. . 176. of Stadtland [is called Vanelvsgabet. rising above Draye. Stadtnoted for the storms to which it is exposed.. We then descend past the Kilebrekvand to (2 hrs. Opposite lies Dale (p. whence we may row up the little Moldefjord in 1 hr. the fissured Janshorn and the snow-flelds of the Kolaastinder long remaining in sight. Thence to Christianssund and Trondhjera. to Vik and the church of Sevde.) J0vre-Berg^ the highest gaard in the Saurdal (820 ft. with guide. lies Selje. is the Skrceatna. Aahjem (good quarters — . The voyage from Aalesund to Molde is very line. while on the more level W. side rises the iJeuifc/iom (_1410 ft. The steamer passes the Sande in which is the Dolstenshul a cavern about 200 ft.) Nedre-Berg and the Saurdalsgaarde on the Saiirdalsvatn a vehicle may be obtained. .). at the end of the More conspicuous. Then bv boat in 1 hr. From Aalesund to Molde the large steamers take 31/2-4 hrs. near the church and parsonage of Hove. at Volden (p. of the Gursk0. .170 Route 23. The N. the E.

.

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Passing the gaard of Lofaid on the right. (by boat).171 24.. From Horsevik to T'^-. which is worthy of a visit. the dome-shaped Kringlen (2435 ft. rises the imposing Kvamshest (p. lying in a basin to the right on a small lake. The road crosses the river and ascends between the Dregebenip on the left and the Fagersletnip (2995 ft.). and ascend rapidly to the right to the gaard of Tuncald at the base of the . 9). as he might otherwise be kept waiting a long time at Langeland.).). «rren in 91/2-10 lirs. From Vadheim to Sandene ok to Utviken. a two .W. The passage from the Jostedal to the valleys of the Nordtjord is attended by many inconveniences. however.. Conveyances usually await the arrival of the steamer. and again crosses the river before reaching the dark Upper Yxlandsvand (430 ft. Near Vik we pass the mouth of the Eldal (p. 172). The linest point on the Dalsfjord is Dale. and (more distant) Dregebfirnip. Vadheim (by steamer from Bergen — 15 Kil. the Stenscetfjeld (2470 ft. on the S.). days' Journey by 'skyda\ Goofl nightqnarters are found at Kunde. in height. 126} prevents any other road between the Sognefjord and the Is'ordfjord. 127. to the W. From Vik a road leads through the Ilaukedal to (7 Kil. 120 Kil. near the church of Begstad and the gaard of Sveen (good quarters) on the Dalsfjord. up the valley of the Holmedals-Elv. In winter the sun is visible here for a very short time only. bank. to (T Kil. To the N. The first portion of the route is the least attractive. The first gaard is Ytre Dale on the left.) Mostadhougen on the Haukedalsvand. enclosed by rocks 1500-2000 ft. 173). so that many travellers use the S^ndfjord steamer from Bergen to Ferde^ while some prefer to drive the whole — way to the Nordfjord. From Sande a good road leads to the W. as the huge Jostedalsbrie (p. To the S. bank is the church of Ilastad. The road gradually ascends the Vadheimsdal. very fair. in 7-10 hrs. 11 Kil.).) The watershed is crossed near the gaards of Aareberge (535 ft. It then skirts the Lower Yxlandsvand. Sands (Sivertsen's Hotel. from Laerdalsfrom Balholm in 3-4 hrs. at the N.E. the westernmost of the two valleys which open here.). down the left bank of the Holmedals-Elv. from Bergen). 172). Jaudsvei') is very great. landlord speaks English). 129) on the right. where the Dalshest (2333ft.). On a rocky height to the left lie the gaards of Dregebe. Ferde^ Nedre The traffic ou this route (the 'OverVasenden^ S/cei.) the slow station of Eidevik. From the Sognefjord to the Nordfjord. . at which a steamer calls twice weekly (121/2-13 hrs. prettily situated in the Indre Holmedal. Egge^ and Red. 152j and thence via Grotli to Marok (R. rise the Hegehel (2850 ft. The traveller should secure a vehicle at Sande to take him to F^rde. From Sande a road leads to the E. 14 Kil. with a church and several gaards. The attention of walkers and riders may. — — Beyond Sande we pass the church on the left. be directed to the route from Skj olden over the Sognefjeld to Reishj'em (pp.) the slow station of Horsevik on the pretty Viksvand (525 ft. On an island near the N. beyond which the road recrosses the river. somewhat exposed to avalanches. whence we row to K0rvik (p. we cross the Gula ox Holmedals-Elv^ and reach ..) on the right. the lofty Kvandalsfjeld (3325 ft. and other mountains present a grand picture. end of the lake. From Sveen to Langeland (p. 148. see p.. to (14 Kil. and to the N.).

2 Kil. the Kvam'shest or Store Hest (-4065 ft. of which the upper bay only is visible. on the right. About 5 Kil. (left) opens the Angedal. About 6 Kil. Fine view of the broad Brelandsfos. walk down the river. Ferde is the capital of the district of Sendfjord. on the right. is *Sivertsens Hotel(Ji. ascends the well-cultivated valley of the Jalstra on its deft bank and passes numerous gaards. A few minutes later a long bridge on the left crosses to the right bank of the river. To the left rises the Solheimsheia (1265 ft. F0RDE. On the opposite bank rises the Viefjeld (2210 ft. (pay for 14 in this direction) Langeland (unpretending accommodation) lies high above the S.).). We next reach the gaards of Skilbred. In clear weather these mountains are reflected in the lake. Beautiful pine-wood. bank of this lake. whence we have an unimpeded view of the Kvamshest and the Lille Hest (2985 ft. the Ferdenip (2825 ft. The steamboat-pier is about 20 min.) 11 Kil. our route joins a road which leads to the left to the steamer-pier on the Ferdefjord. B. into which the J0lstra falls ahout 1'. On the F^rdefjord. The Nordfjord road. with the Sandfjel (4100 ft. 40 0. the church of Ferde. At the head of the lake. end of the Langelandsvand (21/2 Kil..) rising in the background. of it. from Ferde the long Farsundebro carries us across the lower end of the Movatten (75 ft. bank) diverge to the left.below the village. The road then skirts the N.E.W. a small lake through which the Jalstra flows. 171) and the old road to Ferde (on the hilly W. . to the right we have a fine view of the Halbrandsfos. bank in Lundsgren on the — . which. on the peaty SMlhredsvand. nearer. The new road to Ferde follows the E. We then pass several pleasant gaards.) to the N. The broad and smiling valley is enclosed by high hills on the N. On the S. on the E. beyond which is seen the fine Huldrefos.172 Route 24. : l-lV2hr. which we follow. Then. with snow between. in the distance.. The Mlly road then leads past fhe right to a height overlooking the mountains of the Dalsfjord (in S^ndfjord). where the road to Sveen (p. from the Farsundebro a road diverges to the right to Ilolsen. . a steamer plies twice weekly. From the Sognefjord Tunvaldfjeld. bank lie several gaards. (pay in the opposite direction for 14) *-Hafstad's Hotel. and on theS.169) in 5 hrs. at the foot of the Viefjeld. on the left. 11 Kil. each 1 kr. is the agricultural school ('Landbrugsskole') of Mo.). bank of the lake and descends in windings (which walkers can avoid) into the valley of Ffirde and to the F«frdefjord.. farther on. the telegraph-office and. and the wooded hasin of Lundebygden at our feet. to Nausldal on the N. to Flor0 (p. resembles a huge horse's head.). the Viefjeld (see below).E. On arriving in the valley. the Solheimsheia (see above).] landlord speaks English). To the N. on a moraine-hill to the right.). We turn to the right and ascend the course of the broad Jelstra to (about 1 Kil. or S. long). Here..}. Fine retrospect. The horses bred here and on other parts of the Nordfjord are said to belong to the original Norwegian 'fjord race'. the Lekelandshest (2625 ft.) and the Kupefjelde (4190 ft.

R. side of the lake. By the gaards of Myklebostad are several pretty waterfalls. from Nedre Vasenden) Skei (*H6tel Skei.). The lake contains excellent trout.).. the Orken. lies at the W. 23 Kil. long from S. the Klana. Two routes lead hence to the Nordfjord one by the Bredheimsvand to Saudene on theJGloppenfjord (35 Kil.E. . and go on to Svaren (p. The rapid stream affords trout-flshiiig. Above these peep at intervals the Grovehrce and the Jostedalsbrae. SKEI. to the glacier 1. p.. to the fare 2 kr.). to the gaaid of Rervik on the Haukedalsvand (863 ft. across it I1/2. 19 Kil. Beyond Egge the second route — : .).E. . most of them on the 'Solside'. Ch. with a view of the Grovehrce on the left and the Jostedalshroe on the right. at the N. in July & Aug. the Rervikfjeld and past the Rervik Soetre.. Gabrielsen. To the left. and to the S. Thence to Balholm A grand but rough route. Skei is not a skyds-station. over To the church oi Hoi sen about 9 Kil. to Sandene 40 Kil. to the B0jum-S0eter 2^*. 40 0..: quarters). Farther on is the church of Helgheim. B. 129).E. Route. base of the Bjersatfjeld (^3314 ft. bank skirts the base of the Jygrafjeld^ passes the gaards of Sviddal at the mouth of the little Bergsdal. to FJcerland (p. and descends to S0knesand (see below). out of which the Jelstra flows in a series of rapids (seen from the bridge close to the station). 129).t'j the Nordfjord. 1 kr. 4-5 Kil. we may cross to the Gr0ndal to the S. side. ft. end of the Jelstervand. called 'Nordside' by the natives because facing the N. of the Aasenvand and along the N. to the Lundeskar 2^/2. The pretty *j0lstervand ((370 ft. or S. farther up the valley. bank of the Ilolsenvand The road goes on.. To the N. to (410 — — Beautiful scenery. end of the Kj03n?e. from llolsen. brooks. to Fjserland 2 hrs.) the other the ordinary skyds-road by Egge to Utviken (34 Kil. and leads through the fertile Aalhusbygd^ with the church of Aalhus or Jelster.).). The road on the N. The latter forms an attractive and (for adepts) not over-difficult passage to the middle Sognefjord (comp. whicli the road skirts. 129. end of which.W. or we may cross the Jostedalsbrpc to the S. is the^church oi Haukedal. but conveyances are always to be had. On the right opens a bay called the Kjesncesfjord (10 Kil. each. M^ The road to Hoben (no skyds) crosses the . lies the skyds-station of Aardal or Ordal. fording several on the Sognefjord. ascends the Grendal.T0l. and N. long). or N. Both banks are studded with gaards. the Seknesandsnipn (4965 ft.stra and leads a little the N. The green wooded valley is backed "by fjelds E. Serv.). At the head of they^lstervand lies (22 Kil. owned by 0. see p. On the S. to N. whence. 130. backed by the blue-green Glacier of Lunde.). Andersen and T. with a guide. to the Seknesandsskar. rise the Sand dais fj eld. Both routes are picturesque.). At the E. Engl. of the Kjjersnaesfjord rises the Bjerga (oolO ft.). 24. at the E. The road ends at the gaard of Gr^ning (1090 ft. and the Sadelegg. about 15' Kil.sfjord lie the gaards of Seknesand and Lunde (poor quarters at both).E. is traversed several times daily by a small steamer [2 hrs. Nedre Vasenden (*Ni€ls€ns Hotel^ moderate).

is the precipice of Kupenaava. and cross the stream on this side of and beyond the little Paulsvand. The branch to the left leads past the W. while the Skarstenfjeld rises to the left. From this point we go on by rowing-boat ('boat-skyds'). The road ascends on the E. Hotel Victoria. bank of the Bredheimsvand. KED. long. on the right is the precipice of the Svenskenipa (4770 ft. hilly scenery. At the S. or Breumsvand (207 ft.). the S. and cross the 'Eid' or isthmus (256 ft. Later. To the Bolsatvand (31/4 Kil. on the road to Utviken. From the Soyncfjord who extremely hilly. use vehicles merely for the transport of their baggage (p. xxiv).) is conspicuous. 175. On the left rises the rocky Skjorta. from Skei. a little more than 3 Kil. Kil. opposite). From.ni Be/ring to (about lU Kil. which lies picturesquely on the E. rises the Dunegg (3650 ft. with several gaards. through a pretty wooded valley. end of the Bols(Btvand. Breimsvand. 5 Kil. 40 Kil. to (6 Kil. 177). Beyond the former skyds-station of Klagegg (741 ft. descending from the Bjerga. the right to Aamot in the Stardal. bank to Egge. On the right is the Fosheimsfos. Taking the former road. The road ends here. a grand and sombre Alpine lake. a station of the Nordfjord steamers (to Faleide. On the W. in the background.) Vasenden^ the 'end of the water'. about 16 Kil. on the left. crosses a hill .171 is lioute'JJ. We — From Skei to Utviken (ca. poor) lies near the Ferdefjord. bank of the Bolsaetvand to the Bredheimsvand that to the right (see belowj past the E. . from Skei) the road divides. We leave the boat at 12 Kil. by a lofty old moraine. with its stony debris. From Klagegg the road in the Staedal ascends past the'gaarda of . To the N. Eed or Re (Hotel Gordon^ well spoken of. bank to (6 Kil. Ferde i Bredheim (fast station.).). we descend by the Stor-Elv.. 9 Kil. and crosses a hill to the Stardal. so tliat it is seldom clioseii except by walkers.). Nearing Red. passing the Eidsfos. bank of the small lake see above. with the Gamledalsfos. bay of the *Bredheiinsvand. Beyond the Myklandsdal (left) and the Ordal (right) the view becomes more open. on the Gloppenfjord (p. the road divides. Just beyond Skei the road the watershed between the Jalstervand and the Bredheimsvand and passes the small Feglevand and Skredevand. Skei to Sandene (35 . Grebstad &. the left branch leading to Egge. we pass the mouth of the Vaatedals-Eiv^ and see four offshoots of the Jostedalsbrse at the head of the Bredheimsdal.) 14 Kil.).) Aamot (tolerable quarters at Tolleif . near the church of Bredheim. the E.). through picturesque. 31/2-4 hrs.). 5663 ft. at the head of which appears the huge Jostedalsbrae. 896 ft. the Skjorta ('shirt'. enclosed by imposing mountains. A road leads from Red up the fertile Bredheimsdal to Moldeslad (p. deep). Farther on we skirt the rocks on the right. — The lower now drive on part of the Bredheimsvand is less interesting. Sandene. on the right. about 5 Kil. Then the Ncssdal.). .

Beautiful retrospect of the Eggenibba. To the S. Navnles. — the Snenipa (6063 ft. 7-8 hrs. and thence past the Sanddalsvand to Myklehostad nearly 4 Kil. halfway).W. p. where another road comes up from Red on the left.ind fatij£uin<i descent of 2^/2 more. 180). 175 passes the startin^i-point of several "iraiid Ellimj the JosTEDALSBRiE (guides. across AamoCs. 174). 137. 174). Egge i Vaatedalen (558 ft. p. On the right towers the conical Eggenibba (5250 ft. 178).. .) to the Oldenvand (p. "We now skirt the E. (pay for 26) Verio i Utviken.). .to Ihf Sordfjord. a station of the Nordfjurd steamer (see p. and whence a road leads to the E. rope necessary): ((U33 ft. and first ascends and then descends so steeply that walking is faster than driving (from Moldestad to Utviken 31/2-4 hrs..). The road crosses to the right bank. where the road undulates considerably. on the left the Svenskenipa (p. which the walker may avoid by easily. On the N. and then down to Nordre Noes (10-12 hrs. (2074 ft. and a very steef . from Egge p. comp.). — The road to Egge turns to the left into the narrow Vaatedal. (2) To the Austerdalshvi£. is not difficult in good weather. 174) to the right it ascends to Moldestad (about 7 Kil. On the flanked with high mountains right rises the Hcrgheimsfjeld. *(2V2 to the foot of the Aamot Glacier. EGGE. to Eosheim and Myklebostad.). Beyond the gaards of Bergem the road crosses a brook issuing from the Sanddalsvand on the right and divides: to the left it descends to Red (11 Kil. Feder K. . The valley expands. the Raadfjeld. speaks English). from Egge). The descent is rapid at first and afterwards in gradual windings. 24. turns several mills at Utviken. To Fosheim 5 Kil.). by the Laudalstinder. on the right the Vora.). passing numerous boggy ponds and glacier-blocks.. 179).followed shortcuts. and descends the valley. Routr. which may be ascended from Egge (6-7 hrs. From Myklebostad we may ascend . From Fosheim a line glacier -pass leads past the Store Ceciliekrona to Olden (p. we have a final retrospect of the Skarstenfjeld (p. The road ascends between the Skavlevcegge on the right and the Fcellefjeld on the left. *Hot€l Egge. to MoElkevold and Rusteen. with fine views. with its sharply defined outline. the Storhorn with its large glacier. 20 Kil. Ole ToUei/sen Aamot (1) Over the Oldenskar S. Aamot. Kristensen. which is often made by ladies. which descends in numerous falls on thiright.). margin of the plateau we at last come in sight of the Invikfjord far below.. 2^/i over unpleasant 'Ur' to the highest point. G. 14 Kil. and the Hornindalsrokken. more. The road to Utviken now crosses a high hill which separates the Bredheimsvand from the Invikfjord. the landlord. The Stor-Elv. — . On the left rises. 179). commanded on the N. side of the Bergemsvand (470 ft. As we ascend a view to the right is gradually disclosed of the vast snow -expanses of the Gjetenyk At the top of the ascent we reach a plateau of moor (5823 ft. This interesting excursion. guides always ou hand). . bridle-path to the Egge-Saeter.

177) direct to Faleide or (better) to Visna-s. in a pretty bay of the S. a. 187).). in recent years. part of the Nordre Bergenhus Amt. 178. W. at Davik. 170). Strynsdal. Different parts of the fjord. Stryn. ascends the valley to Nor or Nord (7 Kil.) to Aahjem on the Vanelvsfjord next call at Haugs or Haus in the Davlks(20 Kil. or Olden (pp. 177) and the Eidsfjord to the N. from Molde) Nordfjordeid. Oldendal. Mostt ravellers will probably steam from Sandene (pp. bank. Olden. Steamers (uot The long sea-voyage from Bergen to the Nordfjord can hardly be recommended. one degree of latitude farther to the N. but scarcely half the length (50 M. bank a road leads over the Maurstadeid (2080 ft. 125). have different names.. The fjord now forks into the Isfjord to the S. In this case also the finest scenery is to he found in the inmost recesses of the fjord. from the pier is *Boalths Enkes Hotel. 46 Kil. extends inland to the N. Splendid view to the S. also on the N. bank. 60 0. 26). 179). more (15 kr. and that to the right to (15 Kil. thence to Visna-s V2 Ijr. The first station is Bugsund. below the sea-level. to Loen 1 hr. 174. along the Eidsfjord to a bifurcation. From the next station Bryggen . and bank. and at Domsten or Domhesten. running parallel with the Sognefjord. and 184 ft.76 25. and continue their journey through the Strynsdal and Videdal (R. to Grodaas (p. 60 0. About 1 M. 1829). — — while its depth extends to 1310 ft. post-office. fjord. where the steamer touches at Starheim. p. whence the road to the left leads to Naustdal (see above).E. Loen. (p. From Nobdfjordeid to Volden (p. The **Nordfjord. Naustdal or Nestdal. higher. Nowhere are the peculiar charms of Norwegian scenery. No grander . A road leads to the W. a large place with a church. Tlie steamer then retraces its course and steers to the E. The name 'Nordfjord' formerly applied to the N. and Loen. the geological continuation of the Eidsfjord.). on the S. as contrasted with the finest Alpine panoramas..}. between Vemelsvik and Oangse into the Nordfjord.) the slow . 168. of the . Loendal. often wholly ocFrom Nordfjordeid a road cupied by English salmon-fishers. make excursions in the Loendal or the Oldendal. all with separate stateronmsj from Bergen to Faleide thrice a week in 21-36 hrs.).. A local steamer also plies five times weekly from Sandene (Gloppen) to Utviken^ Faleide. but is now generally given The number of visitors has greatly increased to the fjord also. on the N. — We AalfothrcE. opposite the Rugsundse. 177) or from JJtviken (p. From Nor a steamer plies thrice weekly in 31/2-4: hrs. 30 0. more (15 kr. more adequately illustrated. beyond Visnees (15 kr.). combination exists of wide expanses of water with mighty mountains and extensive glaciers.E. Steamer from Bergen to Molde (131/2-15 hrs. here of unusual grandeur and picturesqueness. once the residence of the poet Glaus Frimann (d. see pp.). 169.). 80 a. (fare 14 kr. and to Olden 1 hr. 196). side. The Nordfjord.nd (51/2 hrs. slope of the Jostedalsbrce (p. Its lofty banks are partly wooded. on the Hornindalsvand.

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some clad with snow.SANDENE. 1 kr. with the solitary farm of Skjeistrand. Thence to Volden by boat about 14 Kil. In this fjord are Ryg and the church of Gimmestad on the W.). 25.) Volden. B. Gloppen^ 5 min. hank (view of the GjegnabiJe). (with guide). end of the fjord. bank. of the 0k3endal. Stations: Rysfjcercn^ on the S. a grand valley. Engl. bank.). 7th Kdit. 5 min. Road from Sandene to the Bredheimsvand. on the Dalffjord. to the station Hestmeseren (quarters at the post-office). 20 0. In the Hyefjord.Sweden. see p.^ . bank. through which we may proceed past the Heimestol to the Gjegnahviv. descend to Jndre Dale.). Fine retrospect of the glacier-slieathedGjegnet( see above) to the S. at the S.) slow station of Slrams/iccvn^ on the Kilefjord^ the S. from the pier. Iir>ut€. bank. The fjord is now called the Invikfjord. 1 kr.W. and Rand. with picturesque rocky environs.) and descenda rapidly to (11 Kil. On the N. — . Steamers ply to Bergen thrice weekly and to Faleide and Visiiics every weekday. The descent may be made to the 0ksendal^ or to the S.E. Beyond the promontory of Askeoik wo enter the Aalfotfjord. bank. an arm of the Voldenfjord. Other good opportunities for glacier-excuraions are afl'urded bv th. — farther on. which cuts deep into the S. We next reach (3V2-i ^rs.e Bnkkenipa (5250 ft. We — round the Kvitences and enters the atside of which is flanked by lofty mountains. The fjord here is called the Hundviks- We fjord. We return to the main fjord. charmingly situated at the S. the steamer rounds the promontory of Havnnces and enters the Isfjord. To the S. two splendid points of view. on the N. Sivertsens Hotel. bank. we have a view of the glaciers of the Store Cecilienkrona anil Grytereidsnib. To the E. Serv. The hills are prettily wooded and dotted with farms. of the Aalfotbrte. cross the mouth of the Hyefjord.) for the sake of a grand mountain and j^lacier view. Some of the steamers go on to Hyen. On the way we may ascend the -Felden (429-5 ft. approach quite close to these falls in leaving the Aalfotfjord. and the church of Gloppen on the E. in whicli case the whole route takes 8-10 hr. 1.W. . a little steers tractive Gloppenfjord. after leaving Sandene wo reach — liAtuEKKii's Norway and . Beautiful walks and good trout-fishing near. Fine view of the Gjegnabrte (see below) bebiud us. on the lake of that name. The road crosses the pass (1640 ft. of the Isfjord we sec tlie *0ksendals' slrenge^ the discharges of the AalfothrcB and the Gjcijnahrce^ which descend in line cascades from the Vestre and 0stre 0ksendal. Farther on we pass the mighty Skjctring (4075 ft. opposite Hestnses^ren. bay of the Voldenfjonl.) and the Slorhest. 170). In 31^2 l^rs. 40.. opens the Skjaerdal. Then past Kile^ to the (lO Kil. and by the Marietind and Sagen^ to the W. 177 station of Smerdalen. K. farther on. is a tine waterfall. English spoken */C G. in July & Aug. We Returning to the entrance of the Eidsljord. wliere the steamer calls at Aalfot. end of the Hyefjord (guide and rope necessary). here called Utfjord. pay for 13) the slow station of Sendre Birkedcd. to the W. and by boat across the fjord to (10 Kil. Ch. the The steamer now W. The Svarlevandsliiid and the OJegnet (5650 ft. Numerous gaards are seen on the green slopes of the N. opposite Indselsater (p. From S0ndre Birkedal an interesting path ascends the Laurdal and crosses the fjeld to the Dalsfjord. to Ilope^ near the S.'^. may be ascended. 174. from Nordfjordeid) Sindene {^'Hot. end of the fjord.

). a pretty. R. Loen (* Hotel Alexandra. and Stryn (see pp. Beyond it towers the castellated Aarheimsfjeld (2018 ft. three houses landlord speaks English j Engl. TJtviken (*H6tel Britannia. Olden. a little to the right of the Aarheimsfjeld. but the local steamers land their passengers in small boats (10 b. i M. At the mouth of this valley lies the steamboat-station Visnaes (^Hotel Central. 2 kr. skyds 1 kr.. 2kr. from Visnaes 3/^ hr.). 30 0. Rovr to Indviken. or Olderen (*Yri's Hotel. vrith a small church. but often crowded in summer. Hot. in Toning. Or from Svarvestad we may follow the fjord. — . both easy and interesting ascents). Ch. on the N. in if/o hr. In the distance. We next steer round the promontory of Hildehalsen. an admirable centre for excursions. . English spoken.). for 2 pers. appears later the Melheimsnib (p. 176) ends here. which separates the Loendal from the Oldendal.).). with its church. a splendid point of view (ascent from the gaard Rake. ExcuKSioNs. to the gaard Svarvestad and up to the gaard of Lange-iiccter (about 800 ft. kept by Landhandler Loen. 181). bounded by the Lafjeld (N. Serv. to Faleide {*Tenden's Hotel. 80 er.. The fjord now turns sharply to the N. 4-5 hrs. p. on the lake of that name. To the E. . Serv. at the foot of which opens the Strynsdal. do not call here till after calling at Olden..).). nearer rises the Aufiemsfjeld (see below). Visit the grand glacier-valleys of Loen. behind the Aufiemsfjeld. two large houses. & i kr. 179 et seq. scattered village The road from Egge (p. with its glacier-basin. VISN^S. 4kr. and walk thence into the Prcestedal (see above) or ascend the Skarstenfjeld (see &hove. The Bergen steamers have a pier here. and the Steirlaugpig (5544 ft. on the S. .). Olden. 182). to Rake and ascend the Opheimsfjeld (see below). from the boat-landing — . at the mouth of the Loendal (p. from the pier. where the fjord again turns to the E.).. . with several gaards on its slopes. It is also Tvitli a church. Boat to Loen or Olden with two. beyond the bridge over the Stryns-Elv). 'bowl').. To the S. and theRavnefjeldsbrffi (E. on class. also a skyds ^Visnces Hotel. at the moutli of the wild PrcEstedal. 52. and also some of the Bergen boats. Wiig. 80 e. 1/4 M. in July & Aug. — .. three.). in July & Aug.) Visnfes (see below. To the right.}. each.178 Route Verio B. i 25. Ch. On the left rises the Selvbjergfjeld. . 2 kr. 179) . notable view). D. which is flanked by the Skarstenfjeld (5384 ft. or four rowers. Nordfjord. 1801. On the N. abounding in fish. 5 kr.). with the Store Cecilienkrona (W. in a beautiful bay. we look up the Oldendal. to (9 Kil. 181).). 187). The latter.. 60 e. 200. via Lunde and Toning.bank rises the Opheimsfjeld. D. and the Sandenib (p. a station of the Bergen and Nordfjord steamers. The smaller steamers land at Olden also by small boat (10 0. 2 hrs. a good house of its station.) and the Aufiemsfjeld (S. Engl. bj^ the new road (p. Eow At Faleide the fjord is superb. 5090 ft. are the Skaala (6360 ft. 1 kr. lies the ste amboat-station^ Jnduifeen (no inn). On the right. The voyage from Loen to Olden takes 1/2 hr. both at the pier the road to Faleide. the starting-point for the Strynsdal and the Videdal (p. with coffee. kept by Peter Tenden.

. of the Invikfjord. .E. A strong current flows through this narrow strait. 25. We laud at — 12* . are enclosed by huge precipices rising to 5000 ft. a pleasant walk of 1 hr. D. valleys Oldendal. by the side of torrents. and is a good centre^for excursions.Nordfjord. and Gjerde. at the N. All three lakes. ISO). in summer).). — enclosed by precipitous rocks. between the Gjerdeaxele (6420 ft. Waterfalls on every side. Loendal. over which tower peaks to a height of 1000-1500 ft. Two steam barely 1 Kil. B. On the left is the precipice Qf the Kciiiiifjeld. Aabvekke^ Lavs Jo-nssen Batalden. which separates it from the fjord. extend into the heart of the Norwegian Fjeld. To the right we see the Store Cecilienkrona and the BennsesKlaaven. ascent fairly easy.). Myklehostad (p. 126). costs 5 kr.). Serv. 2 kr. To the right towers the Yrinib. and on the right an ancient moraine with the gaard of BenncBS.^ rowing-boat to the head of the lake and back.. and Halstein Muri of Olden. see p. end of the *01denvand (120ft. and 10 the . lies at the mouth of the beautiful Oldendal. stolkjaerre 1^2 ^^0 ascends along the milky stream. . with continuous view of the snow -clad Store Cecilienkrona (see below). to the S. At the end of the lake is the liustefjeld..) and the Neslenih (4860 ft.. Ch. we obtain a magnificent **View of the S. formed by the deposits of two streams descending on the left from the Sundebrcp. OLDENVAND. To the right rise the huge precipices of the Store Cecilienkrona (5625 ft.) The strait of *Sunde has been and the Yrinib with two glaciers.) the Lekenfos. to the left the Synsnib and the Melheimsnib (comp. The three — *ExcuRsioN TO THE Oldendal [there and back. 11 Kil. with its waterfalls. and Strynsdal. \qu%. — half of the lake. with its waterfall. we see the gaard of Sandnas. seems to descend to the head of the lake. 181). or S. formed by an ancient moraine or rocky ridge (Bid). and at its base lie the gaards of Bak-Yri and Indre-Yri. 8-10 hrs..lostedalsbrpe (p. 178. which here expands a little. the two Ncesdals (p. side of the pretty FLoenvand to (25 min. a huge and imposing glacier. and Strynsdal. attracts many anglers. and takes 2 hrs.. below). passes (25 miu. The best are said to be Anders E. long and 1.) the six gaards of Eide. 179 and 3/4 M. On rounding the sombre steeps of the Synsnib. and E. lie the gaards of Haahjem. and crosses the river.). Each of these valleys is occupied by a lake. Excursions to the Oldendal. /. The road to Eide (5 Kil. To the S. with se\eral other cascades. Loendal. 11-16 Kil. Route. .. from the pier of the Bergen steamers. 1 kr. and /. guide 6 kr. the 'Brixdal' and 'Victoria' (^1 V2 ^^-i there and back 21/2 tr.). It then skirts the W. more. the lake appears walled in by the Synsnib. On the left. Thor Antonsen Greidung of Opstryn. The Mffilkevoldsbra^. Olden. 20 0. but especially those in the Oldendal and Loendal. above which rises the Bennces-Klaaven. From these descend glaciers on every side. but on nearing Suudo we see through an opening to the right the Grytereidsnib (5615 ft. broad launches. To the left. Bvigsdal^ Rasmus R. make the passage in 1-1 V4 ^^. R. On the same bank are the gaards of Sunde. The abundance of trout and salmon Guides are not necessary except for the glaciers. . with two rowers. soon after starting. English spoken Engl. Strand.

looks like a park. more we reach Gaard Brigsdal (490 ft. A footpath on the right bank of the Brigsdals-Elv ascends to the (1/2 hr. To the right of the glacier is the pretty twin fall of the Vaalefos. 182. and green meadows. crosses the river at the confluence of the streams descending from the Vaalefos and the Brigsdal (1. in all). (with guide) ee p. 2. A rowing-boat (there and back 51/2 l^f-j ^^'itli ^^^0 rowers) takes about twice as long.) the foot of the glacier (1000 ft. At the top is a dilapidated stone hut. passing (10 min. **ExcuRsiON TO THE LoEXDAL (7 hrs. the guide Nordfjord. shrubs. 1T5. A The road ascends over 'IJr' and in 25 min. is the Aabrekkebra. p. which starts at 11.). The road crosses the stream coming down from the Tjugedal on the left. there and back). 178.). Bing (p. Jakob Jenssen Myklehostad''s good cariole to the Brigsdal. may be ascended in 3 hrs.m.j Mcclkevold. poor inn. We follow the main road. It is traversed by the poor steam launch 'Lodelen' (return -fare 2 kr.). which trends to the right. — .). the blue ice-waves of which tower above birch and alder thickets. from which the stream issues. Rusteen (rfmts. On the other side we descend at first over snow and then bv a path to the church of Opstrij)i From the Tjugedals-Sseter the Skaala (p. — In 25 min. we reach Vasenden. from Loen if driving.). . long. imbedded between the Kattenak and the Middagsnib. 5-6 hrs. 2. see p. with its trees. partly snow-clad. from which waterfalls and occasionally blocks of ice descend. end of the *Loenvand. . Fkom ]\teLKEV0LD TO Aamot. Our route leads through the wood to (20 min. where we obtain a striking view of the ^Brigsdalsbrae. The BrigdalshrEE is very steep and was ascended for the first time in 1895 by K. A 3a?ter-path follows the Tjugedal to the TJugedals-Sater and thence ascends (steep) over 'Ur'' to the top of the pass. bottle of beer 50 0. To the left. 113). to [^2 ^^^. above us. Another glacier. Above it tower great mountains. if on foot. a fall of horseshoe shape. and to a higher zone of the valley. In 10 min. The landscape.) the gaards of Kvamme. Previous enquiry should be made as to the condition of the path on the Kjendalssand (comp. The LoendalsElv forms the Hang fas. with the guide Rasmus Rasmussen Aabrekke (to the top.30 a. and takes 1 hr. at the N. about 5 Kil. to reach the head of the lake. After much wet weather the expedition should be abandoned. containing a superb ice-cavern. stolkjaerre 3 kr.180 Route 25. at LOENVAND. (from Loen and back 8-9 hrs. is seen high up to the S. a fine fjeld-pass of 7-8 hrs. a pleasant walk) ascends on the right bank of the torrent.) Waterfall of that stream. wh^re the road ends. 178) (p. enclosed by two rocky heights and taking its name from the gaards visible beyond Maelkevold.).. Loen. road leads across swampy alluvial lands. 9 hrs. Also to the left is the Brigsdalsbrae. At the head of the valley is the beautiful MalkevoldsbrcB. The road to the Loenvand (stolkjaerre 1 kr. an Alpine lake in the grandest style 12 Kil. 181). in 3/^ br.).

On the left we look up the Bedal. the lake is of about the huge Hellesceterbrce. 8-10 hrs. In front of us towers the Nonsoverwhelming height of over 6000 ft. bank is uninhabited. is the serrated liavnefjeld (6575 ft. the Nonsnib on the S.) After about 3/4 hr. backed by the Skaalfjeld with the Skaalebrce. more. high. descending from the glaciers of the Ravnefjeld. the lie 3. (comp. crossing part of the glacier-stream on stepping-stones. the base of which we skirt towards the S. leading first over marshy ground. The grandeur of the scenery here is unequalled in S. Norway. bringing a guide from Loen. with its glacier. and the Bedalsfjeld on the E. mountain should be absolutely avoided. with the gaard of Redi at its foot. rising sheer to the The lake mouth of the Kvandals-Elv. To the right. made almost exclusively on the way to or from Grotlid (Geiranger. Gudbrandsdal). rises the Kvcernhusfjeld (5700 ft. Jacob and Simon Koesdal.j ft. opens the Kvandal or Nasdal. adjoining which is the Utigardsfos. On above the gaard of Sande. In 1/2 ^r. side of tlie left.. It also . with its gaard.) may be ordered against our return. spreading out below like a fan. however. BASIN UK N/KSDAL.). or even to go too near it. m. a height (in hot weather) ice-avalanches fall. The W. On the E. It is dangerous to walk on the glacier. the long and highly uncomfortable route round the base of the W. at which dinner (2 kr.). The steam-launch starts again at 4 p.). (In wet weather this route is impassable.) on the right are the Auflemsfjeld and the Melheimsnib (5428 ft. suddenly appears the *Kjendalsbr8e.Nordfjord. especially from the liavnefjeld (6575 ft.. 181 Soon after starting we arc in full view of tlie whole lake. At the landing-place is the fair inn of Joh. 141). terminating abruptly at 3900 ft. ending high above the lake. bounded by the Ravnefjeld on the W.)- Lodalskavpe (6790 ft. A tolerable path. nib. Between the last two peep the KronebrcB and the Kjendalskrona (5995 ft. since the completion of the Videdal road (p. From the gaard of B0dal we may visit the Bedals-Sceter and the adjacent BedalshroE (1V2-2 hrs. 183). from which numerous streams and .). **A Visit to the Strynsdal and the Vidbdal is now. ascends the valley via the Kjendalssand. On the E. 26. on which waterfalls descend from the right. bank are the gaard of Hogrending and a waterfall coming from the OstendalsbnT. Passing through a bend of the lake. lioutc. From all the mountains. p. At the BrengsncBS-ScBter. we may ascend the p. On the W. we enter the impressive *Basin of Nsesdal. we reach the glacier. on the left. all. in front of it. 141). a grand expedition of about 15 hrs. on account of the falling stones. To the W. descend large glaciers. Andersen. Guides. On the alluvial land at contracts to a strait.. 5 Sleeping at the saeter.) on the right. a lofty waterfall descends from the Skaalebrae (see below). rises the Sandenib foi^. The stream issues from a magnificent vault of blue ice. a waterfall 2000 ft. the turf-roofed gaards of Nasdal. From Npesdal (tolerable quarters at Jacob NwsdaPs) across the Josle(htlsbnv to the Jos/edal. the outflow of the Kvandalsbrse.

and reveals its full grandeur. which give name to the just-mentioned glacier.). the . descending from the Skaala (p. but small boats may generally be procured for Hjelle boat with two rowers 3 kr. The huge Hjellehydna separates the Videdal from the majestic Erdal^ in which. good quarters guide for the pass over the Flofjeld to Hellesylt. 178) and to Stryn forras. Sunde is not a skyds-station. beyond the gaard of Lindvik (on the left). on the right bank of which the routes to Faleide-Hellesylt (to the left. farther to driving back to Visnses. . bends to the S. 188) perched in front of it. the largest of the three Alpine lakes to the E. beyond which opens the Vesle Bygdal. with a large snow-fleld. a fine day's excursion from Visnaes or Faleide (10-11 hrs. To the right is the Fosnceshrce. is not less imposing than the Oldenvand and Loenvand and even surpasses them in variety. It is 16 Kil. At the mouth of the Videdal lies . STJ?YNSVAND. Victoria). of the Nordfjord.) Hjelle in 1^4 hr. the Flofjeld (AAOOh. Mordfjonl conjunction with a drive to a point ahove Skaare (p. after leaving Yisnaes we cross to the S. The skyds-station is 3 Kil. the E. The huge mountain ahead is the Flofjeld.. Mindre Sunde). Mindre Sunde (Hot. Visncps^ see p. 178. The Store Sundfos descends on the left. To the left rises the wall of the Skjibergsfjeld. . the starting-point of the steam-launch 'Frithjof Nansen'. — . below is a fine waterfall. The road (not recommended for walking) crosses the Stryns-Elv. are the Church of Opstryn and the gaards of Fosnces. the lake expands. to the rightjis the Brsekkefjeld. Farther on we skirt the Nedre Floden. In front the scene is closed by the Flofjeld. (fare 1 kr. (waterfall). with the Eindalshorn.E. p. with its gaards.. at Bergstad or Meland (Hot. 283). To the right is the 'nose' of Tunoldshaugen. To the left is the Marsaafos. . long and at first is narrow. Mdth three rowers (274-21/2 lirs. 20 0. At two islets. with the Rindalshorn (5950 ft. On the other side we sec into the Glomsdal^ with the gaards of Glomsno's and Sigdestad.). In II/4 hr. bank of the lake and reach — 11 Kil. 64 0. which crosses once or twice daily to (13 Kil.).IS'2 Route 25. 26 0. 180). below the glacier of the same name. with the gaards of Tunold and (higher up) Brcpkke and Aaning. via Ytre Eide church of Nedstryn (right). via Toning.).) behind it. — . . behind by the sharp Kirkenibbe..). overlooked by the peak of the Yngvar Nielsens Tind (6775 ft. In front is the Erdal with its background of glaciers. in Onr road ascends to the E. and the gaards of Gjerven and 0vre Eide. p. to the right. appears the TindefjeldsbrcB (r. 184). of the road is a large 'giant's cauldron' or pot-hole (p. On the other bank stands a house erected by the English anglers who hold the lease of the fishing. Farther on. as we near Hjelle.). To the right is the gaard of Dispen. then. The * Strynsvand or Opstrynsvand (80ft. Carriages may also be had here for 5 kr. the lower arm of the Strynsvand to the left diverge from each other. and gratuity). On the bank to the right lies Meland (see above). and the gaards of Flo (720 ft.

.

' '^I^ Gjettfoivdj- Bnilreh.000 -tftr. ' ^'i'"' .^' i*^„_ Geogi. * ^^q.I : 500..f^i!ide Jordhonv' '2^.o " Satis horn . i^amjusthovd ' -!5^ XxitleniuiNu '""'v. .l.^ ^^ /Biajidm s Rmnituts I I 5 > S. '^''"^ //a/itrr.- Soverho .^fjrldkirt^ ^ fr J{ e b r i- SrandmS'. StorV Sleldxili Bolhb ThorsiuLOii ^ ^f/^yi-/^^^ G€^i|er Sd(rfhoni - gupggen Kjxisho " _^HT» ^ ^ "^^tliDT-daLs-"?/-.!? M7kV_ > ^J '^ Storburni L?^'"" VesUgdA^N 'y:^^ 1330 vRuiuicuiv ~ -*-.Anst T^ragncri ncbfs.'iiauskar'^ • ^todjadskgupen Fj Ifa/ifiiptJgr ^* .eipz TAFJORD-GEIRANGER-GRJOTLI-JOSTEDAL . —=«^ SkiidiiUiupai 7 ..

the Nordfjord to Aaleaund and Molde. From a. of the Strynsvand. see ahove.) the . The road ascends along an ancient moraine. forms. 67-64). and past it to Faabevg in the Jostedal (p. From the Strynsvand via Grotlid to Marok. . 1 25. whence we may walk to (U/zhr. in conjunction with the road to Marok (opened in 1889). end of the Strynsvand. (guide). owner an excellent guide). The traveller will also be repaid by a visit to the wild Sundal. A'-kaleschvogn' and pair from Hjelle to Marok for 2 pers. to which a poor road diverges to the right about 2 Kil. is the Tindefjeld$hva\ with Yngvar Nielsens find (ascended bv K. costs 55.). 181). those who wish to drive from that point must bring skyds from Stenhus. Route. 186.irm of the Geiranger road is its sudden plunge from the lofty fjelds to the sea-level. As Vasvendingen is not a station. takes 9-11 hrs. The **Road through the Videdal to Grotlid. from Hjelle reach 7 Kil. li/o tr. D. Skaare (*Ouarters.) and the Saterfjeld (6203 ft. at tlie S. 181. for 4 pers. 41/2 hrs. 180). Hjelle. 66). Fine *Retrospect of the finely shaped and conspicnous Skaala (p. with a view of the Erdalshrcc or Gredungsbroe down between the Strynskaupe and the Skaalfjeld to (2-2V2 hrs. at the E. certificated guide). Before us.) and from the Djupvasfiytte to Marok (pp.). Both roads rank among the very finest in W. The best bits for walking are from Skaare to Vasveiidingen (p. 184) we ascend to the left. opened for traffic in 1896. with a night spent at the Bjupva^hytte. and requires an experienced guide (12-14 kr. The route from the Gredungs-Sfeter over the Jostedalsbrfc to the Lodalskaupe (p. valley. that it may also he recommended to walkers and others oscending the valley.Nord fjord. The main ch. Hjelle. .185. but laborious route of — — . the starting-point of a visit to the *Erdal or Aardal^ into which glaciers descend on all sides. whence a walk of 1/2 hr.). the starting-point for the pass to Geiranger (R. I-II/2. Norway.. The loops of the road on the Aaspelifjeld are seen in the distance. 65. 82 Kil. Thor Antonss^n Greidung. to the gaard of Erdal. From the J^lbro (p. 072 hrs. Farther'on the road becomes more level. end of the Striinsvand.ScBter (pass to the Rauddal and the Framrust-Sscter. from Hjelle. but the snow does not allow of walking before mid-July. brings us to the gaard of Gredung (tolerable quarters. From Hjelle we may row in a short ^2hr. the finest means of access from the ^Nordfjord to the district of S0ndm0re (Aalesund. It lead"? to the gaard of Sundalen (8 Kil. the BrcfUkefjeld^ and other snow-mountains to the S. Both routes are seen to greatest advantage in descending the Molde).). B.. A briilgc crosses the Sundals-Elv. 6-6V2 brs. 181). throngh which the^^V idedals-Elv has broken its way.). Bing in 1893) to the left are the Ryghydna (5325 ft.). The gaards of Folven are passed. — 26. Road with fast stations. the Tindefjeld^ the Fomo'sbrcB. in the opposite direction skyds may be obtained in Grotlid for the stage to Vasvendingen (15 Kil. and it is better to take I'/a day. 26) and the Gudbrandsdal (see below and pp. From Skaare to the Djupvashttte. D. From Gredung we which stretches ascend. for 3 pers. through . Those who prefer to walk for a good part of the way may devote 2 days to the trip and spend the night at Grotlid.). 1/4. \S'^ Hjelle or Jelle (''Hot. I'^kr. but the Videdal road reveals so many magnificent views in both directions. IIJELLE. We cross the river and after a drive of ^J^ hr. loftily-situated Gredimgs-Sater. a grand. to the right. R. at the foot of the fissured glacier (2815 ft. with the snow-fields and glaciers of the S?eterfjeUl.W. To the right opens the Sundal (see above). see p. S.) the Sun dais. The whole distance is rather fatiguing for one day. 70 kr. 2.

take 1-1 1/4 hr. We About 2 Kil. 8O0. at 26 Kil. is the Tystighr(T. Grotlid is the junction of the roads from Stryn . which is not wholly free of ice till August. resembling those on the Dovref jeld (p.. To the right and left are waterfalls. and ascends the Aaspelifjeld in sweeping curves between the two ravines. more up the more gentle ascent of the upper valley. Beyond the Heilstuguvand Grotlid comes into sight.). — About 11/2 Kil. a Fjcldstue or small mountain-inn belonging to government. finally recrossing to the right bank of the stream.). passes several small gaards. to the fl3/i hr. rises the Skaala. To the right. The road twice crosses the stream. drivers usually rest their horses here for Y2 br. Those who do not spend the night at Grotlid and have arranged for skyds at the Stenhus (comp. p. distant.(pay for 13) Stenhus (2560 ft. Grjotli. To the right is a lofty waterfall. To the right is the Skridulaupbrae (see below). The road crosses the Videdals-Elv and follows its left bank. -li^kr. situated in a typical fjeld solitude.) Djupvashytte (p. D. where horses are changed. and reaches the Langevand. part of the Tystigbrse. which accompanies the valley for some distance. opens the Maaraadal^ with its snow-fields and glaciers. as we follow the hilly road through the VaUvenddal. (pay for 40) Grotlid. To the right. backed by the Skaala and the Braekkefjeld. after leaving Stenhus. flanked on both sides by mountains projecting one before another. beyond Skaare we have a view to the right of the deep ravine of the Videdals-Elv. B. . we see the long snow-field of the Skridulaupen. or S. 183) save 6 Kil. -2kr. up the Grasdal. Farther on we pass several small lakes. Behind we have our last view of the Skaala. affords good fare (R. "We have another fine retrospect of the head of the Strynsvand. then descend to the (3/4 hr.-lkr. 185). 70). a drive of II/2 It. crosses it by the '^Jelhro (300 ft.) !<lc erring sdal S-vier. no accommodation). which is reached 4 hrs. or Orjoilien ('stony slope' 2865 ft. Grand ^Retrospect of the Videdal. To the S. 60e. GROTLID. We here reach the boundary between NordreBergenhus-Amt and Christians-Amt (172l^i'-5 walk from the Stenhus). above the river). between the Raudeggen and the Skridulaupen. A walk of 20-25 min.).lSijioute2e. who cut off the curves of the road. from the Jelbro to the top of the pass. The road reaches the mouth of the Skceringsdal.. Grotlid is still 15 Kil. In the background Walkers. 8O0. brings us to 81/2 Kil. To the right is the E. From the yordfjord (4 hrs. descending from the snowfields of the Nuken. Hence the route loads to the right.) the Skceringsdal. to the W.) at the junction of the two roads.farther on begin the windings by which the road ascends to a third zone of the valley. and the delay of a halt Grotlid hy turning to the left (W. 2O0. At Vasvendingen we reach the highest point of the road (3740 ft. which here forms many pretty waterfalls.. to the Gratdalsvand and thence (steep) to the snow-covered Grasdalsskar between the Grasdalsegg and the Skseringsdalsbree. of Grotlid. high up on the slope of the Randegg. The Stryn road joins the Geiranger road 3 Kil.

The water of this blue lake. beyond the Djupvashytte a finger-post on the left points the way to the Jcfttegryde. 6 kr. From the Djupvashytte via the Orasdalsskar and the Skccringsdal to 'til — — . 7 ft. on the S. B. in diameter and 10-12 ft. \ Beyond the cross-roads mentioned at p. to the Stenhus in the Videdal OVi'hrs. 80. (guide to Kaldhus-Ssetcr necessary.).. The traveller should walk. 9) on the other. from the frontier-stone. Descent to the (9-10 Kil. i pera. 5 Kil. about 11 hrs. 9kr. The path leaves the 3farok road by the bridge over the Hamsa (see below ^ the path im the right bank soon ceases). The **FiNKST Part or tub Route begins here (road built in 1881-89). 20 0. 59. DJLPVA^IIVTTK. 2 kr. The road skirts the Djupvand. though in a straight line scarcely A . lluic 1 S. Between the brink of the descent and Marok the distance is about IG Kil. of the Heilstugegg and the Langegg. a series of lakes to the W. which lies a few steps below the road. 4-5 kr.. Later on it passes the Fagerbottenvaitd and descends to the Ealdhun or Kalur Salter. Kaldhus-Sseter. (pay for 36) Djupvashytte a newly enlarged hotel with satisfactory accommodation (R. At the top the Kolbeinsdal descends to the N. of the Djupvand (3300 ft. by the Vatsvendegg or Langvasaxeln. . . with the Stavbro'kker rising on the left and the Djupvasegg (5400 ft. see p. and ascends the course of that stream tn its source in the Viavande.). 4 kr.). descends to the E. from Grotlid. Reindeer and a few bears are to he met with in the environs. above).). traversed by a varde-marked path to the Viavande. 66). 'til Stryn'. To tbe DjupvasJiyUe (3 brs. & 8. 283).). 2 pers. 10 kr. and skirts its N.W. from Grotlid a stone marks the boundary between the Christians-Am t and the Romsdals-Amt. and the Tafjord (comp. horse 7 kr. where the Tafjord route diverges (see above). 6 kr. bounded on the N.). to Polfossen (2V2 hrs. 8 Kil.) Ta/jord (\i. 6 kr. Tlic road descends rapidly. which our road now reaches. About 19 Kil. about 5 Kil. highest point of the road (3405 ft. Ijank. 1 pers. Among these is the Hamsa. more. right. 184 (left. Skaare. on the lake of that name (1970 ft. often ice-clad as late as August. to the Otta and the Laagen. 12. Geiranger'J the Maeok Road reaches the Breidalsvand (2885 ft.) on the right.). 194) about 2 hrs. end of the lake. 183 (guide 5 kr. a 'giant's cauldron' (p.') ami the Geirangcr on the one hand and that from the Gndbraiulsdal (R. Sktds Tariff. To the left appears the snowy expanse of the Sharing sdalsbriTy to the S. p.) and the Skseringsdalsbrse. 2 pers. -JC. 890. crossing several of its tributaries. in sharp zigzags and over bold bridges spanning the wild torrent. long). 1 pers.)^ few hundred yards farther on we reach the watershed between the Skager-Rack (towards which the Otta flows) and the Atlantic. The road skirts the Rundhorn (4900 ft. . At the W.to Mohlr. to the Geiranger Fjord. About 35 min. The valley still rises a little towards the right. D. 180. deep. From Grotlid to the Tafjord. each i^/o. 2 pers.: good entertainment in the tourist'hut). by the Breidalsegg and on the S. is the 24 Kil... side of which we perceive the huge rocks of the Grasdalsegg A 'bautasten' marks the (5170 ft. We pass between the small Lc^gervand and Langvand.

In the distance are the heights enclosing the Geiranger Fjord. A superb mountain-picture presents itself just beyond the 'giant's cauldron'. over Havet'). Walkers will do well to keep to the road. In 40 min. the \or. -^vhich descends in several falls from the Djupedal.l fjord 6KiL. (pay for 26) Marok (see p. looks like an artificial park. In 1/4 hr. beyond the 0rjesaeter. In front of us we see the last level of the valley. where we cross 'the Holebro. 189). called the Opland. beyond the latter the Saathom (5830 ft. indicates the way to the *Flydalsdjuv (985 ft. 189). where we gaze to the left into an abyss of several hundred feet. About 1/4 M. 6 Kil. with the Union Hotel and the church of Marok. 189). to the left. 5 min. and then the Grindalsnibba (5030 ft. we cross the Nedre BlaafjeldBro. in contrast to the overwhelming proportions of the fjeld. however. the road forms a 'knude' or knot (1336 ft. V2 ^r. To the right is the Kvandals-Elv. 10 min. from the Kvandalsbro). as we descend. is the picturesque Tverabefos.). and should in any case follow only the footpath 1/2 M. Between these. which. farther on a finger-post to the right indicates the way to the Storsaierfos (p. 189). and the difference The road ranks and the sudden and tremendous plunge it takes is not surpassed even among the Alps. We cross the Kope-Bro. passes the Geiranger Hotel. The fine fall of the Yesteraas-Elv. and unite below the gaard Hole. on crossing the 0vre Blaafjeld-Bro.). over Havet'. To the left. and ends at the steamboat-pier of 17 Kil. beyond the Nedre Blaafjeld-Bro and that beyond the stone marked '800 m. About 2 min. in which lie a gaard of that name and the 0rjes(Her (1410 ft. the view from which is similar to that from the Flydalsdjuv. — . A finger-post. is the increasing number of waterThe largest tributaries descend on the right falls on every side. more we cross it by the Kvandalshro. more we reach the Union Hotel (p. from the Vesteraasdal. It then rounds the hill on which the church of Geiranger stands. about ^2 ^1' farther on. is reached by a path to the right ('100 m.S?ior/bs. A little later the road passses the ^Hotel L'dsigten (p. farther on. FLY DAL. as it passes exactly under a higher part of itself. which. Far below lies the smiling Oplsendskedal. Four bold curves carry us down to the highest part of the Geiranger basin. with its winding stream and curving road. Very striking. from Marok. on the right the Vindaashorn. is not seen in its entirety except from the rocks below the road. just above the Gjerde-Bro.). beyond which the river hurries with all the water of the valley to the fjord. The road again descends rapidly to the next region of the valley.^kedcd. a huge snowy glacier with large crevasses. in height is over From 3000 ft.). The road crosses the Vinje-Bro and passes the copious . to the right. appears the Flydal^brcp. called the Kleivafos. of the Flydalshorn and the Bladhorn. from the Hotel Udsigten. On the left rises the FlydalsItorn. among the grandest of its kind. high above the gaard oi Flydal. . i-alled the Flydal^ with view. In 1/4 hr.iS^ lioute26.

on Kjesbunden. each. . ^3 from Visnaes) Kjes (*H6tel Kj«fS. past the gaards of Lange-Scpter. . of the fjord and the mountains to the S. 21/2-3 hrs. up a side -valley to the loft..) Kaldvatn. etc. 6 Kil. and is flanked with snow-clad mountains. The hilly road skirts the lake and rounds the Kjesnebb. to Hellesylt IS7 b. 192).). view. of the almost inaccessiblelooking Hornindalsrokken (fiOlT) ft. etc. a poor station. the road ascends in steep windings to the N. The entire juurney (8-9 hrs. a lake abounding We — on which a steamboat plies in fish and enclosed by wooded hills A little to the N. on the descends the Lauedal. Grodaas. From Grodaas a bridle-path leads by Tommasgaard and Ledemel (where Rasmus A. the S. rises the Hornsnakk. well spoken of). 192). The intelligent station-master acts HS a guide to Hornindalsrokken. the Brcfkegg (4320 ft. the Denefos.. Mohlc.W. is the several times a week' (see also p. riRODAAS. in front of it.) and past the Kvivdals-Scetre.E. on the road from Bjerke to F0rde on the J&stefjord (p. Skyds may be obtained hero Farther on we have a to (20 Kil. 12Kil. and Smdre. church of Hornindal. or Grades [RaftevokVs Hotel. through openings in the wood. The road ascending the Hornindal is so steep. below which opens the Knudsdal. Then up and down hill.. We then cross the boundary of Sendmere to the Romsdals-Amt.). at the E. It passes several pleasant gaards. (fare 2 kr. passing the Lauedals-Saire Kaldvatn and Bjerke n'ad (p. Lerdemel is a gorid guide.). that walkers progress as fast as carriages. Flore. driving practicable for 2 hrs. This route ascends the Hjortdal (see below) to the HjortdalsSceter. Road from Faleide — At the gaard and 7 of Svarvestad. at of rest with a' IV2 IV2 hr. The GuUkop (see below) and the GUtteregg (4173ft. with frequent views of the fjelds (the Holmefjeld to the W. . which rises from the lake to the S. and to Reirstad. and other heights. but driving is dalsvand.) and Lilledalsegg. where it joins a path from Oterdal on the Hornindalsvand. iiS) Kil. quicker.) Fibelstad-Hangen (p. On the right rises the huge Gulekop . from Faleide (p.). to (5 hrs. the Gulekop descend to to the N. the Seeljesaterhorn (C!2l0ft.'^\\. 9 Kil. A finer but longer route is the passage of the HJorteskar to R0rstad (7-8 hrg. 176). 190). (pay for 8) Grodaas.) to the left. (pay for 11. but not in the reverse direction) /nrfre JS'augen ox'Hougen. who speaks English) to the pass of Kviven ("2795 ft. To the N.).(pay for 17 from Faleide. about 2 Kil. Steamee from Hellesylt to Marok in hr. or Visnaes vik ^n. then. Tlie highest point of the road is about 800 ft. or Visnse'' to Hellexylt with fa'it stations.. . leads through the Blaahrccdal and along the glacier to the pass between the Lauedalstindev and the snow-clad Storhorn (51S4 ft.[r.). 5-6 hrs. extensive view). ascent from Hangen 10 hrs. bay of the HorninWe may row from Kjas to Grodaas. Ji'ufr. and the entrance to the Hjortdal. From Faleide Grodaas and Marok. moderate). are among the other peak? ascended hence. 178). above the sea. the MuUvorhorn (2700 ft. — . affording fine retrospects. end of the Hornindalsvand.) is often performed without change of horses.. Excursions from Grodaas to Hornsnnkken^ Kjeisnehben. The valley expands farther up. — . from Visnses (p.

Above them rises the Gjeitfjeldtind (5145 ft. on the slope to the left. Flofjeld (4 hrs. change horses here and pass Indre Haugen without stopping. . to the right. Ch. The new road avoids the hill to the left on which the station formerly lay. Rowing-boat from Hellesylt to Marok in 3-4 hrs. to the right the Rerhusdal.). Travellers on their way N.) and Gjerkelandsegg (4940 ft.. adjoining which is the gaard of Skaggeftan (1040 ft. Engl. and We Fine view of Hellesylt and the falls of the Sundals-Elv (sec above) as we steam down the fjord.) and crosses the Ljefjeld to Slyngstad (p. side are seen the Knivsflaafosser or Syv Sestre ('seven sisters'). We drive up the valley in passing the fine waterfalls Denefos and Freisefos ^ to Bjeirdal For the rest of the route over the (12 Kil.) the Grauthorn (4425 ft. On the W. whence a road winds up the Ljeenbakker (about 2000 ft. To the left opens the glacier-valley of Kjelstad . are the gaards of Syltevik of Madvik. .). and reaches stop here . On the right.). Seven falls maybe counted at the very top.t]\&-j^omted Rerhusnibba. on the Strvnsvand (p. the S.) Voldsceter (quarters).) rises on the left...).. an arm of the Storfjord. The road descends on the left bank of tlie Sundals-Elv. The fjord now contracts.). fair. From a gorge on the S. a little to the N. pass the Aangelsvand and descend by the J0vre Flo-Sccter (quarters if need he) and the Nedre Flo-BcBtev to Flo. we Opposite is the mouth of the **Geiranger Fjord. thevalIcy of which soon contracts to a deep ravine. in July & Aug. into which notable for its picturesque cliffs and its numerous waterfalls. grandly situated at the head of the *Sunelvsfjord. To the left opens the Mulskreddal. which enters the lake in the form of a waterfall. We — 13 Kil. ITKLLKSYLT. 194). (21 Kil. steer. B. on which large steamers from Aalesund ply 5-6 times weekly (landing by small boat 10 ». Serv. On the E. Splendid view of the Sunelvsfjord and its mountains. Vehicles usually await the arrival of the i% — steamers. bank emerges the Skaggeflaafos or Gjeitfos. Tryggestad's Hotel. 182). 2kr. side we observe the gaard of Ljeen. or S. R. who also rows us over the Nestevand next and the Stegolsvand (road along the hank not yet finished). High up on the slope near them is the gaard Knivsflaa. passes the church of Sunelven. Grand scenery again. of which. the Nokkeneb.) we need a guide .).). 190) opens to the left. descend to Tronstad (1130 ft. yviih. Hellesylt (^Grand Hotel. and (above) Blomherg and.). On the N. by Tryggestad.E. An immense number of small waterfalls descend from the cliffs in early summer. From Hellesylt to the Stryxsvaxd. and farther on is the Gjeitfondegg (4800 ft. but four only below. side of the fjord towers the Nokkeneb (4373 ft. Kjelstadli. The road crosses the stream. the Nebbedal (p. the gaard Farther on. From the VonZ/yor'/ 6 Kil.I Sb Route 26*. the mountains of the Liadalsnibba (4835 ft. falling over a perpendicular cliff into the fjord. do not usually those from the N. each D. Fine view of the Fibelstadnibba.

1 kr. beyond the stone '300 m. from the each. 183) in two days. Vehicles await the steamboat: cariole to the Djupvashylte (17 Kil. Route. Mceraak). When the tops of the cliffs are clouded. between the Laushorn and the Gi'iiidalshom. a large timber-built house A.'li/2-2. moderate charges (English spoken at both of these). others leap from overhanging cliffs in veil-like form. to the left. three pers. *H6tel Udsigten (Bellevue). This is a good centre for excursions. Thence to Grotli is a drive of 2V2-3 hrs. 20 0. above the sea. Curious profiles on the rocks to the right.. beyond the stone '20J m. (there and back 10 kr. pens. M. over Ilavet'. more we reach the small white house of Retire^ where the view up the valley to the SkieringsdalsbrH' fp.). 55. R. Above the second bridge of the road ('Gjerde-Bro'). Opposite. tjord and 1000 ft. on tliis side of the stone '100 m. 1 kv. 2. the waterfalls seem to come direct from the sky. 90. and pair to Hjelle i Stryn (p. from the 11/4. Those who wish to reach Skaare or Hjelle in one day (not recommended) must start betimes from Marok and turn to the right at the bifurcation 3 Kil.] •Hole-Bro'' at the Hole/os. 1. from the pier. 1/2. conspicuoiis over the church-spire as the steamer approaches. close to the pier. S. A little farther on. is the (Jausdalsfos. We follow the — . over Havot'. overtopped by the Laushorn (4911ft. 6OV2-65.}. . At the head of the fjord. Travellers who arrive and go on by steamer content themselves with the ^ExcuBSioN to the Flydalsdjuv (p. from Hellesylt. to the Hotel Udsigten.)\ carr. Beyond the fourth hridge ('Kope-Bro'). High up on the right are the snow-fields of the Flydalshorn. Those who start from Maruk in passing between Geiranger and Stryn miss the striking view on the approach from the E.. a rough path diverges to the left to the Kleiva/os. B. R. B. Mekok's Inn. of MAROK. from Marok. 2. 6 kr. Below 21/2 hrs. =H6tel Geieanger. 1/4 M. 65V2-^U kr. a walk (there and back) of The road should be followed both coming and going. a fall of the Vesteraas-Elv. about 20 Kil. through which ascends the **jRoad to Grotlid (pp. behind which runs a goat-path. crossing the fos. with view of the fjord. As we near Marok. D. a guide-post points to tho left towards the Storsteterfos. for two pers. 1S5) driving takes as long as walking (4 hrs. 1 kr. on the road to Grotlid. (p. The Vesteraasdal the N. of 189 but many Some them shower down spray. lies Marok (Merok. 60 0.to Molde. four pers. where travellers pressed for time usually turn. 11/4-11/2 kr. we obtain a superb view of the basin of Geiranger. 5 kr. or S. — pier. 186. near the church and the waterfalls. As far as the Djupvashytte (p. 1S6). 185). which commands the finest view of the Geiranger valley. stolkja'rre fur 2 pers. also deserves a visit. the Union Hotel is the Sforfos. them dry up in August. A sleep ascent of 1/2 hr. Ihe ascending traveller sees the waterfalls of the Geiranger basin to better advantage. [In 10 min. 3 M. 26. commanded by a small church. a point of view about 4 Kil. pav for 26) 3kr. There are other waterfalls at the third bridge (Flaabro'). the Prcskestol [pulpit).. 1 B. betraying their existence only by the streak of white foam on the fjord below. and i/a M. 185) is disclosed. a finger-post indicates the way to the right to the Flydalsdjuv. — Union Hotel. over Ilavef. approach to the Geiranger liasin. leads hence to the Storsaeter The road ascends. — — — Marok is a small hamlet nestling round the head of the fjord on an old moraine. Above it opens the basin of Geiranger. S. Also to the left is the gaard oi Grande. while in descending the Videdal further on he has before him the splendid panorama of the snow-mountains on the Strynsvand. Entjlish Church Service in July and August.). dominated on the left by the Saathom [5835 ft. 184). from Grotlid (see p. lS6j on the other hand . D. above these.. plain but good.. K. in which all the tributaries of the river unite.

: view at the top. A.. From Fibelstad-Hacgen to Bjekke. and down its brook to the Tussevand (1970 ft. ca. to the Vesferaas-Soeter and mount the Kaldhuslakker to the S. Steamek thence to Aalesund four times a week in 2fil\4 hrs. 192).). and leading past the gaard oi Jndre Eide and the Eidsvand. pleasant green valley sprinkled with birches. where we get a view of the wild Hornindalsrokken (p. mountaineering.W. Fibelstad-Haugen[1215 ft. a From Hellesylt up to Tryggestad. Tlie poor sicters are built into . Jon Klok and P. Sktds from Hellesylt to (24 Kil.. on the watershed between the Sunelvsfjord and the Jefrundfjord. The road to 0ie turns to the N. end of a small lake. which lies in the valley throughout the summer. finely situated amid the highest summits of the Kvitegg and the Fibelstadnib. 193 12 Kil. on '^ est (to At Fibelstad-Haugen begins the *Norangdal.) is one of the finest in Guides. 187) . . to Ytkedal (p. is a good centre for (5590 ft. Several small lakes are passed. *H6tel Norangsdal. To the N. one of the grandand wildest valleys in Norway and well adapted for walking 0ie 272 hrs.). coast of Norway. side. see p. rise the Smerskredtinder (p.). In front of us the valley appears closed by the Smerskredtind. abounding in fish. (via S0eb0-0rstenvik in I-IV2 day. side of the lake. 188. ca.) 0ie (same horse generally taken through . and ascends the Nebbedal. and fine mountain-scenery. Avhich contains some of the most varied scenery on the W. On the right rises the Tryggestadnakken. which forms the background of the valley the whole way. from Indre Eide) a splendid walk of about G hrs. 10 Kil. From the Nordfjord above-mentioned path passing the Stortater/os to (iV2-2 hrs.) the Sidsdals/Jeld. NORANGDAL. widening into a road beyond the top of the hill.) Another fine excursion is that io Skaggeflaa (p. This route leads through the district of *S0ndm0re. To the left is the long drawn-out Kvitegg. 196). the J0rundfjord.). and down the Sletdal to the Kaldhusdal^ or to the the Eerdal to the Herdalsvand fl618 ft. a drive of 8/4 hr. then past the little Kvitclvedalsvand on its N. from Marok) We may then ascend the valley the Storsoeter (2132 ft.190 Route ^6. Splendid — IS"^. From Hellesylt through the Norangdal and by the J^rrundfjord to Aalesund. and past the Tussefos to Bjerke (p. 188. up the valley to the KvitelvedalssJcar on the If. The grandest parts are the Norangdal^ the Norangsfjord^ and the Jerundfjord.W. 193). We row in 1 hr. c. 192. see pp. separated by the Satredal from the abrupt Fibelstadnib.). a splendid walk of about 5 hrs. The ascent of the -Kvitegg S0ndm0re. 191).Splendid view.. 5 hrs. the schoolmaster (3-5 kr. a little to the left of the road). The new road follows the E. with grand views looking back on the Geiranger Fjord. From the gaard of Grande (p. side of the valley. down the Tusse-Elv through a series of gorges.) and Relling i Norddal (p. (with guide): to the W. 4-5 hrs. 189) a steep hridle-path ascends i^jyi hr. 3 hrs. (Guide unnecessary. The brook sometimes disappears under tbe rocks andthe avalanche-snow. which witli its peaks and the glacier between them recalls the "Wetterhoru at Grindelwald. plain. from which we may visit the Vestevaasbros to the left. side of the Kvitegg. round the N. with a glacier embedded among its peaks. Then down either to the E.). to the Skaggeflaaneisiet^ whence the path ascends.. LiUebee.

embraces the whole of the Alpine district of S^ndm/jre and is often preferred to the Jotunheim views (p. at the fourth lake. towers the Saksa (3445 ft. 192) and thence by land-skyds (a magnificent drive) to (24 Kil. with guide. The scenery is wildest by the perpendicular black cliff of *Staven (over 4900ft. at the mouth of the The **Norangsfjord its it in rise the Urkedal. 196). 1/3 M. with large snow-fields on its flanks. from the bridge to the Union Hotel.) is strongly recommended to robust mountaineers (from 0ie 4 hrs. The valley expands.) Sa'he (p. the valley is closed by the Skruen (see above). sight of the curious peak of the Slogen (see below). Slingsby one of the noblest in Europe. The road (grosses to the right bank.) over the pass of Skulstadbrekken (2592 ft. lying at the foot of the Middagshorn. From the bridge we have a retrospect of the sharply cut ridge of the Skruen (5285 ft. In about 2hrs. 189. which with the Staalberg forms the entrance to the Norangs^ord. we may go on by water skyds to (10 Kil.). The road crosses to the left bank. ascended by M. p. A grand but fatiguing route leads from Skylstad (see above) between Slogen and the Siiwrskyediinder (5240 ft. 197). To the W. C. The ascent of *Slogen (5210 ft.). On the days when there i. The view. On the E. Jon Klok and Peder Haugen).Terundfjord are the jagged Gratdalstinder. In the distance snow-clad peaks of the Vellesctterhorn (p. to Stranden (p. unpretending. and belonging to the same company •. In about 1 hr. On both sides of the valley and fjord rise imposing mountains Slogen (summit not visthen (right) the Kloksible from 0ie itself) and the Middagshorn egg and (left) the Blaahorn (4500 ft.to Molde. To the left is the Kjeipen. The road keeps to the left side of the valley. in the distance.). 141). .. at the E.s no steamer. 194). 0IE.). the gaards of Urke (steamboat-station). above Urke. 195). Wm.. 14 Kil.) and the Blaahorn. with its snow-fields. 191 ihe rocks for shelter from avalanches and stone-falls. whence a steamer plies four times weekly to Aalesund. called by Mr. we come in ^ : .W. Slingsby in 1884.). end of^ the Norangsfjord^ occupies a beautiful and sheltered situation and is a good centre for excursions. passing in front of the slopes ol' the Smerskredtinder (5240 ft. the prolongation of Staven. 26. then the gaards of Steimcvs in an exposed situation under the Staalberg (4138 ft. beyond the the Saksa.P/t. The fjord now comes into \ievr. The valley contracts. and either to the N. C. after leaving Fibelstad-Haugen we^reach 5fei/istad^ the highest gaard in'^the valley. at the Bonddal (p. The above-mentioned peaks re-appear. which the steamer now enters. and on the right. which seems to alter its appearance as we proceed.) 0vsteni-ik (p. differs in . with its singular notch from top to bottom . 195). is an arm of the Jerrundfjord and resembles Alpine character.).E. ). It is a walk of I/4 hr.0mx. The **J6ri'undfjord. or to the N. Behind us is the Slogen. from the steamboat-pier). On leaving 0ie we see the Elgenaafos on the left. Route. (pay for 19) 0ie {^ Union Hotel similar in all respects to the Union Hotel at^'Marok. To the left are the Middagshorn (4353 ft. Wm. by the gaard of Brimstad in the Velledal down to Aure (p.. To the W. the Saksa (see below).

Between tliese stations we obtain . Volden. towers the are the vast snow-fields of the Selvkallen. bank. while to the S To the N. by boat. with a glacier in the depression..). Prom the Xordfjord character from the other fjords. bank of the fjord. the same side is the Slettefjeld.) Fjarde (quarters (To at D.1^^ Route 26.). A road (slow stations) leads from Bjerke up the Sjaustaddal^ by Revstad and Rueid^ to (15 Kil. to Scebe (skyds-station. the E. Maan^s). 18 Kil. of the Jagta (5240 ft. on the J^stefjord. ( p. — . side. 196. In the background are the Tie Sesire. lies the gaard of Viddal. and ficste or Ftstei on tl>e W. Jacob Bjerke is said to be a good guide. on the N. Near it is the cavern Troldgjel^ where a phenomenon similar to Farther down that on the Lysefjord has been observed (p. 187) and (8 Kil. with the serrated snow-clad ridge of the RomedaUhorn. The S. the Map^ On On other days the steamer. A grand view is enjoyed of the S.E. or upper part of the Jarundfjord is visited by the steamer On its W. to the S. the background of which is formed by the Veirhalden p. Above it rise the Bjerkehom (4445 ft. adjoined by the Skaaretinder. the S. At the S. high above the water. arm of the lake.. on leaving the Norangsfjord. 197). steers towards the W. and clad with snow and glaciers near their summits. BJiiRKE. good quarters). The scenery of the N. Standalshorn. 197).) and the Tussenut (4203 ft.).) From R0rstad (see above) the Stovhorn (5lS0ft. opposite Standal. descending from the Tussevand. over which towers the jagged Storhorn (4490 ft.) may be ascended in 6 hrs. bank is the gaard of SIcaare. At the mouth of the fjord are the steamboat-stations of J(pven(fs on the E. a steamboat-station. of which is Raamandsgjelet. tower the Miendalstinder and the Gretdalstinder. it is flanked with picturesque ranges and peaks. resembling the Aiguilles of Mt. 91).. 196. part of the Jerundfjord is seen at its grandest as we approach Store Standal (steamboat-station). with the thrice a week.) Kaldvatn (p. the terminus of the steamer. side of which rise the glacier. rises the imposing Molaupsfjeld^ named after the gaard Molaup at its N. 196). base. On the N. others isolated between deep gaps or notches ('Skard'). at the mouth of the well-tilled Bonddal (p. lies Bjerke or Bjerke [Hotel Sendmere open in summer only).). bank of the J^rrundfjord.studded ^oiaasimder (4470 ft. with the snowfields of the Kvitegg and Tussenut (see above) in the background. with nearly upright sides. Another grand view is obtained of the Lille Standal. at the foot of the Skaaretinder . and on its E. 190). Near it is the Tussefos (p. Instead of being a deep cutting in the great Norwegian plateau. It then passes the Hustadnces (on the bank a little S. — Comp. p. with the church of Jerundfjord in a small bay. end of the narrowing fjord. a cavern in the rock Eaamand). side rises the cloven Jenshorn (4715 ft. at the mouth of the valley of that name (p. some of them remarkably bold and pointed. . 'Fos' of that name.). Blanc. arm of the Voldenfjord. On the W.

) Vesfnces Road with fast stati .E. rises the Heggurdalstind.). and th. Marok.). Tussenut and the snow-fields of the Skaaretinder. or 1 day by driving to Langdal. commanding a tine view of the Isterdalstjeld to the left and the W. descend the Stegnne (a carious zigzag path) and pass the ^Istev/os.). At Rem. Of the huge mountains flanking the fjord the chief are the Aakerncesfjeid (5043 ft. and follow the route described at p. extending to the d. whence the wild Torvleisa (5995 ft. We ascend on foot through the Meierdal to the pass of the Stegafjeld where we get a splendid survey of the IJomsdalshorn. the entrance to which is marked by the OksncBS on the W. which attract summer-visitors from Aalesund. a gaard 12 Kil. from 0ie. Beyond this the path. 189. (Route to the Geiranger Fjord. horses and carioles may be obtained. a grand point of view. Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. 70 <?. with the lies on the N. CO0. On the E. the Konge. farther on) the gaard of Langdal (poor quarters) a guide may be obtained (unnecessary for the experienced). From the Sunelvsfjord. and the Nonsfjeld and Snushorn on the E. Deving). Overaa.sda'l The road then ascends the Valdai^ passing several pleasant (p. 201). To the E. ^o Aale- sund in Q^li-li hrs. 7th Edit. At (11 Kil. several hundred feet high. 26. curious vein of light quartz in a rock here is called St. At the top of the hill is a cross in memory of St. — Sylte (Gunnar GrenningscBters Inn. 2 Kil. STLTE. In about 6 hrs. bank is the rock called St. From Vestnaes to Molde Steamer in 1 hr. (fare 5 kr. (fare 8 kr.n^. with the Norddalskirke. . 195 to Aalesimd. (fare 2 kr. from Sylto.to Molde. good. The steamer returns from Marok to the Sunelvsfjord. We now steer due W.. generally calling again at Hellesylt before steering towards the N. the Vengetinder. 193 a final survey of the J^rundtjortl in its entire length (30 Kil. Beyond this we may either turn to the left to (2 hrs.) The next station is ReUing. projecting far into the fjord. Sj^holt to Aalesund or Jlolde. into the Norddalsfjord. side are several gaards and a few waterfalls. see p. The road ends at Nedve Stel. We then turn N.. Olafs Snushorn. The first station (2 hrs. from Langdal we reach the Sogge-Sceter. and skirting several small lakes. indicated by vanler. at the mouth of the valley of that name. 5 — see p. Olafs Slange or Syltormen. Beyond Rem we cross the stony chaos of Skjcevsurden. an interesting route of l'/2 day. past the large island of Sale.) on the W. bank..! Dronning. bank lie the gaards of Li and Storfjord (p. farther on.). may be ascended in 5 hrs. 201) to the right. to the Isterdal. From Marok and Hellesylt viS. . 13 14 . Route. xlvii). From Sj0holt to (26 Kil. The road ascends the old moraine of Langhvekken. with the fjord in the distance to the N. see p. from Hellesylt) is Ytredal. crosses the fjeld over snow at places. the innermost arm of the On the N.) Veblungsnfes. Olaf. reached in 3^/^-4: hrs. 190. 194). gaards. Steamer from Marok to SJeholt in 4V2 hrs. most of the steamers turn to the E. A From Stlte over the Stegafjeld to the Romsdal. On the S. who in 1028 fled from Sylte to Lesje in the Gudbrand. 199). side of the Troldtinder (p. church of Muri. or to the right to the gaard of Sogge and cross the bridge to the Romsdal road (p. and the Skrenak on the E.

(a drive of 5-6 hrs. with dependR. row through a strait into a mountain-basin. may. to the W. B. p. high.. — hrs. (13 Kil. In the background is the village of Tafjord (U Kil. A waterfall on the right rebounds from a projecting rock. fjord. Serv. to the right. base of the Lifjeld (which may be ascended in 1^ 2lir.}. 197. adjoining the steamboat-station iSZynystad. SJ0HOLT. From the Nord fjord also visit the *Tafjord (by rowing-boat.. The steamer then crosses to — Stranden (quarters at K.). We steer round the AursrKjes to — . Opposite. in July & Aug. pleasantly situated at the N. though inferior to the Geiranger. In the wider sense the latter name embraces the whole fjord as far as Sylte (p. From Sylte we steer to the W. continues beautiful. 185) and to Grotli (p. A brook entering the fjord here separates Sjeholt from the church of 0rskog. and the Liabygd. farther on. a little to the W. across the fjord. or apparatus for catching salmon. sometimes called Strandefjord or Siyngsfjord. To the N.. 80 ef. pleasantly situated at the mouth of the Strandedal. or S.E. 11/2.). or S. is the *Muldalsfos. quiet. We then steer to the S.). This superb fall is 500 ft. 196). and at the S. in a bay between the mainland and the Oksens. From Sj0holt to Molde. whence mountain-paths lead to — From Tafjord the DJiipvasJiytte (p. at the entrance to the pretty Stordal. with its church. D.194: Route 26. On the left is a fine waterfall: on the same side. 38 Kil. Engl. however. here for a short distance called Nordfjord. B. through fine and at places superb scenery. by steamer). 11 4. Road to Aalesuxd. and generally skirting the foaming torrent.) the chalet at the Kaldhus-Saeter (p. on the hill above which. and (U Kil. to (272 hrs. *T/i.. to which a footpath ascends. lies Sjevik. P.E. a bridle-path ascends slowly. we observe on the bank below a 'Laksvarp'' (called 'Gilge' in the Sogn district). Once a week it touches at Vagsoik. . The steamer turns here. with its pretty gaards. over the Gausnses. peer the hills on the opposite bank of the fjord. and in the gaard of Rinystad). and then Storfjord. see p. 202. Pleasant walk on the Aalesund road. with a view of the fjord. The narrowest part of this bay is crossed by the road to Aalesund mentioned above. which divides it into two. whence we may ascend the Laupare (4754 ft. Ch. poor quarters). Stations: (13 Kil. the easternmost bay of the Xorddalsfjord.). or Seholt (^Rasmussen's Sjeholt Hotel. from Sylte) Sj0holt.) Aalesund (comp. Lofty snow-mountains we may We peer over the banks on every side. Rounding the prominent Stordalsnces or Holmen. to the 'Bygd' of Linge. end of the 0rskogvik. R. 193). with white boards to attract the fish. From the gaard of Mul'dal to Stuefloten in the Romsdal.) Flaate or FLote. or. 185). from Sylte.. To the left. a grand view of the Suiielvsfjord up to Hellesylt. Ous'S. 184). Sjeholt Enkes Hotel. see p. 3ve iron-mines owned by an English company. the vessel steers into the small Stordalsvik^ with the gaards of Hove and Vinje. and to the S. rises the Snaufjeld (2880 ft. here The The steamer rounds the Gausnas and (31/2-4 reaches encies!. Olsens.. 2kr. After about 1 M. very grand.) Bedsat. The steamer next touches at the small wooded Langskibse. once From Sylte a week. The upper part only is seen from the fjord.

).) Slremmegj<srdet. appears the Gode house then the island of Hessen. a favourable situation to which it owes its rapid rise. mighty J«rnshorn and the Kolaastinder (p. 1. Steering in. appear the of the large island of Sule. Sule and the island of Hareidland. with the pointed Sukkertop . Route. Notena's-Gade. on one side.l. Magnificent view.. on the Plan.) SJevik (p. between expanses of snow. beyond Schieldrop's on the Asp0. •. and farther to the N.. the Landhaudlcr) on the Sekkelvs fjord. its highest gaard. to (13 Kil. ''ScHiELDKOP''s Hotel {Sch.). Aalesund. well spoken of. comes Tusvik. whence. As Aure and the other places are slow stations. the Aalesund. farther 1/4 M. 196). On the Nerve ('indom Sundet') are the custom-house. B. The narrowest part of this strait. of the snow-mountains above mentioned.\ Stor-Gade. a rowing-boat may be taken to (6 Kil. is crossed by a bridge connecting the two parts of the town. Aalesund.. the inns. side (the Sjonghul).) and the Aspe (W. on the Storfjord.) Aure. On the E. a vehicle tor the whole trip should be engaged at Aure. . Passing the Stenvaag. and only in 1848 that it became a town.. where the valley bends to the N. On the W. a peninsula of the Nerve. 2 2V'2 kr. a busy trading town with 8500 inhab. where there is a cavern 120 ft. It was only in 1824 that it came into notice as a harbour. the Vellesaterhorn (jilbOit. then S. From Aure we drive to the E.to Molde. Then past the gaard of Velle. 13* .). Baths from the harbour. AALESUND.ynge. fine view) We next cross a hill tn the Velledal in which Drotis easily ascended. two islands on the outer fringe of the 'Skjaergaard'. at the S. whence the Bsekav (39iOft. the yield of which is 5-6 million kr. 194). The harbour. p. D. To the N. to the right of them is the pointed Stremshorn (3'240 ft. R. R. on the Nysccttrvand or Norvand (1245 ft. and on the Aspe ('udom Sundet') are the church and the school..W. and by a pier on the other. high on the S. and for the codfisheries of the W. Stor-Gade. We next steer due W. which opens towards the N. and the Kingdalstind. in descending. lies on the Nerve (E. from which the town takes its name. Aalesund is the commercial centre of the whole region of the Storfjord (p.W. — Skandinavie (PI. with a lighthouse. — — Hotel . the Valdere. then the Brunstadhorn. 1P4). from Sjeholt. 191) and to the S. with the church of Hareide and with a lighthills rising to 2360 ft. side of the Serkkelvsfjord towers the Skopshorn (4430 ft. is 6 Kil. to (11 Kil. we reach. above T. etc. the bare rocks of which are used for drying flsh('Kliptisk'). V'ifc's.). . Then. IV'2 kr. per annum. Tklegkaph Office. some of them flecked with snow. from the pier. particularly the famous 'Fiskeplads' Storeggen. from Nysa-ter. through the Ramstaddal to the (12 Kil. 350 yds. past the mouth of the Jerundfjord (p. lies between the two islands and is protected by Skandsen. . prettily situated amidst grand scenery. li. 192). in 2-3 lirs. end of the S^kkelvsfjord. 195 Aure or Sekkelven (quarters at Mdrt. ninghaug.) Ninoeter (quarters).. Post Office. we see the Hammerscettinder rising above Aure on the left. 26. the Gjeithorn. with their huge The steamer enters the Sulefjord. The following is a beautiful days *Exccbsion.2-2. — Hotels. Sk. if preferred. 'banks'. To the left. .

whence a glacier dips to the E. Then.) Store Standal (steamboat station. the steamer. see below. end of the Vatne-Vand. lies about halfway through this fjord or strait.). to the gaard Aom (5 Kil. gig 3. 192). From the Nordfjord side of the Nerve quarter is a pretty Park.). and at the gaard Brautescef joins the road from 0rstenvik via Aam (see above). From Volden the road crosses the lofty Kleivdalseid (984 ft. six times weekly) are mentioned book. leave the park by its rear (N. from Aalesund) lies 0rstenvik ('/Srend^e/j's ^o<e^. a drive of lV4hr. 6Kil. 170. Valleys with rich vegeFrom 0rstenvik the old road tation. of this road. farther on) the Romedal diverges — From Kolaas we ascend the Standcdseid . From 0rstenvik to the J0. is obtained from the *Aalesundsaxla (509 ft. see p. second station. at the top we get a to the left. 195. 191 Handin other parts of the (pp. several small stations. bank of the Voldenfjord. and the S0ndfour times weekly). Route to the J0rundfjord. rundfjord. is that From Aalesund to P^idsaa and Aahjem (twice a week). comrises the Saudehorn (4330 ft. thrice weekly). and the Vartdahfjord. . which skirts the base of the rocky hill. in view of a fine mountain-background. beyond which. takes 1V4-2 hrs. Then down the Standal to (8 Kil. From 0rstenvik to Volden by road (U Kil. We ascend the latter. is the mere. Passing the Liadalshorn (3510 ft. carr. from Aalesund. 194). Another line. at the mouth of the well To the N. rounding the peninsula between the 0rstenfjord and the Voldenfjord. To Hareide. Sere Vartdal. once a week.) gate and follow the well- A We kept path.. mountains strikingly picturesque. there and back. with a pavilion (rfmts. keeping in view of the grand Kolaasfinder (p.196 Route 26. at the N. splendid -View of the Kolaastind behind and the peaks of the J0rundfjord before us. and Geiranger 194. 0RSTENVIK. 8 Kil.) more extensive view and views of the distant peaks of Sendmere.). Both roads first ascend the beautiful 0rstendal. 168. church of Borgund. from Volden).E. — — . and pair 6 kr. 193. passes (5 min. 5-6 hrs. Hellesylt to in0re steamers (pp. At the gaard Kolaas (8 Kil. founded in the 11th cent. a much shorter ascent).station of iJerdsce^ (good quarters). 1 hr. 51/4-51/2 hrs. The 'Roads to the J0rondfjord from 0rstenvik and from Volden form the finest approaches to it from Aalesund.b0. steamers of the Bergen and Tvondhjem line (pp. see below. road leads through the FoUestaddal. on the E. Another point of view is the Melshorn (2740 ft. 192).). easy ascent. there and back).) the dry basin of a fountain. watered by the 0vsten-Elv. restored in 1869 (cariole 2. 171). 197). from JWrstenvik). the the first station. row to Sa. passing the pretty villas of the Aalesund merchants and affording a fine view of the mountains of Sendlittle to the S. we enter the idr&tenfjord^ at the head of which (3 hrs. Lastly. and to Molde and the Romsdal to the Jerundfjord (p.. at the mouth of the *Follestaddal. p. new road leads along the fjord to the S. The coaaling Aalesund is considerable. manding a fine view of the S0ndm0re Mts.. of the Nerve and in the — direction of Sjeholt (p. 170) and Aahjem on the Vanelvsfjord {p. A Here we ascend the steps to the right and follow the ravine.). slow station). The new leads by (10 Kil. the E. 197-199. the conqueror The Steamboat Traffic of of Normandy. Near it once lived Hrolf A Gangr ('Rolf the Ganger'). Volden (Ifcess's Hotel) lies near the slow skyds. of service to tourists. no quarters. and leads to (4 min.) Vatne and through the Bonddal (p. the steamer goes on to Eidsaa on the Sevdefjoyd (p. cultivated J0rstendal or Aamdal. bank of which it skirts.) a cemetery.

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P. 197 13 Kil? Vatne. passing several gaards. Church Service in summer at the parish-church. *S0strene Holm with baths. Route. end of the town. bridge over the mouth of the narrow Misfjord and reach 11 Kil. fast station. 15 Kil. to the left the Ysttinder. F. and some of the houses are overgrown with honeysuckle. is the ravine St. The road ascends the 0rskogdal. but scanty fare). To the right is the Brustind.. a thriving little town of 1600 inhah. order boat as early as possible). with baths. in the reverse direction for 20) Rise (good station). — . IV2-2. per day). . B. the vegetation is surprisingly luxuriant. Dahl. The fjord-steamers also land Torv and the Grand Hotel. where the j0rundfjord Mts. without view. picture by Axel Ender. and cherry-trees. D. with luggage. *H6tel Alexandra. (p. Sea Baths. end of the town. D. Mr. — W. Petersburg. : This hotel keeps a steamer for excur21/2. English spoken. 25-50 0. IV2 kr. to places on the MoldeCareful enquiry should be made as to the hours fjord. the Bergen steamers). limes. 203. B. Post &. Molde.to Molde. . high up on the right. 199. reserved for ladies 9-11. cross a the W. i3/i kr.. whence steamers ply once or twice daily to Molde and to the Komsdal.). a times Trondhjem. at the sions (60 kr. 1. pier adjoins The main the Hotel Alexandra (steam-launch Grand Hotel. 'brus'). week. A good supply of carriages meets From Sj^holt to Moluk. 10 Kil. Arrival. 194). — ' We . less dreary. Hotels at Molde (often overcrovvded in the season) *Geand Hotel. beyond which is the steamboat-station Scebe (p. from 11/2.. and past the gaard Osvold. The numerous huts are so-called Loer for sheltering the hay. S. to the pass (919 ft. S. Offices (see Plan). Telegraph towel 7 0. at the foot of green slopes backed by higher hills. representing the Women at the Sepulchre.30 and 2-5). 2>/2. Olafsdal. At the top is the tourist-hut of 0rskogsfjeldet cross the boundary between I'ergens-Stift and (coffee. Roses abound. Mingling with the pine and the birch are seen horse The Church contains a chestnuts. flanked by the Yeirhalden (4013 ft. the Storhorn. and W. ElUngsgaard (575 ft. come in Next down the Bonddal. I1/2 kr. Row to J0ie '/4 hr.) and Storhorn By the gaard Ilusfad^ on (4490 ft. (PI. of the Hotel Alexandra (25 0. at the mouth of the Bjerdal. to the at the Molde and the Moldefjord. — — When — — — — — and places of departure. bank of which it skirts. li/j. the steamer (p. finally gaining a moorland plateau with a small lake. or S.). and past several gaards. .). 26.. Vestnivs (p. Trondhjems-Stift and descend into the Skorgedal. The valley becomes At Viken the road reaches the picturesque Tresfjord. We — 27. R.) and sight. of St. and a great summer is pleasantly situated on the N. ashes. 192). from 2. the Oretdalsiind on the left. H). Andersen's Private the hotels are full. (pay for 19. see pp. B. English British Vice-Consul. Then uphill.. D. about 11 each Steamers to Bergen and to to Aalesimd 17 times (incl. R. storms. bank of the Moldefjord. and the Aarsethorn (4498 ft. 199. E. resort. 191. BONDDAL. finely situated at the E. V* M. Thus sheltered from the N. 14 Kil.) on the right. the long poles are to mart the route in winter. houses (1 kr. 31/4 hrs. decent quarters may be had in private Hotel. though Molde is nearly 3" of latitude to the N.' drive from Sjerholt). to the W.

. a pretty private garden). where the rich vegetation of Molde is seen to advantage. theN. To the N. the valley divides. which diverges from the Fanestrand (fine retrospect of the Moldefjord from the top of the hill).1 98 Route The 27. the road becomes less frequented. end of the town. carr. passing the Moldegaard (r. and (1/4 hr. The view is more extensive but less picturesque than that from the Rekneshaug. The barren Tusten forms the background of the valley. on the (I1/4 hr. passing the church. from Julseet. a day's excursion from Molde by carriage (stolkjarre there and back 6. The road is shaded with birches. broken by the long islands of Gjerter. . umre. We then ascend again and farther on leave the Jndre Frcenen road to the left. To the W. embracing the fjord and the mountains to flora. to which we may ascend from the Alexandra Hotel in ^ 4hr. . and S. villas.W. . are very picturesijue. Moldefjord. and gardens (among which is Consul Johnson's Buen Retiro. At the gaard of Varhol (5-6 Kil.. towards the E. Thence to the top about 20 min. with their rocky peaks and snow-flecked sides. . beyond which stretches the beautiful fjord. high. beyond which we follow a path through thin wood straight towards the top. Strande (p.E...) Julscct. 203) is 4 Kil.. with their silver-grey trunks. though taken from a slightly higher standpoint.). 7-10 ft. To THE Tkoldkirke. at the foot of green hills.) top of the *Moldeliei (1350 ft. of Molde rises the Tusten (2285 ft.).) cross a bridge. of the At Aare and Eikrem 5 Kil. from Molde) we obtain a guide and torches for a visit (21/2-3 hrs. towards the S. 2 pers.E. 9 kr. All the way we enjoy a fine view. a drive of 4 hrs.) upper margin of the wood.) to the *Troldkirke. In the foreground lies the town. with a mountain indicator. we keep to the right.. cross the brook. in 20 minutes. E. A charming walk or drive may be taken. 70-80 vds. After ^/ihr. a hill laid out in promenades to the N. visitors admitted). to the *Fanestrand or Fannestrand. long. of the town (near the Humle Have. We ascend the Aaredal. and the vast Atlantic to the W.. past a few houses and through sparse wood. We go to the E. The dead and dying pines. and Faaraf. 197). through the fine avenue on which the Grand Hotel is situated. ^ a cavern in a brilliantlv white vein of limestone in the Tverfjelde. indicated by a finger-post 'til Varden' and by a second 6 min. farther on (where we turn to the right through a white fence). ashes. great attraction of Molde is the noble survey it commands wide expanse of the fjord and the long chain of mountains to the S. we descry the open sea."and S. larches. and ascend its bank.from the Grand Hotel. and then descend through the 3falmedal to the Malmefjord and the skyds-station of (20 Kil. The most picturesque point of view is the *Rekneshaug (260 ft. maples. of the will serve to identify the heights in the background. and other trees. and pair 12-14 kr. with a refuge-hut (not always open) and a huge vane. and is flanked with pleasant gaards.). ascends past a refreshment-stall with a flagstaff to the (1 hr. and 7-22 ft. Sajtere. guide advisable). fjord and the distant mountains. MOLDE. Between the Humle Have and the Rekneshaug a bridle-path. Our Panorama (p.). 3 hrs. from Molde. IV2 M. or from the Grand Hotel by the upper road. wide. At the top is a pavilion. farther on. Alpine Verv extensive view.

). we may go by another (p. (fare 2 kr. in the distance. 11/2) D.W. In 1 hr. -2 kr. It is scarcely feasible to visit the Romsdal from Mi'lde and to return fo Molde in one day. whence a road. 204). We steer past the mouth of the Indfjord. A fine view of the Siverbottenfjeld (3765 ft. down by Dougstad and Vikebugt.). with the waterfall of Skjolen. and row across to N. Excursion to the 27. at the head of the Txesfjord.. Several of the steamers next call at Void. crosses to the R«fdvenfjord (p. A steamer ascends the Tresfjord. Onsum's Hotel. and — (_ . by the Laupare (p.ps (comp.Moldefjord. with the its old timber church.. with view. p. chief of which is St. 20 0.: the Vengetinder. twice a week. B.. 200. 204). We o{ steer to the E. of the influx of the VeblungsncBS. the populous Vaagestrand^ with its white church. each 1. towers the wooded Oksen (2674 ft. with its glacier. VESTNJ^. 199 Romsdal. 17 Kil. affording a fine view of the mountains. drive or walk to Thorvik. a.. same fare to Vestnas). On the right. 194). at the pier. past Gjermundnces. we reach Vestnaes (*HoteL Vestnces. 2. Road from Nses to the Romsdal. Olafs-Stol. and the station Rcestadbygd. 38 Kil. side of the entrance to the Tresfjord. to Viken and Sylte whence a road up the Karseimsdal leads to Vagsvik on the Storfjord. Pleasant to walk from Nses to 027 Kil ) Flatmark and to drive back (or even 1o Ormeim. 'Romsdal Hotel. backed. The road to Sjeholt begins here (p. Fine view up the Langfjord.. on the W. to the S. bank. Mountain-passes between the Romsdal and the JEikisdal. 11/2 kr.). to the right of it. a deep bay set in wooded hills and bare rocky peaks. 1o Aandalsnces (or iVce*) about 14 times a week. and the fissured Romsdalshorn. backed by snow-mountains. 202).). a Veblungsnses. but better in this case drive both waysj. p. 202j to AlfamoES or fo Lcereim. situated at the foot of the Sittnesfjeld (3900 ft. or ISorvik.leave it altogether for Nets or some other station in the Romsdal. looking disproportionately small in the distance. On the S. 194). bank rise the TroLdstole [3714 ft. of the Romsdal Mts. Instead of taking the direct steamer to Nfes. The skyds-station is at Saetnes (p.S. Better. S.^rom the pier. no view from Telegraph Office. with the Skaala on its N. 194). Some of the steamers enter a small bay at the foot of the Oksen and call at Nordvik.). Steamboat from Molde — — The vessel steers to the S. i kr. is less . after seeing Molde. opposite Onsum's. see pp. of the fertile mouth either. to the S.. with a 'Botn' enclosed by two hills. situated at Maandal. To the E. few minutes farther on. appear the furrowed Vengetiuder. These mountains average nearly double the height of those of Wales and Westmorland. in 2V2-5 hrs. 203). R. D.) is disclosed to the N. and. Convetances (Tariff 1) — — — await the steamboat.. . S. foremost of which is the Skjolten [3440 ft. Rauma into the Romsdalsfjord. with the huge snow-field in the depression. 206.. 1/4 ^^. 30 0. To the left is the island Sakken^ on which lies Festad [called at twice weekly). passing the church of Eid. 2:0). the Kalskraafjcld [p. R. bank (p. Route. and approach the grand mountains of the S.

41/2 ^. that to the right leads past the houses of Scetnes to a military coast-terrace. : of the village is the church of Grytten. IV4.from Veblungsnaes. To the right of the Naesaxel we look up the Romsdal with the Vengetinder. requires (there and back) 9-10 hrs. R. and is described as difficult (especially towards the end) but highly remunerative. Gr0vdal) acts as guide (to the Meringdals-Sffitre 4-5 kr ). 67. there and back). the Vengetinder. tirst made in 15584. to the E. or S. adjacent. crossing long bridge. a which several of the steamers call Romsdal than the opposite station first. D. B. rise the Troldstol and the Blaatind. end of the fjord. and (to the right of the last) the Romsdalshom. Aandalsnces. *H6tel Holgen^s (carr. and to the right of these into the Isterdal and towards the Ssetnesfjeld. and other mountains to the N. at the pier). entrance to tlie Moldefjord. These lie on an ancient commanding a fine view of the Isterdal. the — ^^ — .). Hence a hilly road leads up the well-cultivated Grjavdal. the heights of the Blaafjeld. each similar 172. 204. 11/2. (pay for 17) Grevdal. the owner of which (Ed. side to Grand Hotel Bellevde. From Gr0vdal we walk. Romsdalshorn. spur of which is also called Ncesaxlen. usually called.. 201. height. a large timber house on a Aandalsnaes. an octagonal timber buildJust beyond it the road forks the branch to the left. 3 hrs. The path at first keeps to the left bank but crosses to the right by a small bridge after I1/4 hr. Farther on (red and white marks) it turns to the left and climbs to the pass of the Rendelsskar (ca.200 Route 27. in the distance. 2 kr. of the mouth of the Rauma^ is the chief approach to the Romsdal and well suited for a prolonged stay. leads to Naes. where the ascent becomes steeper. the N. a walk of 7-8 hrs. We may cross another sandy terrace to the left and proceed via the gaard of Sogge on the Romsdal road. To the Isterdal. — — valley appears closed by the Nyheiitind (5215 ft. parts of it somewhat trying. of it (summit not visible). boat-skyds. from the pier. as far Excursions. bank of the Is^jord (with view of the Snortimge 3i44 ft. We drive by skyds along the S. and in 1 hr. As seen from Gr0vdal.es to ^veraas on the Eikisdalsvand. to the S. from Nses) at the gaard of 15 Kil. to the W. as an AANDALSN^S. The steamer passes the broad mouth of the Rauma and steers round the promontory on its N. to Fiva^ camp and rifle-range. pension 5 kr. Row to Thorvik (p.. To the Romsdal. the terminus of the Romsdal steamer. The ascent of the Gjuratind. — see p. crossing two bridges. Romsdalshoen Hotel. to (1/2 hr ) the Grevdals-Scetre. 5 min. from Gr0vdal). the Gjuratind and other Eikisdal peaks. 201. with its large snow-field. 3 hra. B. and reach the E. — Diligence to Otta. The nearest height is the Mjelvafjeld. Conveyances await the steamboats (Tariff 1). D. To the right we have a fine view of the Vengedal. and the Gjuratind (5700 ft). pass Sten. 193). Farther off is the Storhest.. at ing. to the N. ascend a fine point of view above the Gjerseetvatu. From N. R. see p. In front are the abrupt Moanehha and the Sceternebba.. To the E. S. to the N. as the Isterfos. descend over snow and We . situated on the Jsfjord (steamer several times weekly).W. especially in wet weather. Lossius"s Hotel Bellevue charges 5 nearer the pier.). with view of the Romsdal. . important of Aandalsnaes. and up the Stigane to the Stegafjeld (p. passing the gaards of Kavli and Unheim. The road ends (a drive of 11/4 hr. see p..W. and Troldtinder. Here we cross the Isa-Elv or Hens-Eli\ on the right bank of which (to our left) lies the church oi Hen. Nces or Nes. 2. — — .

Part of the crest is known as 'Brudefelget'. Mathias Soggemoen and Erik Kordhagen of Gryten The ascent of the highest Vengetind. . a road diverging to the right leads across the Rauma to Sogge (comp. Hall in 1882). 3095ft. passing to the left above the Svartevand. accomplished by Mr. as one of the steepest mountains in Europe. The highest peak may be ascended by the small glacier visible between Naes and Aak (difficult. Farther on to the left. To the right. Horgheim (235 ft. 200). with its peaks on the W. on the opposite side of the valley. and soon reach the landing-place of the small boat. On our road lie the gaards of Hole and Venge. and on the E. which is the gaard Fioa^ in a grove of birches. 0. 3 Kil. The road from Naes descends to the right bank of the river and (2 Kil.s and nearly surrounded by the Rauma. ROMSDAL. its floor marshy. Below Remmem (right) is a waterfall. or the bridal train. H. adjoining which and dominating the landscape towers the huge *Romsdalshorn (5100 ft. through park-like scenery (alders. 69). side. 205. with the GogS0re (p. Alncrs. 200) to the right. which is commanded by the rocky wall of the Heslen. is not quite so difficult. and near the gaard of Monge (left) is the . is not very difficult. The valley is wider here. the well-known tobacco-manufacturer of Bristol. and. or valley of the Rauma (p. The road leads close by the foaming Rauma. Wills. usually known as Hornet. : . We ascend the Vengedal (here practicable for driving) and climb to the peak from the W.. The 3Ij0lnir. though rather dangerous. flanked with high mountains. from the Venge-Sceter (there and back). plain but good station) lies on an ancient moraine. 5013 ft.).). 27. and it is impossible after snow. — — . The Ascent of the Romsdalshorn (one day). wc cross the stream to the left. 199 .). now the residence of Mr. and Rtmmeni. are the picturesque Vengetinder (5960 ft. point indicated by 'varder'. jC^veraas l'/2 hr. affording views both up and down the valley. On an eminence to the right. side of the valley rise the *Troldtinder ('witch-piunacles' 6010 ft. birches. is extremely difficult (14-15 hrs. The slopes are strewn with the remains of avalanches. after leaving the top of the pass into view of the lukisdalsvand. Kongen ('the King'.).). On the E. from Na. ascended by C. scarcely visible from the road. We pass the gaards o'i Mirebe and Treene. is the gaard of Aak. At one place. On the W. 201 'Ui-'. a drive of 3 hrs. Slingsby in 1881. Slingsby (1S85) describes said to be very fine. It is best scaled from Jndre Dalen (good quarters). The view is It takes 8-10 hrs. In 20 rain. much exposed to avalanches in winter. first are recommended as guides. side of the valley. is the *H6tel Holgenas. see p. is one of the most famous in Norway.) unites with that from Vehlungsnses 3 Kil. beyond the stream.Moldefjord. at a is continually in sight. ashes). A little farther on.). Roule. we come j0veraas. first made in 1827. The *Roinsdal. side Bispen ('the Bishop') and Sestrene ('the Sisters'. the road is carried through the broad bed of the river by means of an embankment. from Nses. Wm. the path becomes more distinct. opens the Isterdal. About 1 hr. C. which Mr. 205) to the left and the Vikcsakisen (p. distant). 14 Kil. which is summoned by a about of 'hoio botf from above. At (he Meringdali-Saefre^ from the K0nd0lsskar. It then ascends on the right bank of the (p. stream. opposite p. Redninyen.

1. side. and the Gravervcnid. this. : . 194). comp. Mold e fjord. dreaded Bjerneklev ('bears' cliff') in windings. The road now ascends rapidly. 10 Kil. above Ormeim we come to 12 Kil. where we have a fine view of the fall and hear its roar. dammed up so as to form a kind of lake. 10 hrs. 69-67. (pay for 11) Stuefloten (2050 ft. p. passes the high-lying gaard of BJorlien. on the right bank of the Rauma. not visible from the road. on the right the Bentefos. To the right is the *Voermofos. To the The Rauma is here S.). leaping nearly 1000 ft.202 Route 27. To THE jSoeddalsfjokd (p. with guide).). Beyond the church of Kor^. horse 4. rises the KaUkraafjeld (5895 The sides of the valley are here ft. from the W. above Ormeim. and leads to FinsoEt and the Eikisdalsvand (p. 11 Kil. Ormeim {^Station. 283)..). The shortest route from the Romsdal to Jotunheim leads from Melmen^ the next skyds-station beyond Stuefloten.}. the three Bccrerland Lakes. w^hich. in a fertile and smiling part of the valley. majestic after rain and spring-thaws.. first by a road up the I'lvaa to the Tungesceter (quarters). situated high above the Tafjord (p. 206.. and ascend to the right by a rough path to a spot below overhanging rocks. Best view from a rocky knoll opposite the fall. descending from tlie Mongegjura (4230 ft. 205. the discharge of the Vlvedalsvand.) beliindus. but the upper part of the valley is also very line.). From Ormeim to Reitan on the Eikisdalsvand. guide 4 kr. ^Station. Fine view from the height of Toppen (2 hrs. at the E. though less grand. Excursionists to the Romsdal from Veblungsnss or Aandalsnses usually turn at Ormeim or even at Flatmark. As far as Dom- monotonous and tiring. towards the W. D. R. The road runs high above the Rauma. high. Gravdefos^ Skogefos. two-thirds ridable. receives several tributaries. About 4 kil. cross the bridge above the fall. chief of which is the TJlvaa on the We ascend the once right. We alight. . 151. often lost to view. 11/2 kr. B. shorn of their might in dry seasons fondfos. the AUerhei. The rocky sides of the gully have been worn by the water into deep cauldrons ('Jaettegryder' comp. beautiful Mongefos. not visible from the road. view of the Vaermofos from the back windows) is beautifully situated high above the Rauma. Scenery still flue. see p. . Splendid view of the Troldtinder and the Semletind (5770 ft. IV2. .. 2000-3000 ft. 193). ascended from Flatmark. end of the Ulvedalsvand then across the fjeld and down the Muldals-Elv to the gaard Muldal (quarters). with its peak Storhatten (5940 ft. Opposite rises Skiriaxlcn (3745 ft. we reach Above — good and reasonable). ascent past the Vaermofos 4 hrs. a linger-post indicating the way to the *Slettafos. via the Nysaler to Skeaker : (R0jshjem) in 2 days. ORMEIM. From Stuetloten a moiintain-path ascends along the Bevra. Road through the Gudbrandsdal^ it is see pp. Flatmark (station. The road and the Rauma next thread their way through a chaos of rocks formed by a tremendous landslip. To the S. On each side are wateron the left the Styggefalls.) is the first place in the Gudbrandsdal. rises the Middagshoug. aas p.

The latter road leads through the Osmark. Langfjord. spend the second night at Eidsvaag ... there and back) in 2 hrs. up the Eikisdalsvand to Reilan-Utigaard. of the Hot. 15 kr. private steamer of the Grand Hotel. 13 Kil. Then a steep descent. and then descends.. Eide (tolerable quarters).a. Crossing the Slor-Elv^ we pass the Osvand and the gaard of Gusiaas^ and farther on the Skjorscttervand^ with its gaard. Boat-skyds from Eidsvaag to (14 Kil. To go on to Eids0ren and thence to Sundals0ren or Christianssund. (fast stations) Road We We — . A little beyond. We skirt the Fanefjord. and the Scetervand.. . or row (with two rowers 5 kr. IV'.Y \n Reitan-Utigaard. 92. and pass the gaanls of LenAt the last the route to Battensfjordseren scpt.to the E. to (ll Kil. walkers may be recommended the pass to Orevdal and the Romsdalsfjord. return-fare double) in 3-31/2 hrs. 92. instead of returning to Molde. walk and row ioNeste. Tjelde. — — . Three days should be allowed. or Tjelle. 1-5 pers. we may. If the hours of the Sundal steamer (comp. 198). We gaards. Istad. pass several substantial . 27.) Eidseren on the Sundal!<fJord (p.) KoAsiik (p. 9 Kil. 2nd Day. by the lofty Skaala (3590 ft. 203 or Stkameb (thrice weekly. begin with the land-route: 1st Day. or the reverse. Route. the road forks: to the left to Angvik (p.' hr. 200. 209). Sverdrup our road reaches the Eidsvaayklrke and crosses a river entering the E. . end of tlie . 9 Kil. on the Langfjord. we go on the first to Molde by steamer. in full view of the Skjorta and other mountains to the S. whence we may row to N0ste (16 Kil. 6-10 pors. below and p. overlooked by the grand Skaala on the right. and atl'ording a line retrospect of the whole of the . 44. 4-6V4 hrs. (see p. walk or drive to ^veraa*. Boat-skvds fu (23 Kil. EIDSVAAG. The fare and accommodation at the skyds -stations are seldom flrst-class. 64. side of the valley. with a beautiful view of the Langfjord and the snow-peaks to the S. 60 0.) Simdals^ren (p. here shallow and at low tide covered with sea-weed. — — as described" at p. Excursion to the Eikisdal. 209) 3 kr. so called from the 'skaala' or saucer-like depression on its N. back If we begin with the steamer. to the right to the Eikisdal. diverges to the N.. Tlie fjord ends at the church of Kleve. 2(i9) with two rowers 6 kr. '208). 197) to Neste. in 21/2 hrs.) Neste with two rowers 3 kr. with three 5 kr. place) lies at the E. 2O0.Moldefjord. 211). see p. where there is a modest inn near the landing-place of the steamer.). 5kv. on the third day to Molde. About 1/2 ^I. Sverdrup 5 min. The Land Route from Molde to NesTB (67 KiL) is attractive only on the Fanestrand (p. at the entrance of Eikisdal. extra-trips. pretty high above the Langfjord. 20 0. 198) and between Tjelde and Eidsvaag. bounded on the S. side). steam in the little 'Eikisdalen' (fare 1 kr. 3rd Day. 20y) happen to suit. 60 0. a monotonous wooded district. either the go by road and return by steamer. b. with three 9 kr. with three rowers T kr. Eidsvaag (*H6t. Mjelve^ and Hjelset. The road leads E. in 5'.. The road follows the N. Strande (p. 13 Kil. to Eidsvaag. and return A. . from the landing end of the fjord. 10 kr. and back to K0ste. leads across the Tille'reid to (8 Kil. 9 Kil. A road ascending beyond the church of Eidsvaag and the undermentioned bridge.

which we skirt. in the background. EIRISFJORD. leads through a beautiful region. 199) and Vee with its church. to Ottestad and Alfarnces [poor quarters at the station). Opposite we see the church of Eid (p. the 'skaala' not visible from this side). again. road. It is better to take boat-skyds from Ytre Bogge to (6 Kil. long.) or Hvitkua ('white cow').. more. at the E. To the right. shore. to the S. the Sjcdela and the . (from Eidsvaag) Neste (p. on the Romsdalsfjord. and. About 4 the right and the Skjorta on the left (see below). Yee).iw pass. round the Sernesje . at the S. the two gaards of Ytre and Indre Bogge (steamboat-station). ('holy island' We next steer across the mouth of the Langfjord. well cultivated and studded with gaards. Moldefjord. skirting the E. see p.. with pretty views . Before us rises the imposing * Skjorta (5620 ft.0dvenfjord. one on each side of the entrance to the Redvenfjord. from Nsesset it passes The Steamboat from Molde to N^ste steers to the E. 198) on the left and the island of Bolse^ with its church. farther on.) N^ste.E. 199l. The steamer now turns back for a short distance rounds the Ncps. 199J.204 Route 27. Stations: Havnevik a^wd Selsnas. to the right the Stcinffisfjeld. ^OjerscBtvatn^ a lake with a wooded island. 2. To Thorvik '/s hr. on the right. The station. or to (6 Kil.) Veblungsnces . are the abrupt Gogsere and (finally). Kil.pointed Vengetinder (p. islet Hestholmen {S. and to the E.) Bredvik it ends. in the background. of the Eirisfjord on and passes skirts the right bank of the fjord Kil. the Isterfjelde. The steamer passes the entrance of the Eirisfjord and calls at Eidsvaag (p. but monotonous. from Alfarnees) the (p. to the left of it the sharp. On the right are the islands of Sakken (p. Langfjord. up which a steamer plies to Lcerejm or Lerheim (Hotel Lerejm).. From Alfarx^tjs to N^es in the Romsdal. The line but somewhat ). From Thorvik by boat to (4 Kil. is the : . 203). To the left. in view of the noble Eomsdal Mts. past the oddly sh?i-pQ(\. Storglanebha. 203.) Aanhilly — dalsnces. 200. 3 Kil. The steamer next enters the Langfjord. but we may drive down to the water. The latter leads us up the LaremsJcUvene^ where we suddenly get a striking view of iho. from which the Vistdal runs inland. Stations connected with Alfarnses by road) and Myklebostad (good station for 'boat-skyds'). leaving the hill of Klungenws to the right. In the distance rise the Troldstole At the gaard of Lcereim (see above-. high old coast-lines and the snowclad Vistdalsfjelde. and to Thorvik to the left. side of the valley. 199). of. 199) and the Ok?en (p. Then past the promontory Dwerysncps. The road descends on the N. and the Indfjord Mts. where the novelist Bjernson spent It then becomes very hilly. Thorvik. broad. lies high above the fjord. On the bank are several boathouses (Nest).)()). leads through pine-woods to 14 Kil. end. of the Skjolten (p. bank of which towers the Skaala (p. ascends again through a narr. on the N. and at (3 Kil. in the distance. 9 Kil. sometimes calling at Revik . end of the Langfjord. in a crater-like basin. It then the parsonage of (5 part of his youth. road forks to Nordvik to the right. 14 Kil. 30 Kil. 205). for boats as well as horses. between theFanestrand (p. on a little bay. The S. with the church of Vistdal. and enters the *Eirisfjord.) Ncesset. Midtet (also is mostly well cultivated.

On leaving 0veraas. now much steeper.. On the S. with guide. . To the left are the precipices of the Gogsere and the Aashummer. are the gaards of in the background. the Meringdalsn^ebba We . to Grevdal (p. English spoken. 205 Meringdalsnaibba (p. 1/4 M. R. K. N0STE. The white villa to the E. 7-8 hrs. 27.. I1/2 hr. steamer and small boats. our road forks. R.. pass (V2hr. see p. and flanked with high mountains. on the E. B. . lying a little to the left of the route. 200. and are sold as 'Romsdalsneddef.j. To p. The steamer calls at Bogge (p. 209). see 203) fills a narrow rocky cleft about 18 Kil. The few dwellings on its banks are constantly menaced by the rocks above.. both branches leading to the Eikisdalsvand. Even in the beginning of August snow-patches stretch almost to the lake.E. follow the sater-path on the left bank of the stream. .. commands a tine view of the valley and the fjord behind us. bank.) the Eirisfjordkirke or Sirakirke. but the ice is seldom strong enough for driving on. following the red and white marks (guide desirable). — . or S. however.. from the N. reflecting Fjeld and Fos in a curious double picture. amongst which bears still lurk. soon concealed by the Gogsere or Golcseira (4325 ft. bank of the lake for some distance. we see at first only a small part of the lake. between the Hesthaug (3625 ft. to the right. Avalanches are frequent. From N^ste a fj eld-pass. Towards noon the lake is usually like a mirror. 1 hr.) on the N. (suitable for walking. 204). D. 1 kr. then ascend a sa-ter-path to the E. to the LJoseboin.. From 0veraas to tue ^ksendal (p. and soon after reaches Neste or Nauste also called Eirkfjordseren (^Eikisdal Hotel. The one to the right emerges by the gaard of Aasen. traverses two snow-fields and then descends rapidly to Branstad. 80 0. To the left is the Skjorta. Hazel-nuts abound. 8 Kil. and stones sometimes fall from the hills.-s the outlet of the lake.. plain. descends through the Eornedal. separating the Eikisdalsvand from the Siradal and broken by the river only. Route. and the Uglehaug on the S. At a school-house. 1^2? ^' 2 kr. *Torjul's Inn. or S. On both sides tower snowy and ice-clad mountains enlivened with waterfalls. 0veraas The **Eikisdalsvand (197 ft. end of the Eikisdalsvand. with the skyds-station). We first follow the N. side of the moraine. — with good quarters. the slopes are clothed with pines and other trees.J. We row acro.Safer near the Ljosebotnvand. of the mouth of tlie Eikisdab-ELv. at the base of the Gogsere. is occupied by an Englishman. in length. to the W. 206 ). fertile The 0veraas road and the Sjerdela (p.) ascends the valley watered by the Eikisdals-Elv.. From 0veraas to Gk^vdal. 206). (fast station. The top of the old moraine. diverging to the right at the Eirisfjordkirke (see below). usually called the Siradal. At places. 8-9 hrs. The lake is generally frozen over in winter. a little beyond the church.). then cross the latter and ascend paat the Meringdals-Saters. The 0veraas road which we follow crosses the broad river and runs up to the left and down along its right bank. beyond the cliurch. where it joins the 0ksendal road. The route.Molde fjord. 200.

210). down a sheer cliff. 202). S-10 hrs. passing to the "W. Farther to the N. rebounding in spray from the rock below. the Ranaaatinder. Hence we may ascend the Aura (with guide).). above the sea. No sseter until within 1/4 hr. 10-11 hrs. p. then. . the riglit. —A The road leads farther up the valley. 202). in the Romsdal (p. 2041 holds service four times in summer. from Reitan and back about 3 hrs. the waterfall of Tongjem. ncthha and the Sjedela (5610 ft.. from Reitan^ fair accommodation).) to (1 hr. we now see the *Maradalsfos. and the gaard of Reitan comes in sight. following a brook and passing a waterfall o]iposite Reitan.) beyond. of Ormeim (see p. 200. In front of the Rangaatind. MARADALSFOS. High up on the left is the Fletatind (5425 ft.) the Aurestupe or Aurstaupa^ the falls of the Aura. . to Grevdal (p. Farther on. The gaard of Reitan or Reiten (good quarters at Halvor Reitan' Inn) lies about 6 min.). Near the bridge over the Aura is a salmon-fishery. descending from an upland dale some 2500 ft.. gaards of Viken (whence a path leads to the Lilledal. Farther on are some mills (below us. is another and apparently larger fall. On the W. a superb waterfall of the Mardela. 200) peers above the To the left. to the tourist-hut on the Aursj0 (p.206 Route 27. to the right. the two Sj0dela. but the lower fall only is accessible (fatiguing ascent of 34 hr. About 6 min. young Utigaard is reputed a good guide) and Opigaard (fair quarters).). Fbom Reitan to Ormeim. 200). to Finsaet (11 Kil. and the Gjuratind.). Vl kr. following the 'varder'. with the Berfjeld (4065 ft. to the right.]. passing many pi-etty gaards. leaping 650ft. Descent easier.E. commanded by the MeringdalsThe mountains soon recede. driven by a small stream that springs direct from the earth. ' We . issuing from the Aursjti. The ascent to the Fjeld is rather steep. side is the with the Vikesakisen (5970 ft. . the Hoemsfjeld. Mvelsbrcz. From Reitan we may ascend by a difficult fjeld-path. To the right the Nyheritind (p. Hoemfjeld^ commanded by the Hoemtind. to the left the Aagottind (5215 ft. and the lake is in full view. Above the gaard is a beautiful veil-like waterfall. Path thence (guide desirable. (guide necessary). of the Evelsfonn. with the Sandgrovhegda to the left and the Sandgrovvande to the right. at the head of the lake. A finer view of the fall is obtained by landing. 209). leaping into the same basin. tlie gaard of Meringdal.) is the Rangaatind (5225 ft. from the landing-place of Eikisdal near the mouth of the Aura-Elv. pretty walk up the valley brings us in 20 min. and re-appearing in two arms to form another great fall lower down. where the pastor of Naesset (p. At the top of the fjeld we traverse snuw-fields. to the Eikisdal Chapel (351 ft.) above. above which is the imposing peak of the Gjuratind Above the gaard of Hoem gleam the snow-flelds of the (p.). especially for the first 3 hrs. The lake now trends to the S. pass between the OJeitsiden and the Berfjeld and reach the Sandgrovskar.) and the Bjerktind (4355 ft. farther up are the gaards of Utigaard (with 12 beds. to the left).

end of the Sundalsfjord and the Sundal {[K 210). with pretty promenades and a flne view of the mountains. About 84 M. a. It lies on four islands. Kirkelandet. 20S). and Skorpen to the W. and line woods. to the S. boundary of the Nordmere.). and then steer between the Kirke- We land (right) and the Inland (left) to 'Grand Hotel. Inlandet to the E. to which all the rain-water that falls . The islands of Ottere and Gorsten are passed on the left. with the bare dryingplaces for the 'klipfisli.. 8 kr. and steers out to sea. connected with Molde hy a local steamer and by a road. vi).. Beyond the Bodfjeld we soon sight the headland of Stemshesten ('2230 ft. into Molde. 208). the vessel rounds the promontory of Bud or Bod. Christianssund.) on the right. on the right are several gaards at the base of Stemshesten ( — {^Stemme.600 inhabitants. the distances from Molde to Christianssund. Christianssund. 29 S. thence to Beian. and exported chiefly to Spain. \>y steamer either direct or via Battenfjords0ren (p. IV2-21/2. 80 0. Soon after starting we steer to the N. etc.). B. Hances. the latter route avoiding the exposed passage between Bud and ChristianS'^und (see below). Fine view of the snow-mountains of the next pass the lights oi Kvidholmsfyr and Hestskjcersfyr Romsdal. is adorned with a statue of President Christie (p. a rapidly growing town and important lish-mart. Tennesen (1893). 115. R. the S. M0LLEEUP's Hotel. and thence — to Trondhjem (comp. Leaving the Moefyr to the left. 211).W. the Julsund. but those who have seen the Romsdal and the Kordfjord must not expect to find here a heightening of scenic Most travellers go from Molde to Trondhjem interest. 2 kr. 3/4 M. Direct Sea Route. British Vice-Consul. farther on is the large basin of the town waterworks. see p. Passengers subject to sea-sickness should start in the evening in order to get The figures below show over the passage to Christianssund in the night. 197.M.M. (a white building) on the right. from the market-place. on a headland. and a little later the lofty Tastere (p. 209. ofter many attractions. 90.). The land-routes (pp.). 12 S. with two churches and the Nordlandet to the N. which enclose the harbour: Kirkelandet. cheaper. (13 kr. by Miss Ambr. Gram Pai-eiius. especially the S. From Molde to Trondhjem. From the harbour we may ascend the street to the right. and then visit the New Church. D.207 28. with a church hotels. plainer. — — 1. was founded in 1742 and contains 11. new. Steam-launches ply between the islands. -. a native of Christianssund).'. with a beacon. To the left lies the islet of Fuglen -Kird Island'). p. and later the pyramidal Gjendemsfjeld C^OSO ft. unprotected by islands until it reaches Christianssund. where a band plays three evenings a week in summer. and well spoken of. which are packed in 'voger' of 36 lbs. Steamboat daily in about 12 hrs. the Julaxel (1810 ft.. the capital of the district of NordmOTe. Mr. The market-place. The Vardetaarn is also a good point of view. .

. Off Christianssund.). through the Ramsefjord. The passage from Battenfjords0ren to Trondhjem tikes 13 hrs. at 9 p. 7 S. where the two routes unite.). Those who leave Molde in the afterncon may embark as soon as it arrives and spend the night on hoard. From Mold on the rocky ridge is led.) Hjelset. prettily situated at the S. 91/2 kr. The skyds-drive to Battenfjordseren takes about 5 hrs. 207) takes of the fjord. to the Sundal. see p.. distant. the low island of Smelen. the Ede . 60 0. The only station at which all the large steamers call is 15 S. In the latter case we keep to the N. The voyage across the Battenfjord to Christianssund (p.m. At Christians- I'/ohr.). — Beyond Christianssund the coast is sheltered by islands . and Ert vaage (see above).M. of these islands. Battenfjordseren (Hot.2^'^- voyage also avoids the open sea either wholly or In the former case the steamer steers to the S. Kong Oscar).) and Stabben (2960 ft. between which are seen the distant snow-mountains of the Sundal and the Eikisdal. . beyond it. Farther on. of the Rauheia. following the route of the large steamers and touching at JEde and Magere. — b. with a fishing population of 200. to the W. To the left in the distance is the lighthouse of Grip. to the left. 19 Kil. Stabben. It is advisable to order stateroom and supper by a telegram addressed to the 'L'ampskibsselskab Christianssund'. We next steer into the strait of Trondhjemsleden. By Land to Battenfjords^ren and thence by Sea vik Christianssund. calling at Laurvik (Aure) and Vighals (Vikan). see p. The district passed is fairly cultivated.). see p. 203. 212. (fare 10 kr. at the entrance to theTrondhjems-Fjord. Beian. with the station of Havnen. 225). Trondhjem. and leaves it at 4 a. whence travellers may go northwards without touching at Trondhjem (see p. on the latter rises the Meknokken [1690 ft. rest of the The in part. To the left. of the large isl ands of Tustere. At the mouth of Gimnces.208 Route 28. see above. between the mainland and the large island Hitteren a haunt of deer. the Ertvaage. Thus. The affording a good view of the mountains to the S. . end of the Battenfjord or Botnfjord.M. see p. The voyage from Christianssund to Trondhjem (p. To the right. lies the large gaard Farther on we pass between the islands of Frede and Avere. sund we lie to for iy. (G'/z kr. 212) takes i0-10i/2hrs. 15Kil. is the island of Grip. and the entrance to the Trondhjem Fjord. we look out to the open sea. From Molde via Stronde to (19 Kil. BATTENFJORDS0REN. 2Ci9 to Sureiidal-Todal. To the right. and passing the Fursat-Sceier. Local Steamers abound.m. To Molde and the Romsdal two or three times a week. — . new road runs over the hill to the E. the islands Tustere (2920 ft. Scenery now monotonous. We now steer within the islands. two The steamer (six times weekly) reaches Battenfjords0ren pers. but the larger vessels at first keep to the open sea. Beian. 211.

203). To the left snow-capped Evelsfonnhei (5042 ft. Thence we ascend (a small part of the way very steep) to (5 hrs. beyond the mouth of tlie Battenfjord. — (p. From Opdefl (slow station) a road ascends through the Vii-U7ndal to Dalsbe and (14 Kil. &\\&S<indviy(Ojul)^ where the Sundalsfjord begins. 76.to Trondhjem. through which a road leads up to (9 Kil. 2Y4 hrs. D. to (23 Kil. G tmna: s (^. B. by the Hofsnibba. three beds). at the entrance of the 'Lilledal. is Opdel or Opdal.) or boat-skyds (ca. witli its girdle of snow-capped mountains. 196) and Angvik (p.2740 ft. on the E.lOS)] then. A marked path leads hence past the Osrand (2730 ft. on the Trondhjem railway (p. part of the fjord. 8. Through the valley runs a road to (14 Kil. to (14 Kil. Stensvig. and behind it the Taarn/j'eld From Inderdal across the fjeld to Storfale in the Sundal (6103 ft.). 5 kr. Beyond Fjeseide and Jordal we enjoy a freer *View of the S. from Christianssund) — Eidseren (skyds-station. via Aune to (135 Kil. .). Boat-skyds from 0ksendalen to (1 1 Kil.) 0ksendalen with two rowers 4 kr. part of the route is uninteresting. 4 hrs.Q Holbuvand (2585 ft.).) Koksvik (p. 7th Edit. first ascended in 18S9). Sandvaslaagen Soeter). the steamer steers into the bay of or 0ksendals0ren ( — Winim's Hotel). SUNDALS0REN. In the . Langvand (. 205 fjeld-path to the Eikisdalsvand). 211). By Land through the Sundal. 203).).SOa. with three 4 kr. 211). 207). with the Fonnenihba to its left. This route is mo3t conveniently accomplished in ccuubination ^vith the Eikisdal (p. Stations: Kristvik. 205) to 0ksendalen^ and cross thence to Sundalseren by steamer or boat-skyds (ca. first place. 60 0. 44. Hoitn. We then walk up the "Inderdal to the tourist-station Inderdal (bed 75. Map.0d€gaard. From Sundalg0ren we row in ^/-ztLT. In this case we either.).. Sundalseren (quarters at the Landhandler'sl lies at the mouth of the Sundals-Elv. 20 0. dominated on the N. where the new hut of the Christianssund Tourist Society offers food and four beds.) Nedredal or Nerdal (quarters . to Eidseren and take the Sundal steamer (*Restaurant on board. 2 days).) Branstad (p. 203). We here toucli at Koksvik i Thingvoid (p. 40. Torviy^ Berge. KvarU'T^. 0ksendalen the starting-point for a visit to the Inderdal. Route. 40 e^.). the pointed to be had. thrice weekly. and Torhtaand Baedeker's Norway and Sweden.) to Sundalseren . Boat-skyds to (17 Kil. at tlie mouth of the valley of the same name. proceed to the E. 211. — The starts from Christianssund (p. however. comp. with two high mountains in the background. see p. with three 6 kr. 14 . p. f>8. where the road from Eidsvaag ends (p. to the gaard of Trcrdul. 5-6 hrs. 76.) Sundalseren with two rowers 3 kr. rise the The Sundalsfjord increases in grandeur as we proceed. 9 kr. From Suudals^ren a road with fast stations leads 3 hrs. and reach The Sundal steamer first (_6 hrs. Sandvand (2755 ft. S.. 92.).). . where guides for several fjeld-ascents are The tinest points are the Skarfjeld (6070 ft.) and the pointed Hofs- ni66a (5145 ft.) the Holbu-Saeter.) Sundalseren 6 kr. . fjeld-route to Todals0ren. or we pass over the mountains from jQCveraas tp. 210). Dalaiaarn (4900 ft. in front towers the Kalken (6180 ft. separating the Sundal from the Lilledal. in all 1 day). on \h. FLemmen.) Steven. bank of the fjord. 80. The next station. 209 c. 50 0. 211) 3 kr. on the return from Eidsvaag (p.) the gaard of Lilledalen (quarters at Ole Dalen's).

").. to the N. end of the Aursje (3490 ft.3 kr. 6 M. The road crosses the Sundals-Elv and passes the small red RomTo the left. after leaving SundalsOTen we reach the gaard of 19 Kil. The road ascends along an old moraine to a higher zone of the valley.). The road recrosses the river by the Otheimbro (500 ft. retrospect of the Evelsfonn. Gjera (good quarters).) Holaaker.t). or Driva^ as it is called in the upper part of its course. near the gaard of Musgjerd. to (21/2 hrs. To the left are the picturesque Vinjefosser^ formed by the outlet of the Evelsfonn. that most travellers will prefer to walk (comp. more we arrive at the Gautbu-Sceter or Gaiitsje. parsing the Ylensvand and at places skirtinir the Jora. On the E. After 2^2 l^rs. 68) At places the *Sundal almost rivals the Romsdal in grandeur. The views present themselves to best advantage on the descent from the Dovrefjeld (R. on a hill to the left.-. is also pleasanter for walking than for driving.). shutting off the lower part of the valley. TrondhjemsStift. To the right is the deep gorge of the SundalsElv. long).). The as serrated is mountain that becomes more and more conspicuous the Romfogskjcerringen. whence we descend. B. Skirting the E. the large and well-equipped Aursja-Hytte or Lesje-Hytte (16 beds). overgrown with hirches. (pay for 14) Sliper (1805 ft. R. (with Kaldfonna (6060 — guide). which the road we advance We — — — . In 2V2hr.). 10). slope of the Skretind. on the "W. Ofheimfos and the serrated ridge culminating in the Skretind (3850 ft. crosses the stream issuing from the Gredal (rigl'. we reach. The next 11 Kil. are the long fogskirke. ft... From Molde (2845 ft. Opposite opens the Gredal. The first part is the finest. the outlet of these lakes. side of the Sliperliovd opens the valley of the Vindela^ an affluent of the Driva. from the Holhuvand. Waterfalls descend on both sides of the valley. Fale or Storfnle (good quarters. A few kilometres farther on. The good road ends. and leads to the right close under the steep slope of the Hoaasnibba.210 Route 28. At four of the most dangerous points here the traveller is warned by his skydsgut to drive quickly on account of the avalanches and stone-falls ('Sneeskred! Kjot til. we reach 17 Kil. cross this brook and then the Sundals- We In the left rear we see the gaard of Elvershei. in the Gudbrandsdal (p. belonging to an Englishman to the right is the snow-flecked and glacier-seamed Elv.). Beyond the gaard of Tyfte the road returns to the right bank. 209) may be reached from this point in 5-6 hrs. passing the Sundalskirke. passes the gaards of Gravem. 209). xxii). poor quarters). the road becomes so steep. . The road ascends on the right hank of the river. in 5 hrs. In I1/2 hr. under the Stiperhovd (3435 ft.). and skirts the steep S. which is also conspicuous farther on. and over the ridge. side of which are the three Alf-Scetej^s and a snmmer biarding-house. &S. and then crosses an old moraine. — . SUNDAL. part of the road. The Jnderdal (p. near the boundary of the Romsdals-Stift and the S. On and beyond the bridge we enjoy a fine retrospect of the snow-fields of the Evelsfonn (p.. and is replaced by a very hilly ancient road. p. ascend a rocky barrier. bank.

at Aalbu.) Haandstad (74 ft. 11 Kil. 71) about halfway between Aune and Rise. 17 Kil. rises tlie Horn (5225 ft. fair quarters).). spur of the Vindalskinn. Then drive From Molde of (11 Kil. 21 I the the vicinity are numerous gaards. drive to (10 Kil. d. 28. from Sliper. to serve as headquarters for excursions in the tine distri<'t of Trold/i€Jmcn(comp.) — i — (15 Kil.) Angvik. OPDALSKIKKE. 15 Kil. We soon come in siglit of the long valleys and heights of the Dovrefjeld. 13/4 hr. In I. It is conveniently conabined with a visit to the Eikisdalsvand by going on from Eidseren (conap. which opens to the S. whence 0rkedals0ren is reached in two days.). This route traverses the jVorclmore. FjeM-route from Todals0rcn to Nedredal.) and In the FoUlal. is commanded by the Vindalskinn (4745 ft. base of the Derrermhovd (2870ft. to (31 Kil. Then. The road. driving taking almost as long. Bak i 0rkedalen (fair quarters). 217). with a church (quarters at Strand's. a station of the Sundal steamer (p. 2 hrs. with a conspicuous spire. at theS. Hence by boat-skyds across the Sundalsfjord to 6 Kil. the tirst place in Sendre Trondhjems-Stift.) Behcet. 209. sides of the SvartJioid (di2b ft). a timber structure of the 17th cent. 19 Kil. the baker).). with a large snow-field. from either of these places. Garberg i Meldalen. Rindalen (470 ft. p. Farther on the road passes the prosperous gaard Gravaune.) From Aasen we Kvammen. church of Lenset. 72). 209). visible at a long distance. (guide 4 kr. Aarlivold (good quarters. situated at the foot of the 0rsnipen (4520 ft. and runs through low woods. the slow stations Hegyehn and (11 Kil. is reached by walkers in 4 hrs. on the great Dovrefjeld road. and 'boat-skyds' to (7 Kil. about By Land vik Angvik and 0rkedal.'s drive from Aalbu. still hilly.). 12 Kil. (pay for 21. crosses the Driva. behind us. which issues from a side-valley to the right and forms falls both above and below the bridge (2015 ft. at a point about 10 hrs. skirts (at places a mere footpath) the N. near the steamboat-station of Surendalseren.). crosses the Driva again. and E.) Aasen. see p.) the Dovrefjeld road (p. Koksvik Thingvold (good and moderate quarters). Aune (p. 17 Kil. diverging to the S. a district of which the attractions are highly rated by the Norwegians. 71). the Trondhjem Tourist Club has built a chalet.) Jstad^ see p. p. a station of the Christianssund and Todal steamer.) Stangoik (good quarters). A broad road. another We then take 'land-skyds' to station of the Sundal steamer. passes the Opdalskirke (2070 ft. To the left. to (15 Kil. crosses at a saw-mill. 5 hrs.the 'Reisehandbog' of Carl Schulz mentioned at p. (7 Kil. Route.. The road crosses the Festa. between Kvamnien and the church of Rindalen. On the left.). in the reverse direction for 18) Aalbu (1740 ft.). skirts the S. The steamer from Christianssund plies to Surcndal?0ren and on to Surendal and Todalseren thrice a week. 209) by steamer or boat-skyds to Koksnk i Thingvold.in Trondjhem. From Bak we may — — — 14* . 203. and reaches (ca.

m. eider-down quilts 80-200 kr. Ornaments. boat Office (PI. Money may also be exchanged at 3fr. of the Carl-Johans-Gade. corner of Strand-Gade and S0ndre Gade. B. JiJeller). F. 216) via the Biekkebro. R. S. 2i/2. lV2-2kr.. in the suburb of Ihlen. Beyer (E. cor. Luggage up to 65 lbs. R. Preserved meats.. Clausen). one of the best shops of the kind in Norway. colour. free (130 lbs. — Shops. 2 kr. horse the afternoon) from Lademoen (p. 2 kr. 216: Hjorten)^ fare 10 0. Warm. 11. and pair one-half more. & A. 11/2. 1^/2. at the Torv. Cabs in the Torv: per drive within the town proper and the suburbs of Baklandet. D. G. with garden and baths.) Esp or Heimdal^ a station on the Christiania and Trondhjem railway (p. bear-skins 120-450 kr. ^Britannia (P. Omnibus hourly (half-hourly in for the No tariff cabs). Antiquities.. Dronningens-Gade. 1 kr. to 21/4 kr.2] 2 Route 29. Night 20.. 40.. Trondhjem 'Det er saa fagert i 'Tis so pleasant in Trondhjem at hvile\ to dwell. at KJeldsberg's. 3. silver ware in the early-Norwegian style. adjoining the Fruckirke (PI. 20 0.) 0rkedals0ren (Elans Inn) ajid tal<e the steamer thence for Trondhjera (21/2 hrs. A.. D.'S0ndre G&d. Hotels. by the harbour.. 1 kr. Cognac. and Elgesseterbro. A. from IV2 kr.. and porters ('Bybud') with hand-carts ('Triller") Bergenske and Xordenfjeldske Steamawait the trains and the steamers. I'/rSiA. B. S. 40 0. *Graxd Hotel. 40 0.. Domestic Industry'). hotel-omnibuses.. IV2. etc. fares (10-S) 50 per cent higher.. Thane).. Nordre Gade 24. A. Strand-Gade. 60. from IV2 kr. six times weekly). .. R. Restaurants at the hotels. B. at H. S. per lb. Baths (fur gentlemen 10-2. Munke-Gade 26.. D. Kj0bmands-Gade 52. 10 0.. copies in repousse and chased work of the figures in the cathedral. English Church Service in the Hospitals-Kirke (PI. 12). 2. or 2 kr. Carr. Lundgrens Ejike.). 2). 40 0.m. of the town. quay of the Nedre Elvehavn. 3. Kongens-Gade . — — — .. (Burden of an Old Song. next door to Bruun.Meller^t. Sea Baths. . of the railway station. either drive to (8 Kil.. the British vice-consul. H. from 2. vapour. and others. Bennett og Senner. 'Tolleknive\ embroideries. 4 persons. for 1. 29. IV2 kr. D. Ihlen.. Trondhjem and it8 Fjord. D.. 40.) Arrival. also with baths. Hansen''s. 20. corner of Kongens-Gade and Kj0bmands-Gade: Pjvra#6anA-. Carriages. 1 kr. 5). and at L. 80 0.. 50 0. 5 p. Dronningens-Gade 12. near the Brat^rbro. Strand-Gade 35. unpretending. and Turkish at Dronningens-Gade 1.. Strand-Gade 9.) Saltncessanden. R. Dronningens-Gade 16. outside the town 70 0. 3. M. B. etc. S. acCarved wood.Nordenfjeldt:ke Credit-Bank^ corner of Dronningens-Gade and S0ndre Gade. 76).ii:. 50. ^Scaxdkvavie.. R. etc. Krambod-Gade 14. etc. and (8 Kil. per hour 1 kr. the market-place (Torvei)^ and the Kongens-Gade to Ihlen (p. at the depot of the Norsk Etisflids Venner ('Friends of Norw.. nearly opposite the Grand Hotel. 1 kr... corner of Krambod-Gade and Strand-Gade. from 1 kr.m. — "Str0m's Private Hotel. L. or we may go on by road to (15 Kil. etc. Tourist Offices. T. Strand-Gade 37. cording to size. TRONDHJEM. with concerts. at the harbour. — Hotels. The Railway Station lies to theN. Nordre Gade. 2. . well spoken of. 2 kr. — — (Sun. pay for 19) Eli^ (10 Kil. in twoenvirons. eider-down 20-24 kr.).^ next door to the theatre. Post and Telegraph Office (PI. Kjeldsherg^s. Banks (open till 1 p. 1 kr. Norges Bank. Also at the Grand Cafi. Hjorten. only). Angleterre (E.30 and 6-8 o'clock) to the W.e. F. The large Steamers are berthed at the W. L. or 1 kr.. 7) in the Nordre Gade. Furs.45 a. 80. (ferry 5 0. Bruun's^ and Lundgren''s. at Joh.

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the Dronningens-Gade. A. and S.): -4. corner of the Nordre Gade. Parallel with the harbour. corner of Nordrc Gade. in 1815 not above 10. are the FjordGade. but afterwards transferred to a reliquary and placed on the high-altar of St. The chief are.) in order to diminish the danger of fire. lat. The streets running from N. the 'Strength and heart and it was of the country'. the Biasevoldbakke. German Drontheim^ with 33. the fjord never.W. Slabel. too. S. coast of Iceland. Olaf cult gradually made Trondhjem one of the largest and richest towns in Norway. In the centre of the town is the Market Pl. Aa)\ signifying 'river'. l6th cent. to S. Strand Gade IT... St. is the northernmost of the larger European towns. 213 Booksellers (photoDronningens-Gade 16. the Nordre Gade. and generally intersect each other at right angles. Most of the houses are of timber. and his remains were buried in some unknown spot: and most of the churches and monasteries were swept awav. and . of the Xordre Gade and Dronningens-Gade. . Trondhjem. where they attracted hosts of pilgrims. maps. the name of the town was Nidaros ('mouth of the river Nid' Aa.900. Moe.. of England. and a church which he dedicated to St.. Holboek Eriksen. beginning on the N. The Streets are widely built (100-120 ft. To the E. H. founded a palace. being situated in 63° 30' N. etc. where the Munke-Gade and the Kongens-Gade cross. Ladehammeren S. rise picturesque heights: E. Route. and in 1875 it reached 22. situated on a peninsula forme'l by the Trondhjems-Fjord and the river Nid. cor. the Kongens-Gadcj ihcVestre(r\ow Erling Skakkes) Gade^aixd the 0stre (now Bispe^Gade. graphs. Clemenfs Chinxfi. so profitable to the town.Gade. Down to the middle . In the former. 29. of the .W. a little . opposite the post-office. pestilence sieges. its inhabitants Trender. were put an end to by the Reformation.500.\ce (Torvet). asteries. and 0«. Clement. For his remains were brought to Trondhjem and buried there.History. The St. and fires . Bvun. Olaf who is regarded as the founder of the town (1016). is the cradle of the kingdom of Norway here. Stenhjerg. Like Upsala in Sweden. side. A. and S. that the Norwegian kings were elected and crowned. in 1S35 about 12. Hence the rich vegetation. In 1796 the population numbered 7500. beginning on the E. Munke-Gade 44. met the famous 0vething. The reliquary of the saint was removed by sacrilegious hands from the altar in the octagon of the cathedral-choir. Kon<^ens-Gade. •estuary") or Kaupanger i Tvdndhjem (-merchant-town in Trondhjem"). and the pilgrimages. terminating in the spur of . command views of the beautiful fjord with the island of Munkholm. or Throndhjem (pron. The district is called Trendelagen. in winter like that of Dresden.500 inhab. ^ after the death of 'the saint' at the battle of Stiklestad (1030) a new impulse was given to building enterprise. TRONDHJEM. — Trondhjem. the Kjebmands-Gade^ the large warehouses in which are supported by piles sunk in the river. the Munke-Gade^ and the Pri7idsens-Gade. Tronjera). So early as 996 Olaf Tryggvason Here. the same latitude as the S.. revived the plans of Olaf Tryggvason. then the Sendre Gade. Many of the townspeople are wealthy and they have long been noted for their kindly disposition.000. which had been neglected after his death.. parallel with the river. and gave rise to the erection of the cathedral and no fewer than fourteen other churches and five monAt a later period terrible havoc was caused by civil wars. the History. the Strand. on Brat0ren. In summer the climate is like that of the S. The river is rarely frozen over.

with a tower in the centre. B). xlix) fled to England and remained there three years. transept of the The entrance for visitors is in the chapter-house old cathedral.214 Route 29.30-2. We material (bluish saponite or soapstone.. erected in 1882. Eystein (1161-88). and the Fisheries Museum [entT&nce horn the S^ndre Gade. afterwards returned and built the present transept on the site of the former nave (see Ground Plan C).. Wed. terminating in an exquisite octagonal apse (PI. to the N. was founded by King Olaf Kyrre over the tomb of St. the Munke-Gade ends opposite the N. 11). . 213).. p. is the Stiftsgaard (PI. On the S. both in the late-Romanesque style under English influence. and the *Gbapter House (PI. To these Eystein's successor added the *Choir (PI. and marble from the quarries of Almenningen. Sun. embellished with a small bronze statue of the fa. Trondhjem into an archbishopric in 1151.om-p. 12-2. K). TRONDHJEM. of the choir. 10-1 o'clock). Cathedral. Olaf. which covered the revered relics of St. with the aid of favourable of the church. Wed. Norwegian 'klaebersten' from quarries to the E. 25 0.. Olaf (c. & Frid. A). containing the Savings Bank. Mon. gens-Gade is The *Cathedral. the premises of the Kunstforening (entrance from Apothekerveiten. and used as a In the Konthe Fruekirke. the residence of the 'StlftsamtmaTid' (president or governor of the province). the third archbishop. free. (K on the Plan). born in Trondhjem in 1691 (by Bissen). all the decorative splendour of early Gothic. of Trondhjem.). Opposite isKongens-Gade No. who in consequence of a quarrel with King Sverre (p. and considerably enlarged after the erection Ground Plan of of the Cathedral: Romanesque parts black. royal palace on the occasion of coronation festivities. to the S. p... 226). the chief treasure find here developed. 4. 11.mon& Admiral Tordenskjold. Gothic parts shaded. in plan and in execution the grandest church in Scandinavia. Beyond it is the 'Park'.

who has used or carefully reproduced all the available details of the original structure. K. portal (Kongeindgangen^ royal entrance) are now completed. orate S. In 1432 it was struck by lightning. 2 kr. The Interior is open to the public 12-1. (Tickets are sold bv the booksellers mentioned at p. which is in a rich Gothic style. but will doubtless be accomplished. may also visit the Nave (PI. at other times to ticketholders. The sacristan opens the door leading to the Romanesque Transept (PI. During a fourth building period. To the E. part was re-roofed. D). Route. Christie. Munch. The white marble columns contrast beautifully with the greyish-blue of the saponite walls.. C). in 1873. John (Bernadotte) in 1818. but with stronger leanings towards English models. A staircase (closed during the public hours of admission) ascends to the Triforium and Clerestory. Schirmer (Norwegian). also in the Gothic style. Statues of Evangelists and Prophets are to be placed on the brackets. Charles XV. 29. 215 mingled with Romanesque features. was removed to Copenhagen at the time of the Reformation. per annum). 1248-1300. in weight. and several were afterwards crowned here. A. Since 1869 when the E. The stained glass in the 2nd chapel is from Colou'ne. TRONDHJEM. and as funds are provided by the state. as the Norwegians are justly proud of this great national monument.30 o'clock. Above the apsidal arch is a figure of Christ. of the cathedral is the Churchyard. and S. p.30 only (donation to funds expected). The chapter-house and the choir with its octagonal apse and elabical . 3-8 pers.30 and 6-7. B).) first enter the Romanesque Chapter House (PI. tution of Norway (1S14) the kings must be crowned here. are adorned with fresh flowers every Saturday. In the 11th and 12th centuries the cathedral was the burial-place of By the constithe kings. comp. o). with traces of elaborate classtreatment and indications of exuberant imagination. and this was done in the case of Charles XIV. 214) it into the octagonal Apse (PI. Olafs Spring (PI. which afford a good view of the church. The transept and great central tower will probably be ready in 1900. and Minutoli We and pass through — — We — (German). In 1 708 and 1719 the church was again ravaged by fire. C . part from the transept onwards lay in ruins. in 1328 so seriously that the greater part of the choir had to be rebuilt. A montiment on its N. on Sundays 1-2.. Olaf once preserved here. which probably determined the site of the church." now in restoration) and is at present used for the Sunday services. which is at present used as the restorer's workshop. The light-coloured stained-glass windows were executed in England. In 1531 a terrible fire destroyed both the cathedral and the whole town. and by private subscription (about 100. and Oscar II. the cathedral has been undergoing a thorough and judicious restoration under the able superintendence of the architect Hr. 213: 1-2 pers. The restoration of the remainder will probably take several more decades. The adoption of the Reformation in 1537 caused the work of restoration to be limited to the most urgent repairs. The cathedral has been repeatedly injured by fire. by the Trondhjem Savings Bank.E. The silver reliquary of St. in Norwegian fashion. 4 kr. 225 lbs.000 kr. The apse is adjoined by the E. side commemorates . A). From the ambulatory a side-door leads to St.Cathedral.. Important works on the cathedral have been published by P. was added the grand Nave (PI. while the W. Nave (PI. in 1860. which is partitioned off from the Transept (PI. many of the graves in which. D).

to which two paths ascend to the left one 20 min. The blunted summit. The Academy of Science (det kgl. was brought from Holtaalen in 1884 and restored with the aid of the W. Cath. Gunnerus. *View we obtain. church and hospital (PI. p. a pleasure-resort at Ihlen. On the slope of the hill we observe several old coast-lines (p. ascend to (1/4 tr. and thence. From the Blcesevoldbakke (358 ft. 217). 6). founder of the adjacent hospital. looking back towards Trondhjem and the fjord and the snow-mountains on the Swedish frontier. from Gramskaret. affords a picturesque view of the town and environs. — — — : . a new road ascending the slope of the Stenbjerg (see Map.) the view is more extensive.). The fire-station. across the Meraker railway (p. to (1/2 l""-) Ladehammeren ('Hammer'. Beyond Gramskaret (8/4 hr. the hills to the E. 4). and other learned men among its members.). large natural history collections (esp. built of blue quartz-sandstone. The higher we ascend the finer becomes the side of the fjord. is obtained from *Aasveien.216 Route 29. of the cathedral) to the suburb of Baklandet.). free on Sun. in the court. It possesses a library of 70. 1). 528 ft. Passing Hjorten. the other 10 min. and corresponding with similar lines on the mountains on the E. wall of the church of Aalen. Walks. passing Tempervold . of the animals and minerals of the N.30. with a Rom. from the Torv). above the sea-level.). the view to the E. Towards the West the town was formerly enclosed by fortifications. & Wed. appears the top of Graakallen (1840 ft. Towards the East we may cross the upper bridge over the Nid (the Bybro E. On their site rises the modern Ihlenskirke (PI. norske Videnskabers Selskab). and antiquities from Trondhjems-Stift (adm. Suhm.) the fortress of *Christiansten (236 ft. from the church of Ihlen). marked by a flagstaff. TRONDHJEM. from the Ihlen church. with the winding Nid in the foreground. Before us. where we observe large engine-works and a shipbuilding-yard.. founded in 1760. Adjacent is the site of the old Kongs Gaard (PI. and 580 ft. once numbered Schening. where we pass through a gate. which was erected in the 17th century. by a path to the left. Beyond is the suburb of Ihlen (10 min. near which another road passes. at other times.E.. Angell.. on the left. especially by morning light. 212) and passing several villas. The road should be followed to a point about 1 M. farther on.. The small 'Stavekirke' of the 14th cent. 12-1. and the extensive fjord.. more. in 10 min. was once crowned with a castle of King Sverre (Sverresborg). 25 0. A picturesque view of Trondhjem (esp. xxxiii). we may go towards the N. Thomas Marine Arsenal. leading by Tungen and the Fj eld sater . Erling Skakkes (formerly Yestre) Gade 47. On the fjord are large timber-yards and some pleasure-grounds.000 vols. effective by evening light). but there is no point which commands a complete survey. on the Walks. headland). disappears. a road ascends to the W. Passing through the suburb of Baklandet. via Lademoen.

etc. by railway to Heimdal (p. and walk thence to the falls 0/2 ln"-). end of the Saelbo-Sj0 or Selbu-Sje (525 ft).). For fuller details about the excursions from Trondhjem. of Trondhjem. or drive (skyds-station at the railway-station of Heimdal) to Brettun (17 Kil. on which a small steamboat plies five times weekly in summer. To Ilommelvik in 1V4-2 hrs. on the left. extra for every hour beyond four). 217 and the Kobberdamm.<und.) Ilommelvik on Ihe Meraker" railway (see p. path. refuge-hut) commands an extensive survey of fjord and fjeld. with one of Munkholmen (by boat in 20 min. 7 Kil. ^/-^-ikT. horse carr. The top (272-3 hrs. To the right lies the suburb ofBaklandet. the church ot Lade. from the Torv of Trondhjem. On the way is a new FjeldscBter Sanalorium. The ExcuESioN to the two falls of the Nid near the gaard of Leren. Beautiful view from the walls of the fortress. . of which the lower part of a round tower is the only relic. If) Kil. 8i. Old guns. 29. pay for 21). a soldier acts as guide). This 'Monks' Island' was once the site of a Benedictine monastery. bank of the lake. Good view of it from the veranda of the " Fossesluen Restaurant^ in the early-Norwegian style.E. where the slow trains stop. good 2nd Day. bank. 1.uiAVAT (Merakerbane) in 43/4 hrs. with two rowers l'. beyond Tempervold... 29 Kil. The train crosses the Nid by a long bridge. lie Marienborg and the Scclbo Sanatorium (landlord speaks English. (15 Kil. and walk thence to Teigev. two trains daily (fares 5 kr. about 8 Kil.). a fine sheet of water. Count Peter Griffenfeld (P. almngt impassable after rain.. 76 0. Or we may go by train to Selsboek ("6 Kil. from Ihlen. TRONDHJEM.«lbo-Sj0 takes two days. . now skirt the fjord. landau 14 kr. founded in 1028. bargain advisable. see the 'Reisehaudbog over Trondhjem og de to Trondhjemske Amter'. Vz M.to ^^^ N. here called the Strindefjord and farther on. liy'2 kr. The road traverses the suburb of Ihlen and follows' the left bank of the river. We ^ . is best made by driving (cariole 5. 76). 46 0. Rimhehn .Excursions.The lower or Lille Lerfos is 76 ft. the Stjerdals fjord. several trains (fares 1 kr. and then descends past the old coast lines and the rifle-range CSkytterhuseP) to Ihlen. R. A bad The Trollavei. riages. by Carl JSchulz. to the S. and drive by (7 Kil. then. high.) the iron-foundry of TroLLabrulc. 28. — From Trondhjem to Storlien (Oster. where we spend the night. 'kaleschvogn' 12. high). extending to the snow mountains on the Swedish frontier. admission free. Stockholm). onefortified island . Schumacher). diverges from the road to the right. near the church ot Scelbo^ and by the mouth of the Xid which descends from the Tt/dal. running to the N. 106 Kil.. of the town.2 or rower for one pers.) Leangen is the lunatic asylum of Rotvold. on the left. 21S). which is broken by a mass of rock about halfway across. was confined in a cell here from 1680 to 1698. Route. leads to (5 Kil. two pers. about IV'2 ^^^. both situated at the W. the minister of Christian V. 3 kr.). In the fjord. row (7 Kil. lies the . and affording fine views of the fjord. leads round the OJeil/jeld. long.) Fuglem and (12 Kil. The island is described by Victor Hugo in his 'Han d'Islande'. 1st Bay. gun-carSmall lighthouse. 8. An Excursion to the S. 2 kr. mostly through underwood and afterwards overlooking the fjord.) or drive shooting near). Well-kept palhs lead to the foot of the Lille Lerfos and to the up"per or Store Lerfos (100 ft. On the S. Malcik.) to Sesaas on the N.) Viken to (12 Kil. Beyond (3 Kil. for 2 pers.

the continuation of the line beyond which is Swedish (R. an old copper-mine. Sulstuen (good station). inland. 57 Kil. Road from Stenkjaer to (11 Kil. Restaurant. to the E. from Skalstugan). Near it. above the sea-level. at the mouth of the Stjerdals-Elv. We cross the Swedish frontier. and the mainland (FrostenJ.. from Trondhjem) — Levanger (*Backlund's with lOOOinhab. The Areskutan (p. 372). see p. 72 Kil. ascending the left bank of the Stjerdals-Elv.) Sunde on the Snaasenvand from Sunde to Seem or Road from Sem Sem four times a week in 41/2 hrs. The route is hest combined with a trip to the N.E. the distances are great and the steamers do not always suit.) Meraker (722 ft. and reach 106 Kil. 371) and other snow-mountains of Sweden appear in the distance. and across the Stjerdals-Elv to 81 Kil. and Fiskumfos Namsos. It then recrosses to Ekne on the E. so that it takes four days at least. which a bridge crosses to the skyds-station of Sandferhus.) Short tunnel. to be found here in summer (3-4 hrs. to Holmberget. 22 Kil. and ascend the Fjeld to an Encampment of Lapps (comp. and thence to Namsos 71 Kil. The vessel then steers to (4-43/4 hrs. Gudaa (279 ft.W. a prettily situated little town factories. Tunnel. Rail. Floren. Those who content themselves with a visit to the Trondhjems-Fjord may go from Stenkjffir to Namsos in one day. Fine view from the hill about 1 hr. but since rebuilt. bank. 14 Kil. with a brisk trade in timber. to tbe Sselbo-Sj«'. 1 kr. Hommelvik — — — From Trondhjem. Garnas. especially if the beautiful land-route from Levanger to Stenkjeer is preferred to the steamer. 1825 ft. Hotel). The district becomes lonely.). 65. p. Then a considerable ascent. While this is a fine route. the last station in Norway. see p. 45 0.). and a few in 1897. 29. LEVANGER. to the large Yttere (with the parish of Eid'). and across the fjord to the N.21S Route 23 (Road Kil. . (50 1/2 M. the first Swedish station. (pay for 15) Skjerdalen. At the &t3itioii Hokstad on this island are extensive mines of pyrites. the vegetation scanty. 32 Kil. (fare 2 kr.). (fast stations). was devastated in 1893 by huge volumes of water forcing their way up from the limestone strata below the surface. The line ascends rapidly. almost entirely burned down A road with fast stations ascends from Levanger through the Verdal. by Stenkjaer. — — — The Steamer steers between the Tuttere. 245). (pay for 33) Skalstugan (good quarters). 42 Kil. . Hell.). From this point we may walk (with guide) to the Skalsjer (1930 ft. 19 Kil. which. 10 0. near the mouth of the Forra^ descending from the N. 57). cross this lake by boat. however. Beautiful view from the station. From Trondhjem (small inn). where we cross the Reinaa. Steamer with fast stations. Snaasenvand.. whence it steers N. to to Stenkjoer nine times weeklv in 6-10 hrs. to Fiskitm 61 Kil. Hegre. Steamer from Trondhjem (fares 3 kr.). The line now runs inland. Holsanden here is sometimes touched at. 217.. to Lexviken. 11 Kil. Xote also that the Fiskumfos is not in full force after the middle of July. a thriving and prettily situated little town. with the ruins of the monastery of Tautra. Storlien (19i5ft.

) to the Namsenfjord. — — . 1900 inhab. It ascends the Rolsbakker^ at the top of which. Langli Hotel). in which St. past the church oi Salberg (8 Kil. 218. 1030. 16 Kil.^ the inmost bay of the Beitatadfjord. which forms the fine Formofos.).). 11 Kil. with prettily situated at the mouth of the By-Elv. on the left bank of the Verdals-Elv. The latter branch is the finer route.end. to the right of the road (reached by a path). is preferable to the steamer. Aas). 20 min. We des(. of the Borgenfjord to the right and the Ytterefjord to the left. to the left via Strammen to Stenkjier (34 Kil. inland lie the gaard of Stiklestad and the church of Verdal. more. good quarters at the Landhandlcr's. Road hilly. which descends from the Snaasenvand and is here crossed by a bridge.W. the pier of which is at the gaard Nestvolden^ beyond the bridge. Elden (290 ft. P. Those who do not require to change horses at Saxhaug drive straight on from Strermmen (thus saving 4 Kil. [About 4 Kil. long). Stenkjaer (Thorhjernsen's Hold. we admire the view oi' the peninsula of Inder^fen and the island of Yttere^en.. Stenkjoer^ see below. to Sem or Seem (good quarters). to Stenkja^r 29. thence we row across the fjord (4 Kil. The hill on which the old church stands is a tine point of view. if available). 18 Kil. and which carries us in 41/2 hrs. SpiUurn. — — — 11 Kil. 85 Kil.) and forks: to the right to Reskje (good quarters) and Stenkja-r (30 Kil. Then across the watershed (. from Namsos by water). to 12 Kil. Saxhaug (good quarters).. (pay for 17) 0stvik (good quarters).300 ft. built in memory of the battle of '29th July.).) to Xamsos. 213). which forms a fall by the gaard of By. round the E.). The KoAU from Levauger to Stenkjaer (about 50 Kil. -Sflrtf/.) or drive (8 Kil. We prefer the steamboat (p. more to the Siremhijlla Ferry. steamer-station) . here crossed by a bridge. 219 From Levanger the steamer takes 4-G hrs. a beautiful sheet of water enclosed by wooded and rocky hills. Verdalseren. 15 Kil. Beyond (11 Kil. to the valley of the Sanddela.) the new church and the station of 17 Kil. end of the lake and across the S)iaasenheia (807 ft. (fast stations): 15 Kil.). bank runs a road with poor stations. 11 Kil.) Korsen we join the road coming from R^skje on the right. and a number of farms.). 45 Kil. 226). STENKJ^R. Route. passing through beautiful scenery. Well-cultivated country. We . end of the Snaasenvand (78 ft. — The road to the Snaasenvand ascends on the right bank of the By-Elv. It leads at tirst to the E. but liilly road.s-Mrtd (22 Kil. on the Hjellebotn. The road then leads to the left to (2 Kil. and then passes the Reinsvand^ the Fossumuand. On the N. Sunde fgood quarters) lies at the S. From Spilluiu 3 kil.] From Verdalseren our road leads to the N. not far from the gaard 0vre Rol. Olaf was slain (p. pass the Amtmand's gaard of Sund^ and cross a bridge over the strait between the two fjords to Stremmen (7 Kil. Reidhammer (good quarters. From Stenkjjee to Namsos (p.to Namsos. from Salberg. Thence by a beautiful.

past the church of Grong (where old Per Gartland. 17 Kil. We follow this road to the E. Fossland (197 ft. to and (11 Kil. About 2 Fla^nces (11 Kil. Spendmyren. Fossland. and reach the latter river about 5 Kil. The windows of the house afford a good view of the fall. 11 Kil. sen-Elv.220 Route 29. descend and cross the mouth of the Garilands-Elv. 11 Kil. The fishings are let. Hun. Nearly 1 Kil. where we enjoy a view of now descend to the farm -bull dings (good striking beauty.) Kongs/no. we reach the Namsos and Fiskum road.) Flaat. The road skirts the river and the base of the Spanfjeld (1560 ft. bank of the Eidsvand.) the end of the road coming from the Snaasenvand.). at the foot of the Aalbergfjeld. Scenery fine at places.). in Rauemslelten a tolerably well -peopled . of Vie (see below). see above. a great resort of English anglers. slope of 28 Kil. about 2V2 Kil.. a fall of the Namsen-Elv.. 105 ft.) Merkved . a good guide. bank ft. from Homo. lives). (pay for 33) Homo (good quarters) lies on the left bank of the Sanddela. — We We — From Fiskum to Namsos. FISKUMFOS. 226).).^. 17 Kil. farther on. near the church of Skage.. and follow the latter. 3 Kil.). and on its right bank. but apt to dwindle towards August. (from Fossland) Vie. 226). We then skirt the left bank of the Reinbjer-Elo cross it near its influx into the Nam. of Haugum a post-road diverges to the N. passing the gaards of Gartland and Aurstad. and again ascend to the slope of the Aurstadfjeld (^iSbbft. to 15 Kil. We now leave the stream. The road traverses the marshy Tramyr. Haugum. in height and of great volume (not unlike the Rhine Fall at Schaffhausen). 17 Kil. Namsos (p. — . We cross it by a ferry. and passes the old church of Rauem. which descends in windings to the Namsen-Elv.). descend on the left the Gjeitfjeld (2580 of the stream and skirt the E. A flight of steps made by the Tourists' Club descends to the foot of it. excluding stoppages). to the E. district. to the E. to next ascend the marsliy hill of 16 Kil. from Fossland. the Namsen-Elv being considered the best salmon-river in Europe. Kil. passing (good quarters) and skirting the E. a long day's journey (9-10 hrs. and thence to (8V2 Kil. About 1 Kil. farther on. down the wooded and well-peopled Narnsdal (about 8000 inhab. at the head of the inner Foldenfjord (p.) Galgeften to (17 Kil. to the right of the road. then past the church oi Heilandet and down the Rosendals-Elv to (17 Kil. quarters) on the Fiskumfos. is the station Fiskem or Fiskum (good quarters). farther on is the gaard oiLer (good quarters) at the foot of the Holoklump (1370 ft.

From the North Cape to Vadse 253 35. From 221 225 The Foldenfjord. in the evening. for the North Cape (see p. The course of the Tourist Steamers (see time-tables issued by the agents mentioned at p. xviii). Saltenfjord and Skjerstadfjord. Beierendal. Fondalsbra>) 231 Excursions from Bod^ the Beierenfjord. .. Besides these boats. at Tromse early on Thurs. 257 259 260 Communication with the Nordland is maintained chiefly hy the steamers of the united companies Bergenske and Nordenfjeldske Dampskibs-Selskab (p. the Tourist Steamers ply twice weekly from about the middle of June to the end of July.. start at least once weekly from London. etc. 37. and to the Balsfjord 243 33. and Danish boats from Stettin. carrying tourists only..241 From Maalsnses to the Rostavand. at Torghatten (p. arr. Route Page Trondlijein to Boder General Remarks 30.m. also several German boats from Hamburg and Bremen. Hull.2c0 34. Saltda]. Vesteraalen 239 to 32. and Landegode 233-235 31. and Thurs. The Foldenfjord. and Vesteraal€n\ of the Vesteraalens DampskibsSelskab. Sulitelma. xiv) is usually as follows Dep. then a splendid voyage through the Lofoten Islands: arr. and Frid. The steamers ^Erling Jarl\ of the same companies. Leith. and Skjomenfjord . xiii. Trondhjem Mon. Bindalsfjord. From" the Altenfjord to Vads0 via Karasjok. at Henningsvcer Wed. The Lofoten Islands 235 : . several British vessels. . or enquire of Messrs. 240 . 249. Besides all these. The Mail Steamers ply throughout the year. and Sat. Cook and Son). thi' Fugle is passed about ' . Syd-Varanger 36. Ofotenfjord. at 1 p. 227) Tues. to S0veien.230 The Holandsfjord (Svartisen. From Bode Tromse . at 10 a. and Wed. T. : — 15 .240. and Velfjord 226-228 The Dunderlandsdal. From the Altenfjord to Haparanda From Hammerfest to Spitzhergen in Sweden . also ply once a week from Trondhjem to the Lofoten Islands and Hammerfest passengers by these change at Hammerfest for the North Cape steamer. From Tromse The Ulfsjord to the North Cape 246 240 Excursions in the Lyngen District 248 The Altenfjord.NORTHERN NORWAY. arr.. and Junkersdal 229. leaving Trondhjem once weekly for Hammerfest and the North Cape (Line I) and twice weekly for Vadse (Lines II & III).m.

at 8 a. 3. 222 kr. 1/2 day. which also undertakes the transmission of telegrams. mornings. The mail-steamers are but little inferior to the tourist-steamers in point of equipment and commissariat..). are as follows 250-300 kr.222 NURD LAND. including food — : berth in a stateroom containing one. they are not recommended to tourists beyond Hammerfest. without approaching the North Cape. as the scenery beyond the North Cape is comparatively uninteresting (comp. so that. Thence to the North Cape. : — — The Mail Steamers call at numerous stations and take 1V4-3 days for the voyage from Trondhjem to Bode. Return-tickets are valid for six months and are available for the 'Vesteraalen' (p.) 84 kr. and as they make frequent stoppages of one or more days. 226 5 not touched at by the tourist -steamers). No reduction is made for families. Earsiad : — . at Tromse on Sun.. 254). Single tickets. the sea-fowl islands of Stappene are passed in the afternoon. xLs. North (p. as in a large hotel. (l'2l. may receive telegrams at Trondhjem^ Namsos (p. to Hammerfest (155 M.. 2-5 days to Tromse. Hetmingsvcer (p. according to position and accommodation . IQl. are issued for sections of the voyage. Ledingeii (p. the 'Communicationer') return at once from the North Cape and are therefore as convenient as the tourist boats. {131. with a berth in the fore-cabin.m. But they arc generally crowded. at Svartisen (Holandsfjord. usually steer through the Mageresund (p. The steamers of Lines II & III. 253). arr. 212) and the hotel-keepers at Trondhjem let comfortable steamer-chairs for the voyage {3i/2 kr. and the North Cape Return-voyage Dep. 13s. 241).). see p. some of the longest halts are made at the least interesting points. which is alone recommended. and the life on board.1 Hammerfest YiiA.. Qd. in the evening at the Lyngenfjord.) 50 kr. arr. and Wed. costing 40 0.) 62 kr. The Fakes in the Tourist Steamers for the whole voyage. p. 2^/2 days more. Steward's fee included in the fare. when the loading of the enormous cargoes of herring sometimes delays the steamer 24 hrs. Cape on Sat. — Each steamer carries a small Post Passengers Office.arr.. In June and July the mail steamers of Line I (comp. fare calculated to Vard0) 80 kr. and 31/2-6 days to Hammerfest. 237). as the journey may not be broken. and Sun. afternoons. The fare from Trondhiem to Bod0 (76 sea-miles) thus amounts to 30 kr.. As to charges for food. or three berths. 6d. per Norwegian seamile.). and Tues. 253) is reached in the evening. however. 15^. The Fares in the mail-steamers are reckoned by mileage. cabin-fare. the first cabin. but not for the tourist-steamers. to Vadse (210 M. The tourist-steamers are comfortably fitted up. is apt to pall. At the same time. ahout noon. Hr. as they afford the easiest and speediest access to the sights of the Nordland. two. 221). and at Trondhjem on Tues. Ludwig Hansen (p. and Thurs. 18s.. midnight. 40 0. and Mon. 231) on Mon. they give time for many interesting excursions on shore. or more beyond the advertised time.. p. is. and Vadse. to the — J^orth Cape (171 M. mornings. especially on the return-voyages after the end of July. Return-tickets ("Tur og Retur) should be taken for sections only.. but not return-tickets. to Tromse (125 M. The whole voyage from Trondhjem to Vadse and back takes about 17 days. The whole trip from Trondhjem to the North Cape and back thus takes less than 9 days by the tourist-steamers.

cataractcs). costs 10-20 0. London. 229) that swarm round the steamer on entering a harbour. Newcastle. those who desire to sleep In comfort should secure a berth in one of the staterooms. fogs. Narwhals 6-12 ft. whose swimming and diving powers are very remarkable. 2olj.. and post-office officials generally speak English. Two pilots navigate each vessel on the different stages of the voyage. These should be addressed to the recipient 'Passager (name of steamer). . Landing by means of one of the 'Ranenbaade' (p. the purity of the air. Weather. Hamburg. herrings. Unless previously bespoken. 241). The time on board the steamers is altered daily to that of each locality. (the 'taxt' or tariff should be demanded). and as it is always day in the height of summer. Even the Alpine tourist will be at fault here in trying to estimate distances. a fact to be remem- — bered by passengers going on shore. offers the closest analogy within reach of the ordinary tourist (see Baedeker's United States or Baedeker s Canada^. the traveller is naturally anxious to see everything: but all who wish to avoid over-fatigue and nervous exhaustion should sleep for at least 4-6 hrs. the play of light and shade. — — . or Leith. after midnight and an hour or two after dinner. compels them to drop their booty. 244). The traveller should therefore apply beforehand at the steamboat-offices at Bergen or Trondhjem. to interest . winds. dolphins leaping from the water. and other fish. are all peculiar to the country. Dampskihskontor (name of statiiin)\ The captain. the applicant should remit the amount of the fare at once. Perhaps the trip from Tacoma and Victoria to Sitka. As the sofa-berths in the general cabin require to be vacated by 6 a. or to one of the agents at Christiania. as otherwise the berth will not be reserved. At certain places nestle swarms of eider ducks. One drawback to the Nordland voyage is the difficulty of getting As there is scarcely an uninteresting point on the whole voyage. On receiving a reply that the berths desired are still disengaged. As nearly the whole voyage is within the island-belt ('indenskjsers'). a berth is rarely obtainable except in the general cabin. mates. along the coast of Alaska. 223 Tromse (p. which are often robbed of their prey by the skua (Lestris parasitica. rest.NOKDLANl). The physical fail characteristics of the Norwegian coast will not even the most experienced traveller. The Pilots ('Lodser'). sea-sickness is rare.m. (p. but whales are rarely visible. Everywhere the air is full of sea-gulls. unable to fish for itself. which. porpoises. pomarina. skate. or Ilamiaerfest (p. one of them always being on duty. The animal kingdom is of extraordinary richness. and other denizens of the ocean are seen (best from the bows of the vessel) disporting themselves in every direction. long. The sea teems with cod. as well as the captains and crews are generally obliging and well informed. enabling them to dive twenty fathoms or more for the little crabs and other Crustacea on which they live.

: — Places . of course. and the vegetation in the valleys is not fully developed. Beyond Hammerfest the scenery becomes severe and desolate. 247) and the Lyngenfjord (p. 231) to the Lofoten Islands (R. 251). At the North Cape Europe terminThe best points for passates. visible only within the Arctic Circle(66^32'30"). (p. by the Fugle (p. . which are locally called 'hotels'. 234) Svolvcer or Digermulen^ for an excursion to the Lofoten Islands (pp. 247) Inns are found in all the larger places. end of Hinde (L0dingen). for the Ulfsfjord and Lyngenfjord and Hammerfest. The success of the journey is. The best Season for a cruise to the North Cape is between 20tli June and 15tli August. for the ascent of the Tyven (p. and after the middle of August the nights become longer. The most striking scenery extends from the Arctic Circle {Jiestrnonde p.221 NUUDLAND. dependent upon the weather. is seen as follows . 233 interesting at high-water only) and the Sulitelma (p. Digermulkollen by moonlight (one of the finest points of the journey in suitable weather). for excursions to the Saltenfjord (p. 31) and the S. Tromse. where stupendous mountains and glaOf majestic heauty is the island ciers are seen close to the sea. which may cause disappointment at any season. and the Arctic regions begin. engers by the mail-steamers to break their journey are: Bode. 239) or for the ascent of the ^ — . and elsewhere very tolerable accommodation is to be obtained at the houses of the 'Landhandlere'. 247). Before the middle of June the mountains are still covered with snow. scenery of the Arctic Ocean beyond Tromse. though they have nothing in common with ordinary hotels except that the traveller pays for his entertainment. The Midnight Sun. 238. .

.

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Bayard Taylor.M. Midnattssolen pa bergen sad tk&da. varying according to the number of stations called at (42 in all). 5 S. Valdersund. Route.000 . 7th Edit. The Nordlandsjayte. (Tegner. vi). see p. On tlie left is the large red liglithouse known as Kjeungen ('the goat"). The Tqdkist Boats. The voyage through the outer Trondhjem Fjord and along the beyond it is at first comparatively uninteresting. (on some voyages 48-52 hrs. 225 sublimity of the spectacle Las been described by Cailyle. To the W. . to reach Namsos (fare 12 kr. From Trondhjem to Bod0. x). det var ej natt. show the usual courses of the steamboats and will probably suffice for most travellers. on the S. marked at p.). though of small scale (1 1. formed by the sea and the long fjord of Trondhjem. The Mail Steamers take 13-16 hrs. The actual course of the steamers is. Fulness of detail has been subordinated to clearness. M. and many others. much longer. and rigged with a single square -sail ('Kaaseil') and a topsail ('Skvaerseil' or 'Topseil'). Br0n0. 40 0. It lay day.) and 42-44 hrs. Det vagde emellan bada. . as usual in 30. 4(J 0. 70 S.) to reach Bodei (fare 30 kr. But these craft are gradually being super.— Several other interesting routes are of the tourist-steamers by — .000).M. 15 . bank of the fjord. side of which stretches the Skjerenfjord. may join coast the northward-bound steamers without going to Trondhjem. . 208). go to Henningsvoer (p.M. with its numerous farms. As mentioned : Travellers by mail-steamer should provide themselves wilh the latest issue of the Communication er. was not night. The first station is Kedbjeryet^ with the ruined nunnery of Rein.— . 237) in about 85 hrs. and Sandna?s0en reaches Bode in 28 hrs. which do not touch at Bod0 on their N. IUedeker's Norway and Sweden. on the N. . The vessel now steers to the N.xxviii.BEIAN. The course ot the mail-steamers is indicated by that . with their lofty bows. The Distances between the principal stations are givzw Norwegian sea-miles (see p. The Maps : in this Handbook (four sections.«. Blodrod till att Bet var ej dag. it was not But wavered twixt the two.eded by steamers. the best of the larger maps is Cainmermeyer''s Reisekart over det nordlige Norge (scale 1 800. voyage. aiul the old mansion of 0straat in the distance.) The midnight sun on the mountain And blood-red was its hue. Beian (p. however. 30.). the places where they join being indicated by corresponding marks. (about 310 Engl. where travellers from the S.E. on the right stretches the large peninsula of Fosen.).500. Beian lies at the end of the fiat peninsula of 0rland. The express-steamer 'Vesteuaalen\ touching at R0rvik. 7 S. are the islands of Stor-Fosen and the Tarv-0er. price 4 kr. deeply laden with dried fish. are frequently seen here on their way to the 'Tydskebrygge' or German Quay at Bergen.

see p. thread a small island at the mouth of the Indre Foldenfjord. which stands on a rocky hill in the middle of the town. — — . Namsos does not come in sight until we have rounded the long promontory of Mcerranes. From the Church. is under government. The scenery improves as we ascend the fjord. A small steamboat plies once a week to . terminus Kongsmo a skyds-road leads to Haugum (p. Fjeldvik. by the gaard of Hardbak.p. Serviksund past the W. of course. Fish spread out on the rocks to dry begin to be seen here in winter they are hung on 'Hjelder' or wooden frames. to the W. indicate the position of iron stanchions for mooring vessels ('Mserker). From Trondhjem 3 S. Appelvar (Brandzaeg's Hotel). a prominent rock on the S. by the long winding island of Ottere. Ou the Leko lies tlie islets. by the Foldenfjord (not to be confounded with the fjord of that name to the N. Bjere. Feom Namsos to Kongsmo. The water here is often rough. To the N. Lund. 6 S. into the Namsen fjord. 214).E.M. and — We our way through a maze of passing the Nare on the right. To the N. The maintenance of these rings ('Ringvaesen'). 'Lodsvsesen'). are four caverns. 1 S. lie the SindncBse and Stoke. etc. like that of the lighthouses and pilots wliicli is the . R. 4 S. 2 S. ('Fyrveesen'. side of the Ottere.M. in 1872 and 1897. The number lights required in the 'Skjsergaard' is.M.). Then through the narrow Redsund. p.W. Excursion up the Numdal to the Fiskumfos. promontory of which resembles a giantess. are Mellem Vigten and Ytre Vigten. we follow the Stor-Gade.M.) the view-pavilion on the Bjerumklampen (360 ft. RisvcBr. — .226 Route SO. 2 S. tlie largest of Hardbakhul.). of Boder. The mail-steamer now steers to the S. a town of 1950 inhab. steer through the strait of Lokkaren and the pretty N. The black and white rings on the rocks ('Tfifrneringe'). NAMSOS. 240). 220).M. which is prolonged towards the N.E. Mr. charmingly situated on the N. Stations: S0rvik.) andDra^stmrf (525 ft. Sydkroge. SommerschieldJ. on which rise the Sulafjeld (600 ft. which is separated from tlie-Redsund to the N. 220.1? D. It has a considerable timber trade and some saw-mills. 5 S. telegraph-station. To the W. on the island of Indre Vigten .M. 3 S. then cross the fields to the left. 2 S. very great..E.M. Jensen s Hotel. comp. To the left is the island of Leke. 2kr. the Indre Foldenfjord. Ramse. Seierstad.227). Besaker. lies the island of Almennlngen. Stoksund.Rervik (*Anzj«fn"s Hotel.M. was founded in 1845 and has been rebuilt twice after destructive fires. British vice-consul. 172-2j B. bank of the Namsen-Elv.M. and finally ascend some rock steps to (Y2 tr. 3 S. and across the partly unsheltered Foldenfjord. J.M.M. (from Trondhjem 31) Namsos (A. containing the quarries which furnished the marble for Trondhjem cathedral [p. resembling targets. 3 S. Foslandsosen. — For of the next two hours we traverse the open Foldensje. From the We now . Eider-ducks abound.

which resembles a hat floating on the sea. once the seat of the family of that name. entrance. Gibostad. seen through this gigantic telescope. armed Bindalsfjord to Terraak and Eeilstad . and on the E. we see through the hole in Torghatten from N. are sent by steamers chartered for the purpose. starting from Br0n0 (see below).E. lemonade ('Brus'). at the W. Outoik. to S.E. Its height at the E. Lt»dingen. the residence of the clergyman and the doctor of the district. The tourist est to the island are Stenseen steamers (and generally on request the mail-steamers also) touch at the E. if not already atBeian orllervik. side of the island. The mail-steamboat stations nearVik and SemncBs. above the sea. The ascent from Gaard Thosdal is extremely steep. The telegraph is of great importance to the fishermen. To the N. end 246 ft. Harstadhavn. The excursion takes 11/2-2 hrs. are often seen fleets of herring-boats. plies up the manynear Bindalen-Vatsaas.. A local steamer. passing the Kvale. distant [about 2 brs. the Halogaland of early Norwegian history. the larger destined for the cargoes. . Bode. the long Thosenfjord^ a huge mountain-cleft. The mountains now become more varied in form. side of the mountain there is the troublesome Gaasvas-Elv to be forded.M. 'the hole'). (Farther to the N. Farther on we have a fine view of the rocks of Leke as we look back. Thence. ) — arrival of a Sildstlm. by steamer). is strikingly beautiful.. with its curious hill called *Torghatten ('market-hat'. towards the N. requisitioned by wire from every quarter. and Guard Thoidal. with a telegraph-office. extends to Thosbotn. and reach the important station of 6 S. Route. (from Gutvik) Brenef. 5 S. and is usually towed by steamers to the scene of action. breadth 36-56 ft. and 'Multebar'. . soon appears tbe island of Torgen. At Brenef.) the 'Hul' (or 'Hullet'. M. total length 535 ft. the boundary between NordreTrondhjems Amt and Helgeland. We steer through the Brenesund. 30. 231). 1 S. or shoal of herrings. a huge natural tunnel 407 ft. . 824 ft.M. On the .W..). . the herring-fleet is at once telegraphed for. . is about 65 ft. which extends N. and in the middle 204 ft. BR0N0. (On the way back the tourist steamers usually steer past the W. from which the traveller may proceed with a guide to Hortskarmo in the Sveningsdal. and Trom- 15* . On the right opens the Biiidals fjord. to the promontory of Kunnen (p. at whicLi the steamers sometimes call. to N. The view of the sea with its countless islands and rocks. behind which rise the two Heilhorne. side of the island and land their passengers. and to Mosjetn on the Vefienfjord (p. 227 hamlet of Skei.W.to Bode. At the same time supplies of salt and barrels. enabling us to look through it from S. The natives sell milk.W. 228) in 11/2-2 days. the smaller being the fishing-boats. As the steamer proceeds on her course. where large masses of de'bris extending far into the interior are piled up. A marshy and stony path (for which strong boots are advisable) ascends about halfway up the hill to (30-40 min. the chief herring-fishery stations are Seheivik. The sides are mostly flat and nearly perpendicular and look at places as if they had been artificially chiselled.

. Erik Batlien. is the so-called Kongsof W. TTTJ0T0.. 230). for the sake of ascending the imposing J0xtinder (about 5580 ft. was pastor in 16891708. 6 S. From the Velfjord to the K. The highest of the sisters is the Digertind. side of . To the W. who live almost exclusively by fishing . On the Haugnces. on which rise the finely shaped hills called the *Syv S^rstre ('seven sisters'. end of the island is the church of Alstahoug. About halfway thither a digression may be made to theE. called Vefsenbunden^ and stops at Mosjeen (Mosjeen's Hotel Mr. al. Tlij>t«r (Jergensen's Hotel).). diverge the deep and wild Oksfjord and the Slovfjord. to Resaaeren on the Ranenfjord (p. a red rock.so. local steamer to Lovunden and Tlirenen. but these peaks are better reached from Fi0saa0ren and through the Leevskavdal. Six hills only are distinguishable. formerly the property of Haarek of Thjete. Drevjebruget. 3/* hr. towers the conspicuous Flnkncefjeld (4330 ft. rising to 2300 ft. in a terrace of 460 ft.). where Peter Dass (p. the discharge of the Tustervand and i. and others. 1600). NoeverncEs^ and Hegge (good quarters at the landhandler's). over which faUs the Tidingdalsfos in a single leap. and is entered twice weekly by the mail-steamers. grav ('king's grave'). lies the large island of Vcegen. The tourist-steamers and some 'Skjaergaard' to the of the mail-boats traverse the theThj^te and the large island of Alsten (pop. British vice-consul). lies at the mouth of the beautiful Fefsen/jorc/. and then follow the course of the Resaa. The banks of the inner fjord are finely wooded. a description of Norway in verse. from its mouth.M. To the E.228 s«f.0svand.. bay. where excellent marble is quarried). On the right is the Rede. on which is Rere. near the church. which rises the huge Mosaksele^ and on the N. From 3IosJ0en a good road leads to the Tustevvand and to Stonies on the Resvand (1475 ft.. towards the X. Ixxv). while the inland settlers are called 'Opsiddere' or 'Nysiddere'. which runs inland to the E. see p. author of 'Nordlands Trompet'. up the Bjuvaa. a well-known character in early Norwegian history. From one of the innermost branches of the Velfjord.) Route 30.). From Stornes we may ascend the Brui'skanke and the Ejevingtind (5805 ft. on the W. in full view of the imposing Seven Sisters (see below). The mail-steamers call at Sevik (^Jensen's Hotel. ascenda the Tidingdal^ suddenly rising. The mail steamers either call at Rerer or steer between the Havne and the mainland to Forvik. side of the lake.. — — All the steamboats pass the mouth of the Velfjord^ on the S. . At the S. The tourist-steamers pass between the islands of Vsegen and Havn«r. near the church of Nestvik. of the island of Alston. which ranks next to Lake Mj0sen in point of area. The steamer steers into the narrow S.. 2630-3280 ft. which plies on the grand Velfjord. and the large steam saw-mills of Halseneen. a little town with 1150 inhab. the picturesque Heiholmstinder with the Andalshat.E. touching at Rer0^ Eidet-Saterlcmd (at the entrance to the Skillebotn. where some of the steamers call. or Store Bjerga as it is here called.). but one of them has a double crest.). 229). a small island. From Trondhjem tlie On tlie shore are often seen the cottages of 'Strandsiddere'. At Be0X0 we change for the local steamer.

originally called Ledingsberge (or Lensberge). a considerable village at the mouth of the strong. on the Dynngese. A peculiarity of several of its streams is that they disappear Thus.M. side. An excursion may also he made to the glacier of SvARTiSEN (p. is the Eiteran. Strern Jakobscn's Hotel). Near Farther to the N. N. a number of the for the purpose. both in the : valley of the Redvas-Elv. The birds build their nests in nooks artiflcially made As they are then very tame. as far as Fisktjernmo. 231) by rowing to the end "of the Langvand and ascending the vallev to the N. in caverns and suddenly re-appcar lower down.to Bode. side of tlie island. and are often used as pleasure-boats. On the right. 220 on the N. where the rushing . of 3Io extends the interesting broad valley of Dunder'mounlandsdal (frt»m the Finnish Tunduri.. Another excursion is to the Svariisvand a lake into which an arm of the Svartisen Glacier descends. and richly timbered in the Nordland coffins between this point and Vads^are made from its fir-trees. 6 S. near Gaard Bjernaa. . more than one -third of the number coming from Lars Meyer's . Near this are Tyvsdrives mills close to its egress from the earth. the greatest of is the highest point. Large pyrites-mines are worked 3 M. the Stilvasaa.E. near '>vhicb are the old church of Stamnces and the district-prison. At Sandnaseen unite the courses of the steamers which pass the island of Alsten on the E. This fjord. the Laphul. with a new church and a group of huts for the use of church-goers from a distance arriving over-night. 231). Kobberdal on the island oi Lekta. green Dunderlands-Eiv. as the natives used there to pay their taxes (Leding). and Mo (*S0strene Johannesen s Hotel). A glacier-pass crosses thence to the end of the Melfjord (p. . yards at Mo.^ecn (Sannes^en's Hotel. opens the Eanenfjord. near Hammeniws (11 Kil. not unlike the Venetian gondolas. From Mo we may visit several Stalactite Caverns CDrypstenshiillerJ the Risagrotte nn {\xq Langvand. near Gaard Stor/oshei iii the Skogfvudal (about 15 Kil.. helleren ('thieves' grotto') and an interesting Ravine. The 'Ranenbaade' have high bows and sterns. anciently Radund. eggs may be taken without frightening the birds away. which is visited by several of the mail-steamers.E. passing (6 Kil. houses. of Kobberdal. MO. Route.). About 2000 such boats are built every year. or the Lappish Duodar tain"). from Mo). 30. is the most almost all the boats. to the N. carrying on a considerable trade with Sweden. and on the W. though the tourist steamers do not enter it. These fairs were the Nordland fairs takes place on 2nd July. to the N. which it is the forest-girt Urtvand. and opposite to it another by Gaard Greniien. and the eider-down they leave in the nests is afterwards collected. they are considered typical national craft. 231). The steamboat-stations in the Ranenfjord are HemncBs (Saras Nielsen's Hotel). at Snndno'. In the distance appears tho Svartiseu (p. of which the Aakvlknaver (2880 ft. To the N.W. to the W. of Mo.) At Bjern. Farther on we pass the Dynnsese.)the gaard of Botnet. From Sandnaeseen we may ascend the N. peak of the Seven Sisters. with hatcheries of eider-ducks.

to . on the left. the ancient Lovund'.M. Several intermediate stations. 228) every Sat. and provided with several 'Fjeldstuer'. see p. the valley is called Graddis. A By From Trondhjem nf the subterranean water is audible. on which few people are ever met. Many Lapp settlements are to be met with on the heights in the Dunderlandsdal and Saltdal. about 6 Kil. 2 S. VIKHOLMEN. to the Junkersdals. or through the Giibhelaadal. The abruptness of Lovunden. good quarters) The bridle-path to it leads through the Junkersdals-Ur. spurs of the Svartisen and to the W. From Berghulnfps we go E.. From Bjeeldaanpes it is a day's ride up the BJceldaadal. by crossing the Stornidalshei. . — . to Toldaa in the Beierendal. We steer through the Stegfjord^ the strait between the Lure. high). and Alderen on the right. see p. water-worn 'giant's cauldrons'. the central point of the Dunderlandsdal (55 Kil. of the mouth of the Ranenfjord. Below the junction of the Saltdal and Junkersdal lies Gaard Berghulnoes thence to Almindingen and Eognaji. in all. A little later we . long and 2 in. and the Solvaagfjeld to the W. has given rise to the saying '/Se. They make their nests in clefts of the rocks difficult of access.) These two remarkable islands may be visited by the local steamer leaving Sevik (p. Lovunden. whose eggs. and the four islands of Threnen. and Torribe (2720 ft. from Mo road without stations). To the E. the singularly shaped islands of Lovunden and TJirenen (Threnstdvene).). one of the grandest rockv ravines in Norwav. equally lofty. are esteemed in the Nordland.. (4-5000 ft. 235) to Urtfjeld (about 4920 Storjord (45 Kil.). After their digression Into the Ranenfjord the mail-steamers here rejoin the course of the tourist-steamers. or the Brediksfjeld^ which commands a splendid view of Svartisen and the Lofoten Islands. upwards of 2000 ft. the water. much "frequented in winter. we may visit the Stormdalsfos and the marble grotto at its foot. distant but both seem quite near In clear weather. is still 30 Kil. the crossing of which is usually announced by several cannon-shots. more. (from Ko"bbeTdal) Vikholmen (Olsen's Hotel). the Pfuglaa near Gaard Jordbro. .230 is Route 30. which last forms the upper end of the Saltdal. the top of which appears to overhang situated. Farther up. We may also ascend the ft. resembling thumbs). across. with its pyramidal hill (2110 ft. passes through the islands of Threnen and a little to the S. and thence by Oosbakke (pass to the Saltdal. and the young birds are also captured and pickled. We now steer between the islands of Huglen. across a pass (2805 ft.).. of the Hestmande. high. third stream of the same kind the Pruglheibro are about fifty From Bjseldaanaes. . in the Junkersdal (14 Kil. are 45 Kil. and through the £fvre and Nedre Toldaadal. The route leads either through the BJEEldaadal (following the telegraph-wires). Hanncese (residence of the 'Serenskriver'. which are annually plundered. and is traversed by a bridle-path to Sweden.W. about SVs in. are seen the S. morning and returning on Men. formed bv the Kjernfjeld to the E. and Lenesdal. — The Arctic Circle (66^32' 30"). quarters at the under-forester's). charmingly theN. Randal.' hvordan han luder den gamle LovundP ('See how it overhangs. or so called from two rocks local magistrate). E.Gaard. 233) 14 Kil. These islands are the haunt of dense flocks of loons or divers ('Lundefugle\ Mormon arcticus). From Bjseldaanees to Almindingen in the Saltdal is a long day's journey (16-17 hrs.). near the Brediksfjeld. morning. From Storjord to Soleen (p. 235.

HESTMAND0. Lovunden. however. towards the (p. the general view of which. which commands a most striking view of Svartisen.).). Jndre Kvare. an arm of Svartisen. and the Folgefond). on which rises Eedel^ven (easy to ascend). the N. To the S. The Tourist Steamers now leave the mainland and steer across the Vestfjord to the Lofoten Islands (see p. is grander from the steamboat.to Bode. a smiling island. resembling a 'horseman' -with a long cloak falling over his horse. runs thence to (20 min ) the lower margin of the Fondalsbrae. To the W. in height. The hill may be ascended -without a guide. 'Klumper". which extend into the heart — . to the N. (Glacier-pass to Mo. with their branches the Berangsfjord and Holandsfjord. an enormous expanse of snow and ice (resembling the Jostedalsbrsn. 1 S. rises the Reindalstind (2130 ft. we steer 3 S.«r (1750 ft. 2^^ siglit the *Hestinand. next pass the mouth of the Olomfjord. . the Rangsunde. At this point there is a 'Havsme' ('sea-glimpse').M. we obtain our first glimpse at the Lofoten Islands. forms the boundary between Helgeland and Salten. 'Knolde'). Route.sen. the Fleina. . broad.M.beyond it opens the Melfjord. the Fugle. and steer through a narrow strait between the Mele on the left and the Skjerpa on the right towards the headland of Kunnen. Rede ('red island'). appears the Fugle. 30. Dominating the landscape for many miles on our right rises *Svartisen. from which we may visit the Melfjord. which is said to aflford the best survey of Svarti. — of Svartisen. Threnen. on the left. The Mail Steamers pass. covering a plateau about 4000 ft. perhaps the most interesting island in this archipelago. Selsefvik. from which protrude a few peaks or knolls ('Nuter'. 235). The midnight sun the beginning of July. and To the right is a peninsula of the the long Svartisen to the E. leading through several brooks.W.M. spur of the Svartisen plateau. the Stedtfyr is in sight. a lonely place. On their return-voyage the tourist -steamers enter the Holandsfjord and land passengers between the gaards of Reindalsvik and Enna.). — 247) may sometimes be seen here before Passing the Omnese on the right. with graJid mountains. and in the distance the Landegode (p. p. and has a climatic and geographic importance like Stadtland in the Sendmerre (p. A bad path. We — The promontory of *Kuniien or Rotknaet (1998 ft. about 55 Kil. The mail-steamer next sometimes stops at 0rncBS and Stedt. or opening in the island-belt. while numerous glaciers descend from it to the adjacent fjords. 6 S. the Lur^f. long and at places 16 Kil. Far to the N. projecting far into the sea. 169). Grene. To the right open the Tjongsfjord and the Skarsfjord. a hill resembling a lion looking westwards. 229. The view embraces the whole surrounding archipelago. mainland. through which we get a view of the open sea and sometimes feel its motion. which cuts deep into the mainland.M.) 2 S. On the right. 235). and the Hestmaud.

The top commands a view of the Lofoten Islands to the N. with British fine view from the tower. with a church and a parsonage. to the E. Johanksen's Hotel. 233). of the BeTsvatnstinder to the S. resting upon a foundation of dark thus grey clay interspersed with crystals of quartz and granite pointing to the geologically recent elevation of the bed of the sea at . turf. a German). — — — Bode. both reached in IV2 ^r. near the market-place. with their roofs of p.. which has recently been drained and is now being brought under cultivation. to the E. of Bode. a layer of broken shells. 233"). at which Louis Philippe. may land and ascend (with guide) the Lebsaas. The ascent of the Junkerfjeld and the excursion to the Vaagevand. Excursions from BoDe. to the N. 224). BOD0. 2 hrs.. About 3 Kil. to the N. unpretending. very fair. adjoining the Sulitelma (which is not itself visible). Another fine view is obtained from the Voldfjeld (about 1310 ft.. a busy and increasing place with 3750 inhab. end of which. then cross the month of the Saltenfjord (p. Numerous excursions on land may be made from Bode. Excursions and the Ameei-^ and on tlie right the church of Gildeskaal and the large island of Sandhorn. The midnight sun may be seen hence between the beginning of June and the beginning of July [eomp.. with its club -hut. 3 min. was entertained on his voyage The road traverses an extensive moss. a hill 1 hr. in clear weather. under the moss. and of the Sandhorn. Bod0. A large wooden church in the Gothic style was completed in 1886.W.M. 67° 17'. Gkand Hotel (landlord. are also . at the E. from the pier. high (beyond which lies the Beierenfjord. . tourist-hut). in N.. The drainage-works revealed. we observe the snow-flelds of the Sulitelma (p. from Bode.E. 234). 12 S.232 Route 30. Among the large modern buildings are still a few of the old cottages . Mr. William 11. this point. of Bode is the Bodegaard. with a mountain 3295 ft. marked with a 'Keiservarde' commemorating the visit of Emp. about 20 inches thick. to the S. to the North Cape in 1796. Information as to excursions may be Vice -Consul. and soon reach the curious rocky harbour of We — Hotels. Otto Koch. p. 234). when travelling as a refugee under the name of Miiller. with the Svartisen. which usually stop several hours here. of syenite in the Geologists will also be interested in the erratic blocks midst of the rock-formation of slate constituting the peninsula of Bode. is the seat of the Amtmand or provincial governor. lat. Passengers by the mail-steamers. Herr Wittenberg. To the left rises a new insane asylum ('sindssyge-asyl'). The well-wooded country around affords a welcome contrast to the generally bare and desolate scenery of the Nordland. of the snowy Blaamandsfjeld or Olmajalos (p. obtained from the Bode og Omegns Tnristforening. The following are some of the most attractive steamboat-excursions. interesting.

"). (according to the tide). Opposite..) twice a week. 233 local steamer plies up the BeierenIj The Beierenfjord. where there is a skyds-station. and to go thence by sailing-boat in l-l'/2 hr. The ascent of the Bersvatnstinder to the The best point recommended (5-6 hrs. The principal place on the Skjerstadfjord is Skjcrstad.. contracting. with guide. ( BEIEIIENFJORD. to Storjord. of view is Y4 hr. with an ancient burial-place. as each tide pours in or out of the fjord. Several large 'Jsettegryder' (p.) Kvalvaay. 14 Kil. . to Sfrem. of Svartisen fo the S. the Streme on the S. known as the Saltstrem. 229) and the island of Sandhom. Route. but when it increases to 8-9 ft.) Toldaa (p. from Strem (quarters at Furre's.m. From Tvervik we may row to (3 Kil. at the entrance to the Misvctrfjord^ whence the Topstadfjeld may be easily ascended in 2 hours.) Soleen (good quarters at Landbandler Jentoft's). in li/2hr. and the Gode on the N. Fuske. touches at Strem (for the Saltstr0m). in 1873.. and the steamer times its departure from Bod«r accordingly. A better way of visiting the Saltstr0m is to drive from Bod0 (telegraph beforehand if possible for cariole) to (17 Kil. the Sundstrem (200 ft. the steamer calls at Skaalland and ResncBSj on the mainland. and of the sea dotted with islands to the W. . on Sandhorn (p.from Bode. forming a tremendous cataract... end of the Skjersladfjord. oc fish are caught at this point. and the Gothrough which an enormous mass of water has to pass four times daily. We now enter the Beierenfjord. is the old gaard of Lences. 283) may be seen on the shore. separate the Saltenfjord from the extensive Skjerstadfjord. to the W. Skjerstad. fjord (there and back in 8 lus. and Rognan. About 5-6 Kil. farther on is 0inesgavlen. The road leads thence through a picturesque valley. p. the scene is most imposing. Vessels can navigate these straits during an hour or so at high or at low tide only. a narrow inlet flanked by imposing mountains. The steamer then recrosses the fjord to Venset. steamboat leaves Bod0 three or four times a week between 4 and 10 a. The last station is Tvervik. the Landhandler). comp. The scene is most effective when the water is pouring into the fjord. past Beierem Kirke (bv the gaard of Moldjovd). A column here commemorates the visit of King Oscar II.Duun-Vaer' (breeding place of eider-ducks. only. 30.og. Or we may row to Antad. wide). bounded by the distant Lofoten Islands). during spring-tides. Large quantities destrem . The usual rise of the tide here is 5-6 ft. fatiguing). beyond Kjelling.. 230). a promontory of conglomerate. 232). The local (2) To THE Saltenfjord and Skjerstadfjord. the Storstrem (500 ft. extensive view of the mountain -solitudes towards Sweden. to its narrowest part at the gaard of Eygesvik. with a fine waterfall. of Strfi'm is . In this case tlic excursion does not take more than 6-8 hrs. and returns to Bod0 at night. at the 8. — k'jirtno'a. whence we may ascend the Heitind (4545 ft. Crossing the moutli A of the Saltenfjord and passing an '^g. The latter is connected with the sea by three very narrow straits only.. and at SandncBS. a formation which also occurs in the 8. to the S. — — Two islands. and (about 20 Kil. Oosbakke.

) where we change to another small steamer (60 0. and in 1 hr. foot via Fagermo. at the foot of the Langvand (410 ft. reach Fagerli (good quarters but poor fare at Ole Serensen's. 2 hrs. From Furulund we proceed on — with the Olmajalos-Jcekna and the Lina-Jcekna. In 1/2 hr. with innumerable glaciers (here known as Jcekna) and lakes. (there and back) and is neither very fatiguing nor dangerous. .).. Small steamers (40 0. bay of the fjord. deserves speoial notice. with handsome offices and attractive dwelling-houses. below the snow-line.E. also ascend the Rapisvari (2171 ft. the starting-point for an excursion to the Sulitelma. View of the Sulitelma. we reach the plateau of "Haukahakken (21^5 ft. the first ascent was made in 1888 from the Sola. which has developed to a very large extent within the last ten years.).). the Svartisen. can hardly be ascended from this side. in a mountain-valley at the head of the latter.W. in I1/4 hr. on the left.).). over loose stones we reach Vardetoppen.). numerous waterfalls. of the three summits of the Sulitelma. which stretch from N. lu the company's store ('Handelsforretning') provisions. may be purchased for journeys in the interior. 0stensens Hotel). 087. or we may proceed up the Balmi Joki to the (2^/4 hrs. Passing an extensive moraine. Tourists may take their meals at the 'Dampkj0kken'. which is wedged in between the summits and thence extends to the S. After a voyage of 8 hrs. with the smelting-works of the copper-mines. to S. rugs. we reach Fossen. into the Leurodal The mountain is covered with enormous masses of snow. arm of the fjord to — . to Evickjock. (see below). After a steep climb of l'/2-2 hrs. horn of Stortoppen (about 490 ft.Jcekna. We may return to Fagerli via the tourist-hut on the Vasbotnfjehl. and the Sulitelma group . among which the Rupsi Joki (-red v^ater'). is the Olmajalos (5350 ft. etc. descend thence into the Saltdal. we cross the Fineid (in about 10 min.. Adjoining the Sulitelma group on the N.234 Route 30. lower than the latter). or restaurant. In 11/2-2 hrs. and now employs 500-600 hands. maintained by the company for the unmarried officials and lodging is usually to be obtained there also (but enquire beforehand at Bod0). on a N. and the port whence the copper-ore mined on that mountain and the fine white marble quarried near Fuske are shipped. — (see above) is interesting. Excursion to the Sulitelma. which lies opposite.E.. end of the Langvand. or FINEIDET.) ply on this lake and steer through the Gjemgamsstrem into the Jdvre Vand. reaching Sjenstaa or Skjeinstuen. at the E. road leads "by the Fuskeeid to Dyhvik on the Foldenfjord (p. see p.) between it and the Leurodal. Furulund. 240). with a fine view of the Langvand.) Lommijaur. which have forced the glaciers to descend 600-700 ft. The ascent of the 'Sulitelma (Lapp •SulluiCielbma\ -festival mountain') from this point takes 13 hrs. A row to the (1 hr. Fauske (slow skyds-station).^ is the seat of the Swedish Sulitelma Mining Co. whicli divides the fjord from the lake of Nedr% Vand. 2 hrs. with views of the Galmifos and of the Sulitelma in the distance. From Sj0nstaa the narrow-gauge Sulitelma Railway (to be continued to Fineidet) runs through a rocky ravine beside the impetuous Langvces-Elv. : From Fagerli we may commanding a fine view of From Fineidet the steamer steers into the S. ba^e of the Sulitelma. from Bode we reach Fuske whence a — Fineidet (Fred. The surrounding district is known as Vattenbygden. The Stortop. and enjoy a grand outlook over a wild desolate mountain region.) Rupsi Joki — . whose brother Fetter Serensen is an excellent guide). the W. the Langvand and the Sulitelma. more bring us to the foot (about 3280 ft. Several of the mining-officials speak English. Sala-Jsekna. The scenery on the Langvand is fine . and Lommiiaur.) height (2780 ft. the most N.) of Stortoppen (6180 ft).W. We are here close to the Swedish border. which we skirt to the (21/2 hrs. Xear it the Balmi Joki forms a fine fall. a lake at the S. and take the steamer from Rognan. the steamboat-terminus (IV2 hr.

W.) Svolvoer (p.). the use of the local steamer in the Lofoten and Vesteraalen groups. more. excursion from Bode to the island of Landegode. Weird. and to Ledingen 2-21/2 hrs. The lines 'Communicationer' 226 I. 31. The TouKisT Steamers take 7 hrs. Almindingen and NoivernoBs. 12 Kil. 235 Rognan skyds-slation fair quarters). from Bod0). Sund Balstad Stamsvnd Heyiningsvcer (p. whence we may reach Oosbakke in the Beierendal (p. guide 6 kr. which goes direct from Bod0 to the Lofoten Islands. which affords a grand view of the whole chain of the Lofoten Islands (N. whole day (there and hack). 13 days 160 kr. especially in Svolvcer^ Kabelvaag. 230) in two days (horse 10. 20 days 200 kr. We row across in 2-3 hrs. 226 III. thence through the Gims03und and the Raftsund to Digermulen 41/2-5 hrs. 240).VESTFJORD. . 1^30) in one day or J!ja-lda. traversing pine-wouds and ]iassing tSundbp. . and of the Hestmand and (_3j An to the N. which pales the moon into insignificance. 241) by routes. The traveller must be prepared to do a good deal of walking on rough paths and to arrange his sleeping hours and meal-times. and W. or the wall of Lofoten) in their full extent. . to liusaanaes (fair quarters). (3-4 rowers) and land near the gaards of Kvig andSandvig. Line Com.. different The Mail Steamkrs ply from Bod0 to Ledingen (p. and Svolvasr (12 hrs. which is entirely unprotected towards the S. from the headland of Kunnen (iJ. ^ ^ — — The hroad *Vestfjord.. whence the first line takes us via KJee to Leidingen in 5 hrs. 237) and then hy Reine. . Local steamers in connection with the mail-boats leave Svolvser alternately for the E. The Lofoten Islands. Saltdals-Kirke stands on the right hank. Threnen (S. thence via Brettesnccs Skroven Risvccr^ and Kjee to Ledingen in 8 hrs. on the left hank of the SaltdaU-Elv. more. Fair quarters and tolerable fare are to be obtained at various points. Route. with guide. 240) only.. 223). In hoth cases wo enjoy a superb **View of the jagged chain of the Lofoten Islands ('LofotVceggen". Kabelvaag. per day).). 238). The Vesterualens Dampskibs-Selskab issues circular tickets for the voyage from Troudhjem to the Lofoten Islands. Line Com. takes a . The tourist-steamers traverse it from end to end. Kognaii lies at the end of the Skjerstadtjord. at the following rates: for 6 days 125 kr. 226 II skirts the mainland longer and is described separately (p. is the midnight light.intes in Ranen (p. Eopen. but according to the departures of the steamers and the length of the excursions (comp.).. takes us by Mosleiioes (p.) of the Sulitelma (E. but less imposing. ^28. p. its last station. more. or more. 231) to EenningsvoEf . and food and lodging on shore. Hut in any case. ^ . Thence we may ascend the *Kvlttind (2320 ft. A Visit of about a week in the Lofoten Islands is described as full of interest.37. while the two others pniceed direct in 3 hours. and Digermulen.. and 229 follow the coast as far as Grete (p. where it stops lor 1 iir. From Rognan we may drive up the Saltdal. The light is most favourable in the forenoon. not according to the clock. 237). while the mail-steamers steam across it. coasts of the Lofoten and Vesteraalen groups. Most effective of all is stormy weather or a sudden tempest. separates the Lofoten and Vesteraalen Islands from the mainland. and then cross to (5-6 hrs. — — . 2-21/2 hrs. ( .

The chain of the *Lof6ten Islands forms a wide curve starting from the Vesteraalen Islands. end. often rising immediately from the sea many of their peaks have a crater-like formation. flesjar and numerous fishing-banks ('Skaller'. The growth of trees in this high latitude is but scanty but there is abundance of fresh vegetation owing to the dampness of the summers and mildness of the winters. lie close to rocks several thousand feet high. are wider apart. They fish on three different banks extending as far as 4 Engl. and extending for about 150 Kil. M. which has a pecubut there is also no lack of liar luminosity in damp weather barren rocks. The famous Lofoten Fishery ia carried on from the middle of January to the middle of April in the Vestfjord. or split entirely open ('Klipfisk'. and straits interspersed with thousands of rocky islets ('Holme'. The larger islands contain rivers and lakes of some size. and it has not inaptly been likened to a backbone tapering away to the smaller vertebrae of the tail at the S. or 'Flese'. known as 'hats'. Good harbours ('Vaage") abound. '. are picturesque and pointed in shape. 'Stfkkjet'. fish caught after 14th April are cut open and the backbones removed. and the number has even reached . and are called 'Rotskjser': when simply cleaned in the ordinary way. which flank the mainland. from klippet. out to sea. 'T0rfisk' (dried fish) is the generic name.W. where large vessels. 'Klaker'). it is not easy for the multitude which floe-ks . with artificial minnow ('Pilk') and sinker ('. they tied The are called 'Eundfisk' or 'Stokfisk'. at a depth of 30. into the Atlantic. and enlivened Most of the mountains at places with fishing-villages ('Vser'). During that period about 30. are caught with nets ('Garn'J. from Icel. A catch (Fisket) of 5-6000 cod per boat is considered a good haul. dwarfed to nut-shells. They are then collectsplit open) and spread out on the rocks to dry. or hand-lines ('Dybsagn'). in Austria. to the S. unless the view is blotted out by mist or rain. The annual yield averages 20 million fish. . As the fishermen are paid in cash. On some iif the outlying islands the cod-heads are boiled with sea-weed ('Tarre'J and used as fodder ('L0pning') for the cattle. and converted into 'fish-guano'. tlie passage of tlie Vestfjord presents one of the finest sights in the Nordland. LOFOTEN ISLANDS. the Norwegian banks send large sums of money to the islands every February. or are tail to tail and hung ('spserref) upon wooden frames ('Hjelder"). . ed into he ips under small round wooden covers. as they are often called) 'Skjcer'. long lines ('Liner'') with baited hooks. The heads are dried by fire. Most of these islands lie so close together that no opening in their long mountain-chain is visible from a distance but those at the S. The shoals ('Torskbjerg'J of cod are so dense that hand-line lishers.000 fishermen in some 8000 boats flock to the Islands from the whole of the W. and 120 fathoms respectively. 37 millions (1S86). . The fish are carried ashore. The cod ('Skrei-Torsk\ Gadus morrhua). : . . which come here from the depths of the Atlantic to spawn. between the islands and the mainland. .^ykkef) hook their prey as fast as they can lower their lines. 45. So far as not covered recalling those of the Tatra Mts. As may be supposed. coast of Xorway. . and are either merely opened ('opvirket) and cleaned.Ternsten'. . pulverised. end of the group This chain forms a perfect maze of hills bays. so that sheep and other animals can remain in the open air all the year round. with snow they are clothed with green moss. Fish salted without other preparation are called 'Laherdan'.236 Route 31.

Each . a strong current often dangerous to lishing-boats. end of which lies the steamboat-station of Balstad. — . 237 3In. On these occasions the men often stick their 'Tolleknive'' into the keel of their craft to enable them to hold on. boat's crew is called a 'Laj. Ure. a natural trap for whales which not unfrequently enter the narrow bay at high tide and cannot turn to go out again. the largest of the Lofoten Islands. Hopen and . The south-westernmost of the larger Lofoten Islands is the Moskenses^r. At the close of the winter fishery ('Gaatfisket') most of the fishermen l'o N. Good roads unite the villages on the Vestvaage. Still farther in this direction are Skomvar.'. 231) steer direct to the Gimsestrem. and VestviTr. On the S. In the middle is the fire-place ('Komfur") where they cook their •Supam0]a'' and 'Okjysta'. of the huge headland of Vrebjerget. past which runs the famous Malstrem or Moskenstrem. The whole proceedings are usually very peaceable. On the E. and Stamsund (Stamsund's Hotel) are also steamboat stations. and residence of the naval officer who superintends it. Some of the keels are even provided with handles CStroppet-') for this purpose. is the islet of Moshen. — . to the E. Farther to the S. Among the hills on the Vestvaager the beautiful Himmeltinder are conspicuous. with church and parsonage and the flat and populous island of Rest. across the Vestfjord often capsizing on the way. Route. with the last lighthouse. Reine (Sverdrup's Hotel).W. Off the island lie the rocky islets Flesene. The S. whicli separates it from the Flakstad«r. a considerable fishing-port. On the E. Near Sund is the Kvalvig ('whale-creek'). on which lie the stations ofSund and Nufsfjord. point of the latter lies HenningsV3er { Jensen's Hotel). on which lies Moskencrs with its church. .st nf the fishermen slci-p the spring fishery to find accDimnodatifin. .). On the W. with a guano-factory a station of the mail steamers. M. the open boats are driven 12-15 Engl. in temporary huts ('Rnrboder') erected for them. coast of the 0stvaagie' are the next stations. The tourist-steamers (p. who choose their own 'Hovedsmand' or captain. then the Vcerei. the strait between the Vestvaager and the 0stvaag0. especially as vspirits are not procurable. On the S. side of the island is the church of Flakstad. backed by the Skotstinder. Above it towers the Vaagekalle (3078 ft. A travelling chaplain ('Stiftskapbin'') performs service on Sundays. t'l 31. the second steamboat-station. to Finmarken for the 'Vaarfiske' ('summer fishery') or the 'Loddefiske\ The fishery is unfortunately often attended with great loss of life.MOSKEN^S0. a station of tlie mail-steamers on Line III and of the local steamers. Thus when a westerly gale springs up. side of the Flakstad«r is the Napstrem. separating it from the large Vestvaag^r. is also situated on the Moskenaese. side of the Moskensesa is the Sundstrem.. end of the island is called Lofotodden. populated chiefly by gulls and guillemots. and the sea-birds' haunt of Nykerne. Grundskallen. on a small island at the S. one of'the chief centres of the fishery traffic. rendering it impossible to return to the islands. all excellent fishing-grounds.

Steering to the S. is Digermulen. On the the E. with its lighthouse. Church. 237) should also be inspected. strem The Tourist Steamers pass Henningsvser and enter the Gimse(p. A little farther to the N. 1894). 5 kr. to which we may cross by ferry in 20 minutes. islands of Skroven. near which are Storvaagen and Kirkevaagen.) a group of fishermen's huts opposite to Svolvser. Henry The studio of the painter J. The scene is grandest at Lgfki^und. Its glacier is said to be the saddle of a persecuted giantess. visible in the distance. . Beyond the small island of Lyngvcpr. The churcli of Vaagen was founded at the beginning of the 12th century. containing a few paintings and sketches. About 31/2 hrs. situated on a small island off the S. with guano-works. . the ISilsvigtinder Faldfjeld^ and the Svartsundtinder. Hans Egede. Lnfvitn Kabelvaag (Olaf Tryyvaseri's Hotel. tains. deserves a visit. which is flanked by finely shaped mountains. side of the 0stvaager with its fjords and fine moun. on the W. daily. which is enclosed by almost perpendicular rocks . at the head of a creek on the They then steer past the right. with the steamboat-station Brettesnces and a large English guano factory. we pass between huge mountains furrowed with ravines and covered with large expanses of snow. coast of the 0stvaag«'. is the guano-factory of Lyngvcer. This much contorted island belongs to the Vesteraalen group (p. the missionary of Greenland. here pass through is called the Hadselfjord. after the church of Hadsel on the E. Freken Olsen's Hotel). where at the head of the '^^Troldfjord tower the snowy Troldtinder in several peaks. we observe the Metsadel (3610 ft. . K..). at the S. are the Brubrektinder . British vice-consul. The SvolvcErjura [about 1900 ft. Gimse. on the W. point of the Ulfe. One of the 'Rorboder' (p. is also the most important steamboat-station on the Lofoten Islands and is the starting-point of the Lofoten and Vesteraalen local steamers (p. side of which is the Sundklakstrem and out to sea on the N. s\n)LyjEii. Hotel Lofoten). was pastor here in 1705-18. Svolvser ( Kaarbee' s Hotel . & board. Due E.). separating the Ostvaage* from the grandest of the Lofoten straits the Hinde. rising in the centre of the Hinder. from Henningsvaer the tourist-vessels pass the islet Hane (station) on the left and enter the *Raftsiind. Lille Molla. another busy fishing-station. In fine weather the tourist-steamers enter the Troldfjord. Gunnar Berg (d. 235). A road leads from Kabelvaag through fine rocky scenery to (1 1/4 hr.) may be ascended in 3hrs. entrance — to the Raftsund (see below). On the left lies the pleasant island of TJlfjer with the The strait we steamboat-station of Melbo (Fredriksen's Hotel). Mr. the largest fishing-station on the Lofoten Islands. (there and back 5 hrs. 237). and Store Molla. the midnight sun is visible from the top Opposite Svolvser are the between May 28th and July 14th. at Brettesnses (see below). 239).238 U'jute:n.

as described in R. connected with the Digermulkollen. Behind it rises *-*Digermulkollen (1150 ft. extending beneath the sea. William II. abrupt hills rise to a height of 1970 ft. between the Lang0 and the Hind0 to Portland. — with attractive forceround. Ascent IV2 ^t. end of the Eaftsund lies the island of Store Molla (p. an island interesting to only. Heine in 1887. 32. The local Vesteraalen steamer from Svolvjer (p. cutting deep into the Hinde. a mountain-lake almost always frozen (about above which the Tnddtinder rise almost sheer for 3200 ft. consisting of the house of the Landhandler Normann ('*Hotel") and a few fishermen's on foot 8'JOft. and to the E. and on the E. an island with numerous fjords. 23V) vitlisnow-flUed gorges. we see the mountains on the mainland. also on the and off Ledingen they join the course of the mail-steamers. 238) it steers to the K. side of it. is Digermulen. 238j. 238) is visible the whole way. on the Sortlandsund. end of the Lang0. From its extensive swamps. side. 23S) also traverses the Raftsund.at the top are a belvedere and a refuge-hut. The passage takes about an hour in all. which affords perhaps the most superb view in the whole Nordland. 229). at the S. — . To the S. beyond the Gavl/jord. to the left of which are the distant hills of the Langer and the other Raftsund Mts. An even more comprehensive view is obtained from the Sneetind (about 2300 ft. end of the Hinder. The vessel then steers back to Stokmarknces^ on the Ulf0. we overlook the whole of the Vestfjord witli the open sea beyond it. on the left. ).W. A very interesting excursion (4 hrs. rises the Sneetind.) left. — . a station of the local steamers.W. (From this point a great Panorama was taken by the painters Jos. . The tourist-ships round the promontory of Digermulen. Vesteraalen group and together with the Skogse contains five parishes ('Fjerdinger'). in the foreground. and was visited by Emp. Krieger and Adalb.W. Meanwhile we may row (in a 'Sexring') across the Sund to visit the 'Eiderholme' or hatcheries of the eider-ducks (p. in 1889. At the S. side of which. lies Alfsvaag (P. there and back) may be made from Digermulen (see below) by rowing to the Troldfjord and then ascendin<r \io\v of the Raftsuiid. and returns on the W. Grand scenery. Opposite Skjoldehavn. on the E. and isthmuses. we may land and wait for the boat returning next day. is Risehavn (Kagel's Hotel) on the And0. descent to the shore l^/^hr. which forms the chief part of the W. Erlksen's Hotel) on the Lang0. Looking back. at which a local steamer from Harstadhavn also calls geologists — — once a week. The M^sadel (p. Thence to the N.Jdamh. pass the rocky islet of Aarsten on the right.).) We also obtain a beautiful survey of the Raftsund. The steamer then goes on to Langenas. on the And0. rise the lofty Korsnastind and lierhoptind. we obtain aiiotlKTmagiiiflcciit To tlie W. huts. and Kjee (Line I). The predominant sandstone and clay-slate formation is underlain by a thick vein of coal. The last station towards the N. DIGEIJMULKOLLEN. peninsulas. 31. on which the 'Multebser" abounds. At Soriland (Ellingsons Hotel). and the 0gsfjord. and through the narrow Beveisund to KvilVLCs on the Hindj:^. Route. ascended by an easy path from Digermulkollen in 1 hr. (From Ledingen to Harstadhavn about 2^/2 lirs. to the Troldvand. Next station Skjoldehavn (Petersen's Hotel). From Melbo (p.). at the N. to Stene i Be on the Lang0.

3 S. 7-8 hrs. The mail-steamers take 9-10 hrs. 4 S. into the Flagsund. — and stop at 2 S. Skutvik. . but the rest of their course skirts the mainland. From Harstadhavn to Tromse all the vessels take about 10-12 hrs. 235). M. from L0din2en to Harstadhavn.. on the Hammere. Hall in 1889). first ascended by C. with the Skotstlnder. They then steer round the Engele. see p.eft0. KjcBrringe lies to the S. while their summits are pointed and serrated like the Aiguilles of Mont Blanc. 235). Then through the 0xsund. on a many-armed peninsula.. 237). and the Engele (Stegen) on the N. and farther on. 49 S. Gr. the bottom of which is often seen through the green water. Bode. M.) to the mainland. the Troldtind (first ascended by C. The following pages describe the course of the 3Iail Steamek^s of 'Line ir from Bod0 to Ledwjen. Svolvcpr. M. Resvik (quarters at the Landhandler's). and Dyhvik From Dybvik to Fuske on the Haltenfjord^ fat the end of S0rfolden). Stations: Mi/kleboslad. and cross the mouth of the beautiful Sag fjord to 2 S. of "Nordfolden). Novdfolden. on the same side. To the left opens the Vestfjord (p.M. — Tlie steamer heads and steers to the right through the strait The Foldenfjord divides into the Nordfolden and Serfolden branches. on the E. Boge. 238. the environs of which are grand. The steamboats of Line II now steer back (E. Forbes in his 'Norway') has the form of an extinct crater. Farther on is the abrupt Tilthorn. p. on the W.M. From L0dingen to Iromse the course of all the mail-steamalmost coincides with that of the tourist-steamers. we pass through the Gissund a very narrow strait. the N.E. to the N. The Strandtind in particular (sketched by Prof. KorsncES. superb Lofoten chain (p. at the entrance of the Tysfjord. The lower part of the mountains has often been worn smooth by glacier-action. of Line II pass between Engelvcer. with the station of Laskestad and the church of Stegen. 234.. and the Merkesvikfjord. more to Ledingen^ and 3 hrs.210 32. in full view of the — — . 232. — Farther N. between the Lunde and the Hammeref and out into the Vestfjord. between the mainland on the S. to both iif which a Local Steamer plies from Bod0 in 10-12 hours. Wild scenery. 235). one of which. Kjcerringe. ^ from the Nordfolden diverge the Vinkefjord ^ with its prolongation the Stavfjord. on which towers the pointed Hammeretind. Those straight across the Vestfjord to Ilenningsva'r (see p. 6 S. of the Foldenfjord. from tlie harbour between the small island that protects the harbour and the larger HjcBrte. From S0rfolden the Leerfjord diverges to see p. At the head of the Foldenfjord rise other huge mountains. from Bod0 to Svolvctr. 236). From Bod0 to Troms0. rises the mountainous island of Landegode (p. Trane i Hammer. and the Skotsfjord. LTS W. 5 S. resembles the Matterhorn. see p. steer to the E. M.M. Leinces (on the Leinoesfjord.M. on which a local . These vessels also touch at Svolvser on the Lofoten Islands (comp. Hall in 1889. to The mail -steamers of Line I steer hence 5 S.

.

) ° ''' H\NDO TROMSO K V LYNGENFJORO - STJERNO ' * V \ \ \ .

.) we row down the four lower Sagvande. The grandest scenery on this fjord is to be found in its E. at the end of which is Skjombotn. the geological continuation of the Vestfjord (steamer twice a week). p. shore. From ifusken. easily ascended) and the Vomtind. rising 4265 ft. To the S.E. is an attractive and prosperous place. 32. Hotel Nordstjernen). passing the old copper-mines of Skjangli (38 Kil. arm of the Skjomenfjord. II/2. The drivers demand 3-4 kr. The chief arms of the Tysfjord are the Hellemo fjord and iheBotn/jord (extending to within 12 Kil. to the N. Route. . side of the Hinde. however. recesses.240). We steer past the E. a route leads by Kraakmo. which is here separated from the Tjcelle and the mainland by the TjceUsund.). 6th. have been worn perfectly smooth by the descending masses of ice. S. and on the return a visit may be paid to the famous olil church of Thronden(fs (IV4 M. Another route crosses the picturesque Dragseid from Drag on the high. at The next stage is less interesting. of Harstad).E. The tourist-steamers halt here for about 3 hours. and Tth Sagvand (the boat being dragged across the isthmuses) to the magnificent primteval forest on the 7th lake. The finest scenery here. situated between the 4th and 5th of the seven Sagvande..Swedish frontier). with its enormous glaciers.). 2 kr. From Kraakmo to T0mmern8es on the Sagfjord (17 Kil. p. to Temmernoes on the Sagfjord. 245). Sandtorv. 7th Edit. 227). and make an excursion by the 5th. M. from Bod«f) Lfl^dingen. R. near the head of the Hellemofjord. with a church and parsonage. where carioles are in waiting. is on the "W. of the Hinder through the Tjallsund into the Vaags fjord. p. To the N. Baedeker's Norway and Sweden. on which lies Balangen. 240). at the entrance to the Itay called Bogen^ and then steers S. The steamers lie alongside the pier. bank. 1 S. ](> . an important telegraph station (comp. (22 S.M. of the . The steamboat touches Lidland (good quarters) on the N. is well seen from Ledingen. 387). sheer out of the sea. the steamboat-stations nearest which are Boge and — — Trane (p. D. to Victoriahavn (terminus of a railway now being made to Gellivara in Sweden. Harstad or Harstadhavn (Central Hotel. at the end of which lies Elvegaard (good quarters). with its sheer left side. the first station in Tromse Atnt^ on a fertile on the N. 2 S.M. particularly the Romhak and the Beufjord^i between which rise the Teita (4921 ft. from the Ofotenfjord diverges the Skjomenfjord. picturesquely situated on a peninsula of the many-branched Hinde. is fertile but rather tame.M. Near the fjord is a waterfall 50 ft. The sides of this mountain. travellers sliould decline to be crowded. another to Hopen on the Nordfoldenfjord Cp. From Kraakmo (excellent quarters) we may ascend the huge Kraakmotind.E. 241 steamer plies to Kjebsvig. The Landhandler at Fagernses provides a guide. side which afterwards expands 4 2 hill S. Tysfjord to the Sagfjord. and to Fagernoss on the Beisfjord (good quarters at Mosling's). in the middle ages the northernmost in Christendom. Grcesholmen^ both on the Hinde. A drive may be taken to a neighbouring Lapp Encampment (comp.HARSTAD. backed by Frostisen (to the W. per head for this drive as there arc plenty t>f carriages. . the Grundfjord the Manfjord^ and the picturesque Stedfjord^ above which rises the Stedtind. The S. of L0dingen extends the large Ofotenfjord. A route to Sweden leads hence through the S>irdal. M. The curious shape of this flat-topped mountain.

also touched at by a local steamboat from Troms«f. halibut) are caught here and dried in the open air. M. both of which may be ascended. A single fish sometimes attains a length of 7-10 ft. To the S. through which the tourist -steamers pass on their return-voyage. comp. The shores are green. rise the snowclad Ghirragas-Tjokko. The tourist-steamers steer to the N. and to the E. before the middle of July.is of stone and vaulted. 239) Harstad is a station of the in the Vesteraalen group. M. Havnvik.E. 3 S. and to the S. the W. The tower the abrupt Aarbodstind and the Faxtind (see below). with the Dyresund. — — 4 S. which. Here. on the Mj«rsund rises the huge Aarbodstind (3855 ft. 4 S. past the Finfjordvand^ to Guldhav in the Maalselv-Dal (p. to the left rise the rugged mountains at the N. lies the Dyre. KastncEshavn. . with a large glacier and a waterfall.). on the pretty scenery is backed by snow-mountains.M.M. we see the pointed mountains of the Gryte and in the distance the Senjehest^ the S. are seen at once. 243). On the mainland lie the stations of Lavangiices and Seveien. 244). of it fhe Skavlikollen (3297 ft.).). from Harstad to the Eolde and into the Astafjord to . Gibostad (telegraph.). whence all these mountains. pleasantly situated on the Finfjord^ whence a new road leads to the N. mainland. To the E. while the horizon To to the W.E. we have an opportunity of seeing the midnight sun (p. while all the other churches in Tromse-Stift are of timber. Between the Gryte and the Senjehest appears in the distance the Vesteraalen island And» (p. The fat fins are called 'rav'. across the Vaagsfjord.. wooded. with a guide. The next station is Finsnas. or /sfmdcr (4865 ft.). 227) is also in the island of Senjen. 239). is bounded by the mountains of Ande and others. on the mainland.E. like that of Thronden8es. headland of Senjen (see below). mail-steamers steer S. Immediately to the W. end of the island of Senjen and ahead appears the Lille Blaamand on the — — .). Eleven. Kval» (p. to the right. on the island of «5enjen (648 sq. To the S.242 Route 32. and tolerably well peopled.E. between the Andorje and the mainland. and the Farther on. The scenery is still more impressive at 4 S. p.M. Large quantities of 'Kveiter' (Hippoglossus maximus. We steer between the island and the mainland. SALANGENFJORD. towers the Messetind (3317 ft. The scenery is grand as we steam through the *Salangenfjord and the Mj«rsund. and more than fills a barrel. Near it is the church of Jhestad. To the N. the pointed Faxtind (3995 ft. 224). the flesh of the back 'rsekling'. appear the white church and the parsonage of Lenvik.. on the Rold0. including — the pinnacle of the Faxtind.. the first from the Gratangenfjord^ the second from the Grav fjord. on the mainland. Troms0-Amt steamers From Bode to Risehavn (p.

Alap (4956 ft. 247. where the Giiolagcprro (or Kisiefjeld. Theough the Maalselvdal to the Rostavand.) Sundli. M. which. (The rest of this route lies beyond the limits of our Map.ien. And the Dutchmen were forced to be off. of the 16* . To the left rise the Jstinder (see above). and S. their foes. MaalsncEs (Pedersen's Hotel). 1. with the Nordgaard. to the E. slow station). a little to the N. From the Maalselvdal to the Balsfjord. to the S. Ruten (4385 ft. Norway in the middle ages. see above. Route. good carriage -road. a fine waterfall of the Bardu-Elv. Before reaching Sundli we diverge to the left to Fosmoen and the Bardu/os.E. to Kirkemoen in the Bardudal.W. The road then leads past the church oi Maalselven to (11 Kil. of which the longest are the Nordfjord and Auerfjord. To the S. to Maalsnjes.) Moen (good quarThe grand mountain facing us is the Ohivragas ters at Hvys Enke's).^ (But their trade was soon brought to a close By the merchants of Bergen. (Through the valley of the latter a route leads to the Balsfjord and Lyngenfjord. on a promontory near the mouth of the Maals-Elv.). whence the ascent is made through a small valley on the E. leads past the Nedre Vand to Vashoved. The road in the Bardudal. 3rd day. the Likka/Jeld. rise the snowy mountains of the Maalselvdal. the W. we arrive at J(fvevhy (poor quarters . the Bratlifjeld. and the Rokonbovre (5350ft. dav's walk) is from ()l. lies at the confluence of the Maals-Elv and the Tahmok-Elv.) on the 8. to S0veien. resembling a crater. (p. and may even be made by mountaineers without a guide. 243 The tourist-steamers and the mail-steamers of Line III cross the Malangenfjord those of Lines I and II steer into it to the This fjord. and Seutivarre (Kamnoesfjdd).).).) Passing several small stations..E. 242). u rises on the N. An excellent point of view is Lille Mauket (1850 ft.) Above the Rostavand rises the huge Rostafjeld (^5110 ft. quite near. ascend the Rostafjeld.) Bakkehaug and (12 Kil. 242).to Tfomse. Opposite the llostafjeld.) Brandvold. Da blev det de Bergenske KJebmoend imod^ .uide. side.<hnrg. The next station is in the Bardudal. it sends off four deep inlets. is enclosed by high mountains. and then (18 Kil. Moen. We ride to the gaard of Kongslid (gnud quarters). crosses the hill called Kohieryggen to (10 Kil. Maalsnaes is a good starting-point for excursions to the Maalselvdal and the Bardudal. From Moen to S^vf. against the will of the Hanseatic merchants (p. (17 Kil..). inhabited chiefly by colonists from the 0stcrdal and the Gudbrandsdal. The following tour includes the Maalselvdal and the Bardudal: 1st day. Soetettnoen. from Maalsnses to 0verby or Kongslid. — Hollcenderne maatte sig pakke. but touches at 5 S.).) Neevgaard (slow station). rise the iiWatJan-e (4895 ft. of which the steamer affords a view. The steamer does not enter these inlets. frontier of S. where the Dutch attempted to found a settlement in the 17th cent. the first of whom settled here in 1796. to the 8. 2. goes on to Viken and the Altevand . To the S. and the snow peaks on the Lyngenfjord are visible to the E. We drive (fast stations as far asBakkehaugJ past Hollcendevnoes.) — — Beveien 3. uninteresting. 4th day. 23 Kil. the ascent of which is not difficult. S.) Our route. 32. 5660 ft. 115). which formed the N.. Tj'okko. MALANGENFJORD.) The first station in this picturesque valley is (14 Kil.) Guldhav. p..E. near Moen. wit