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Population size is the number of individuals that represent the population’s gene pool. This practical consist two types of growth, exponential growth and logistic growth (sigmoidal growth). From this practical, we can understand the populations trend that change through in a year.
Table for task 1 Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 Table for task 2 Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 Koala Population A 20 27 55 100 180 320 Koala Population B 20 25 40 55 85 130 Rhinoceros Population A 30 65 115 235 465 980 Rhinceros population B 20 50 85 265 315 635 Table for task 3 Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Zebra Population A 20 80 220 400 500 530 560 Zebra Population B 20 50 100 210 350 450 510 .
0. When this population reaches its equilibrium state. What is the difference between exponential and and logistic (sigmoidal) growth ? Exponential growth can be defined as quantity increase by a fixed percentage in a given interval( for example 0.8 9 10 11 Table for task 4 Time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 570 580 590 600 530 560 570 600 Zebra Population A 20 85 160 270 435 450 450 450 440 460 450 Zebra Population B 20 50 110 155 257 257 227 200 160 150 150 1. This model works that at first the rate of growth getting faster then it slows down since there are too many individual competing on limited space. the size of the population will stay constant. 1. the rate of growth is zero and if there will be no interruptions. the greater will be expansion in population size during specified interval. . The logistics is a different kind of behavior which is more realistic to population not in ideal conditions: the rate of growth is proportional to the amount but there is also a damping factor due to competition and limited resources. The larger the reproductive base. 10 percent over three successive years ). So an increase in population size depends on how many reproductive individuals form the reproductive base in successive increments of time.1.
Emigration means that individuals permanently moving out of the population. exponential growth is rapid in the beginning and slows down at the end.There are a few differences for both growths. early maturation. How do populations gain and lose individuals? Populations are dynamic units of nature. Then. numerous and smaller young. season. 2.need . First. There are also two factors that can decrease the populations. Immigtarion is the arrival of new residents from other populations of the species. Logistic growt happens when there is carrying capacity. shorter life spans. The second factor is immigration. disease. They are deaths and emigration. Population can gain the individuals through two factors births and immigration. it means that population can increase or decrease their numbers every minutes. Sigmoid growth is slow at the beginning and the end. or threat from human. Deaths maybe caused by nature. Births mean the interbreeding of species in a group. 3. What are the characteristics of a population which has a high intrinsic rate of increase? Some of the characteristics of a population which has a high intrinsic rate include. or year. exponential growth only happens when there is no limit in the areas.
parasites. because they need this mineral for shell growth. . If the number of predators suddenly falls. Competition for territory and for mates can drastically reduce the growth of individual organisms. The second one is predator. competitor. Snails. mosquitoes and flies. and shelter. 4. These factors can be divided to two categories. predator. Biotic factors are food. For example. little competition for resources. As a prey population becomes larger. For example all plants compete for light. have high resistance to disease. no matter how much food there is. Competitors mean other organisms may require the same resources from the environment.less parental care of the baby. for example. it becomes easier for predators to find prey. cannot reproduce successfully in an environment low in calcium. biotic and abiotic factors. What are the environmental factors which act to (1) increase population growth and (2) decrease population growth ? There are a few environmental factors that can increase and decrease population growth. and easy to adapt in changing environment. the prey species might increase in number extremely quickly. and so this will reduce growth of a population. Both the quantity and the quality of food are important.
5. Oxygen availability will affects the rate of energy production by respiration. Besides that. These may cause disease. Light may also control breeding cycles in animals and plants. Consequently. species need oxygen to breath. fewer individuals may be born and more may die by starvation or nutrient deficiencies. Look for this explaination. What happens if the population size exceeds the carrying capacity? Carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of individuals of a population that a given environment can sustain indefinitely. . If the population overshoot the carrying capacity. the populationn’s rate of growth will decrease until births are balanced or outnumbered by deaths . Abiotic factors that affecting population growth includes temperature.Parasites also take a part in population growth. sulphur dioxide. nutrients and other resources. Tissue growth can be reduced by the presence of. light is vital for photosynthesis to happen. Light availability will affect the population growth. and reproductive success may be affected by pollutants such as estrogen like substances. species will die. For example. the population will decrease. Now. The last one is toxin or pollutants. Then. more and more individuals must share living quarters. for example. the share available will be dimished or reduced. and slow down the growth and reproductive rate of organisms within a population. As the population increases in size. Without oxygen. light availability and toxins or pollutants. Higher temperatures will speed up enzyme-catalyzed reactions and increase growth. oxygen availability.
Explain what you will do if there is a good season and deer populations for the next season are predicted to overshoot carrying by 20 % ? If the deer will overshoot carrying capacity. wild populations can only be exploited commercially when the numbers of the population is high. . it will be hard to supply food and water to the population. Why is a random change in K from year to year a problem for management of commercially exploited wild populations? Random changes in K mean that the carrying capacity will vary from year to year. So. population will need lot of food. population only needs a few of food. From that. the population will increase slowly. it can’t be exploited because maybe the species will be endangered. This wil bring a lot of problem to the management. Before the next year. If the number is low. I will slow the breeding rates by separate the male and female species. The slow breeding rates will ensure that the species can’t produce fastly. The population will be hardly to be estimated. I will make sure that in the next season the food and water supply is enough for all the deer’s population.6. If K is high. Besides that. In addition. but if the K is low. 7. I will transfer half of the deer to other places in other to avoid the shortage of food supply.
Nor Azlina Abd. (2009). Retrieved on August 14 from website http://www. Mahanom Jalil.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=1005121100193 Population (2010). Biology for STPM Volume 2.com/content/biology/biology-iv/bioticcommunity/factors-affecting-population. Retrieved on August 16 from website http://answers. Rashid. Liew Shee Long. Rashid. Mahassan Mamat.ohio-state. Selangor : Oxford Fajar Population ecology.References Kamaludin A. (2007 ). (2010).org/wiki/Population . Kamaludin A.S.mansfield.wikipedia. Kamariah Haron.htm Factors affecting population.php Factors that affect population gro wth.edu/~sabedon/campbl52. Biology for Matriculation Semester 2 Updated . Kuala Lumpur : Thompson Lee Soon Ching.et al. Jacqueline R. Retrieved on August 14 from website http://www. (2010). (2010). et al. Retrieved on August 16 from http://en. Aziz. Noor Hashida Hashim.tutorvista.
wikipedia. Retrieved on August 14 from website http://www. Retrieved on August 15 from website http://en.hunter-ed.com/ak/course/ch8_carrying_capacity.washington.htm Population ecology.org/wiki/Logistic_function#Logistic_differential_equati on Carrying capacity.about.htm An introduction of population biology. Retrieved on August 15 from website http://courses.com/cs/zoology/a/zoo101ae. (2010). (2010).Logistic function. Retrieved on August 14 from website http://animals. (2010).edu/anth457/popnecol.htm . (2010).
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