Design Model for Simple Column Bases- Axially Loaded I Section Columns

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Design Model for Simple Column Bases- Axially Loaded I Section Columns

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

This NCCI provides rules for determining either the design resistance or the required dimensions of base plates of simple columns, i.e. columns which are predominantly loaded in axial compression. While this NCCI is limited to covering symmetrical I section column bases, the rules given can be easily extended to bases of hollow section columns.

Contents

1. 2. 3. 4.

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Introduction Parameters Design model Design situation 1: Dimension a base plate Design situation 2: Determine the design axial load resistance of a column base Shear resistance of the base plate joint References Design bearing strength

2 4 4 7 10 11 12 13

5. 6. 7.

Annex A

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

1.

Introduction

This NCCI covers the design of simple bases of I section columns transmitting an axial compressive force and a shear force (i.e. a pinned column base). The rectangular base plate is welded to the column section in a symmetrically position so that it has projections beyond the column flange outer edges on all sides (see Figure 1.1). The base plate may be positioned eccentrically on the concrete foundation. If not required to resist moment, it is usual practice in many countries to attach this type of column base to the concrete foundation by two anchor bolts symmetrically placed about the web on the columns major axis. However in some countries, such as the UK, it may be required to have four anchor bolts in order to better ensure the stability of the column during erection. Anchor bolts provide resistance to any uplift forces which arise in the column and also, but only under certain conditions, may be used to provide resistance to shear at the column base. The present NCCI does not cover the design of anchor bolts,

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1 2 5 3

df

a)

bfc

bb

bf

hc hb c) hf c)

Key:

Figure 1.1

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

In practice, the following two design situations are encountered: The column section and the axial design force are known. The dimensions of the required base plate are to be determined. The column section, base plate and foundation dimensions are known. The design compressive resistance of the column base is required to be determined. The design procedures for these two situations are given in Sections 4 and 5 respectively. The basis of the design requires a value of the design strength for the foundation joint material (grout) beneath the base plate. A simple conservative value is given in Section 4 and a method to determine a more exact value which can be used in Section 5, taking account of the foundation dimensions and the enhancement of strength that can be realised by load dispersal into the foundation, is given in Annex A to this NCCI. A simple column base may be assumed to be a nominally pinned joint in the global analysis of the frame. Noting that there are no criteria given in EN 1993-1-8 for the nominally pinned classification of column bases, it is possible that National Annexes provide information.

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Page 3

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

2.

Table 2.1

Parameters

Parameters

Definition Ratio of the base plate width or lenght of the design distribution area within the foundation to the width or length of the base plate. Coefficient taking account of long term effects and unfavourable effects due to the manner of loading on the compressive strength of concrete (see EN 1992-1-1) Foundation joint material coefficient. Partial factor on the concrete compressive strength (see EN 19921-1). Partial factor on the bending resistance of the base plate. Width of the base plate. Width of the foundation (corresponding to the column width). Width of the column section (width of the I section column flange). Effective width of a base plate T-stub in compression. Additional bearing width (outside the column section perimeter). Depth of the foundation. Yield strength of the anchor bolt. Yield strength of the base plate. Design bearing strength of the foundation joint. Design compressive strength of the concrete according to EN 1992-1-1. Nj,Ed Nj,Rd Vj,Ed Cf,d FRdu Parameter hf Definition Length of the foundation (corresponding to the column depth). Depth (height) of the column section. Depth of the base plate. Column flange thickness. Effective length of a base plate Tstub in compression. Column web thickness. Base plate thickness. Compression area under the base plate of dimensions bp and hp. Design distribution area (dimensions bc1, hc1) within the concrete foundation after diffusion beneath the base plate. Coefficient of friction between the base plate and the grout layer. Concentrated design resistance for a base plate compressive area of Ac0, according to EN 1992-1-1. Design friction shear resistance. Design shear resistance of the column base plate joint. Design compressive axial load at the column base. Design compressive resistance of the column base. Design shear force at the column base.

The following are the parameters referred to in this NCCI (see Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2):

Parameter

cc

j

c

M0

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Ff,Rd Fv,Rd

3.

3.1

Design model

General

The design model for the axial compression force is based on 6.2.5 and 6.2.8.2(1) of EN 1993-1-8. The basic design approach is to ensure that the bearing stresses under the base plate neither exceed the design bearing strength of the foundation joint material nor lead to excessive bending of the base plate.

Page 4

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

The design model assumes that the bearing resistance of a column base on its foundation is provided by three non-overlapping T-stubs in compression, one for each column flange and one for the column web, as shown in Figure 3.1. For each T-stub, the design bearing resistance is determined by multiplying its bearing area (length by width) by the strength of the foundation joint material. The length and width of each T-stub depend on the dimensions of the relevant flange or web and on an additional bearing width, cantilevered from the T-stub stem as shown in Figure 3.2and Figure 4.1. While the theoretical value of the additional bearing width depends on the elastic bending resistance of the base plate and on the design strength of the foundation joint material, the effective total bearing area needs to be corrected if use of the latter width leads to overlapping of the individual T-stub bearing areas between the flanges.

bfc 3 1

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bp

bf

hc hp hf

Key: 1. T-stub bearing area for left column flange 2. T-stub bearing area for right column flange 3. T-stub bearing area for column web

Figure 3.1

Column base and non overlapping T-stub bearing areas (see Figure 6.19 of EN 1993-1-8)

3.2

There are two basic types of base plate identified in EN1993-1-8, large projection base plates and short projection base plates. For the large projection base plate, the projection of the base plate beyond the column section perimeter is such that the design bearing width on each side of all three T-stubs is usually equal to the value of the additional width (c). A large projection base plate is illustrated in Figure 3.2a). For the short projection base plate, the projection beyond both column flanges towards the base plate edges, while being less than the value of the additional width (c), is adequate to allow fillet welding of the flanges to the base plate. Usually, for the latter purpose, a width approximately equal to the column flange thickness is provided. A short projection base plate is illustrated in Figure 3.2b). Page 5

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

3.3

Note that when some H-section columns are used with thick base plates, the flange T-stubs of additional bearing width c on the web side would overlap in the central area between the flanges as shown in Figure 3.2c) and Figure 3.2d). In such cases, since there would be no bearing area left for a web T- stub, the effective bearing area would be reduced to a simple rectangular area as follows: Short projection base plate: Aeff. bearing = Ac0 = leff beff = hpbp Large projection base plate: Aeff. bearing = Ac0 = leff beff = (hc+ c)(bfc + c) hpbp

c tfc bfc c c twc hc c c tfc leff bp bfc c c twc

tfc

hc

tfc

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hp hc + 2c a)

beff

beff hp hc + 2 tfc b)

tfc

tfc

hc

tfc

bfc

a) b) c) d)

Large projection base plate bearing areas of non overlapping T-stubs Short projection base plate bearing areas of non overlapping T-stubs Large projection base plate bearing areas if overlap of T-stubs occurs Short projection base plate bearing areas if overlap of T-stubs occurs

Area / dimensions of equivalent Tstubs in compression

Figure 3.2

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

4.

If the column section and the axial compression force are given, the following procedure can be used to dimension the base plate. Step 1: Choose the design strengths of the materials Base plate steel strength: A design value for the yield strength f yp of the base plate steel is adopted. Bearing strength of the foundation joint material (grout): It is shown below that, in most practical cases, the value of the design bearing strength of the joint material can be taken as equal to that of the design concrete strength in compression, i.e. f jd = f cd . Table 4.1provides typical design bearing strengths for typical concrete grades and foundation joint materials.

Table 4.1

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Bearing strength for typical foundation concrete and foundation joint material

20 13,3 25 16,7 30 20 35 23,3 40 26,7 45 30

More generally, the design bearing strength of the foundation joint material is given as:

f jd = jf cd

Where:

= Ac1 / Ac0 accounts for the concrete bearing strength enhancement due to diffusion

of the concentrated force within the foundation over the area Ac1 (see Annex A). In practice, the value of 1,5 is commonly used.. f cd is the design compressive strength of the foundation concrete.

With the above assumptions for the values of the coefficients j and one obtains

f jd = jf cd = (2 / 3)(1,5) f cd = f cd , which is the basis for the design values given in Table 4.1.

It is usual practice to use a concrete of medium strength for foundations and quality grout for the joint material in all cases. For other concrete classes and assumptions, see Annex A.

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Step 2: Make a preliminary estimate of the base plate area A first estimate of the required base plate area is given by the larger of the following two values:

1 N j,Ed Ac0 = hcbf c f cd

2

Ac0 =

N j,Ed f cd

Step 3: Choose the type of base plate The choice of the base plate type is recommended to be as follows: Ac0 0,95 hcbfc Ac0 < 0,95 hcbfc adopt a large projection base plate, adopt a short projection base plate.

Note: A large projection base plate may be adopted in all cases. Step 4: Determine the additional bearing width

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The value of the additional bearing width, c, is obtained by satisfying the relevant design bearing resistance condition as follows (see figures 3.2 and 4.1): Design bearing resistance of a short projection base plate: Assuming the projections beyond the column flange edges to be equal to the column flange thickness tfc , the design bearing resistance is as follows: Nj,Rd = fjd [2(bfc + 2 tfc)(c + 2 tfc) + (hc 2 c 2 tfc)(2 c + twc)] Design bearing resistance of a large projection base: Assuming the bearing width about the column perimeter to be equal to the additional bearing width c, the design bearing resistance is as follows: Nj,Rd = fjd [2(bfc + 2 c)(2c + tfc) + (hc - 2 c 2 tfc)(2 c + twc)] Replacing Nj,Rd by Nj,Ed in the above expressions, the solution to the resulting quadratic equations for the unknown c takes the standard form:

c=

Table 4.2 gives the expressions for the constants A, B and C , under the relevant non overlapping T-stub column.

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Table 4.2

Constant

Short projection base Non overlapping T-stubs Large projection base Non overlapping T-stubs 2 T-stub overlap predicted 2

A B C

Check for overlapping T-stubs The value obtained above for the additional width c sometimes exceeds half the height of the column web, which is unacceptable as it implies having overlapping T-stubs bearing areas. Short projection base plate: change to a large projection base plate and recalculate c. Large projection base plate: recalculate c based on having the entire area between the column flanges in bearing in the design expression. The design condition for the large projection base plate then becomes: Nj,Ed Nj,Rd = fjd [(bfc + 2 c)(hc + 2 c)] The corresponding expressions for A, B and C to be used in the solution for c are given in the last column of Table 4.2. Step 5: Determine the required minimum plan dimensions of the base plate The final plan dimensions of the base plate are based on the following: Short projection base plate: bp (bfc + 2 tfc) hp (hc + 2 tfc) Large projection base plate: bp (bfc + 2 c) hp (hc + 2 c) Step 6: Determine the minimum required base plate thickness The minimum required thickness of the base plate is obtained from the condition that the plate, assumed to act as a cantilever off the column perimeter, is not subject to more than its elastic design bending resistance under a uniform bearing pressure equal to fjd acting over the additional width c (see Figure 4.1). The value for the minimum required thickness is given by:

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tp

c f yp (3 f jd M0 )

0, 5

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

tfc tfc

tfc or twc

tp

tp c c

c c tfc

tfc or twc

b)

Column web T-stub and Large projection base column flange T-stub

Uniform distribution of bearing stresses over the width of T-stubs in compression

Figure 4.1

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5. Design situation 2: Determine the design axial load resistance of a column base

Step 1: Establish basic parameters and assumptions Base plate steel grade: the value of fyp is required to be known. Dimensions of the base plate: tp , bp and hp are required to be known. Column section: tfc , twc , bfc and hc are required to be known. Foundation joint material: it is assumed that a value of j = 2/3 is justified. Foundation dimensions (df , bf , hf ) and base plate position parameters (eb, , eh).: df , 1 + 2 eh , 1 + 2 eb ,3 If known, = min 1 + hp bp max(hp , bp ) Where eb = (bf bfc -2 tfc)/2 and eh = (hf hc -2 tfc)/2. If not known, adopt = 1,5 If known, take fcd from table 4.1 (or table A.1) If not known, assume grade 20: fcd = 13,3 N/mm.

Step 2: Determine the design bearing strength The design bearing strength is given by: f jd = 2 / 3f cd

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Step 3: Determine the value of the additional bearing width The value is given by:

c = tp f yp 3 f jd M 0

Step 4: Determine the design compressive resistance of the base plate Short projection base plate If c (hc 2 tfc)/2 the design resistance in compression is given by: Nj,Rd = 2 Ffc,Rd + Fwc,Rd = fjd [2 (bfc + 2c)(c + c + tfc) + (hc 2 c 2 tfc) (2 c + twc)] Note: The projection length c (see figure 4.1) can be safely replaced by tfc. If c > (hc 2 tfc)/2 the design resistance in compression is given by: Nj,Rd = 2 Ffc,Rd = fjd (bphp) . Large projection base plate If c (hc 2 tfc)/2 the design resistance in compression is given by: Nj,Rd = 2 Ffc,Rd + Fwc,Rd = fjd [2 (bfc + 2 c)(2c + tfc) + (hc 2 c 2 tfc)(2 c + twc)]

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If c > (hc 2 tfc)/2 , (hc + 2 c) hp and (bc + 2 c) bp (overlapping) the design resistance in compression is given by: Nj,Rd = 2 Ffc,Rd = fjd [ (bfc + 2 c)( hc + 2 c)] Otherwise, the design resistance in compression is given by: Nj,Rd = 2 Ffc,Rd = fjd [min((bfc + 2 c):bp)min((hc + 2 c ): hp)]

6.

The design shear resistance is based on the friction resistance developed by the compressive load applied by the base plate on the joint material. It is given as (EN 1993-1-8 6.2.2(6)): Fv,Rd = Ff,Rd Where: Ff,Rd = Cf,d Nc,Ed Nc,Ed is the column design compressive load and Cf,d is the coefficient of friction between the base plate and the grout layer. A value of 0,2 is specified for sand-cement mortar. Otherwise tests in accordance with EN 1990 Annex D are required to determine the coefficient value for any other type of grout. The design check is: Vc,Ed Fv,Rd

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

7.

1 2 3 4

References

Cost C1 Column Bases in Steel Building Frames

European Commission Brussels, Edited by Klaus Weynand RWTH Aachen , 1999.

Column Base Plates, AISC Steel Design Guides Series, N1, 1990.

Publication P212, SCI/BCSA, 2002.

Lescouarch, Y.

Pinned column bases, CTICM collection, 1982 (in French).

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Annex A

The design bearing strength of the foundation joint (grout), fjd , depends on: the degree of diffusion of the base plate load into the foundation the compressive strength of the foundation concrete relative strength and thickness of the grout (see 6.2.5(7) of EN 1993-1-8). If the foundation dimensions are sufficiently large compared to those of the base plate, the bearing strength can be significantly greater than the concrete design strength in compression, since optimal diffusion of the load is possible (see Figure A.1 d)). If full diffusion is not possible the design bearing strength can be considerably less than the maximum bearing strength (see Figure A.1 a), b), and c)). The maximum bearing strength corresponds to the situation when the ratio (the limiting condition given in EN1992-1-1 6.7(2)). Where Ac1 Aco is the distribution area (by uninterrupted diffusion within the foundation) is the base plate bearing area

When the ratio Ac1 / Ac0 is at the maximum, the required base dimensions (width, depth and thickness) will be the smallest possible. Although the theoretical minimum value for the Ac1 / Ac0 ratio is unity, it is common practice to adopt a minimum of 1,5. This minimum corresponds to having uninterrupted foundation dimensions of bf = 1,5bp and hf = 1,5hp (see figure A.1 e)). To ensure that this distribution can be achieved, the foundation depth must satisfy the following: df max[bfhf /(bf + hf) , 3bphp /(2bp + 2hp)]

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

bb eb < bb

1 2

eh < hb

hb

1 2

2eb

a)

df

Ac0 Ac1 < 9 Ac0

2eh

b)

df

Ac0 Ac1 < 9 Ac0

3hb or 3bb hb or bb hb or bb

1 2

hb or bb

2

c) Ac0 Ac1 < 9 Ac0 d) 1 1 2

d f > 2h b df > 2 b b

Ac1 = 9 Ac0

bb or hb

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df

e) Ac1 = 2,25 Ac0

Key:

Figure A.1:

Distribution area in the foundation: effect of the base plate size and position

The design bearing strength of the foundation joint material is given as:

f jd = jf cd

= Ac1 / Ac0 is the coefficient which accounts for the concrete bearing strength

enhancement due the diffusion of the concentrated force within the foundation, f cd is the design compressive strength of the foundation concrete. The use of the j = 2/3 coefficient value requires that the relevant conditions on the grout compressive strength (EN 1993-1-8 6.2.5(7)) be met: Page 14

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

If the grout thickness min (50 mm; 0,2 hp ; 0,2 bp), the grout compressive strength should be at least equal to 0,2 f cd If the grout thickness > 50 mm, the grout compressive strength should be at least equal to f cd The determination the value of the bearing strength enhancement coefficient requires knowledge of the foundation dimensions, information which is rarely available at the stage the dimensions the column base plates are fixed. If the foundation dimensions are known, the design bearing strength of the foundation joint can be calculated: f jd = j f cd Ac1 / Ac0 Where: And:

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The following simplifying assumptions are made in this NCCI: To permit a foundation joint material coefficient of j = 2/3, the conditions on strength and thickness of the grout joint (see clause 6.2.5(7) of EN 1993-1-8) are met. In order to simplify the determination of the bearing strength, it is acceptable to consider that the base plate area as a whole is in bearing. Taking Ac0 = bphp (instead of Ac0 = beffheff for a single T-stub) leads to a safe estimate of the bearing resistance of the joint and is consistent with assuming the base plate to be under axial loading only. When the foundation dimensions are known initially, but those of the base plate are not, it is recommended to take Ac0 = (bfc + 2 tfc)(hc + 2 tfc) as an initial estimate. If the foundation dimensions are unknown, it is recognized that usual foundation sizes relative to that of the base plate justify Ac1 / Ac0 = 1,5. Taking = 1,5, a design bearing strength of fjd = fcd is obtained ( f jd = jf cd = ( 2 / 3)(1,5) f cd = f cd ). If the more conservative value for the design bearing strength of fjd = 2/3fcd is adopted it corresponds to having the foundation area, Ac1, equal to the base plate area, Ac0, which is rarely the case in typical building situations. Design on the basis of a design bearing strength fjd greater than fcd is recommended only if there can be prior collaboration with the party responsible for the foundations. The values of fcd and j fcd for the different concrete classes are given in table A.1

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NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Table A.1:

Concrete classes, concrete strengths and bearing resistances (N/mm2) for j = 2/3

12 8 5,3 16 10,7 7,1 20 13,3 8,9 25 16,7 11,1 30 20 13,3 35 23,3 15,6 40 26,7 17,8 45 30 20 50 33,3 22,2 60 40 26,7

Min fjd:for =1,0 f jd = 1,0 j f cd = (2 / 3) f cd fjd for =1,5 f jd = 1,5 j f cd = f cd Max. fjd for =3,0 f jd = 3,0 j f cd = 2 f cd

10,7

13,3

16,7

20

23,3

26,7

30

33,3

40

16

21,4

26,6

33,4

40

46,6

53,4

60

66,6

80

Notes: Some countries may have national practice requirements on the minimum concrete grade to be used for the foundations. For example some countries now require that mass concrete foundations be of grade 20 and reinforced concrete foundations be of grade 25.

The base plate area is estimated as the largest of the following values:

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1 AC0 = Ac1

Foundation dimensions known: df df 1 + 2 eh , 1 + 2 eb ,3 = min 1 + , 1 + , hp bp hc + 2tfc bc + 2tfc Where eb = (bf bfc -2 tfc)/2 and eh = (hf hc -2 tfc)/2. Foundation dimensions unknown:

Ac0 = N j,Ed

= 1,5

j f cd

Page 16

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns SN037a-EN-EU

Quality Record

RESOURCE TITLE NCCI: Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns

Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France

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3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by:

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