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all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration may apply both to the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, and to the period immediately following the event.
• • • • • • • • •
1 End of the Protectorate and Commonwealth 2 Restoration of Charles II 3 Regicides and rebels o 3.1 Regrant of Certain Commonwealth Titles 4 Religious settlement 5 Restoration Britain 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links
End of the Protectorate and Commonwealth
The Protectorate, which followed the Commonwealth and preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, who was made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was that he did not have the confidence of the army. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament. Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, and one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general (commander-in-chief) of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the postFirst Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659, but it was foiled. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire; Charles II hoped that with Spanish support he could effect a landing, but none was forthcoming. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August when he was defeated by General Lambert. The Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, and installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Fleetwood and Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general. The Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, who was in command of the English forces in Scotland, and either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms. It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, and he returned to London almost alone. Monck marched to London unopposed. The Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, and on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to
but specifically excluded those involved in the trial and . "Constitutionally.  He was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. He tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill. and was provided with an annuity. Regicides and rebels The Indemnity and Oblivion Act. Lambert was sent to the Tower of London. Monarch organized the Convention Parliament. the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". George Goring. 1st Earl of Norwich. But he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby. Marquess of Newcastle. which became law on 29 August 1660. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661. To celebrate his Majesty's Return to his Parliament". The sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order". William Cavendish.appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. 1st Earl of Clarendon. He entered London on 29 May. On 4 April 1660. finally being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened". Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Drake's Island in 1684. his birthday. from which he escaped a month later.  Charles returned from exile. Ingoldsby was pardoned. in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England. pardoned all past treason against the crown. became a member of the privy council. and was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. It is also known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King. popularly known as Oak Apple Day. leaving The Hague on 23 May and landing at Dover on 25 May. returned and was able to regain the greater part of his estates. Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda. a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde. Many Royalist exiles returned and were rewarded. and it would endure for over 17 years. returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. which met for the first time on 25 April. He was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter (which had been bestowed upon him in 1650). On 3 March 1660. Restoration of Charles II King Charles II. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. Like its predecessor. it was overwhelmingly Royalist. 29 May was made a public holiday.
headed by a wine-cooper named Thomas Venner. . and Baron Dacre of Gillesland. the preacher Hugh Peters. Because Parliament is a court. Judge Thomas Pride. In October 1660. the highest in the land. the solicitor who directed the prosecution. London. In the ensuing trials. Edmund Dunch was created Baron Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658. Thomas Harrison. ten were publicly hanged.execution of Charles I. 50 Fifth Monarchy Men. Henry Ireton. From there they were taken to Tyburn to be hanged. In April 1661. Of the twelve Cromwellian baronetcies. drawn and quartered because he was considered by the new government still to represent a real threat to the re-established order. drawn and quartered. but this barony was not regranted. Thomas Scot. who had signed the king's death warrant. and John Cooke. also Edmund Dunch. Only one now continues: Sir Richard Thomas Willy. He was the first regicide to be hanged. was brought back from Holland along with Miles Corbet. drawn and quartered for high treason. They were all imprisoned in the Tower. 31 of the 59 commissioners (judges) who had signed the death warrant in 1649 were living. John Okey. the full penalty for Fifth Monarchy Men. Ireton and Bradshaw were exhumed and hung in chains at Tyburn. Howard was created Earl of Carlisle. drawn and quartered: Thomas Harrison. These knighthoods were all declared invalid upon the Restoration of Charles II. Venner and 10 others were hanged. Oliver Cromwell. Viscount Howard of Morpeth. John Carew. former constable of the Tower of London. the first person found guilty of regicide. the corpses of Cromwell. Many were regranted by the restored King. is the direct successor of Sir Griffith Williams. In January 1661. friend and lawyer to Cromwell. and John Barkstead. The one hereditary viscountcy Cromwell created (making Charles Howard Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland) continues to this day. The male line failed in 1719 with the death of his grandson. John Jones. On 6 January 1661. who commanded the guards at the king's trial and execution. and Judge John Bradshaw were posthumously attainted for high treason. a bill of attainder is a legislative act declaring a person guilty of treason or felony. one of the regicides who signed the death warrant of Charles I. twelve were condemned to death. 14th baronet. Cromwell created over 30 new knights. A further 19 were imprisoned for life. The present Earl is a direct descendant of this Cromwellian creation and Restoration recreation. in contrast to the regular judicial process of trial and conviction. on 19 and 21 January. Adrian Scroope. and Gregory Clement. Regrant of Certain Commonwealth Titles The Commonwealth's written constitutions gave to the Lord Protector the King's power to grant titles of honour. Francis Hacker and Daniel Axtell. was the seventeenth of the 59 commissioners to sign the death warrant. so no one can lay claim to the title. tried to gain possession of London in the name of "King Jesus". Most of the 50 were either killed or taken prisoner. at Charing Cross or Tyburn. Charles II regranted half of them.
women were allowed to perform on stage for the first time. a fine collection of old master paintings. People reportedly "pranced around May poles as a way of taunting the Presbyterians and Independents" and "burned copies of the Solemn League and Covenant". furniture. and a yacht. To celebrate the occasion and cement their diplomatic relations. classical sculptures. Episcopacy was reinstated. and the bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognizable genre.Religious settlement Periods and eras in English history Anglo-Saxon period (927–1066) Norman period 20px (1066–1154) Plantagenet period (1154–1485) Tudor period Elizabethan era Stuart period Jacobean era Caroline era The Interregnum Restoration era Georgian era Victorian era Edwardian era World War I Interwar Period World War II Modern Britain (1485–1603) (1558–1603) (1603–1714) (1603–1625) (1625–1649) (1649–1660) (1660–1800) (1714–1830) (1837–1901) (1901–1910) (1914–1918) (1918–1939) (1939–1945) (1945–Present) The Church of England was restored as the national Church in England. In Scotland. Puritanism lost its momentum. Restoration Britain Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell. backed by the Clarendon Code and the Act of Uniformity 1662. In addition. the Dutch Republic presented Charles with the Dutch Gift. .
7.0 6. 15 9.0 3. by Brian Manning Chapter V. J.html Review of 'Revolution and Counter-Revolution in England. ↑ Clark. N. The Restoration: England in the 1660s. 2. ↑ 6. Tim Restoration:Charles II and His Kingdoms 1660-1685 Allen Lane (2005) p47 6. 8 May 1660 5.1 3. Sir George. ↑ 3.1 Pepys Diary 23 April 1661.4 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ronald The British Republic 1649-1660 2nd edition Macmillan (2000) p121 3. H. 30 May 1660 8. Ireland and Scotland 1658-60'. novel by Rose Tremain. pp.. Restoration:Charles II and His Kingdoms 1660-1685. Keeble. 108 "John Lambert" 4. ↑ Harris 2005. and the film based on it Samuel Pepys. whose diary is one of the primary historical sources for this period 17th century Britain Notes 1. Tim (2005). ↑ Jones. ↑ House of Commons Journal Volume 8. (2002). p. Eleventh Edition. 52–53 References • • Harris. ↑ House of Commons Journal Volume 8. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. History of Early Modern England Series. pp.debretts. Vol 16.See also • • • • • • • • • Restoration comedy Restoration literature Royal Society Rota Club Restoration spectacular Restoration style Restoration. ↑ Harris. 8–10 ↑ Hutton. External links • • • http://www.R. Country and Court: England 1658-1714 Edward Arnold (1978) p. Allen Lane.3 3.co. ↑ Keeble 2002. The Later Stuarts 1660-1714 Oxford University Press 2nd edition (1953) p3 10.2 3. ISBN 0631236171. The Stewart Restoration By Sir Charles Harding Firth .uk/royal_connections/sovereigns_england_17_century.
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