You are on page 1of 7

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 1 of 7

Principles Of Accounting
Principles of Accounting Made Easy
Home Topics Pricacy Policy
Accounting

Contact Us
Balance Sheet Business Credit Debit Credit

Search

Business reporting

Project Management Degree


www.aiu.edu

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ Rectification of errors


corrected in the books of the business Correction of errors After the errors are found out from the books, those should be corrected. The correction of errors is to be done by passing correction entries or rectification entries in the general journal. The preparation of trial balance is the test of arithmetical accuracy of the ledger accounts prepared under double entry system. It proves the equality of debit and credit. A trial balance, which agrees, indicates that for every debit there has been an equivalent credit entry or entries. It does prove that all the entries are for the correct amount or made to the correct account

Get Insight and Information On The Airline Industry Where it's Going www.Amadeus.com/BigData

Bachelors in Project Management, Rectification of errors and suspense account Earn your Bachelor's Degree While recording the transactions in the journal, posting them to the ledger accounts, casting or at the Online. time of balancing the accounts, there are chances for errors. Such errors are to be found out and

Types of errors which do not affect the agreement of the trial balance 1. Errors of omission: Where a transaction is completely omitted from the books (Journal or ledger). E.g. a sales invoice $ 245 to Bolton was completely omitted from the accounts. 2. Errors of commission. Where a correct amount is entered in wrong persons account, for E.g. Credit purchase from C. Clint has been recorded in the account of C. Clintons account. 3. Errors of principle: Where an item is entered in wrong class of accounts, E.g. Purchase of plant had been debited to purchase account instead of debiting to plant account.

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
4. Compensating errors: Where errors cancel out each other, for E.g. Sales account was overcast by $ 500 at the same time the purchase account was also overcast by $500, and then the effect of these errors would cancel out in the trial balance 5. Errors of original entry: Where the original figure is incorrect but recorded in the correct original entry. Eg. Credit sales of goods$ 400 was calculated in the invoice as $ 300 and recorded in the same journal. 6. Complete reversal of entries: This occurs where the entries for transactions are reversed- the account which should be credited is debited and the account which should be debited is credited. Eg. The purchase of stationery for $ 200 for cash debited to cash and credited to stationery. 7. Transposition errors: Where the wrong sequence of the individual characters within a number was entered. E.g. An amount of a transaction $ 172 was entered in the accounts as $127 One way to help remember the six errors is to memorize COPCORT Commission Omission Principle Compensating Original entry Reversal Transposition Types of errors which do affect the agreement of the trial balance The following errors will stop the trial balance from agreeing because debit does not equal to credit. 1. Incorrect addition to any accounts 2. Making an entry only on one side of one account i.e. Entering debit but not credit or entering debit but not credit.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
3. Entering a different amount on the debit side from the amount on the credit side 5. Two debit or two credit entry has been made.

4. The double entry has been inaccurate. E.g. Cash sales $15 cash account debited with $5 and sales account credited with $15.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 2 of 7

Casting: means adding figures. Overcastting: means incorrectly adding a column of figures to give an answer which is greater than it should be. Under casting: means incorrectly adding a column of figures to give an answer which is less than it should be. Suspense account: This is the account opened in the books of the business to show the difference in trial balance, when it disagrees. When the errors are found out, the correction is made to suspense account and it will be automatically cancelled.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
Key points Nature of balances of each class of accounts Assets and expenses always debit Liabilities and incomes always credit To increase the balance of an account with debit balance debit the account. To decrease the balance of an account with debit balance credit the account. To increase the balance of an account with credit balance credit the account. To decrease the balance of an account with credit balance debit the account. The journal entries passed in the general journal to correct the errors found in the books of the business are known as rectification entries. The action to be taken for rectification of errors in the case of undercasting and overcasting of accounts Nature of balance Account with a debit balance Account with credit balance In case of undercasting In case of overcasting Dr. Account involved Dr. Suspense account Cr. Suspense account Dr. Suspense account Cr. Account involved Cr. Account involved Dr. Account involved Cr. Suspense account

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
MCQ 1. Purchase of machinery was entered in the purchase account. What type of error was this? B. Principle C. Omission D. Transposition A. Commission 2. The purchases account was added up too much by $ 100 and sales account also added up too much by $ 100. What kind of error is this? A. Commission B. Principle C. Omission D. Compensating 3. A cash receipt from Moorthy was debited to Moortyhys account and credited to cash account. What kind of error is this? A. Error of omission C. complete reversal of entries B. Error of commission D. Transposition errors

4. A cash purchase of goods was completely omitted from the books of the business. What kind of error is this? A. Commission B. Principle C. Omission D. Compensating

5. Goods sold on credit to Saani had been debited to Sonis account. What kind of error is this? A. Commission B. Principle C. Omission D. Transposition.

6. A sale of goods $ 250 to E.Ellis on credit had been completely omitted from the books. What is the entry to correct this error? 1. Debit sales account $ 250 and credit E.ellis $ 250 2. Debit E.Ellis $ 250 and credit sales account $ 250 3. Debit cash account $ 250 and credit sales account $ 250 4. Debit bank account $ 250 and credit sales account $ 250 7. Sale of machinery had been recorded in the sales account. What would be the entry to correct this error? 1. Debit sales account and credit machinery account 2. Debit machinery account and credit sales account

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
3. Debit cash account and credit machinery account 4. Debit machinery account and credit cash account 8. A sale of goods to Jeena $ 38 was entered in the books as $ 28. How should this error be corrected?

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 3 of 7

1. Debit Jeena $ 38 and credit sales account $ 38 2. Debit sales account $ 38 and credit Jeenas account $ 38 3. Debit Jeena $ 10 and credit sales account $ 10 4. Debit sales account $ 10 and credit Jeena $ 10 9. A payment of cash $ 300 to M.Meenu was entered on the debit side of the cash book and credit side of M.Meenu account. What entry is required to correct this error? 1. M,Meenu debit $ 300 and cash account credit $ 300 2. Cash account debit $300 and M.Meenu credit $ 300 3. M.Meenu debit $ 600 and cash account credit $ 600 4. Cash account debit $ 600 and M.Meenu credit $ 600

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
A. Overstated by $ 1400 C. No effect B. Understated by $ 1400 D. Overstated by $ 2800 11. A purchase of fixed assets $ 300 was debited to the purchases account. What would be the effect of this error? 1. Only net profit is overstated B. Only gross profit is overstated 2. No effect on gross profit or net profit 3. Gross profit & fixed assets are understated. 12. After which error will a trial balance still balance? A. Purchase book was overcast by $ 200 B. Sales book was under cast by $ 300 C. Rent paid by cash $ 400 debited rent account only D. Purchase of machinery $ 1000 was debited to purchase account and credited to cash account. 13. Wages paid for the installation of new machinery debited to wages account. What kind of error is this? A. Omission B. Commission C. Principle D. Compensating

10. Closing stock was overvalued by $ 1400. What is the effect of this error on cost of goods sold?

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
14. A revenue expenditure was treated as capital expenditure. What is the effect of this error on the final account items? 1. The gross profit is unaffected, net profit and fixed assets are overstated. 2. The net profit and fixed assets are understated 3. The net profit is unaffected and fixed assets are overstated 4. No effect on any of final accounts items 15. A business paid $224 to X. The entry in the cash book was correct. But it was credited as $ 242 in Xs account. What is the difference between the totals of the trial balance? 1. $ 18 B. $ 36 C. $ 466 D. $ 484

Assignment questions:Q1. Pass rectification entries for the following errors found from the books of a business:-

1. sales day book had been under cast by $200 2. sale of goods to J.Johnson on credit for $ 500 had been debited to J.Jackson 3. Salaries account had been overcast by $ 300. 4. Purchase of goods by cash recorded in the cash account only $ 400. 5. Goods returned to Manu $ 150 debited to returns outwards account and credited to Manus account. 6. Repairs to motor car $ 400 debited to motor car account. 7. Returns outwards account had been overcast by $ 150. 8. A cheque received from Mathew $ 500 had been entered in the cash book only. 9. A payment made by cash $100 to Sunil was omitted from the books of the business. 10. Sales of machinery $ 1000 had been credited to sales account and debited to cash account.

Q 2. The trial balance of a business was prepared on 31st Dec 2003 and it did not agree. Later, the following errors were found out:1. Drawings account had been overcast by $ 250. 2. Goods bought for the owners personal use $ 400 had been included in the purchase account. 3. Capital brought into the business additionally $ 5000 was debited to bank account and

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
credited to cash account. 4. Sales of goods on credit to J.John $ 400 had been debited to J.Jeanss account. 5. Insurance account was overcast by $ 150. 6. Carriage on purchases $ 450 paid by cash was completely omitted from the books.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 4 of 7

7. Discount received $ 200 had been debited to discount allowed account. 8. Interest on capital to the partner $ 100 had not been entered in the books of the business. 9. A cheque for $ 270 received from Albert recorded correctly in the cash book but recorded in account as $ 207. 10. A debtor who owed $ 130 to the business was declared insolvent and the amount due from him had to be written off. But this record was not made in the books. Show the rectification entries for the above errors and prepare the suspense account showing clearly the opening balance. Alberts

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
1. Purchase of goods from Mithal $ 400 posted to his account as $ 40 and correctly posted to purchases account.

Q 3.

On extracting a trial balance, a book keeper finds that it fails to agree. He enters the difference in

a suspense account in the credit side. After checking the accounts, he finds the following errors:-

1. Purchase day book had been overcast by $ 75. 2. Discount of $ 68 allowed to T. Brown entered on the debit side of T.Browns account. 3. Total of sales returns book $ 200 entered to the credit side of returns inwards account 4. Debit balance of debtors account $ 98 incorrectly b/d as $ 89. 5. $ 140 received from Makin credited to Maliks account. Pass rectification entries for the above errors and prepare the suspense account clearly showing the opening balance.

Q 4.

The trial balance drawn up from the books of a business on 31st Dec 2003 did not balance, the

debit total being $ 17698 and credit total $ 18210. A suspense account was opened and the difference entered in that account. Subsequently, the following errors were discovered:1. A cheque for $ 64 received from M.Minu had been entered in the books as $ 46 2. The purchase account had been undercast by $ 140 3. Goods sold to J.Jaava $ 280 had been enterd correctly in the sales account but entered as $ 208 in J.Jaavas account

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
1. The owner had taken goods costing $ 300 for own use during the year. No entry had been made in the books 1. Discount allowed $ 150 had been credited to the discount received account. Required to:a. Write up the journal entries to correct the above errors b. Prepare a suspense account Q 5. The trial balance prepared by a business did not agree. The difference was recorded in a suspense account on the debit side. Later, the following errors were found out from the books:1. The drawings of cash from the business debited drawings account and credited to bank account $ 550 2. Goods returned to Martin $ 120 had been credited to returns outwards account only 3. A credit note was received from Seema $ 160 was not entered in the books. 4. The provision for bad debts $ 250 had been debited to profit & loss account only 5. Commission received in cash recorded in the cash account only $ 170. 6. Goods returned by Simple $ 190 credited to both returns inwards account and Simples account. Pass rectification entries for the above errors and prepare the suspense account by writing the opening balance.

Q 6. A trial balance was drawn up by L.Leena which did not agree. A suspense account was drawn to show the balance in the credit side. The books were checked and the following errors and omissions were discovered:1. The sales book was overcast by $ 100 2. Discount allowed $ 340 had been posted from the cash book to the debtors account, but no other entries have been made. 3. The purchase of office equipment for $ 1200 has been debited to the sundry expenses account.

1. A payment of $ 140 for motor van repairs was entered correctly in the cash book but posted

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
as $ 410 in the motor van repairs account. Required to:

1. L.Leena had taken goods worth $ 300 from stock for her personal use and these have been charged to her account as drawings. No other entries have been recorded

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 5 of 7

1 Write up the rectification entries required to correct the above errors. 2. Write up the suspense account after correction of the above errors.

Q 7. The trial balance prepared by a sole trader did not agree. Later the following errors and omissions were found out from the books of the business:1. Purchase of goods from T Williams $ 190. posted to his account as $ 90 2. Purchase day book had been overcast by $ 25 3. Discount of $ 34 allowed to S. Burns, entered in the debit side of her account. 4. Debit balance on a debtors account of $ 94 incorrectly brought down as $ 49 and included in the trial balance.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
1. Total of sales returns book $ 120 entered to credit of returns inwards account. 2. $ 20 received from C. Jenkins has been credited in error to C. Jenkinson. Required to: 1. Write up the rectification entries required to correct the above errors. 2. Write up the suspense account after correction of the above errors clearly showing the opening balance Q 8. The trial balance drawn up from the books of Joan on 31st December, 2003 did not balance, the debit total being $ 125 664 and the credit total $ 126 000. A suspense account was opened and the difference entered in that account. Subsequently the following errors were discovered. a. A cheque for $ 32 received from J. Steve had been entered in the books as $ 23. b. The purchases account had been undercast by $ 64. c. Goods sold to N. Brown for $ 180 had been entered correctly in the sales account but entered as $ 188 in N. Browns account d. Joan had taken goods costing $ 100 for her own use during the year. No entry had been made in the accounts. e. Discount allowed $ 140 to Lames had been credited to discount received account. Required to :

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
1. Write up the journal entries to correct the above errors. 2. Prepare a suspense account clearly showing the opening balance. Q 9. The trial balance of S. Romsey, a wholesaler, drawn up on 31st December, 2003 did not balance. The difference between the debit and credit totals was entered in a suspense account. Subsequently the following errors were discovered. A, Sales of $ 150 to B. Martin had been debited in error to D. Martin. B. A cheque for $ 150 received from B.Tomy, a debtor, had been correctly posted in the cash book but had been posted to Tomys account as $ 105 C. A debtor, G. Franks, who should have deducted 10% cash discount to which he was entitled, to do so and paid an account of $ 200 in full. It was decided to credit the discount to G. Franks account. D. A bad debt of $80 had been written off during 2003 and although the correct entry had been made in the debtors account, no other entry had been made. E. Purchase returns to L. Lowry $ 300 had been credited to both the sales returns account and L. Lowry account. Required to:1. Write up the journal entries which are necessary to correct the above errors. 2. Prepare the suspense account after the correction of errors, clearly showing the opening balance. failed

Q 10.

Bakewell, a sole trader, prepared a trial balance. Unfortunately, the trial balance did not agree

and a Suspense account was opened. On checking the books on 31st Dec 2003 the following errors were disclosed:1. The purchases day book had been over added by $ 300.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
been made in the discount allowed account. Prepare journal entries to correct the above errors.

2. A sales ledger debit balance of $ 370 for A. Jones had been omitted from the sales ledger. 3. Goods $ 160 returned by N.Nion had been entered in the returns inwards account but no entry had

been made in N.Nions account. 4. Discount allowed $ 320 had been incorrectly credited to the discount received account. No entry had

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 6 of 7

Q11. On drawing up the trial balance, the book keeper found that the totals did not agree. A suspense account was opened and the difference between the totals was entered on it. On checking the books, the following errors were discovered:1. Purchases $ 600 from F. Frensham had been posted to S. Frenshams account. 2. No entry had been made for goods costing $ 800 taken by the proprietor for his own use. 3. Sales returns $ 60 had been entered in the debtors account only. 4. Repairs to premises $ 500 had been debited to the premises account. The correct credit entry had been made. 5. Discount allowed $ 400 had been credited correctly to the debtors account but had been credited to the discount received account in error.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
Required to: 1. Write up the journal entries to correct the above errors. 2. Prepare the suspense account, clearly showing the opening balance. Q12. On drawing the trail balance of a business the book keeper found that the totals did not agree. A suspense account was opened and the difference between the total entered. On checking the books, the following errors were discovered:1. Goods for resale had been purchased by cheque for $ 615. The correct entry had been made in the purchases account but the bank account had been credited with $ 651. 2. White, the owner of the business had taken goods costing $ 180 from the business for his own use, was not recorded in the books. 1. Discount received $ 250 had been debited to discount allowed account. 2. Sale of goods for $ 150 had been omitted from the debtors account. 3. Sales returns had not been posted to the sales returns account in the general ledger $ 126. Required to: 1. Write up the rectification entries for the above errors. 2. Prepare a suspense account clearly showing the opening balance

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/
Q13. On drawing the trial balance, the book keeper found that the totals did not agree. A suspense account was opened and the difference entered in it. On checking the books, the following errors were discovered:1. No entry had been made for the goods taken by the owner for own use $ 2150 2. A debtor paid $ 2 400 by cheque in full settlement of his account of $ 2 500. Both accounts were entered for $ 2 400 only. 3. Purchased a motor car from A. Allen for $ 5 600 by cheque was not entered in the books. 4. A cheque received for $ 3 950 from Neena was credited in Neenas account only. 5. Discount allowed 125 were credited in discount received account. Required to:1. Pass rectification entries for the above errors 2. Prepare suspense account showing the difference in trial balance. Q 14. a. Explain with the help of an example the meaning of error of principle.

b. The trial balance of a company did not balance. The difference between the debit and credit sides was entered in a suspense account. Subsequently, the following errors were discovered. i. Sale of $ 2 750 to A .Allen had been debited in error to A.Alwins account. ii. A cheque for $ 250 received from Saany, a debtor, had been correctly posted in the cash book but had been posted to Saanys account as $ 205 Iii.A debt of $ 95 had been written off during the current year, debited to bad debts account but no entry was made in the debtors account. iv.Purchase returns to Lilly $ 350 had been credited both to the sales returns account and Lillys account. v. The owner took stock to home from the business was not recorded in the books $ 750 Required:1. Write up the rectification entries for the above errors 2. Write up the suspense account, after the corrections have been made, showing clearly the opening balance.

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/

Q 15.

Amber is the owner of a sole trading concern. He prepared the trial balance of his business at

31st December 2003, and it did not agree. The debit total being $ 28 750 and the credit total being

$ 29 250.The difference was recorded in a suspense account. Later, the following errors were discovered from the books of the business:-

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013

Rectification of errors - Principles Of Accounting

Page 7 of 7

1. The purchase return account had been over cast by $ 180 2. Discount allowed $ 200 had been credited to discount received account in error 3. An invoice of $ 600 for goods purchased on credit from Ancy was received before 31st December 2003 but it was not recorded in the accounts of the business. 4. Bank charges of $ 40 were recorded in the bank statement but this entry did not appear in the books of the business. 5. Goods taken by Amber $ 788 recorded in the drawings account with the correct amount, credit entry was made with $ 708. After the correction of the above errors the two totals of the trial balance were equal and suspense account was cancelled. Required to prepare

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/
1. The necessary journal entries for correcting the above errors 2. The suspense account to show the correction of errors. Incoming search terms: Rectification of errors bookkeeping transposition preparation of suspense account purchase book is overcast rectification of accounting errors rectification of errors in accounting rectification of errors in cpt undercasting rectification of errors of omission rectifying journal entries reversing wrong credit accounting error

http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com

/ http://www.principlesofaccounting2.com/

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/ http://principlesofaccounting2.com/

http://principlesofaccounting2.com/topics/rectification-of-errors/

8/12/2013