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RADIOGRAPHY TESTING- FINAL EXAMINATION OMR Sheet No: 034 GENERAL QUESTION PAPER 1. The adsorption of photons from a given radiation source when passing through matter depends on : A. B. C. D. The youngs modulus of the matter The atomic number, density and thickness of the matter. The specific activity of the source. None of the above.

2. One Becquerel is A. B. C. D. 3.7 x 1010 disintegrations per second I disintegration per second I Curie Both A and C above.

3. X- Ray exposure holders and cassettes often incorporate a sheet of lead in the back which is not in intimate contact with the film. The purpose of this sheet of lead is : A. B. C. D. to act as intensifying screen to protect the film from back scatter both A and B above neither A or B above

4. Improper geometric factors, poor contact between film and lead foil screens and graininess of film are possible causes of: A. B. C. D. Low film density High film density Poor definition Fogged film

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5. LD 50/60 for human beings is A. B. C. D. 300 3 Low Both 500 rad 5 Gy density organ of 50/60 composition A and B above are correct answers

6. The half- value layer of lead for Co-60 radioisotope is approximately 0.5 inch. If the radiation level on the source side of a 1.5 inch Lead plate is 80 R/hr, the radiation side is: A. B. C. D. 8 R/hr 21.3 R/hr 10.0 R/hr 32.0 R/hr

7. The degree of concentration of the radioactive material in a gamma ray source is referred to as : A. the quality of the source B. the speci9kfic weight of the source C. the half life of the source D. the specific activity of the source 8. Film A. B. C. D. selection for an X-ray exposure depends on : thickness of the part the material of the specimen the voltage range of the x-ray machine all of the above are correct answers

9. If an exposure time of 192 seconds and source to film distance of 4 feet is necessary for a particular exposure. What exposure time would be needed for an equivalent if the source to film distance is changed to 2 feet? A. B. C. D. 94 76 48 All Seconds Seconds Seconds of the above are correct answers.

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10. Lead screens are put in direct contact with the film to : A. B. C. D. Increase the photographic action on the film. Absorb the longer wavelength scattered radiation Intensify the photographic effect of the primary more than the scattered Radiation. All of the above are correct answers.

11. With respect to image quality, what three factors must be considered in selecting a source to film distance? A. source activity B. Source activity, size of film, thickness of material C. Source size, source activity, specimen to film distance. D. Source size, specimen thickness, geometric unsharpness E. 12 The following radioisotopes are produced by neutron bombardment in nuclear reactions : A. Cobalt 60 B. Cesium 137 C. Iridium 192 D. Both A and C Approximately how long would it take place for a 20 curie Co 60 source to 2.5 curie? A. B. C. D. 5.3 Years 5.3 Days 10.6 Years 15.9 Years

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14. X-ray film A. B. C. D. Poor definition Low Contrast High Speed None of the above

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15. In making a gamma ray exposure in an unshielded area, at 6 feet distance from source a dose rate of 1200mr is found. What will be the dose rate at 24 feet from the source? A. B. C. D. 16. 200mR/hr 100mR/hr 300mR/hr 75mR/hr

The duty cycle of an X-ray equipment used for film radiography with continuous water cooling is desirable to be. A. a maximum of only 50% at half or rated voltage B. only 50% at full rated voltage C. 100% at 90% of maximum rated voltage and Amperage D. a maximum of 100% at half of rated voltage

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Film characteristic curves are used to: A. B. C. D. Know Know Know none of of of of the the the the properties relationship between different films relationship between varying densities and relative exposure above are correct answers

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Producing an image on a fluorescent screen by passing X-rays through an object is called: A. X-radiograph B. fluoroscopy C. X-ray production D. none of the above The film fixation time should be A. B. C. D. At least 10 Minutes double the development time half of the washing time at least double the clearing time

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20. Fog noticed on the radiograph is due to: A. B. C. D. 21. High humidity High temperature faulty safe light all of the above are correct answers

Archival quality of processed films depends on: A. the quantity of retained developer on the film B. the quantity of films C. the quantity of retained thio sulphate on the film D. the retained developer and hypo on the film

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More dark adaptation of EYE is essential for: A. B. C. D. film radiography fluoroscopy all radiography gamma radiography

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The difference between densities of two adjacent areas on a radiography is called: A. sensitivity B. radiographic contrast C. definition D. all of the above

24.The velocity of electrons striking the target in an X-ray tube is a function of : A. B. C. D. 25. the atomic number of the cathode material the atomic number of the filament material the voltage difference between the cathode and anode none of the above are correct answers.

Calcium 137 radio isotope is commonly used for: A. radiography of very low thickness material B. calibration of radiation survey meters

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C. both A & B above D. neither A or B above 26. Training of radiographic interpreters is : A. B. C. D. 27. not required necessary because they have varying levels of knowledge and experience important for improving the agreement level between interpreters both B and C above are correct answers

Cold shut is a : A. B. C. D. welding discontinuity forging discontinuity machining discontinuity casting discontinuity increased unsharpness of the radiograph produce a radiograph with reduced contrast fogged film reducing the exposure

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A. B. C. D.

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During Service, components fail: A. due to cracking B. due to corrosion C. sometimes due to cracking and also corrosion D. none of the above are correct answers Radiography should be performed: A. in accordance with written procedure developed from applicable Codes, Standards, or Specifications as required by the contractual agreement B. as suggested by the fabricator of the object C. as suggested by your superior D. as per the recommendations of the inspector

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31. A. B. C. D. 32. Hot tears are found in metallic castings in welds in rolled bars in rolled plates

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Incomplete penetration is found in : A. castings B. Rolled plates C. bars and rods D. welds The Focal Spot size of X-ray source is determined: A. B. C. D. from the gamma ray source suppliers report by a pin hole method from the x-ray equipment suppliers Catalogue both B & C above are correct answers

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Half life of Cesium 137 radioisotopes is: A. B. C. D. 12.5 days 5.3 years 74 days 33years.

35. For a given radioisotope, a material with a 74.25mm Tenth value layer has a Half value layer of : A. 6.5 mm B. 9.5 mm C.12.5mm D. 22.5 mm 36. The critical difference between the operation of detection in the Ionization, Geiger Muller, and Proportional region is the: A. pulse duration B. Voltage applied to the central electrodes. C. specific ionization of the chamber gas

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D. resistance of the electrode 37. Use of stop bath in processing a radiograph: A. B. C. D. 38. prevents frilling of the image inhibits fixation allows a shorter developing time results none of the above.

If an acceptable 2.5 radiographic density is observed using a 25mA-min, technique at an SFD of 150 Cm, what would be the exposure time be at 100 Cm SFD using 10 mA to obtain the same film density? A. B. C. D. 6 minutes 8 minutes 10 minutes 12 minutes

39. All indications on the radiographs are : A. relevant indications B. non-relevant indications C. relevant or non relevant or false or combination of one or more of these indications. D. indication due to discontinuities only

40. Which of the following human cell categories is the most sensitive to radiation exposure? A. B. C. D. granulocytes basal cells muscle cells lymphosytes.

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RADIOGRAPHY TESTING- FINAL EXAMINATION Sheet No: 034 GENERAL QUESTION PAPER 1. For radiography of welds the selection of IQI shall be based on: OMR

a) the nominal thickness through which the radiation is passing b) the nominal single wall thickness plus estimated total weld permissible, c) excluding the thickness of backing strips if any. d) the average weld thickness including the backing strip if any e) the maximum thickness through which radiation is passing.

reinforcement

2. Using 300 KV X-ray tube a weld of 30 mm was radio graphed with FFD of 1 meter. All other Conditions remaining same, if FFD is changed to 70Cm, the new exposure time will be: a) b) c) d) no change in exposure time approximately half of the original exposure time 0.7 times the original exposure time 1.43 times the original exposure time

3. As per ASME Section V Article 2 for gamma ray radiography of welds the maximum acceptable transmitted Film density through the body of IQI and in the area of interest is: a) b) c) d) 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0

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4. As per ASME Section V Article 2 for X-radiography of welds for single film viewing the minimum acceptable transmitted film density through the body of IQI and in the area of interest is : a) b) c) d) 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.2

5. As per ASME Section V Article 2 for composite film viewing of welds the minimum acceptable Transmitted film density of each film composite set is: a) b) c) d) 1.0 1.3 1.8 2.6

6. As per ASME Section V Article 2 for gamma ray radiography of welds for single film viewing,Minimum acceptable transmitted film density through the body of IQI and in the area of interest: a. 1.5 b. 1.8 c. 2.0 d. any density is acceptable if required IQI is seen. 7. As per ASME Section V Article 2 for radiography of metallic castings for single film viewing the minimum Acceptable transmitted film density through the body of IQI and in the area of interest is :

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a. 1.3 b. 1.5 c. 1.8 d. 2.0 8. When a shim of required thickness is placed below the IQI for radiography of welds, the transmitted film Density variation permissible with reference to the density through IQI is: a. 2.0 to 4.0 b. -15 % and + 30 % of that through the body of IQI c. -15 % and + 30 % of that through the body of the IQI and in the area of interest is within 2.0 to 4.0 d. none of the above answers are correct 9. The geometrical unsharpness of a radiograph can be measured using the formula Ug = ft /(d-1) (where F= effective source size t= thickness of the specimen and d = source to film distance) Given f =4 mm,T = 30 mm, and Ug=0.5 mm, what would be the source to source side of specimen distance? a. 120 mm b. 210 c. 240 mm d. some more data is required 10. As per ASME Section V Article 2, a weld with base metal thickness of 19 mm and estimated total Allowable reinforcement of 2 mm was radiographer with source with source side IQI. The required wire Dia to be seen on this radiograph is: a. 0.41mm b. 0.51mm c. 0.635 mm 11. A steel weld of thickness 30 mm was radio graphed as per ASM Section V Article 2, relevant indication of length 11 mm was noticed and interpreted as

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elomgated indication. As per ASME Section Viii Div 1 UW 52 the weld is considered: a. b. c. d. acceptable not acceptable more information is required depends on the inspector who is evaluating the film.

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As per ASME Section VIII Div. I, a round indication on the radiography: a. is one whose shape is round b. is one whose shape is circular c. is one with a maximum length of three times the width or less d. is one whose major dimension is equal to three times dimention its minor

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In a radiograph of 21 mm thickness weld a crack of length 5 mm and one relevant isolated round indication of maximum size 5 mm are found. As per ASME Section VIII Div., I U W 52 it is necessary to repair. a. both crack and round indication b. crack only c. both need not be repaired d. more information is required to decide repair

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For double wall double image technique of circumferential seam weld in a pipe of nominal 3 inch out side diameter, the IQI is to be placed: a. on the source side of the weld segment close to the film b. on the film side of the source side weld segment

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c. on the film side weld segment d. on the source side of the weld segment. 15. The acceptance of radiographs quality depends on: a. the interpreter b. the density within the permissible limits specified by referencing Code specification c. the Image Quality Indicator d. both B & C above are correct answers 16. For cylindrical components when source is placed on the axis of the component for a single exposure as per ASME: a. at least b. at least apart c. at least apart d. none of 17. one IQI for each radiograph is required three IQIs are required with spacing approximately 120 degree four IQIs are required with spacing approximately 90 degrees the above are correct answers.

The location markers shall be: a. fixed on either surface of a circumferential seam required to be radio graphed provided the source is located at the centre of the circumference / curvature b. fixed on the film side of a curved surface when the source is located on the concave surface side at a distance from the concave surface more than the radius of the curvature. c. fixed on the source side of a curved surface when the source is located on the convex surface side d. all of the above are correct answers

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18. For radiography of steel welds, the IQI used shall be made from : a. any alloy of commercial construction b. same material grouping only c. either the same material grouping or from any radio graphically less absorbing type material d. any material provided the requirements of geometrical unsharpness and density variation limits are metwith 19. Optical densitometers used for measuring the transmission density of radiographs shall be calibrated for linearity between densities 1.0 and 4.0 and shall be calibrated: a. b. c. d. 20. optical in six months once in every 90 days as and when required none of the above correct answers

The development temperature in most manual film proceeding is: a. b. c. d. 81 - 85 F 66 - 70 F 74 -78 F 90 92 F