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Code No: R5311106

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• III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009

PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION (Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

All Questions carry equal marks

 1. In a jacketed tank, the temperature of process stream θ 1 is preheated to a temperature θ 2 by means of steam with temperature θ s through the jacket. Assume that the capacity of the tank wall is negligible and that the temperature inside the jacket is uniform. (a) Derive the transfer function of this system to study the temperature response if the rate of ﬂow of process stream is constant. (b) Make correction in the transfer function if the rate of ﬂow of the process stream is also a variable. Also discuss about the time constants for a high ﬂow rate and a low ﬂow rate. [8+8] 2. (a) Give one example for Interacting ﬁrst order elements in series. (b) Write the diﬀerential equation for this combination and determine the transfer function. (c) Comment on the transfer function. [3+10+3] 3. (a) Explain the principle of diﬀerent types of discontinuous controller modes with examples. Mention them applications. (b) Distinguish between multi position controller mode and ﬂoating control mode with neat sketches. [10+6] 4. (a) Explain in detail, the realization of proportional-integral action with the aid of bellows, ﬂapper- nozzle etc. (b) Draw a three mode electronic controller and derive the expression for the output voltage. [8+8] 5. Illustrate with relevant graphs the following methods of optimum settings from the plant response. (a) Damped oscillation method. (b) Reaction - curve method. [16] 6. (a) Give the principle of the control valve and give its O/P equation. (b) A pressure diﬀerence of 1.5 psi occurs across a constriction in a 4 cm diameter pipe. The con- striction constant is 0.008 w 3 /s/(kPa) 1/2 . Find i. the ﬂow rate in m 3 /sec. ii. ﬂow velocity in m/sec. [8+8] 7. A heating furnace requires a control valve passing 10gpm preheated light fuel oil (SP.gr. = 0.8) at full load and only 2 gpm at the smallest heating load. The source pressure constant at 50psi gage, but there is 10psi drop in the oil pre heater and 20 psi drop at the furnace burner nozzles. Remaining pressure drop occurs only at control valve when it is fully opened. (a) Find out control valve size required for the above application. (b) Find out required rangeability of the valve (c) Find out characteristic coeﬃcient (α). [6+4+6] 8. (a) What is the fundamental characteristics of cascade control. (b) Explain the basic principles of cascade control with one industrial application. [8+8]

Code No: R5311106

2
• III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009

PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION (Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

All Questions carry equal marks

 1. A Cylindrical tank with an area of 20 ft 2 and a height of 10 ft has a normal liquid depth of 6ft. The ﬂow to the tank is 10±1 cubic ft/min, and the liquid is discharged through a control valve to a process at atmospheric pressure. ( 1 ft = 0.305 metre) Calculate the time constant if the tank is (a) Open to the atmosphere (b) Closed, with a constant pressure of 10 psig above the liquid. (c) Closed, with a ﬁxed amount of air sealed above the liquid. The initial pressure is 10 psig. [16] 2. (a) Diﬀerentiate between a “Servo operation” and “Regulator operation”. (b) Give a typical example for servo operation and explain. (c) Explain the regulator operation with an example. [4+6+6] 3. (a) Discuss the eﬀects of an integral controller on the closed loop response of ﬁrst order process. (b) With neat sketches, explain the principle of derivative control action. Summarize its [8+8] characteristics. 4. (a) Explain in detail, the realization of proportional-integral action with the aid of bellows, ﬂapper-nozzle etc. (b) Draw a three mode electronic controller and derive the expression for the output voltage. [8+8] 5. (a) What is meant by process tuning and list the various methods of tuning of PID parameters. (b) Discuss process reaction method for control loop tuning. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the principle of operation of a stepping motor and give its sole as an actuator. (b) A hydraulic system uses pistons of diameter 2cm and 40cm. What force on the small piston will raise a 500 kg mass. [10+6] 7. A heating furnace requires a control valve passing 10gpm preheated light fuel oil (SP.gr. = 0.8) at full load and only 2 gpm at the smallest heating load. The source pressure constant at 50psi gage, but there is 10psi drop in the oil pre heater and 20 psi drop at the furnace burner nozzles. Remaining pressure drop occurs only at control valve when it is fully opened. (a) Find out control valve size required for the above application. (b) Find out required rangeability of the valve (c) Find out characteristic coeﬃcient (α). [6+4+6] 8. (a) Explain the process of controlling reﬂux in distillation column. (b) Explain the control of indirect bottom product in a distillation column. [8+8]

Code No: R5311106

3
• III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009

PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION (Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

All Questions carry equal marks

 (a) 1. Derive the process diﬀerential equations and the transfer function for the following two capacity level process as shown in the ﬁgure1. Figure 1: (b) This level process is an interacting system – say “TRUE” or “ FALSE”. Support your answer with valid reasons. (c) Deﬁne the system time constants of the above process. [9+4+3] (a) 2. Diﬀerentiate between a non-interacting system and an interacting system. (b) Give one example each for non-interacting system and interacting system. (c) Derive the transfer functions for the above two systems and discuss how they diﬀer. [3+2+11] (a) 3. Explain with neat sketches, the characteristics of two position and three position controller modes. (b) What is cycling? Suggest a suitable modiﬁcation to overcome cycling. [6+10] (a) 4. Explain in detail with a neat sketch, the working principle of a pneumatic PID controller. Write a note on various time constants involved. (b) Outline the design steps involved in the implementation of an electronic PD controller and explain. [8+8] (a) 5. Explain the following terms as applicable to system evaluation with necessary graphs. i. Stability ii. measure of quality . (b) Discuss the quarter - amplitude criterion to evaluate the response. [8+8] (a) 6. A 4-20mA control signal is loaded by a 100-Ω resistor and must produce a 20-40 volt motor drive signal. Find an equation relating the input current to the output voltage. (b) Explain with an example the need of signal conditioning system in the ﬁnal control operation. [8+8] 7. Write short notes on. (a) Sliding stem Valves (b) Rotating shaft Valves. [8+8] (a) 8. What is the fundamental characteristics of cascade control. (b) Explain the basic principles of cascade control with one industrial application. [8+8]

Code No: R5311106

4

III B.Tech I Semester(R05) Supplementary Examinations, May 2009

PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION (Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Instrumentation & Control Engineering)

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80